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PROYECTO HIDROELECTRICO ALTO MAIPO

INGENIERIA BASICA

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR TUNNELLING
AND ROCK SUPPORT

0

19-12-08

PARA LICITACION

EMISION

FECHA

PROPOSITO DE LA EMISION

PREPARA

REVISO

COORDINADOR
GENERAL
APROBO

D. PROYECTO
/ D. ADJUNTO
APROBO

SUBGERENTE
DE INGENIERIA
APROBO

GERENTE DE
PROYECTO
APROBO

REVISION

1
N°: 600-TU-ETG-001

600-TU-ETG-001
i
INDEX
ITEM

CONTENTS

PÁG.

1.

Drilling of holes, exploratory drilling and grouting ................................................. 1
1.1

Scope .................................................................................................................. 1

1.1.1

Coverage ............................................................................................................. 1

1.2

Classification and Definition ................................................................................. 1

1.3

Reference Standards ........................................................................................... 1

1.4

Submissions by the Contractor ............................................................................ 1

1.4.1

Documents........................................................................................................... 2

1.4.2

Test Reports ........................................................................................................ 2

1.5

General ................................................................................................................ 2

1.6

Equipment and Execution .................................................................................... 3

1.6.1

Exploratory Drilling and Grouting ......................................................................... 3

1.6.2

Holes for other Purposes ..................................................................................... 4

1.6.3

Drilling Accuracy: ................................................................................................. 5

1.6.4

Deviation Measurements of Drill-holes ................................................................. 5

1.6.5

Water Pressure Tests .......................................................................................... 5

1.6.6

Flushing between holes ....................................................................................... 5

1.6.7

Grouting ............................................................................................................... 6

1.7

Logging of drill holes ............................................................................................ 7

1.8

Water Pressure Testing ....................................................................................... 8

1.9

Grouting ............................................................................................................... 8

1.9.1

Grouting Materials................................................................................................ 8

1.9.1.1

Water ................................................................................................................... 8

1.9.1.2

Cement ................................................................................................................ 8

1.9.1.3

Admixtures ........................................................................................................... 9

1.9.1.4

Chemical grouts ................................................................................................. 10

1.9.2

Cement Grouting above ground ......................................................................... 10

1.9.3

Cement Grouting underground........................................................................... 11

1.9.4

Chemical Grouts ................................................................................................ 12

1.9.5
2.

600-TU-ETG-001
ii
Filling of Cavities with Concrete or Mortar (Consolidation grouting) ................... 12
Rock Excavation ................................................................................................ 13

2.1

Scope and definitions ......................................................................................... 13

2.1.1

Coverage ........................................................................................................... 13

2.1.2

Classification and Definition ............................................................................... 13

2.1.2.1

General .............................................................................................................. 13

2.1.2.2

Rock Mass Quality Classification ....................................................................... 14

2.2

Submittals by the Contractor .............................................................................. 14

2.2.1

General .............................................................................................................. 14

2.2.2

Documents for submittal-Rock excavation ......................................................... 15

2.2.3

Test Reports ...................................................................................................... 15

2.2.4

Documents for submittal-TBM excavation .......................................................... 16

2.3

Rock Excavation ................................................................................................ 17

2.3.1

General Requirements ....................................................................................... 17

2.3.2

Ventilation .......................................................................................................... 20

2.3.3

Illumination, Communication and Roadways ...................................................... 21

2.3.4

Survey ............................................................................................................... 21

2.4

Open Cut Excavation ......................................................................................... 22

2.5

Underground Excavation.................................................................................... 22

2.6

Drilling and Blasting (Above- and Underground) ................................................ 23

2.6.1

General .............................................................................................................. 23

2.6.2

Excavation Tolerances ....................................................................................... 23

2.6.3

Drilling Accuracy ................................................................................................ 24

2.6.4

Perimeter Blasting.............................................................................................. 24

2.6.4.1

General .............................................................................................................. 24

2.6.4.2

Smooth Blasting ................................................................................................. 24

2.6.4.3

Pre-splitting ........................................................................................................ 25

2.7

Drilling and Reaming of Shafts by raise-boring machine (RBM) ......................... 25

2.8

Tunnel excavation by tunnel boring machine (TBM) ........................................... 25

2.8.1

General .............................................................................................................. 25

2.8.2

Requirements to TBM machines ........................................................................ 26

2.8.3

Backup system .................................................................................................. 28

..................... 31 3...................................1 General ......6................. 31 3...............4.....................4 Testing .....................................................................3 Execution ......... 40 3................. 41 3........... 34 3..................... 30 3...............................4 General ............................1 General .............4...... 36 3......6.6..............................8.2.......................................................................................1................................................4 Certificates .......................3.......................... 31 3...............................................................1...................4....2 Documents............3.......................1 Inspection of Tunnels.........5 Invert concrete segments ................................1 General ............................................................................................................................... 34 3.................................. 33 3...........3..................................................1............6 Rock Bolts and Accessories .1 Coverage .......................................2....................................................3 Rock Support Classification ...........3 Submissions by the Contractor ........................................5..............5..............6.............6 Assignment of risk during TBM excavation................................................................................. 38 3............................................................................5 Scaling ...................... 33 3.............................................1 Materials .....6...2......................... 28 2........................................................................ 35 3. 29 2..... 30 3...2 Reference Standards ................................................................8.........................................................6...........2 Rock Support ............1................................................6.1 Drilling and Installation of Resin End-anchored Bolts ..... 37 3...4 600-TU-ETG-001 iii Exploratory drilling............ 36 3.... 33 3...........1 General ....1 Basic Scaling ... 30 3........2....................................................... 31 3.............................3.................................2 Additional Scaling ..1 Scope ........................................... 41 ...................2 Accessories ............................................. 33 3...................3 Test Reports ... 38 3.........1.....2 Classification and Definition ........... Wash-down .................................5................................................................... Marking of Chainage...............................................2 Drilling and Installation of Fully Cement-grouted Bolts .......................................... 34 3.................................................................................................. 29 2........ 39 3.. grouting and rock support .....................................3..............................1............................................................1.......8.................................................................................................................................................3........................................................... 34 3................... Rock Support .................. 37 3........................ 30 3....................2 Rock Mass Quality Classification ................................................ 40 3...........................................................................................................9 Utilisation of Materials .................................................................... 40 3...................................

.......................................9.................4...7 Spiles .......... 52 3............4.................. 46 3......................6 Documentation .............1 General ................. 48 3................1 Composition ..................9....................................................................................3.........9 Sprayed Concrete ........................................ 44 3.................... 43 3.................................................................................3 Concrete Grade and Strength Requirements ................................................................................... 52 3................................1.....6.......10.............................6...................................1 Scope ..................1 General .............1 General .................................2......2 Coverage ....................................... Investigation and Instrumentation during construction ...1.........2........... 53 4.2 Requirements for Sprayed concrete ......................................................................9....................... 48 3..... 52 3..9..........................1.................. 53 4........................................................................... 44 3....................10.............................................1........................... 50 3...................................................1............. 52 3.............5 Testing and Control...............................................9...............3 Measures to be taken in Case of Rejection and Re-bolting .............................................................................2 Materials/Equipment ...... 51 3..............................9...................................................... 54 4.4 Thickness ..................1...... 47 3.................................................8 Rock Anchors .........................................................................1.............................................3 Tolerances ..................10........... 44 3..................... 55 ......... 49 3.......................... 46 3..................4................................ 50 3................................................2..10.................................1.......................................................1 Scope .......... 47 3........3 Materials Control prior to Concreting ...........1 Materials and Admixtures for Concrete ....10 Cast in place Concrete Rock Support ...................4 Methods/Execution .....................10..............2............2 Reinforcement (if applicable) ........................................10............................................................................ 50 3................................10..............9..........8 Method/Execution ........ 51 3.. 53 4.......5 Documentation .....10.....................10........................................ 52 3..................9.........................4.1...........................10..................................... 50 3. 42 3....................10...7 Reinforcement of Sprayed Concrete ............................................... 53 4....... 42 3...........3 Methods/Execution ............................................9........................................................................4....4 Testing and Control..........................................................10...................................................................................................2 Reference Standards ............................................1....................................................2 600-TU-ETG-001 iv Criteria for Assessment of Test Numbers and Acceptance of Test Results ...................................2 Production Control ..... 51 3.............. 43 3.....................

...3.................. Pavement in Water Tunnels ....................3.........................................................3................................................................................1....................................3.........................2 General ...... 67 4................. 59 4.....................8 Joint Deformation Meters ......3.................. 68 5............................................3........... 68 .........3........... 67 5..............3..........3...............................................................................................3.......................................................................................................3.....................................1 Pavement in the access tunnel ..3........................7 Surface Settlement Monuments and Fixed Points ..................................8 Drilling .................................. 57 4............7 Programme of Work and Number and Position of Boreholes ..................3..........3.......4........... 56 4...................... 56 4........................ 63 4............................................4 Services for Rock Mechanical Testing and Rock Stress Measurements .......................6 Calibration Procedure .................................. 64 4....... 67 4...........3.10 Materials .........................4 Measuring Equipment ............3 Core Boxes ........................ 68 5................ 64 4.................3.......................................3.....................................3 600-TU-ETG-001 v Submittals by the Contractor .........................................................3.........10 Inclination and Orientation of Boreholes.......3.3....................... 58 4................................. 59 4.......... 62 4..3...............3.......................3 Core Drilling and Water Pressure Testing ..................................................................3.................................................3..........1 General ............................................................................................................................................................................5 Convergence Stations ............................................1 Documents............................6 Piezometers ..............................3..............1 Specifications......2 Drilling Equipment .3.....................11 Backfilling ....................... 67 4............ 58 4.....3.... 55 4.......... 57 4......................................................... 55 4...................3............. 67 4................... 59 4.....................3.........11 Measuring Range....5 Water Pressure Testing ..............3......................................................................3.................................................................................3.............................................................................. 62 4...................12 Record of Operations ..........................3............... 61 4..3............... 56 4...........9 Handling and Storage of Core Samples ............3...............................................................3............9 Ground Water Monitoring ...12 Accuracy and Resolution .............. 66 4.... 66 4..............

......... 15 Documents for submittal – Blasting tests ..................... 2 Submittal of test reports – grouting .................................. 16 Documents for submittal – TBM excavation ....................... 33 Submittal of test reports – Rock support ........................600-TU-ETG-001 vi List of tables Table 1-1: Table 1-2: Table 2-1: Table 2-2: Table 2-3: Table 2-4: Table 2-5: Table 2-6: Table 3-1: Table 3-2: Table 3-3: Table 4-1: Table 4-2: Submittal of documents – Drilling of holes ..... 56 Tolerances ............................................... 24 Submittal of documents.......................................................................... 2 Documents for submittal – Rock excavation ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 20 Drilling accuracy .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 34 Test frequency ................................. 19 Limits for toxic gas levels ...........................................................Rock Support ................................................................... 53 Submittal of documents – Investigation and instrumentation .............................................. 16 Limits for peak particle velocity ............................... 60 ..................

DRILLING OF HOLES. 1. 1.1.4 Submissions by the Contractor Submissions that the Contractor is required to make to Gener are described below. XT = X number of weeks after completion of test/inspection/work as applicable.1. .1 Coverage This Chapter specifies requirements for drilling of holes for ground water control systems and all exploratory drilling. The issue time defines the date that Gener shall receive the first issue of the documents: XF = X number of weeks prior to start of manufacture/work as applicable.3 Reference Standards The work shall be performed according to relevant standards. 1.2 Classification and Definition.600-TU-ETG-001 1 1. under definition of “Support work at the face” and “Support work behind the face”. EXPLORATORY DRILLING AND GROUTING 1. the work shall be performed according to recognised practice approved by Gener. The extent of such work depends on the properties of the soil and rock encountered during the progress of the Works and shall be carried out as directed by Gener.2 Classification and Definition Definition of grouting at the face and grouting behind the face shall be similar to the corresponding definition of support work in Chapter 3. water pressure testing and grouting in order to explore and modify the properties of the ground on or through which the Works are to be constructed.1 Scope 1. or if no standards exist.

4.600-TU-ETG-001 2 1. from any tunnel and cavern-front or from elsewhere in the underground openings at all angles as instructed by Gener. . ground water control and rock mass grouting encompasses: Drilling of vertical and inclined holes from surface for rock mass grouting in dam foundation and control of ground water in areas as defined by Gener. Table 1-1: Log of all drilled holes. composition. Drilling of holes for exploratory drilling and grouting from surface. Table 1-2: Item Characteristics of grout agents Characteristics of packers and flexible hoses 1.2 Test Reports The Contractor shall make tests and prepare and submit test reports in accordance with Table 1-2. properties and equipment.4.1 Documents The Contractor shall prepare and submit documents in accordance with Table 1-1. * Specific grouting procedures. 1. material. Submittal of documents – Drilling of holes Issue for Issue for Documentation Issue time approval info Organisation plan for the Works showing procedures and materials for the work and the responsibilities and * 6F qualifications of the personnel. * 1T 6F Gener’s approval does not relieve the Contractor of his sole responsibilities for efficient and successful execution of the work.5 Submittal of test reports – grouting Issue for Issue for approval info * * Issue time 6F 6F General Drilling of holes for exploratory drilling.

and drainage holes etc.6 1. Percussion drilling equipment shall be available from start of excavation work. and data for performance and applied pressures. Percussion drilling equipment shall be capable of drilling holes up to 50 m length in any direction. Core drilling equipment shall be available as specified in Chapter 4 Investigation and Instrumentation during construction. Grouting operations are not designed and specified in detail at the tender stage.6. Grouting may be done either as cement grouting or as chemical grouting. grouting holes. At least one additional crew member shall document appropriate experience.600-TU-ETG-001 3 Grouting works will be performed in underground constructions for control of permeability. The results shall be presented in numerical and graphical format. for consolidation and as contact grouting around or in structures in underground openings. The grouting works will be decided and designed by Gener in co-operation with the Contractor during excavation. Equipment units for excavation and rock support work may be used when satisfying the above requirements. flexible grouting tubes. sounding holes.and underground. The Contractor shall at any time during the progress of the Works provide and maintain adequate equipment and materials with stand-by reserves to be able to carry out any drilling and grouting operation covered in the specifications. if not otherwise requested by Gener. The grouting shall be supervised by an engineer with documented grouting and drilling experience from similar works. The Contractor shall keep daily updated records and logs of all drilled holes. . control holes. 1. grout takes at the various depth intervals. in rock and concrete both above. identifying location as well as direction. water pressure tests and grout takes.1 Equipment and Execution Exploratory Drilling and Grouting Percussion drilling equipment shall be used for drilling of exploratory drillholes. comprising every borehole and every flexible tube with results of water pressure tests. Bits with a minimum diameter of 45 mm shall be used for drilling. The boreholes and tubes shall be given a number.

The transition between casing and rock shall be watertight in order to avoid that water close to the surface or tunnel contour may leak into the drill hole. Pumps for supply of air and water shall be capable of delivering a pressure of minimum 10 bar.6. The procedure shall be approved by Gener prior to commencement of Work. Efficient equipment is required in order to secure an adequate advance according to the time schedule. The Contractor shall prepare a procedure for sealing and cleaning of drill holes. After drilling. The method of drilling is the choice of the Contractor. if not specified. All drillholes shall be grouted with non shrink mortar unless otherwise ordered by Gener. After drilling.600-TU-ETG-001 4 Water flushing shall be used during drilling of all grout holes. Ground water monitoring shall be performed. Casing and transition reducer shall be hot dip galvanised. The diameter of the hole is the choice of the Contractor. 1. The drillholes shall be equipped with permanent casing down to minimum 5 m into unweathered rock. Steering rods and special bits may be required in order to fulfil these requirements. the hole shall be flushed with water and air.10 m measured from theoretical pattern and for alignment deviation the tolerance is 4% of the depth of the hole. The casing shall be supplied with threaded end and transition reducer for connection of specified size water pipes and valves.2 Holes for other Purposes The purpose of drilling is indicated under the payment items in the Payment Schedules. minimum diameter 76 mm. The tolerance for collaring of drill holes is 0. the hole shall be flushed with water and air. All relevant field observations and measurements shall be logged. Drillholes for grouting in soil shall be of the rotary type with casing. recorded twice a shift for each hole during drilling operation. Pumps for supply of air and water for flushing shall be capable of delivering a pressure of minimum 10 bar. The use of grease or lubricants on drill rods or use of mud for drilling is not permitted. The inner diameter of the casing shall be equal to any specified hole diameter. Ground water levels shall be . Packers for water pressure testing and grouting shall be available for all drill hole diameters. The Contractor shall be able to drill long holes in all directions and within the drilling accuracy specified.

Double packer separation shall be adjusted to local rock mass conditions. 1.5 Water Pressure Tests The Contractor shall keep adequate stock of all types and dimensions of packers considered necessary from start of underground excavation work.g.6.4 Deviation Measurements of Drill-holes See Chapter 4. the hole shall be filled with expanding mortar and replaced with new holes at the expense of the Contractor. If deviation measurements indicate that the hole is closer than 15m to tunnels and caverns.3 Drilling Accuracy: Collaring = 0. hydraulically).6. Single packers shall be used for testing in stages during drilling. Investigation and Instrumentation during Construction. 1.6. air compressor and other equipment (radial flushing head) needed for efficient flushing operation. packers shall provide an impermeable seal for pressurised water and . After expansion.600-TU-ETG-001 5 1.at 50 bar). designed for expansion either mechanically or by other approved means (e. 1. Packer function shall be verified by testing in steel pipe at surface prior to use in boreholes. Packers shall be equipped with a valve to allow sealing of the hole at the end of the grouting process.6.if required . the Contractor shall have available a high capacity water pump (min 200 l/min. Pneumatic packers will not be accepted. Investigation and Instrumentation during construction. The packers shall be of proven types. Double packers shall be used for testing after completion of drilling.10m Maximum deviation = 4% of drilled length No drill hole shall come closer than 15m to tunnels and caverns if not otherwise specified or instructed by Gener. Pressure gauges and pumps for water pressure tests shall conform to specified requirements given in Chapter 4. .later grouting in any position with pressure as defined for grouting equipment.6 Flushing between holes If flushing between holes is required.

Each component added to the mixer shall be measured to an accuracy of +/. and minimum 0.5 %.4 and 10) in suspension. The Grout Agitator shall be capable of keeping grout of specified water-cement ratios (between 0. valves. In addition a pressure recording unit shall be connected to the pressure line from the grout pump. Each unit of equipment for cement grouting shall include.600-TU-ETG-001 6 1. The Contractor shall supply a calibrated master gauge for each pressure range for checking the accuracy of all gauges used. The grout pumps shall be able to operate with working pressure of at least 120 bar.05 m3 per minute at 100 bar.6. The pressure recording unit shall record the pressure within ±1 bar. The grout pumps shall be a progressive cavity. capable of handling thin and viscous grouts with no pulse. The mixer shall be capable of mixing grouts with water/ cement ratios between 0. An accurate measurement of materials shall take place at the mixer so that mix proportions can be exactly controlled. The records may be in analogue or digital form and with the possibility of pressure readings every minute. grout supply. one at the header and one at the pump. water and grout supply lines.7 Grouting Equipment both for cement grouting and chemical grouting shall be available and in working order at any time at the site. pressure gauges for air. .08 m3 grout per minute at a discharge pressure of 50 bar. pulse free type.4 and 10. The sump shall be graduated to metric standards so that the volume of grout injected into a hole can be measured accurately. but are not limited to: Grout mixer Grout agitator Grout pump Flow meter. The capacity shall be at least 0. Minimum mixer capacity shall be 250 l. Pressure gauges shall be Bourdon type or similar of heavy duty quality and shall measure pressures as appropriate to the range of grouting pressure employed. It shall be equipped with screen to remove particles not passing a 4.75 mm sieve. packers and fittings to supply a continuous flow of grout and an accurate pressure control The Grout Mixer shall be a high-speed colloidal grout mixer. Two pressure gauges shall be supplied for the grouting plant. The pump shall be equipped with a pressure regulating device securing a maximum grouting pressure within ± 10 % of the required pressure. The capacity of the agitator shall not be less than twice that of the mixer. Cement may be added to the mixer by weight or by volume. The dial size of the pressure gauge shall not be less than 150 mm.

couplings and valves shall be certified for working pressure up to 120 bar. Flexible grouting tubes. Location of weakness zones. Results from pressure testing shall be presented graphically. Packer dimension and construction of the packer shall correspond to the diameter of the drill hole. or equivalents. All grouting units shall at all times be clean and in proper working condition.600-TU-ETG-001 7 The pump and the connected agitator shall be located at a distance of maximum 30 metres from any hole being grouted. to the drilling method used to produce the hole. Pumping capacity shall as a minimum be 4 l/min. suitable pumps as well as necessary accessories shall be available. nature and quantity of any occurrence seepage. Location shall be recorded if loss of flushing water occurs. both for chemical and for cement grouting. and to the applied pressure. 1. Disposable packers may be used if approved by Gener. Required working maximum pumping pressure is 250 bar. including notes on variation in penetration rate and colour of returned flushing water. Double packers and single packers shall be available. the log shall in addition include information as specified in Chapter 4. For chemical grouting. and shall be installed as required by Gener. Location. Acceptable brands are FUKO 2 for cement grouting and Multiject (ULTRA) or FUKO 1 for chemical grouting. The grouting plant shall be provided with satisfactory storage for supplies of grouting material so that the operations may proceed without interruptions. All feeder tubes. will be required for contact grouting. supervision. Precise location.7 Logging of drill holes All drill holes shall be logged. For core drilling. The Contractor shall supply sufficient operating personnel. A minimum of three grouting units of each type shall be available at site. spare parts and tools to operate the units at full capacity and top efficiency. The plant shall be provided with suitable housing for protection against rain and direct sunshine. The log shall include the following as a minimum. . Equipment shall be compatible with grout data as given by manufacturer. direction and length of each hole. labour.

8 Water Pressure Testing Water pressure testing shall be performed to determine hydraulic conductivity of surrounding rock mass and the need for grouting. . The water pressure test shall normally start with the upper packer located at the top of the hole. For such flushing the Contractor shall have available a high capacity water pump. the length of the borehole shall be taken as 5 m for the purpose of calculating the Lugeon value.600-TU-ETG-001 8 1.1 Water Water quality shall be as specified for concrete. the boreholes shall be flushed with water if necessary in combination with air. If the length of the borehole under test exceeds 5 m.1 Grouting Materials 1. flushing with water or a combination of water and air may be required to clean out infill material prior to grouting. for cleaning of the hole.9. Water pressure tests shall be recorded in Lugeon units. Packers shall be pressurised mechanically or hydraulically with liquids. Groundwater level shall be measured prior to testing. Prior to testing. 1. and 1 Lugeon is defined as a loss of water of 1 litre per minute per metre of borehole under test at an overpressure of 10 bar. not inflated pneumatically. the water pressure shall be maintained in periods of 5 minutes with recording of water loss until 2 consecutive measurements of the loss are equal. Transport.1. 1.9.1. For each test. Water pressure testing shall be carried out in boreholes as directed by Gener. The cement grout shall be of the stable mix type.2 Cement The cements to be used shall be fresh Portland Cements. and then with setting of packers at 5 m depth intervals. and with pressures as specified. For applied overpressures other than 10 bar the Lugeon value shall be assumed to be linearly proportional to the test pressure.9. handling and storage shall conform to the requirements in the corresponding clauses of the specifications for cement to be used in concrete or as recommended by the manufacturer. and the equipment shall be calibrated according to specifications listed in Chapter 4 Investigation and Instrumentation during construction.9 Grouting 1. The water pressure tests shall be performed with double packers and/or single packers as directed by Gener. In cases where the tests indicate open or partly open connecting channels between two or more boreholes.

9. . with not more than 1% by weight being retained on sieve 30. Marsh funnel viscosity: 36-50 sec. which state that the grout suspension (with all additives) is considered stable when the sedimentation rate ΔH/H after 2 hours remains below 5%. 1. Such admixtures shall include.3 Admixtures Gener may require the addition of materials other than those specified above in order to improve the properties of cement grouts with respect to stability. but are not limited to. micro-silica powder. The maximum bleeding value shall conform to the recommendations of ISRM Commission on Rock Grouting. Marsh funnel viscosity: 36 . water/cement (weight) at 25o C. Water cement ratio: Typical 0.45 . which state that the grout suspension (with all additives) is considered stable when the sedimentation rate ΔH/H after 2 hours remains under 5%.600-TU-ETG-001 9 The following cement grout types may be used: Grout type A: Portland Cement conforming to ASTM C150 and having a specific surface of not less then 400 m2/kg (Blaine Value) with not more than 1% by weight being retained on a sieve 200 and with stabilising and plasticising admixtures of micro silica (Elkem Materials-MultiGrout GroutAid or equivalent) and superplasticisers (Sika-SP 40 or equivalent). Grout type B: The cement to be used shall be micro fine Portland cements with a specific surface of not less than 650 m2/kg (Blaine Value). Type: Accelerator aided mix designs or premixed blocker agents as Thermax + C-Max (Elkem Materials-MultiGrout) or equivalent. accelerating and stabilising admixtures.1. water reducing.2.1. The maximum bleeding value shall conform to the recommendations of ISRM Commission on Rock Grouting. acceleration and retarding.1. Water cement ratio: Typically 0.50 sec. fine grained grout with a pot life that can be regulated in a controlled manner between 10 minutes and 1 hour for a mix in proportion 1:1.45 . as well as expanding.2. pumpability. Grout type C: A quick setting. and penetration ability.

It will be assumed that the required permeability is reached when the gross grout take in the control hole is below the limit defined by Gener. The procedure for cement grouting starts with drilling of grout holes. If grout is pressed from one hole into neighbouring holes.1.2 Cement Grouting above ground Grouting shall be done according to procedures and criteria approved by Gener. Grout type E: Epoxy grout with extended potlife . When the casing is withdrawn.Mapepoxy BI-R (Rescon Mapei) or similar.600-TU-ETG-001 10 1. the hole shall be flushed for 3 minutes or until return water is clean.9. Before grouting.4 Chemical grouts Chemical grouts are required for special purposes. a more comprehensive flushing has to be done.5 m for the above ground grouting works. all holes shall be grouted simultaneously according to the procedure described above. Control holes will be drilled between grouted holes when the grout agents have set. Grouting of soil shall be performed placing the packer in the casing. If the flushing reveals washing out of material into neighbouring holes.TACSS 020 (De Neef) or similar. 1. full grouting pressure shall be applied. . The following chemical grouts may be used: Grout type D: Polyurethane grout .9. Alternative products with documented equivalent properties will be accepted and may be offered by the Contractor as an alternative. Transport and storage of chemical grouts shall be as specified by the manufacturer. and the grouting will continue in a split spacing system until control holes demonstrate that the required permeability is reached unless otherwise ordered by Gener. Packer intervals will be 3 . The grouting shall be performed in stages of 2-3 m.

The Contractor shall in his Tender specify the manufacturer and type of grout he intends to use. and the leakage from these holes will govern further grouting and control procedure. If the flushing reveals washing out of material into neighbouring holes. such leaks shall be plugged or caulked. The detailed procedure will be defined during the construction phase according to the local rock mass conditions. 1. Plugging materials and spill of grout shall be removed as required by Gener. If grout is found to by-pass to rock surface during grouting. If grout is pressed from one hole into neighbouring holes. No water pressure tests shall be carried out. . Packer intervals will be as directed by Gener. cement grouting underground is to be performed at high pressure with a cement suspension consisting of cement. Normally.9. water and admixtures as specified. All holes drilled shall be grouted. a more comprehensive flushing has to be done. If the grout take exceeds a certain quantity of cement (will be specified during construction) without increasing grout pressure.600-TU-ETG-001 11 The Contractor shall be able to hook up to such holes for simultaneous grouting of up to 5 holes. unless otherwise ordered by Gener. The procedure for cement grouting starts with drilling of grout holes. Before grouting. all holes shall be grouted simultaneously according to the procedure described above. The grouting sequence shall start with the leanest grout mix at each packer setting. a richer grout mix or other grout types shall follow. Grouting of one stage shall not be approved as completed until it has been set under the specified pressure for at least 5 minutes or the stop criterion defined by Gener as maximum grout take per meter drill hole is reached. the hole shall be flushed for 3 minutes or until return water is clean. Grout type C shall be used for the termination of all holes if not otherwise ordered by Gener. Control holes will be drilled between grouted holes when the grout agents have set.3 Cement Grouting underground Grouting shall be done according to procedures and criteria approved by Gener.

The required setting-time prior to commencement of drilling and blasting at the face depends on the result of the grouting. The grout material shall be adequately set (cured) prior to blasting into a grouted area. steel/concrete. Grouting is terminated when a predefined pressure level or grout take level has been reached. 1.9. Maximum normal setting time is 1 hour.4 Chemical Grouts In principle. . a richer grout mix or other grout types shall follow. The Contractor shall in his Tender specify the manufacturer and type of grout he intends to use. If grout is found to by-pass to rock surface during grouting. If the grout take exceeds a certain quantity of cement (will be specified during construction) without increasing grout pressure. 1. such leaks shall be plugged or caulked. steel/rock and in rock where especially low permeability is required.9. it may be required to fill or plug such cavities by pumping in concrete or mortars through one or more boreholes or preinstalled tubes. Chemical grout may be required in contacts between concrete/rock. Infilling of sand. gravel or crushed rock prior to grouting or concreting may also be required in order to achieve blocking of potential leakage channels. The grouting sequence shall start with the leanest grout mix at each packer setting. the procedures are similar as for cement grouting. Gener shall immediately be notified if longer setting-time is required. The Contractor shall in his Tender specify the type of grout he intends to use for Grout Type D and E. Grout type C shall be used for the termination of all holes if not otherwise ordered by Gener.600-TU-ETG-001 12 The Contractor shall be able to hook up to such holes for simultaneous grouting of up to 5 holes. Plugging materials and spill of grout shall be removed as required by Gener. It is a requirement that the setting-time shall be adjusted to the time needed for preparation for the next blast.5 Filling of Cavities with Concrete or Mortar (Consolidation grouting) In cases where the exploratory drilling or testing locates open channels or cavities between concrete and rock.

Boulders less than this shall be classified as soil. 2. or the use of mechanical breakers for their removal. The Contractor shall assume full and sole responsibility for safe working conditions in all excavations.600-TU-ETG-001 13 The Contractor is required to have equipment available at site for performance of such works. and his decision shall be final. See also definition in Chapter 3 Rock Support.1.1. and which cannot be extracted by a thirty tons excavator with backhoe with teeth.2 2. or the use of TBM or RBM. 2.e. and the health and safety of all workers and visitors to the worksite. ROCK EXCAVATION 2. all of Contractor’s operations shall conform to all applicable laws and regulations.1 Classification and Definition General Rock is defined as all materials. labour and equipment and carry out all works.1 Coverage This Chapter specifies requirements for all underground and aboveground rock excavation works. drill and blast method and other mechanical excavation methods. temporary works and tests required for completion of excavation.1. i. Gener shall decide if the material shall be classified and measured as rocks.1 Scope and definitions 2.2. which require blasting. All types of materials found in rock formations underground shall be classified according to the rock mass quality classification listed below. Any excavation method that would fulfil the specified requirements may be used. . The Contractor shall provide all material. In addition to any special provisions for safety included in these specifications. Boulders larger than 1 m3 shall be classified as rock. or equivalent equipment.

2. Low to moderate stress slabbing. q1 “Very Good” Massive to low joint frequency. Moderately strong to strong rock generally with coated joints and with some seams and some minor weakness zones. swelling clays) in moderately strong rock. as defined. q4 “Poor” High joint frequency. 2. Also applies to q1 and q2 class with moderate to high intensity stress slabbing.600-TU-ETG-001 14 2. clay seams (fault zones. Also applies to moderately weathered strong rock and to high to very high intensity stress slabbing in q1 and q2 class rock mass. and to medium to low strength rock subjected to medium to high stresses causing plastic deformation. q2 “Good” Low to moderate joint frequency. q3 “Fair” Moderate to high joint frequency. q5 “Extremely Poor” Completely crushed rock containing a significant amount of secondary clay minerals as in major fault zones. a rock mass quality classification will be performed by Gener after each blast. Also applies to highly weathered rock and to low strength rock mass subjected to high stresses causing plastic deformation. Strong rock with none or insignificant alteration and with coating on some joints. Jv > 20. To facilitate the work the rock mass quality will be grouped into five classes. Jv < 5/m3.2. 5< Jv < 10.2 Submittals by the Contractor 2.2 Rock Mass Quality Classification During excavation of rock. Tight joints. Smectite clays may lead to significant swelling and squeezing. The rock mass may be slightly weathered.1 General Submittals that the Contractor is required to make to Gener are described below. 10< Jv < 20.1. The issue time defines the date that Gener shall receive the first issue of the documents: . unaltered strong rock and insignificant stress slabbing. and to medium to low strength rock subjected to low to medium stresses causing plastic deformations.

Procedures for geometric control. size of charges.2. rock support and monitoring. types of explosives. Excavation procedure for each area. time schedule and sequence for excavation. Table 2-1: Data sheets for explosives and detonators. including intended rock excavation. Documents for submittal – Rock excavation Issue for Issue for Documentation approval info. * Issue time 6F 6F * 6F * 6F * 6F * 6F * 6F * 1T * 1T Gener’s approval does not relieve the Contractor of his sole responsibilities for efficient and successful execution of the work. control and monitoring system including data sheet for equipment and calculation of ventilation and energy requirements. Method of ventilation.2.3 Test Reports The Contractor shall perform tests and prepare and submit test reports in accordance with Table 2-2.600-TU-ETG-001 15 XF = X number of weeks prior to start of manufacture/work as applicable. Description of blasting procedure. showing planned progress versus actual progress (cut off Sunday at 2400 hours). Weekly progress report for excavation. XT = X number of weeks after completion of test/inspection/work as applicable. 2. Organisation plan for the rock excavation work showing * the responsibilities and the qualifications of the personnel. timing and firing sequences. . Monthly documentation of correct setting out of the excavation contours (cut off last Sunday each month at 2400 hours).2 Documents for submittal-Rock excavation The Contractor shall prepare and submit documents in accordance with Table 2-1. removal and deposit method. 2. Drawings showing need and location of construction niches. including position and depth of holes.

600-TU-ETG-001
16
Table 2-2:
Item
Perimeter blasting test report

Documents for submittal – Blasting tests
Issue for
Issue for
approval
info
*

Blast vibration test report
2.2.4

*

Issue time
1T
1T

Documents for submittal-TBM excavation
The Contractor shall prepare and submit documents in accordance with Table

2-3.
Table 2-3:
Item

Documents for submittal – TBM excavation
Issue for
Issue for
approval
info

TBM specifications, cutter head and back up system,
complete

*

Issue time

6F

List of major spareparts, at site, workshop and
manufacturer

*

6F

Description and data sheets for mucking system

*

6F

Description and data sheets for secondary transport
system in tunnel (personnel, equipment and materials)

*

6F

Working procedure for each area, including intended
rock excavation, time schedule and sequence for
excavation, rock support and monitoring

*

6F

Description and data sheets for exploratory and grouting
drilling ahead of face

*

6F

Description and data sheets for grouting equipment and
method

*

6F

Description and data sheets for rock drills and bolting at
cutter head and behind

*

6F

Description and data sheets for application of sprayed
concrete between cutter head and back up.

*

6F

*

6F

*

6F

*

6F

*

6F

Description and data sheet for installation of circular
steel sets and wire mesh at cutter head, including the
erector
Procedures for material and equipment supply to tunnel
front, including for excavation, rock support and grouting
works
Organisation plan for the TBM rock excavation work
showing the responsibilities and the qualifications of the
personnel
Description and data sheets for Monitoring and Logging
system for TBM operational data

600-TU-ETG-001
17
Reporting procedures
Routine reports

*

6F
*

1T

Gener’s approval does not relieve the Contractor of his sole responsibilities for
efficient and successful execution of the work.
2.3

Rock Excavation
2.3.1

General Requirements

Prior to commencement of the work, the Contractor shall submit to Gener a plan
showing manpower and equipment for excavation and support work intended to be used, spare
parts and supplies on the Site, and the expected advance rate of excavation and tunnelling
including time for support work. Only experienced supervisors, foremen and well-trained
tunnelling crews shall be employed for the work.
The Contractor shall be responsible for the management and sorting of all
excavated materials to enable the placement and disposal of materials in accordance with the
Contract. Excavated materials shall, according to their nature and to the Contractor's materials
management plan, be placed as fills in their final locations in the Works, stockpiled for later
placement, used for aggregate production, or removed to a nominated or approved spoil
disposal area. All excavated materials belong to Gener and no material shall be removed from
the Site without the written approval of Gener.
Excavation in rock shall achieve stable, reasonably regular rock slopes and
surfaces with as little overbreak as possible. Excavation of the underground caverns shall be
done in stages. The bench height above- and under-ground shall not exceed heights giving full
access for rock-strengthening works in the walls of each bench.
The Contractor may choose his own methods for drilling, blasting and
transporting the rock. Except where otherwise specified, perimeter blasting shall form the final
surfaces in underground openings. Charging of drill holes as well as type of ignition, drilling
patterns etc., shall be according to modern methods and recognised good practice.
The Contractor shall observe and carry out all excavation work according to rules
and regulations regarding the import, transport, storage and use of explosives issued by and
public authority having jurisdiction in respect of the same. Detailed records shall be kept by the
Contractor and submitted daily to Gener giving the types and quantities of explosives used,
delivered and in stock. Transport of explosives and detonators shall be in vehicles suitably
equipped for this purpose.

600-TU-ETG-001
18
The Contractor shall not later than 6 weeks ahead of start of blasting works,
provide Gener with a list of blasting licence holders. Only qualified persons shall be permitted to
conduct blasting operations.
Where firing is carried out electrically the Contractor shall take all precautions
necessary to prevent premature explosions. During thunderstorms and other electrical
disturbances charging and firing is not permitted and warning shall be given to all operators
when charging is in progress.
An instrument measuring static electricity levels shall be installed at each tunnel
portal. The instrument shall be connected to an easily visible warning device.
All metal mains, ducts and tracts shall be properly earthed at the entrance to the
underground working.
Gener may require use of non- electric ignition systems without additional
compensation to the Contractor.
The times at which blasting may be carried out are to be subject to the approval
of Gener and shall be decided so that the blasting does not unreasonably disturb the population
or other works.
After excavation of soil material, the rock surface shall be sufficiently cleaned for
drilling and placing of explosives to the satisfaction of Gener. The cleaning shall be done to at
least 1.5 m outside theoretical rock contour lines or 1.0 m outside actual contour lines.
The design theoretical rock contour lines and levels of excavations are defined as
those shown on the Drawings or specified in the Contract, or as adjusted at site or otherwise
determined by Gener.
Excavations shall follow the theoretical rock contour lines and levels or such other
limits as the Contractor may require to enable him to construct the Works in accordance with the
Contract considering collaring accuracy and hole deviation specified. Excavation beyond the
theoretical rock contour lines and levels made without Gener's direction or approval, including
but not limited to, excavation to provide working space and excavation below approved stripping
levels, shall be backfilled with concrete at the Contractors expense unless otherwise specified or
approved.
The Contractor shall be solely responsible for all damage or accidents resulting
from blasting of temporary, permanent or subsidiary works, or to the property of Gener or of
others, as well as for injury to persons.
The Contractor is responsible for covering and required protection in connection
with blasting. Debris from blasting and spill from transportation are not allowed outside the

For single events Gener will establish less stringent limits in each case. The Contractor shall regularly inspect the excavated fronts of all works under his jurisdiction. . Limits for blasting induced vibrations from repeated events are defined as peak particle velocities (mm/sec) measured at the structure. Measured on foundation to rock 40 mm/sec Tanks. blasting shall not take place in the vicinity of newly concreted structures until 10 days after concreting. Measured on foundation. or partially completed. The records shall be submitted weekly. The Contractor has to clean up such material as Gener finds it necessary. 12 mm/sec Measured on foundation. or as determined by Adjacent permanent underground openings Gener Tanks. The Contractor is responsible for keeping the peak particle velocity below given limits and to document this by vibration recording instruments available at the site. The instruments shall give linear recordings in the frequency area 5 to 300 Hz. including temporary and permanent access roads and shall forthwith remove and dispose of any material. The restriction does not apply to blasting close to installed rock support in underground openings. Geophones for horizontal and vertical PPV measurements shall be available. The vibration recorder shall have minimum 3 channels and be able to record peak particle velocities in the range 1 .250 mm/sec with an accuracy of 1 mm/sec. Blasting in the vicinity of completed. pipes and valves. The limit is valid for both horizontal and vertical peak particle velocities and is given in Table 2-4. which Gener and/or the Contractor deem loose or unsafe. The Contractor shall provide a yearly certificate from the manufacturer or approved authority verifying the accuracy of the vibration monitoring apparatus. Gener may adjust limits according to characteristic frequencies obtained and experience gained during execution. The Contractor shall monitor blasting operations as well as magnitude and intensity of ground vibrations when required. Table 2-4: Limits for peak particle velocity Type of construction Peak particle velocity Ordinary buildings founded on soil 20 mm/sec Ordinary buildings founded on rock 50 mm/sec Massive concrete structures founded on rock 70 mm/sec 100 mm/sec. concrete structures shall be subject to Gener’s consent. Transformers and other sensitive equipment not in 40 mm/sec operation. pipes and valves. Normally.600-TU-ETG-001 19 excavation area. Measured on foundation on soil 20 mm/sec Transformers and other sensitive equipment in operation.

The environment inside the tunnel will be governed by seasonal variations in temperature. humidity. Gener shall have access to the face in order to carry out mapping of the rock conditions revealed. The air breathed by persons shall contain not less than 19% of oxygen by volume.3 m/s in the cross sectional area of tunnels and caverns. Noise emission of each fan shall not exceed 75 dB (A) measured at 45º to the axis of the fan at a distance for 10 m from the inlet. Each fan shall be supplied complete with all necessary components for commissioning and use. at any time when people are in the tunnels: Table 2-5: Limits for toxic gas levels CO 35 ppm CO2 5000 ppm SO2 2 ppm NO2 2 ppm NO 25 ppm Air velocity shall always be higher than 0. . The maximum wet bulb temperature inside the tunnel shall not exceed +28ºC. Each fan shall be capable of providing variable airflow to suit the construction sequence and activity level inside each tunnel as work progresses.3. 2. Toxic gases shall not exceed levels according to local requirements or as shown in Table 2-5 whichever is strictest. the Contractor shall work out and present a quality assurance plan that ensures that the rock excavation work is performed according to the Contract requirements. rock temperature and by work activities ongoing within the tunnel. The rock surface shall be inspected after each blast. The fans shall be robust and efficient. and action for immediate securing at the face shall be taken as required.600-TU-ETG-001 20 Before commencing the rock excavation work.2 Ventilation The ventilation system shall be efficient and reliable during the excavation period in order to provide a safe and comfortable working environment inside tunnels and caverns. In cases of adverse rock conditions or significant deterioration of the conditions Gener shall be notified immediately.

3. Communication and Roadways The Contractor shall install and maintain illumination as required for safe and efficient working conditions and inspection of the work executed. The recommendations of BS 6164 Section 4 shall be followed. The Contractor shall describe the details of the system that will be used. The ducting shall be of a safe robust material. 2. including both the frequency and the methods of testing. Flexible ducting shall have a high tear resistance and shall be appropriately reinforced and maintained.3. 2. .600-TU-ETG-001 21 All components of the duct system shall be non-flammable. The condenser shall be water-cooled. A control and monitoring system for optimisation shall be provided. The parties to the contract shall produce a schedule of gases and pollutants to be tested for. but this shall not restrict the range of testing to be carried out in any particular location.4 Survey All surveying shall be carried out as specified for Surveying work. The ducting system shall be resistant to the tunnel environment and shall not deteriorate as a result of inter alia: Condensation Diesel and nitrous gases UV light Weak dilutions of acid If the Contractor expects the conventional ventilation system to be insufficient for keeping the wet bulb temperature below 28ºC. a separate cooling system shall be installed.3 Illumination. The Contractor shall maintain all temporary and permanent roadways in good and dry conditions to facilitate efficient and quick transportation aboveground as well as under-ground. The Contractor shall install and maintain a system of telecommunication at all work fronts.

Spiling. trenches. may also be required.0 m. pilot tunnelling. soil and rock properties in the ground adjacent to the excavations.5 Underground Excavation Underground excavation comprises excavation of all tunnels. further described in Chapter 1 and Chapter 3. Such investigations may require alterations to the limits of the excavations for such purposes as to provide sound foundations or stable batters. required by the Contractor will not be measured for payment. Any recesses. shafts. Any subsequent slashing. dividing of the section. The methods to be used for excavation and support shall be subject to Gener's approval. caverns and other underground openings shown on Drawings. wedging or re-drilling of rock that may be necessary in order to meet the above requirements is the responsibility and cost of the Contractor. The slopes of permanent batters are assumed to be vertical unless other slopes are given on the Drawings or directed by Gener. pressure grouting or other support measures. During the progress of the work Gener may examine and investigate the ground revealed in the excavations and may carry out investigations of groundwater levels.4 Open Cut Excavation Excavation beyond the theoretical rock contour shall wherever possible be backfilled with approved concrete. 2. Control of compliance with the design requirements shall be carried out by the Contractor at regular intervals as directed by Gener. reinforced sprayed concrete lining. When traversing weakness zones or other areas of heavily jointed or otherwise incompetent rock. In the Bill of Quantities rock excavation is divided into the following categories: Bulk rock excavation and Trench/ditch rock excavation with bottom width less than 2. . immediate application of sprayed concrete. and/or advancing with shorter pull than normal may become necessary. In all waterways a rigid template of the same shape and dimensions as the theoretical cross-section shall pass through. The direction along which the template moves shall nowhere be more than 7° off the theoretical alignment. enlargements etc. unless otherwise directed by Gener. The excavation procedure shall always be adapted to the local rock mass conditions.600-TU-ETG-001 22 2.

Rock protrusions inside theoretical contour lines are not accepted. carry out a survey of the surface of the rock as agreed by Gener (See also specifications for Surveying work). charging. not exempt the Contractor of the full liability of any blasting operations. 2. Gener can order reduced round lengths and/or subdivision of the cross section. In order to minimise overbreak and requirements for rock support. both the arch height and the symmetry.and ignition patterns he proposes to use. .2 Excavation Tolerances The excavated area shall at no point be less than the theoretical area for each section given on the Drawings. Design drawings show the theoretical rock contour.600-TU-ETG-001 23 2. however.1 General Prior to excavating rock at a given location the Contractor shall. within the given crosssectional area. When deemed necessary from stability considerations. The length and size of blast rounds shall be regulated according to the prevailing rock conditions.and Underground) 2. Gener can order change in excavation shape. Special rock mass conditions could require cross-section adjustments which shall be decided and/or approved by Gener. If the Contractor considers it necessary to request for excavation outside theoretical contour to obtain access for temporary works or installations.6. Before commencing any drilling and blasting the Contractor shall submit for Gener's approval the drilling-. When deemed necessary from stability considerations.6. The drilling equipment shall include a device for measuring the direction of drilling. Such approval shall. perimeter blasting (soft blasting smooth contour blasting technique) shall be used on all final rock surfaces.6 Drilling and Blasting (Above. after notifying Gener. such request shall be forwarded to Gener and the work shall be at the Contractor cost and time.

The selection of these and other pertinent parameters shall be based on experience gained from the initial rounds. type and size of charges used. The row next to contour holes may also require charge limitations. Table 2-6: Drilling accuracy Excavation Drill holes/row Collaring Alignment Aboveground Contour holes 100 mm 2% of depth of hole Aboveground Next rows 200 mm 2% of depth of hole Underground Contour holes 100 mm 4% of depth of hole Underground Next rows 200 mm 6% of depth of hole Shafts Pilot holes and reamed shaft 100mm 1. distance between the row of contour holes and next row of holes (burden). Smooth blasting or pre-splitting may be applied. .5 times the burden in the main round.6.3 times the spacing of perimeter holes for smooth blasting.2 Smooth Blasting The result of smooth blasting is governed by the following parameters: diameter of contour holes. ignition pattern.3 Drilling Accuracy The general requirements for drilling accuracy are as shown in Table 2-6. spacing of contour holes.600-TU-ETG-001 24 2.1 General Perimeter blasting shall be applied on contours in order to ensure smooth final surfaces.5% of depth of shaft TBM tunnels/shafts Tunnel centerline +/. or smaller than the average joint spacing. minimise overbreak and reduce the subsequent support measures. For pre-splitting this distance shall be 0.6.6. As a general rule the distance between the perimeter and the nearest row of holes of the main round shall be 1.4 NA Perimeter Blasting 2.4. diameter Ø51 mm and use of special low strength explosives. This includes drilling of contour holes c/c 700 mm with max. and shall be subject to the approval of Gener. 2.50mm in all directions 2.6.4.

Any abnormalities shall be reported immediately to Gener and the requirement for stabilisation grouting by high pressure shall be evaluated concurrent with the drilling.4.7 Drilling and Reaming of Shafts by raise-boring machine (RBM) The Contractor selects the type of the raise-boring equipment he intends to apply.3 Pre-splitting The principle of pre-splitting differs from that of smooth blasting mainly by its ignition pattern. A high degree of drilling accuracy is required and defined according to Table 2-6. 2. with reduced charges to be fired as a final clean-blast after the main round on the last number of delays. Pilot holes shall be grouted and re-drilled if required.8. the Contractor shall prepare a detailed work plan (including temporary works as necessary) to indicate and assure the proper coordination and avoidance of interferences between tunnelling and shaft construction. The contour holes are blasted prior to the main round. Registration of rock mass quality shall be performed concurrent with drilling of the pilot holes. 2. Where shaft excavation or raise boring operations intersect proposed or completed tunnel alignments.600-TU-ETG-001 25 This method is based on closely spaced contour holes.1 General For the sake of clarity. The method shall prevent extensive fracturing of the rock mass beyond the contour. 2. .8 Tunnel excavation by tunnel boring machine (TBM) 2. The proposed working methods for the various tunnel sections and shafts shall be described in detail by the Contractor and submitted with the Tender. This is also required for rock support works to be performed in the shafts. The Contractor shall submit a description with his Tender of details on the RBM and of the ancillary equipment to be provided. with particular emphasis of the items listed below. and the crack formed should act as a barrier which will tend to limit further fracturing of the rock mass beyond the contour from the vibrations of the main round. the following terms shall be used in connection with the Work as defined herein: a) Excavation by TBM: Continuous excavation of tunnels by means of a full-face boring machine (TBM).6.

or refurbished for use on this Project.8. mixed-face conditions and varying rock cover in a satisfactory manner and shall be . h) Stroke: The advance of the heading face in a TBM excavation from one regrip to the next grip.b) 600-TU-ETG-001 26 Excavation by raise boring: Continuous excavation of shafts by means of a raise-boring machine (RBM). 2. The TBM's shall be new.2 below. f) Backup equipment zone: Refers to tunnels excavated by TBM and is defined as the space between the end of the machine zone and the end of the TBM auxiliary equipment. The Contractor selects the type of TBM to be used. Excavation of tunnels and shafts d) Heading face: The advance end of a tunnel or other excavation at which the work is progressing. or bottom range zone. with particular emphasis of the items discussed below. Such inspections or testing shall not release the Contractor from any obligation as specified under the Contract. e) Machine zone: Refers to tunnels excavated by a TBM and is defined as the space between the heading face and the outer end of the rear gripper mechanism + 10 m rearwards. after maximum allowed wear of the edge cutters is reached. including description also of the ancillary equipment to be provided. General technical requirements and specifications related to tunnel excavation are presented in Chapter 2 above and are valid also for TBM excavation. The machines must be capable of coping with the expected rock conditions. in particular with the expected hard rock. g) Rear zone: Refers to the entire tunnel or shaft section extending respectively from the heading zone. The proposed working methods and equipment for the various tunnel sections shall be described in detail by the Contractor and submitted with the Tender. and tested to demonstrate that all components operate correctly.2 Requirements to TBM machines The Contractor selects the type of TBM machines to be used. and shall be assembled on completion of fabrication or refurbishment. c) Excavation by drilling and blasting: applying drilling and blasting (D&B). or for TBM excavation the backup equipment zone. The specified diameters are the minimum bore diameter to be allowed. as specified in 2. to the portal. before shipment. Gener shall be permitted to witness testing and to inspect TBM's at the premises of the manufacturer or refurbishing contractor at any stage during fabrication or refurbishing.8.

In addition to this. The TBM machines shall be equipped with variable frequency drive system. a simplified method for monitoring and logging of the operation of the TBM shall be established by installing an Ampere reader and logger at the transformer unit supplying the TBM. In such case the Contractor will have no right whatsoever to claim for any extension of the time for completion of the Work. 3000kW for the optional Las Lajas machine. A list of major spare parts that will be available at the Project Area shall be submitted with the Tender. The TBM machines shall be equipped with a monitoring and logging system for TBM operation data. The reader and logger shall be connected to the site office of Gener. Should the excavation progress show that the selected TBM is inadequate or unsuitable to complete the drive under the terms of the Contract.600-TU-ETG-001 27 equipped accordingly. in order to make him able to follow tunnel activities on a continuous basis. Access to the heading face. stored and moved from the TBM to the surface by either manual methods or by a cabled modem system. Minimum cutterhead power (torque) shall be 2200 kW for the Alfalfal II and Volcan machine options. File structure shall be exportable to the user applications MS Excel and MS Access. The bidder shall include in his offer one spare main bearing for each TBM machine in stock at manufacturer workshop or at his own stock facilities. ensuring that interruptions for maintenance and repair will be kept to a minimum. . minimum 100mm around the tunnel periphery. The TBM cutterhead shall be designed and constructed for allowing overcutting when required. An adequate stock of spare parts shall be maintained at the Project Area. Machine operating parameter data shall be collected in real time. then the Contractor will be obliged to proceed with D&B excavation under the same contractual obligations as with TBM excavation. The capability of the TBM machines includes but are not limited to the following technical requirements: The TBM's must be built for and equipped with back loading cutter system having a minimum cutter diameter of 482. also for Gener must be assured.6 mm (19”).

In this area it shall be accommodated for minimum two drilling machines for drilling and installation of radial rock bolts. The steel set erector shall also allow for efficient installation of lattice girders and wire mesh in the same area of the TBM. . The grippers of the TBM shall be equipped with recesses in order not to deform the steel sets and lattice girders when passing by them. Solid protection roofs have to be installed over all workplaces. Depending on rock conditions.e. Each drill shall have capacity and technical specifications complying with Atlas Copco 1238 or equivalent equipment and be operated completely independently of the other drill. i. sprayed concrete. 2. circular steel sets. The Contractor shall detail and explain with his Tender the mucking system. wire mesh etc.8. and to bore a near-radial pattern of holes in the rock for the installation of dowels and rock bolts. in front of the grippers. as applicable. he intends to use and. These drills shall be mounted on custom designed fixtures which allows them to be used while the TBM is advancing. grouting and rock support defined in Chapter 1 Drilling of holes. it will at times be necessary to place initial support near the heading face. spiling bolts. unless otherwise stated in this Chapter 2. the type of transport system he intends to use including provisions for tunnel dewatering along the invert. and capacity shall be available to enable installation of steel sets in this area whenever required. locations where workers are stationed on a more or less continuous basis. The accuracy of the advance shall be continuously assured by a laser beam and a guidance monitoring and logging system with high accuracy in order to comply with the strict tolerances for the tunnel alignment defined in Table 2-6. one machine on each side of the main beam of theTBM.4 Exploratory drilling.3 Backup system Backup system must be designed and constructed to permit the excavation of the actual tunnel geometries. or where reduced due to heavy rock support. of sufficient capacity.) is possible both in the machine zone and in the backup equipment zone. TBM's have to be constructed so that proper and efficient installation of all rock support elements (rockbolts.600-TU-ETG-001 28 2.8. grouting and rock support Technical requirements and specifications related to exploratory drilling. lattice girders. including capability to pass through areas where the 100mm overcutting is performed by the cutterhead. A circular steel set erector system shall be installed immediately behind the cutterhead. exploratory drilling and grouting and Chapter 3 Rock support are valid for tunnel excavation with TBM.8.

installed along the back up and at considerable distance away. also at a variable lookout angle of 10-30 degrees from the centre line of the tunnel. Hole lengths shall be up to 50 meters for exploratory and grouting holes. complying with capacities and specifications as presented by Atlas Copco 1838 or equivalent. and in Chapter 3 Rock support. Additionally the importance of cutter size selection and of the cutter design is emphasised for which all risks are expressly assigned to the Contractor. being supplied by twin sprayed concrete pumps. and shall be subject to the approval of Gener.8. and with lengths up to 8 meters.8.600-TU-ETG-001 29 Each TBM machine shall be equipped with minimum 2 drilling machines allowing for drilling holes ahead of tunnel face for exploratory and grouting purposes. The tunnel invert shall be properly cleaned before placing the invert segments. and therefore the drilling capacity must be the best possible. These drilling machines should also be capable of drilling spiling bolts ahead and around the cutterhead. as specified in Chapter1 Exploratory Drilling and Grouting. in umbrella pattern. but are not limited to the following: All risks related to mixed-face conditions. Double lances running on rings or equivalent high capacity equipment shall be provided. the Contractor is expressly made aware of the extensive mixed-face conditions expected along the tunnel and shall provide a suitable TBM of robust construction and of proven design for the anticipated conditions. High capacity Robots for sprayed concrete application during boring process shall be located in the machine zone. 2. These segments shall be embedded in cement mortar to allow for levelling. These probe drills shall allow for drilling of holes around nearly the entire 360 degree perimeter at a variable lookout angle of 10-30 degrees from the centre line of the tunnel. . in addition to drilling for spiling bolts. 2. The segment design and installation shall allow for proper and efficient placing of steel sets and lattice girders in the same area.6 Assignment of risk during TBM excavation The risks assigned to the Contractor include.5 Invert concrete segments Invert concrete segments shall be supplied and installed in the machine zone during excavation of all TBM tunnels. Collector buckets for rebound material shall be allowed for. Two complete grouting lines shall be installed and operated along the back up system. These drillholes can only be performed when TBM boring operation is stopped.

Obstruction or interruptions of the loading and transporting operations due to clogging of the excavated material or the occurrence of large single boulders or pieces of rock. grouting and rock support 2. In addition to provisions for safety included in these .1. labour and equipment and carry out all works. All frequent changes of rock properties and rock mass quality. temporary works and tests required for completion of the work. 3. The Contractor shall assume full and sole responsibility for safe working conditions for all excavations and the health and safety of all workers and visitors to the work during the construction period.1 3.1 Scope Coverage This Chapter comprises all work intended to support and stabilise the rock whether of initial or permanent nature. ROCK SUPPORT 3. The risks assigned to the Owner are the following: Those risks compensated by the unit prices in the Bill of Quantities and the regulation of construction time according to Chapter 6 below The quantities allocated to exploratory drilling. Inflow of water and all hindrance to the advance due to water.600-TU-ETG-001 30 All mechanical defects and break-downs of the TBM machinery and equipment. All occurring variations in rock mass quality and in rock properties. both intact rock properties and rock mass properties. Unless designated by Drawings or by Gener spoil areas shall be proposed by the Contractor and approved by Gener. Treatment and works at fill and/or spoil areas are covered under Specifications for Earthworks. The Contractor shall provide all material. in open cuts or in underground openings.9 Utilisation of Materials Excavated materials shall be used for forming of fills or spoiled as approved by Gener.

1. sprayed concrete. For TBM tunnels.2.1 General Support work shall be carried out in accordance with the following definitions: “Initial rock support” shall mean support work necessary to ensure safe working conditions and to maintain the shape of the rock excavation during the construction period. "Support work at the face" shall mean all support work interrupting the normal excavation cycles.1. for instance. rock bolts. 3. several forms for reinforcement for the sprayed concrete including lattice girders and full concrete lining. the powerhouse cavern including busbar tunnels and niches for transformers) and above ground. The rock support consists of combinations of scaling.2.2. in open cuts etc.2.1. all of Contractor’s operations shall conform to all applicable laws and regulations.2 Rock Mass Quality Classification During excavation a rock mass quality classification will be performed by Gener after each blast (or during TBM boring). except that all support work carried out in caverns (as. "Support work behind the face" shall mean all support work not being measured as carried out at the face. All support work carried out ahead of and along the TBM back-up shall be regarded and measured as support work at face. also circular steel sets are required.600-TU-ETG-001 31 specifications and elsewhere in the Contract.2 Classification and Definition 3.1.3 Rock Support Classification The basic Rock Support resources (RS) used for each rock mass category (q) may in principle be listed as follows: .1. To facilitate the work the rock mass quality will be grouped into five classes as defined in Chapter 2.2 Rock mass quality classification. “Additional rock support” shall mean all support work necessary to ensure the permanent long-term stability of the excavations. 3. 3. shall be regarded and measured as support work behind the face.. All support work carried out in RBM-shafts shall be regarded and measured as support works behind the face.

q5 => RS 5: Pattern bolting and spiling bolts. Occasionally (i. Pattern bolting and spot applied fibre reinforced sprayed concrete for larger cross-sections. q4 => RS 4: Pattern bolting and a minimum of two layers of fibre reinforced sprayed concrete in crown and walls for smaller cross-section.20% of the length) reinforced ribs of rebars/lattice girders and sprayed concrete or concrete lining. q2 => RS 2: Scaling. Fibre reinforced sprayed concrete when short stand up time and application of reinforced ribs of rebars/lattice girders and sprayed concrete at the face and concrete lining behind the face. Also applies to short blasting rounds and subdivision of rounds depending on cross-section. Number/length of bolts and thickness of sprayed concrete depend on the cross-section. Number/length of bolts and thickness of sprayed concrete depend on the cross-section. Spot bolting for smaller cross-sections. Reinforced ribs may be omitted if concrete lining is cast at the face. q3 => RS 3: Scaling. TBM/reamed shaft: Scaling and spot bolts.e.600-TU-ETG-001 32 q1 => RS 1: Scaling and spot bolts. on 10 . TBM and RBM: No use of concrete lining at the face (circular steel sets might be installed behind cutterhead). TBM/reamed shaft: Scaling. TBM/reamed shaft: Scaling and spot bolts. Also applies to systematic short rounds for small cross-sections and subdivided rounds or multiple drifts for larger cross-sections. Number/length of bolts and the thickness of sprayed concrete as well as the distance between the lattice girders depend on the cross-section. . Concreting of the invert at face could be selected. Occasionally concreting of the invert at face could be selected. Pattern bolting and minimum one layer of fibre reinforced sprayed concrete in crown and walls for smaller cross-section. TBM and RBM: No use of concrete lining at the face (circular steel sets might be installed behind cutterhead). spot bolts and partial use of fibre reinforced sprayed concrete.

lattice girders. chemical admixtures and micro silica Rock bolting and sprayed concrete reports including all records of rock bolting and sprayed concrete performed Issue time * * 6F 6F * 4T . 3. q2 and q3 safety considerations dictate a minimum thickness of 70 mm fibre reinforced sprayed concrete in roof and abutments in caverns and other relevant underground openings. 3.600-TU-ETG-001 33 Note that in categories q1.2 Reference Standards The work shall be performed according to relevant standards. the work shall be performed according to recognised practice approved by Gener. ready mixed mortars and admixtures for grout.3 Submissions by the Contractor 3. steel sets.3.Rock Support Item Detailed work plan showing procedures for rock support application Data sheets and samples for rock bolts and anchors including accessories.3. rock straps. Issue for Issue for approval info * 6F * 6F Data sheets for equipment for application of sprayed concrete Data sheets and samples for the different types of cement. which the Contractor is required to make to Gener are described below. The issue time defines the date that Gener shall receive the first issue of the documents: XF = X number of weeks prior to start of manufacture/work as applicable. fibres. XT = X number of weeks after completion of test/inspection/work as applicable. Table 3-1: Submittal of documents. 3.1 General Submissions.2 Documents The Contractor shall prepare and submit documents in accordance with Table 3-1. or if no standards exist.

Further. . The Contractor shall clearly mark the chainage of the tunnels for every 10 m.5 . Wash-down The Contractor shall inspect rock surfaces jointly with Gener as soon as practical after excavation.600-TU-ETG-001 34 Gener’s approval does not exempt the Contractor of his sole responsibilities for efficient and successful execution of the work. inspections with use of a mobile platform shall be done with no longer intervals than 2 weeks and shall cover the sections/areas where the Contractor has completed the bi-weekly scaling during this period.1 Inspection of Tunnels. Marking of Chainage.3. 1. This mapping will normally be done after mucking and will not disturb the Contractor’s work. In special cases. it shall be washed and/ or repainted. Gener will regularly after blasting perform geological mapping of the rock mass.4 Certificates The Contractor shall submit manufacturers’ and suppliers’ certificates of compliance with the relevant standards. The maximum distance between the tunnel face and the last chainage mark shall be 25 m. The accuracy of the chainage marking shall be within ±250 mm.0 m above the invert. If the marking due to wear and dirt becomes difficult to read. Gener will order suspension of excavation works in order to perform more thoroughly mapping or investigations.4. 3.3 Test Reports The Contractor shall make tests and prepare and submit test reports in accordance with Table 3-2.4 General 3.3. Submittal of test reports – Rock support Issue for Issue for Item approval info Table 3-2: Issue time Pre-construction test reports as specified * 6F Test reports for all tests during construction * 4T 3.2. 3. Wash-down of excavated surfaces by water flushing shall be done after mucking of each round. The chainage marking shall be done with red spray paint on the right tunnel wall.

The type. installation of rock bolts. In the tunnels excavated with TBM. a long-term quality. wire mesh (and/or fibre reinforced).e. extent of additional rock support will be decided by Gener. the major part of the rock support is presupposed to be executed in the machine area. sprayed concrete or combination of these methods. between the cutter head and back up. are to be taken care of by the initial rock support. Initial rock support will normally consist of scaling. The initial support shall be incorporated in the Additional. extent and details of support to be installed shall be subject to Gener’s consent. Gener may consent to the Contractor’s proposals or may direct the Contractor to increase the amount of support or change the type of support as part of the additional rock support. For long-term stability.2 Rock Support The aim of rock support is both to provide safe working conditions during construction and a sufficient long-term stability of the underground opening. Materials for initial rock support shall therefore be of equal quality as for additional support. This includes scaling. also circular steel sets could come into use immediately behind cutterhead. and may both occur at the face and behind the face and shall not influence on measurement and/or payment. support. long-term. The Contractor shall inspect rock surfaces jointly with Gener as soon as practical after blasting/TBM excavation and shall recommend to Gener the type and extent of initial support. wire mesh. . Cast in place concrete lining might also be required.4. Gener will define additional rock support prior to completion of the excavation work. steel sets. lattice girders and sprayed concrete simultaneously with the boring process. Additional rock support will normally consist of fully cement grouted re-bar rock bolts and/or sprayed concrete with various reinforcement methods. Safe working conditions. without obstructing the TBM operation and boring process. In TBM tunnels.600-TU-ETG-001 35 In the TBM tunnels the geological mapping will be performed continuously and concurrently during excavation. which are the sole responsibility of the Contractor. 3. rock straps. both for staff and equipment. i. end anchored and/or fully grouted rock bolts. The terms initial rock support and additional rock support are used only for a classification of rock support works in regard to responsibility for decision making. Access for Gener to the tunnel heading/face and machine zone must be assured by the Contractor. In cases of very poor and extremely poor rock mass quality lattice girders in combination with sprayed concrete will be needed. The terms “at the face” and “behind the face” are used for differentiation of payment of rock support works.

600-TU-ETG-001 36 The failure of Gener to consent to the Contractor’s recommendations on rock support does not exempt the Contractor of his responsibility for the safety of the work. such request shall be forwarded to Gener. at the Contractor’s cost and time. The scheduling for installation of rock support shall be the responsibility of the Contractor. such as: scaling rods. . may be necessary for the safety and integrity of any rock surface. Additional rock support shall be installed behind the tunnel face where the work does not cause delays in the excavation progress.5.1 Scaling General Scaling works are classified into basic scaling and additional scaling and comprises also tunnels excavated by TBM. the Contractor shall promptly bring the matter to Gener’s attention together with the Contractor’s recommendation as to the type and extent of additional necessary support. scaling platform to be mounted on shovel (or other lifting equipment). beyond that previously consented to by Gener. and the work. 3. Basic scaling and additional scaling are to be performed in accordance with the best prevailing practice. and is subject to the consent of Gener. Consent to a reach as unsupported shall in no way exempt the Contractor of responsibilities or liabilities and will not preclude Gener from requiring supports in the reach at a later stage if signs of instability of the rock mass are indicated. Gener might in special cases request such support to be applied at or immediately behind the working face. It is required that the Contractor keeps available equipment in efficient working order for the scaling works. No statement in this Specification shall be construed to exempt the Contractor from the sole responsibility for safe working conditions in the underground openings or from liability for injuries to persons or to damage to property. equipment for cleaning/scaling by high-pressure water flushing. including all initial as well as all additional support. If at any time the Contractor has reason to believe that additional support. hydraulic scaling hammer to be mounted on the boom of an excavator. shall be at the Contractor’s cost and time. Gener may also require such excavations backfilled with concrete. If the Contractor considers it necessary to request excavation outside the theoretical contour to obtain access for temporary works or installations.5 3.

and high-pressure water flushing. e) Invert cleaning and scaling: Removal of temporary road dressing material.001 m3 remaining loose materials accepted per 5 m2 of tunnel invert. at the face or behind the face. which is possible by chisels.001 m3 (1 dm3) which are possible to remove by manual use of scaling rods. d) Extra scaling: Extra scaling comes in addition to the basic scaling in order to comply with the requirement defined under b). 3. Max.600-TU-ETG-001 37 3. in order to comply with the safety requirement and requirement of surface treatment.5.5. or as instructed by Gener. a final scaling shall be performed prior to release of the work site for other activities. c) Final scaling: Before handing over the Works. The required level for completed scaling is as described under b).1.1. before application of sprayed concrete. 20 mm nozzle and minimum pressure 10 bar. g) High-pressure water flushing of rock surface: .2 Additional Scaling Additional scaling is scaling ordered by Gener. A measure for completed scaling is that there are no stones larger than 0. 0. If the bi-weekly scaling is not performed satisfactorily. f) Chisel scaling: All loose and drummy rock (hollow sound) is to be removed to the degree.1 Basic Scaling Basic scaling is included in the excavation cost and procedures and covers scaling at the face. plus an overlap of 30 m of the former bi-weekly scaling section. Gener may request the blasting works stopped until the scaling is found acceptable. b) Bi-weekly scaling: All scaling needed in walls and roof for the section excavated during the last 2 weeks. bi-weekly scaling and final scaling as follows: a) Scaling at the face: Defined as a routine scaling after each blasting round. scaling of rock with scaling rods.

The friction weld shall have the same corrosion protection or better than the bolt and threaded part.6 Rock Bolts and Accessories 3. Gener shall approve all bolt types to be proposed and used by the Contractor.600-TU-ETG-001 38 All loose rock is to be removed to the degree possible by high-pressure flushing with combined water and air. 20 mm nozzle and minimum pressure 10 bar. if corrosion protected in accordance with clause b in the list below. If the threaded part is separate and to be connected to the rock bolt. c) Threaded rock bolts shall be provided with rolled threads of min. b) Corrosion-protection with hot-dip zinc coating (minimum 80 micron) shall conform to ASTM A 767 alone or in combination with epoxy coating conform to ASTM A 775 or similar. Bottom part of bolts for end-anchoring with polyester resin anchoring shall be provided with a spring or other device for efficient mixing of the polyester resin. Grade 4500 having minimum yield-point strength of 500 N/mm2. . 150 mm length of the same corrosion protection or better than the bolt itself. the rock bolt and the threaded part shall be connected by friction welding according to BS 6223.6. Bolt accessories shall be provided with the same corrosion protection as the rock bolt. Other accessories shall be of steel quality compatible with the quality of the rock bolt. but resin end anchored and fully resin-grouted bolts may be approved as permanent support. 3. The steel quality of the anchor plates shall conform to ASTM A 36/A 36M. semi-spherical washers and nuts. The assembly shall adjust to angular displacement from normal up to 45º.1 Materials Rock bolts of the following types may be used: Resin end-anchored bolts (deformed steel bars) Fully grouted deformed steel bars Fully grouted expansion-shell bolts (deformed steel bars) All bolts shall serve as permanent support and shall normally be fully grouted with cement mortar. The friction weld shall withstand a force equal to the actual ultimate load of the rebar. d) All type of bolts shall be provided with a 200 mm diameter dished anchor plates of 6 mm thickness. The threaded part shall withstand a force equal to the actual ultimate load of the rebar. Permanent rock bolts shall conform to the following requirements: a) Deformed steel bars and plain steel bars shall conform to ASTM A 615M.

All such materials shall have double corrosion protection (combi-coat or equivalent). 3. The cement mortar used for grouting of rock bolts shall comply with the following requirements: Shall not react chemically with zinc coating. Resin end anchored bolts shall be hot-dip zinc and epoxy coated.5 mm. additional boreholes where required or other items necessary for installation and anchoring or grouting of the bolts. For underground works the corrosion protection shall be as specified in the B of Q. Chain linked mesh.6. Expansion 1 . Max. grain size 0. In case of loose bolts. bar diameter 50 x 300/10 Chain linked mesh shall be removed prior to commissioning as directed by Gener.0 Welded wire fabric: 150 x 150 x 6. Fully grouted rock bolts shall as a minimum be hot dip zinc coated. complying with clauses above if used aboveground. Additional epoxy coating will be required unless the grouting material for bolting has been verified not to cause undesired chemical reactions with the zinc coating.2 Accessories The Contractor shall provide all necessary accessories.7/3.0 Steel straps: Max openings/min. The dimensions are (in millimetres): Chain-linked mesh: 50 x 50 x 2.3 %. the bolts shall be re-tensioned. welded wire fabric and steel straps with necessary accessories will be required in special cases. In case of overbreak around other bolts ends.600-TU-ETG-001 39 Polyester resin capsules shall be of quality giving sufficient bond strength to comply with requirements for pull tests. to be completed before completed hardening of the grout. . Welded wire fabric not covered by sprayed concrete shall be removed prior to commissioning or as directed by Gener. re-drilling and/or resetting of bolts shall be done. Compressive strength min. The tensioning of all the rock bolts in the corresponding reach shall be checked as part of the bi-weekly scaling. 45 MPa at 28 days.

3 Execution 3. UCS. b) The diameter of the drill holes shall be minimum 15 mm and maximum 35 mm larger than diameter of the rock bolt. or as spot bolts. The diameter of the boreholes' inner end shall be 10 to 12 mm larger than the bolt diameter.600-TU-ETG-001 40 3. f) In upward slanting boreholes measures shall be taken to prevent loss of mortar. . Rock bolts shall be installed perpendicular to the rock perimeter.6. >150 MN/m2) and 500 mm in medium strength rock types (50<UCS< 150 MN/m2).1 Drilling and Installation of Resin End-anchored Bolts Resin-end anchored bolts shall be installed in accordance with the written instructions issued by the manufacturer. washers and nuts may be located outside or within the reinforced sprayed concrete. or otherwise as directed by Gener.3. In conjunction with welded wire fabric or rock straps. 3. For low strength rock types the minimum anchored length shall be 1 m. d) Rock bolts shall be cleaned to remove dirt.2 Drilling and Installation of Fully Cement-grouted Bolts Fully grouted deformed steel bars with or without expansion shell end anchoring shall be installed in accordance with the following instructions: a) Rock bolts may be installed in a systematic and predetermined pattern.6. The bolt shall then be secured by wedges or other means to prevent movements during hardening of the mortar. grease or any other impurities before installation. e) The entire hole shall be filled with a mortar (grout) before installation of rock bolt.6.3. predetermined pattern. h) Anchor plate. the rock bolts shall be installed in depressions of rock surface if possible. or as spot bolts as directed by Gener. c) Drill holes shall be flushed with water for their entire length before grouting. The bolts may be installed in a systematic. The bolts shall have an anchored length of minimum 250 mm in high strength rock types (unconfined compressive strength. g) Bolt ends shall not protrude more than 50 mm outside nuts if not otherwise decided by Gener.

The Contractor shall fill in Quality Control forms which state type of rock bolts and accessories.4 600-TU-ETG-001 41 The nut of grouted rock bolts shall be tightened to achieve a force at anchor plate of approximately 20 kN. In case of any damage to epoxy/ polyester coating.1 General Documentation of properties of grouts to be used for grouting of rock bolts shall be submitted to Gener. The grout properties to be documented will comprise. End anchored rock bolts are to be tested by pull test. mending is to be performed with a result complying with the requirements for epoxy/polyester coating. when pre-stressed before grouting. Gener’s control engineer shall have free access to participate in the quality control.Pull tests By use of hydraulic jack with a pull force of 80 % of the yield strength.4. Tightening can be carried out when minimum 2 MPa grout strength has been obtained.i) j) 3. strength after 1. but are not limited to. The Contractor shall perform quality control of rock bolt installation according to the Quality Control Procedure described by Gener. the maximum working load shall be limited to 50% of the ultimate load. porosity. Installation procedure for grouted rock bolts is to be verified by test grouting of rock bolts in plastic tubes. setting time. For grouted expansion-shell bolts. Testing 3. In case the damage penetrates the zinc layer. 7 and 28 days. condition of corrosion protection. expansion and permeability of hardened grout. Category III Test grouting of bolts in plastic tubes .6.Visual control of bolts and accessories Visual control of corrosion protective coatings on rock bolts and accessories prior to installation. Required number of tests for a given bolted area and required number of acceptable results for approval of the bolted area are defined below. The following control categories will be included in the Quality Control Procedure: Category I . installation method and tensioning. Category II . rock bolts or accessories will not be accepted.6. consistency. These bolts shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's issued written instruction.

3 Measures to be taken in Case of Rejection and Re-bolting If the test results for a defined group of end anchored rock bolts do not satisfy the requirements. control of all bolts in the group will be required. ignoring resubmitted lots or batches for this procedure)”. Switching from normal to tightened control will be done (according to ISO 2859-1) “when two out of five or less tested lots have been non-acceptable on original inspection (that is. After 10 hours of hardening. Gener will define bolt groups in the order of 200 to 500 bolts as lot sizes for the inspection (testing). this requires that a size G sample does not have more than 2 test failures. or of 13 bolts for reduced control. A lot size of 151 .6. normal inspection shall be reverted to when five consecutive lots have been considered acceptable on original inspection”. the plastic tube is removed for control of how well the bolt is covered by concrete. Evaluation of results will be in accordance with Table IIA (single normal control) or Table IIB (single tightened control).4. “When tightened inspection is carried out. The number of accepted test bolts required for approval of the given area or tunnel interval is defined below.6.5.600-TU-ETG-001 42 This test shall be performed concurrent with the bolting of a defined area or tunnel interval. that bolt shall be rejected. . 3. Gener will define the areas or the tunnel reaches to be tested. and test bolts are inserted and grouted with use of the same grout and the same method as for the rock bolting. are mounted in a rack.4. general inspection level II. Procedures for switching from normal to reduced testing and from reduced to normal testing are described in ISO 2859-1. 3. If less than 95% of the bolt surface within the tube is covered by grout. With tightened control only 1 test failure is accepted for sample size G. with a pull force of 80% of the yield strength is the Contractor’s responsibility and will have to be replaced by the Contractor. Assessment of number of test bolts is described below.280 bolts requires a sample size G of 32 bolts for normal or tightened control. Table I. with Acceptable Quality Level AQL 2. With normal inspection (testing).2 Criteria for Assessment of Test Numbers and Acceptance of Test Results The method for selection of test bolts shall comply with International Standard ISO 2859-1 “Sampling procedures and tables for inspection by attributes”. Assessment of sample size will be done in accordance with ISO 2859-1. All bolts which do not pass the pull test. The same number of tubes with internal diameter equal to the hole diameter.

the holes are drilled from immediately behind cutterface – see clause 2. 3. Strand tendon rock anchors will be St 1570/1770 DYWIDAG or equivalent. and Gener will require additional bolting to correct the deficiency in quality.7 Spiles Reinforcing of the rock mass ahead of the tunnel face with long bolts (spiles) is termed spiling.600-TU-ETG-001 43 If the test results for a given group of grouted rock bolts do not satisfy the demands defined by AQL 4. slanting outwards into the rock surrounding the tunnel stretch to be excavated. The active anchors shall be pre-stressed to 75% of yield strength. Rock straps shall be combined with the radial bolts for securing protruding ends of spiles against vibrations and overbreak. the prices for the bolts in that group will be reduced with 25%. Grouting and installation of rock anchors shall be performed according to the manufacturer’s prescriptions. The needs of such anchors will be evaluated when the geological conditions have been assessed.. This support system may be applied for particularly unstable rock conditions. min yield strength 800 kN. The anchors shall be adequately corrosion protected by a "double system" as recommended for permanent anchors by the supplier and approved by Gener. The spiling holes shall be drilled from the perimeter of the tunnel face.0 in ISO 2859-1.8 Rock Anchors If required by Gener the Contractor shall install permanent rock anchors. and to prevent cave-ins following the next rounds. Spiles are subject to quality requirements as specified for rock bolts above. 3. to restrict deformations of the surrounding rock.8. In TBM tunnel. Spacing and inclination of the spiles shall be as agreed upon by Gener. Deformed steel bars shall be placed in the holes and fully grouted. The spile length is governed by the length of the round and the minimum spile length is 2 times the length of the round. Quality control shall be included as specified by the supplier for permanent anchors. . Bar tendon rock anchors will be single bar anchors.

in order to measure the quantity of it (by weight). All plant and methods for spraying shall be approved by Gener.1 Composition a) Portland Cement Type I. The minimum cement content for a particular environmental condition shall be as required by EFNARC Section 6. Only robots and wet mix method (as defined in EFNARC.0 kg/m3. (European Specification for Sprayed Concrete). shall be used. b) Micro silica (silica fume) may be included in the mix for improvement of pumpability and to obtain more cohesive consistency. but not more than . 3. Supplementary specifications relating to rock support are given below. Sprayed concrete shall be applied plain or reinforced by steel fibres as directed by Gener. The Contractor shall keep equipment at site able to catch the rebound material. Application of sprayed concrete shall be carried out by experienced operators only.1. In cases where a major part of the surface is to be covered by sprayed concrete. Section 3) shall be used. When sprayed concrete is applied as initial support in tunnels.9. The theoretical pumping capacity for each equipment shall be minimum 20 m3/hour.9. grouting.1 General For general concrete specifications reference is made to Specifications for Concrete works. complying with ASTM C 150 Portland Cement. 3.4 and EN 206. The sprayed concrete equipment shall include a robot furnished with a boommounted nozzle operated by remote control in order to allow operators to always work from a protected and safe place. sufficient time shall be allowed for Gener to record the geological features before the application of sprayed concrete takes place. the Contractor shall inform Gener about the location of areas where sprayed concrete is to be applied at the latest 12 hours in advance. The total Alkali content in the mix shall be less than 5.9 Sprayed Concrete 3. He shall at the request of Gener present a detailed methods statement for the drilling. For programmed work.600-TU-ETG-001 44 The Contractor shall with his Tender present information on the type of anchors he proposes to use. Gener shall be informed at the latest 1 hour in advance. Requirements are given in Specifications for Concrete works. testing and fixing of the anchors.

and also to the total content of such materials. which by testing at an approved laboratory has proved not to be susceptible to destructive attack by alkalis. Maximum particle size shall be 12 mm. d) The aggregate shall be a wellgraded sand with a maximum content of 10% (by weight) of grains with sizes larger than 8 mm. Fly ash. c) When sulphate content in ground water exceeds 150 ppm. handled and stored similarly to cement. At the earliest possible time. including silica fume. silica slurry etc. Records concerning details of the performance of such admixtures shall be maintained. if used.0 kg/m3 of Na2O equivalent. e) Admixtures and other materials for concrete shall be so selected that the total content of chlorides does not exceeds 0. the necessary trial for sprayed concrete mix design shall be batched. including previous experience with such materials. Full account should be taken of their effect on the finished sprayed concrete and there should be sufficient data about their suitability. sulphate resistance may be achieved by achieved by the use of micro silica (minimum 5 percent. applied and tested according to the standards referred to below for Gener's approval of the mixes and methods to be used.600-TU-ETG-001 45 10% by weight of the Portland clinker content. maximum 10% of the cement weight) and a low ratio (0. The aggregates shall meet the requirements given in Specifications for Concrete works. and shall be tested and reported accordingly. o Limit the alkali content of the concrete mix.4% by weight of the Portland clinker. shall meet the requirements in ASTM C618. The total contents of such materials and other types of pozzolana directly mixed into the cement and added during concrete production shall not exceed 25% of the total weight of Portland cement and pozzolanic materials. sand moisture and water from additives. The admixtures shall meet the requirements given in Specifications for Concrete works.45) of: (water) / (cement + silica)). f) To avoid damage due to alkali-silica reaction one of the two following measures shall be taken: o Use an aggregate. accumulated from all sources to 3. Pozzolana shall be ordered. This limit also applies to other admixtures with correspondingly high pozzolanic effect. . The amount of water in the concrete includes added water.

The roughness factor is empirical and gives an overall characteristic of the actual rock surface divided by the theoretical area.1 and Table 9. Unless otherwise specified. Unless otherwise specified.2.1. both according to EN 206. Gener may order adjustment of the mechanical parameters of sprayed concrete. Documentation of these properties will then be required.2 Requirements for Sprayed concrete The sprayed concrete mix shall be designed by the Contractor in accordance with EFNARC Section 7. 3.95 MPa as specified in EFNARC Section 9.2 of the EFNARC Specification shall be met. which are based on a 50 mm diameter by 100 mm long core and include a 0. Furthermore.600-TU-ETG-001 46 3. it may vary depending on the sprayed concrete . the sprayed concrete operation itself and the use of accelerator (rapid hardening agent).3. the strength grade of sprayed concrete shall meet the requirements of concrete strength class H-40 (NCh170 Of85) and the condition of environmental exposure shall be Moderate. which is in accordance with the Specification and requirements made. based on the specified average thickness and the roughness factor of the rock surface.1 of the EFNARC Specification. the in-situ strength requirements given in Table 9. The toughness requirements of the fibre reinforced sprayed concrete of strength class H-40 (NCh170 Of85) shall comply with residual strength class 2 as given in Figure 9.9. It takes into consideration the volume required to fill hollows and cracks.1.1. Gener may require that a volume estimate shall be made prior to application of sprayed concrete on an area.3 Methods/Execution Sprayed concrete shall be applied plain or reinforced as shown in the drawings or agreed between Contractor and Gener.85 reduction factor to allow for effects of in-situ curing. Testing shall be in accordance with the description of the beam test as given in EFNARC Section 10.3.9. To determine that the concrete meets the requirements to compressive strength. the rate of hardening should be: At 24 hours: 30 percent of final strength At 7 days: 60 percent of final strength At 28 days: 100 percent of final strength Fibre reinforced sprayed concrete of strength class H-40 (NCh170 Of85) used for ordinary rock reinforcement shall have a flexural strength of minimum 3. Before commencement of work the crew shall be instructed so as to obtain a sprayed concrete quality.

1. No differentiation is made between sprayed concrete used for initial or permanent support. decide on the roughness factor and agree on the required volume to produce the specified thickness. Any crevices shall be filled first.1. i. rebound material or other harmful matter. The distance between the nozzle and the application surface shall be in the range of 1. Natural curing may be considered if the atmospheric conditions surrounding the sprayed concrete are satisfactory. applied for general rock support. All surfaces to be sprayed shall be thoroughly scaled and then cleaned by water flushing and. but not wet.5 Testing and Control Testing of sprayed concrete with or without steel fibre reinforcement. If water occurs on the surface to be sprayed. until the sprayed concrete is applied.9. grease. Surface preparation may be omitted in very poor rock mass quality.9. The sprayed concrete shall be kept moist for at least 7 days by water sprinkling or covering.0 to 2. All rebound sprayed concrete and all overspray shall be removed upon completion of the sprayed concrete process. The estimated volume shall also compensate for the assumed volume of rebound. Any curing compound shall comply with EN 206. a decision must be made whether spraying shall take place or the leakage is to be grouted or drained. if required. The Contractor and Gener shall jointly. Quality control and documentation of sprayed concrete applied for this purpose shall be executed in accordance with EFNARC Section 11. sufficiently high relative humidity. Rapid drying at the end of the curing period is to be avoided.0 m. The surface shall be kept moist. if not otherwise specified or instructed. Curing membranes of a type that may affect the bond strength when applying additional layers shall also be removed. all traces of dirt. On final surfaces a curing membrane shall be used if the curing conditions are deemed unsatisfactory. shall be carried out as Normal Control Class according to the methods and with frequencies as specified in EFNARC Sections 10 and 11. The sprayed minimum thickness on protruding rock shall be at least 50% of the specified thickness. 3. prior to spraying of the area. oil. . resulting in a higher value for thinner layers. Additional sprayed concrete shall be applied if measurements show that the rebound quantity deviates considerably from the assumed value. the sprayed mean thickness shall be at least the specified thickness. The nozzle position shall be at right angles to the application surface. by sand blasting until they are free of dust.4 Thickness When a specified thickness is stated.e. 3.600-TU-ETG-001 47 thickness.

The frequency of thickness testing shall be as per each 300 m2 of sprayed concrete if not otherwise agreed with Gener.0 m. the Contractor shall submit for Gener’s approval applicable data for fibres. which shall be performed at the Contractor's expense. A dull response (hollow sound) indicates areas of no bond. The number of points shall be at least 25. Reporting on testing shall be executed according to the applicable standards (and the agreed Quality Plan.0 x 2. The control of fibre content shall be carried out from cored specimens in accordance with EFNARC Section 10. cement and admixtures for the sprayed concrete. with a minimum fibre length of 18 mm and an aspect (length/thickness) ratio >40.0 mm. Points shall be located at both hollows and at high points.7 Reinforcement of Sprayed Concrete Materials The following types of reinforcement for sprayed concrete may be used: Steel fibres of approved type conforming to ASTM A 820.1. 3.1. The checking shall be carried out covering the total area of sprayed concrete.1. .9. The control shall be documented by a written report and carried out at a frequency of at least one knock per 5 m2.0 m. or by fixing nails to the rock surface in a grid of 2.9. Corrosion protection and concrete cover thickness to be specified in each particular case. The test shall be carried out for each sprayed volume of 100 m3 fibre-reinforced sprayed concrete.6 Documentation Minimum 2 weeks before commencement of any sprayed concrete work. Synthetic fibre reinforcement shall only be used as approved by Gener.600-TU-ETG-001 48 The bond shall be checked at random by knocking on the sprayed concrete with a scaling rod. The length of the steel fibres shall not exceed 0.0 x 2. Areas of dull response shall be clearly marked and Gener shall make an assessment of additional support required. Welded wire fabric of dimensions 150 x 150 x 6.9.) 3. The thickness shall be checked by drilling through the hardened concrete in a grid of 2. The bond requirement does not apply in fault zones and in highly weathered rock mass.7 of the internal diameter of the pipes or hoses used unless a test has proven that longer fibres can be sprayed without blockage.

5 m2 shall be used. Welded wire fabric shall be covered by a minimum 50 mm thick sprayed concrete layer to provide satisfactory corrosion protection. At least one fixing point per 2. Additional bolts shall be used for fixing of welded wire fabric. 3. Prefabricated lattice girders made from deformed rebars shall be bolted to the rock surface.9. Before mounting welded wire fabric the first layer of sprayed concrete shall be applied in order to smooth the surface. Blocking and wedging will not be permitted. If more than one layer of welded wire fabric is used. Sprayed concrete shall be used to ensure a good and evenly distributed load transfer. Steel fibres shall be stored in a dry environment. The girders shall comply with the following requirements: Section modulus : Wx > 75 cm3 Height : hmax = 200 mm Chain linked mesh is not acceptable as sprayed concrete reinforcement. Rib. The girder sections shall be bolted together. Welded wire fabric shall be installed so that it follows irregularities of surface closely and with one pitch of overlap.1. Corroded steel fibres shall not be used. a minimum of one layer of sprayed concrete is required between the layers.8 Method/Execution Steel fibres shall be added according to the achieved results from the testing of trial mixes complying with the specified toughness/flexural tensile strength requirements. The transverse ties shall be fixed to radial rock bolts.or lattice girder reinforcement shall be installed in accordance with given profile lines and as close to the actual rock surface as possible.600-TU-ETG-001 49 Reinforcement for sprayed concrete ribs shall be one of the following two types: Deformed rebars of minimum 16 mm diameter tied together by transverse pieces of deformed rebars of minimum 20 mm diameter. For two layers of welded wire fabric reinforcement separate bolts shall be installed for each layer. Girders shall be fixed to the rock by means of rock bolts. . Prior to installation. the rock surface shall be covered by a minimum of 60 mm thick fibre reinforced sprayed concrete.

reinforcement material. curing precautions etc. and to the total content of such materials. c) When the sulphate content in ground water exceeds 150 ppm.600-TU-ETG-001 50 3.4 percent by weight of the Portland clinker. d) The mixing water shall meet the requirements given in Specifications for Concrete works. complying with ASTM C 150 Portland Cement. sulphate resistance shall be ensured by the use of microsilica (min 5% and maximum 10%of cement weight) and a low ratio ( The water ratio includes added water. f) Admixtures and other materials for concrete shall be so selected that the total content of chlorides does not exceed 0. See Specifications for Concrete works. Silica fume may constitute a part of the pozzolanic materials. e) The aggregates shall be in accordance with the requirements given in Specifications for Concrete works. concreting. removal of formwork. Formwork. but not more than 10 percent by weight of the Portland clinker content. b) Pozzolanic admixtures may be used after Gener’s approval. reinforcement. slurry etc.10. Execution of necessary scaling.1 Scope The operation encompasses all activities and deliveries necessary for the installation of concrete structures for rock support purposes. as required.10 Cast in place Concrete Rock Support 3. moisture in the aggregates. shall be provided by the Contractor. formwork.1 Materials and Admixtures for Concrete The following requirements apply: a) Portland Cement Type I. concrete etc.2 Materials/Equipment 3.10.10. shall be used (see Specifications for Concrete works.). The total content of such materials directly mixed into the cement and added during concrete production shall not exceed 35% by weight of the cement’s total content of Portland clinker and pozzolana.2. This limit also applies to other admixtures with correspondingly high pozzolanic effect. g) To avoid damage due to alkali-silica reaction one of the two following measures shall be taken: . including but not limited to: Delivery of formwork material. 3.

600-TU-ETG-001 51 Use an aggregate. 3. It may be required that the rock surface shall be trimmed so that a reasonable homogenous thickness of the concrete is ensured (see comments under sprayed concrete). Limit the alkali content of the concrete mix.10. plain concrete shall be used. depending on circumstances. the condition of exposure shall be Moderate and the concrete compressive strength shall meet the requirements of grade H-35 concrete (NCh170 Of85) according BS 5328. as applicable. Loose material shall be removed from the invert along the walls. the necessary trial concrete designs shall be batched and tested according to the standards referred to below.0 kg/m3 of Na2O equivalent. the concrete contour shall not be situated more than 200 mm inside the planned excavation contour. accumulated from all sources to 3. Unless otherwise specified. .2. unless otherwise specified. for Gener’s agreement of the mixes and methods to be used.2 Reinforcement (if applicable) The reinforcement material shall be in accordance with ASTM A185 and ASTM A 615M.2. At the earliest possible time. The minimum thickness of the concrete shall be 300 mm. At 7 days : 60 percent of final strength. but reinforcement may be called for.4 Methods/Execution Normally.3 Concrete Grade and Strength Requirements The concrete mix shall be designed to meet the requirements of the exposure conditions according to BS 8110. which by testing at an approved laboratory has proved not to be susceptible to destructive attack by alkalis. At 28 days : 100 percent of final strength.2. the rate of the hardening shall be: At 24 hours : 30 percent of final strength. 3.10.10. so that the concrete support footing rests on rock. 3. Unless otherwise specified. Where no specific requirements exist.

2 Production Control Production control includes: materials and proportioning aggregate moisture concrete temperature consistency Control procedure shall be prepared in each particular case.10.3 Materials Control prior to Concreting Materials control carried out on site shall consist of measurements of the following parameters: Concrete temperature.1 General Testing of concrete shall be carried out according to the methods and with frequencies specified below. the production control may be deleted provided that the manufacturer can document adherence to the requirements.4. 3.3 Tolerances The position of completed concrete surface shall not deviate more than +/50 mm from the planned position. Quality control and documentation are of the following types: Concrete production control.4. When using ready-mixed concrete.10. Consistency. . 3.600-TU-ETG-001 52 If concrete rock support at the face is decided. Materials control prior to concreting. 3.4 Testing and Control 3. concreting shall be carried out immediately after mucking out. In situ product control (if applicable).10. 3.10. Production control shall be carried out for each shift of concrete works.10. Pore volume and density.4.

Monitoring and verification of soil. Pore volume only when additives are used. The testing frequency shall be as indicated in Table 3-3: Table 3-3: Test frequency Test Frequency Temperature and consistency Once per shift Pore volume and density Occasionally.1 Scope General An investigation program for determination of geotechnical and geological conditions is foreseen to be performed concurrent with the work. .and rock mass conditions and behaviour during construction will be required. bur at least at start of each concreting period. 4. totalling minimum of 5 tests.1. Reporting on testing shall be executed according to the applicable standard and the agreed Quality Plan. the Contractor shall submit for Gener’s approval applicable data for cement and admixtures for concrete. the condition of exposure shall be Moderate and the concrete compressive strength shall meet the requirements of grade H-35 concrete (NCh170 Of85) according to BS 5328. Compressive strength Each mix shall be tested once per concreting period. but at least once per each 250 m3 concrete. Test Frequency.5 Documentation A minimum of 2 weeks before commencement of any concrete work. as well as proposals for design mix for the various concrete qualities. INVESTIGATION AND INSTRUMENTATION DURING CONSTRUCTION 4.1 4.10. Unless otherwise specified. Control and testing procedures shall be prepared in each particular case referring to relevant standards. 3. For determination of consistency and compressive strength BS 1881 shall apply.600-TU-ETG-001 53 Compressive strength.

Results from rock mechanical investigations will be used by Gener to verify the detailed design. concrete plugs and transitions from steel lined to unlined waterways etc. The Contractor shall be responsible for all specified services during the testing. materials and equipment and the performance of all work necessary for supplying. The Contractor shall be prepared for changes in the layout/orientations of tunnels. packing. The work also includes submittals of reports. drilling of exploratory holes for rock mechanical testing will therefore be performed from tunnels as requested by Gener. The Contractor will be allowed to continue work during testing. additional instrumentation and/or special excavation methods. which could include. install and maintain instrumentation in satisfactory operation during construction. appropriate measures shall be taken by Contractor. The rock mechanical testing shall be done by professionals co-ordinated by the Contractor and subjected to Gener's approval. It is therefore a requirement that the installation and monitoring of instruments and other observations be given priority. ground water monitoring. provision of additional support. piezometers.1. the instrumentation system shall be turned over to Gener in satisfactory operational condition. installing and monitoring all items as specified herein. joint meters and surface settlement monuments. At completion. handling and transportation of samples and necessary assistance during . The rock mechanical testing will consist of rock stress measurements done by hydraulic fracturing and jacking methods. convergence stations. shafts.2 Coverage The scope of the works to be performed by the Contractor includes furnishing all labour. The Contractor shall supply. as well as other measurements. The results obtained from the instrumentation installed will provide parameters necessary for the continuous evaluation of the work’s stability. During tunnel excavation. 3-dimensional stress measurements. caverns and shafts. Should assessment of the performance of the excavations or of the structures through the reading of instruments demand it. 4. but is not limited to. extensometers and piezometers. Underground works: Hydraulic fracturing and jacking. but restrictions on blasting close to the test site may apply.600-TU-ETG-001 54 Information on rock mechanical conditions is important for location and orientation of caverns. Possible items of instrumentation and monitoring to be supplied for surface and underground works are listed as follows: Surface works: Drilling investigations.

4. .3.3 Suggested Methods for Rock Stress Determination. Submittals by the Contractor Submittals that the Contractor is required to make to Gener are described below.D2113 Standard Practice for Diamond core drilling for site investigation European Committee for Standardization (CEN) EN 1997-2 Geotechnical design . The issue time defines the date that Gener shall receive the first issue of the documents: XF = X number of weeks prior to start of manufacture/work as applicable. XT = X number of weeks after completion of test/inspection/work as applicable. the work shall be performed according to recognised practice approved by Gener. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) ASTM. If no standards exist.2 Reference Standards Particular standards relevant for this Chapter are listed below.600-TU-ETG-001 55 testing performed by expert teams co-ordinated by the Contractor and subject to Gener's approval.Part 2: Design assisted by laboratory and field testing British Standards Institution (BS) BS 5930 Code of Practice for Site Investigations BS 4017 Core Drilling Equipment International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) ISRM 4.1 Documents The Contractor shall prepare and submit documents in accordance with Table 4-1. 1987. 4.

the Contractor shall immediately replace the damaged equipment. The results shall be presented daily or weekly as decided by Gener.600-TU-ETG-001 56 Table 4-1: Submittal of documents – Investigation and instrumentation Issue for Issue for Documentation Issue time approval info. slurry suspension may be approved by Gener.3.3 4. Should damage occur.3.3. drill rod couplings or any other source. test. .2 General The Contractor shall at any time during the progress of the Works provide and maintain adequate equipment and materials with stand-by reserves to be able to carry out the work ordered by Gener.3.1 Core Drilling and Water Pressure Testing General The water used for drilling and testing shall be of potable water quality or as approved by Gener. Contractor shall provide mild steel covers firmly fixed to the rock/sprayed concrete/concrete surface to protect all instrument heads from damage during subsequent work. 4. The Contractor shall keep continuous records and logs of all drilled holes.and monitoring results. For drilling through overburden. 4. The drilling fluid shall not be contaminated by oil or grease from pumps. instruments. Specialist personnel with relevant experience shall be employed for the work. Organisation plan for the Works showing the * 6F responsibilities and the Qualifications of the personnel Data sheets for instruments and procedures for * 6F installation and monitoring Log of all drilled holes * 1T Gener’s approval does not exempt the Contractor of his sole responsibilities for efficient and successful execution of the work.

production year and technical details for the core drilling equipment he intends to use. The rig shall be used at any location. or similar rig). square section wooden spacers painted blue shall be available to prevent the core sliding in the box. Normally cores will be placed in boxes of the appropriate size.3 Core Boxes The Contractor shall provide sturdy core boxes for the protection and storage of cores. giving the type.3. A core box shall have an inside length of 1. unscrewing/screwing and lowering of drill rods (ATLAS COPCO DIAMEC 26. The drill rigs shall have a capacity for core drilling at least 200 m in any direction with a hole diameter of 76 mm. . It shall have the possibility for down-the-hole-hammering to a depth of 100 m.3.600-TU-ETG-001 57 4. The rig shall be fully hydraulic and have the possibility for automatic lifting. 4. If a length of core does not fill a section of the box. The rig shall be kept at the site for the duration of the works.2 Drilling Equipment Rigs: It is required that the Contractor shall be able to drill 1 hole at a time and shall have submitted with his Tender a Core Drilling Equipment Data Sheet. Recovery equipment: Core recovery equipment shall be double tube ball-bearing swivel type core barrels with the core-lifter located in the lower end of the inner barrel. Drill rods: The drill rods shall be with O-rings and suitable for internal water pressures of at least 30 bar.05 m and be provided with longitudinal separators for storing of 5 core columns and have a hinged lid. in the tunnels as well as for surface works. min diameter 76 mm.3. Core boxes with different internal partition widths shall be provided to suit different core sizes. The remainder of the trays in a box holding larger diameter core may be filled with smaller diameter core provided that wooden packing pieces of the correct thickness shall be available for use alongside the smaller diameter core to prevent rolling within the tray.3.

a) Testing concurrent with drilling: The test shall be carried out by pumping clean. both sizes inclusive. not with air/gas. 4. These tests shall be carried out generally in accordance with BS 5930 and the results shall be recorded on report forms approved by Gener. The accuracy of test shall be checked every 4 or 8 tests by sealing off and testing a longer stage on which three or four shorter stage lengths have been previously tested.3. deviation and inclination surveys. sediment free water generally into three or six metre test stages while the hole is advancing and using a single packer. 4.5 Water Pressure Testing Tests Gener will order water pressure tests to be made and test procedure to be used. shall be available so that any section of a hole can be tested at any stage of the drilling. labour. particularly when the material is soft or friable to the extent that enlargement of the hole is unavoidable. b) Testing after finished drilling: Testing starts at the top of the hole. This latter equipment shall have a diameter so as to enable deviation measurements in pilot holes for shafts. samples and core loss.3. at a maximum pressure of 120 bar down the hole. or of soft expandable rubber capable of sealing tightly against the walls of the hole.600-TU-ETG-001 58 Additional square section wooden spacers painted different colours shall be provided for placing in the trays to indicate drill runs.3. and the single packer is pushed into the hole in stages of 5 m until zero leakage is measured or hole bottom is reached. .4 Measuring Equipment Core orientation and direction survey equipment The Contractor shall provide suitable instruments to the satisfaction of Gener for core orientation. equipment and materials necessary for carrying out the tests. Gener may direct alterative testing with double packers Equipment The Contractor shall provide all plant. Single and double packers of at least 500 mm length and capable of sealing holes of any size between Ø76 and Ø59.3. The packers shall be pressurised with liquids.

shall be removed from site.6 Calibration Procedure All flow meters. Competent and experienced workmen shall perform all core drilling with satisfactory workmanship. The Contractor shall withdraw the drill bit and remove the core as often as necessary to ensure that the maximum possible amount of intact core is recovered.3. pressure gauges and the like shall be sealed and calibrated by an approved laboratory before use on the site. 4. Gener will order the direction and inclination. Alternative equipment.3. Arrangements shall be made for the regular calibration of water flow meters.600-TU-ETG-001 59 4.3. may be used subject to Gener’s consent. The actual length required will be ordered while the hole is being drilled. No greases. rod dope or other contaminants shall be used on any rods during drilling operations. Where necessary and as directed by Gener the Contractor shall use drilling fluid.3. He shall use bits of size suitable to the material to be cored and he shall provide close surveillance of wash water. . Any working gauge.3. Gener may alter the programme of work as and when drilling results become available. drilling pressure. An adequate supply of spare parts shall be maintained on site. The Contractor shall maintain on each site two master pressure gauges calibrated and certified by an independent authority against which working gauges shall be calibrated daily or before use. which reads the pressure in the test section directly. and give an initial estimate of the required length.7 Programme of Work and Number and Position of Boreholes Gener will set out the position of each borehole before drilling of the hole commences. At least one standby meter shall be available at all times. which differs by more than 5% from the master gauge. 4.3. lengths of runs and all other factors significant to the nature of the material drilled. At the start of work. the equipment to be used for the water pressure tests shall be calibrated. Special care shall be taken to obtain cores in as good a condition as possible.8 Drilling Workmanship and Setting-up The Contractor shall ensure that his drilling machines are firmly anchored and do not move while drilling is in progress.

free of sediment. drilling shall be suspended until further drilling is authorised by Gener. Tolerances Holes for core drilling shall be located and drilled within the limits of accuracy set out in Table 4-2. Test Procedures a) Testing concurrent with drilling: Only clear water. and shall generally be performed using a single packer on sections of hole six (6) metres in length. to stand firmly without a casing. shall be used for these tests. but also so that pressure gauges and flow meters can be easily read.01 m Casing Where drilling is being carried out in any stratum that is not sufficiently cohesive. or when directed by Gener. % of drilled length Depths shall be measured to the following accuracies: Depth of hole Features in hole Permissible Deviation / Degree of Accuracy 1° 3% 0. in the opinion of the Contractor. They shall be conducted after completion of the drilling of each consecutive test length and in any event before the correction of caving. unless otherwise ordered by Gener.600-TU-ETG-001 60 If unexpected cavities are encountered. Table 4-2: Tolerances Description Alignment of drilling rig: Permissible deviation from designated direction Direction of hole: Maximum deviation. Water pressure tests shall be performed on sections of exploratory holes drilled in rock. The pressure gauge and flow meter must be coupled directly to the drill rods in the hole so that no bends occur in the water line between the pressure gauge and test section. that hole shall be cased.01 m 0. the hole shall be flushed clean of drill cuttings through the un-expanded packer for at least 5 minutes with clean sediment free water until the return water is clear. The standing water level shall then be measured and recorded after it has remained constant for 5 . After drilling and prior to testing.

The acceptance of water at each pressure shall be recorded at minute intervals for 5 minutes or until a steady flow is attained.600-TU-ETG-001 61 minutes and just prior to expanding the packer and doing the test. The water level shall again be measured and recorded immediately after the packer is released at the end of the test. If the water leaks past the packer and appears at surface. 10. The core will be extracted over the core box. If water leaks past the packer up the hole. Core left behind in the borehole at the end of the run will be marked as such at the top of the following run with a line indicating where drilling started on the following run and an arrow from the top of the following run to that line.3. 4. b) Testing after completed drilling: Specifications and test pressures as above except that testing is done in stages of 5 m from the bottom up after the hole is drilled to final depth. No pressure stage shall last more than 10 minutes. a ground sheet. The required pressures shall be maintained to an accuracy of 5 % during the whole of the period of each pressure stage. all efforts are to be made to plug such leaks and report it in detail to Gener (location. gentle tapping. using a rubber mallet. shall be used to free the core. The orientation should continue from run to run wherever possible.9 Handling and Storage of Core Samples On removal of a core barrel from a hole and before the start of a new run the core shall be carefully removed from the barrel using a steady pressure. Each stage of the test shall last at least 5 minutes. or a sheet of clean corrugated iron. If the core jams. Excessive hammering on the core barrel resulting in damage to the core may cause the core and hence the hole to be rejected by Gener. to prevent loss and dirtying of dropped pieces. 15 and 25 bar if not otherwise directed by Gener. estimate of flow). . The core will be placed in the correct sequence in the core box. Gener may instruct the Contractor to abandon the test or move the packer to include the section previously tested. The Contractor will closely pack the core neatly in each row of the core box and will orient each piece against the adjacent pieces so that all pieces have a common orientation.3. The depth at the end of every run shall be marked on a square section white painted block placed at the end of the run and on the core if it is hard enough. Water shall be pumped into each test section at gauge pressures at the top of the borehole of 3. 7.

a single red painted block. The inclination and direction shall be determined to within an accuracy of 0.11 Backfilling On completion of drilling and testing. . The markers shall be of the same length as the samples they represent. If core loss is distributed throughout the run. the project name. and the box number (as. after the consent of Gener. No core box shall contain the cores of more than one hole. red painted square cross-section blocks equal in length to the lost core shall be placed in locations where core was lost.3.600-TU-ETG-001 62 Yellow painted square section blocks shall be placed in the correct position in the core box to represent samples which have been taken from the hole. Where so ordered. neatly and indelibly marked on both ends of the box.3. the depth of the core. client and data from box ends shall also be noted on the side or inside top of the box. shall be given to the nearest centimetre. the boreholes shall be backfilled with an approved cement grout mixture which shall be tremied or piped to the bottom of the hole so as to displace any water that may remain in the hole until the grout is seen to appear at the surface. Were core does not fully fit a core box tray. the Contractor shall use the method as approved by Gener. the completion date.10 Inclination and Orientation of Boreholes Down-the-hole inclination and deviation surveys of some of the boreholes will be ordered while the investigation is in progress. or similar. 4. The borehole number. Any breaks introduced by handling shall be marked in the same way. it shall not be broken unless the breaks are clearly marked with two indelible lines that cross the break. The hole shall be topped up with grout as the tremie pipe is withdrawn. The core shall be left adjusted in the core box trays and any space at the right hand end of the core box tray shall be filled with blue painted square cross section blocks cut to fit the space and thus prevent the core from sliding about during transport. shall be placed before the block indicating the depth of the bottom or the run. Where core is not recovered. Measurement of core orientation will be required on certain holes or portions of holes with use of Ezy-MarkTM Core Orientation system.3.3. equivalent in length to the core loss and marked with a double ended arrow. In addition. The minimum length of core so marked shall be 10 mm. The depth or length of core. 4.5º and may be required to be recorded twice at each ordered survey point within the borehole. say “box 1 of 5”) shall be clearly. The instruments used shall be as stated in the approved Core Drilling Equipment Data Sheet. as applicable.

. n) amount and size of casing drilled into borehole. l) estimated water or drilling fluid losses or inflow. On completion of the borehole. m) amount and size of casing inserted into borehole. at all times. It shall be available. r) length of grout that required drilling.3. a note must be made of: a) borehole number and co-ordinates.3. j) location of any exceptionally hard or exceptionally soft layers. b) name of driller and type of machine. type of drill mud.600-TU-ETG-001 63 If Gener decides to keep a hole open after the demobilisation of a drilling site. Drilling Record : Each drilling machine operator shall maintain independent of his own private records. g) bit pressure and rotational speed. o) amount and size of casing left in borehole. with location of occurrences. e) calculation of length for each advance/run. angle from vertical and direction. h) times of start and finish of each advance/run. k) use of drill mud. p) amount of cement grout poured or pumped into borehole. 4. sampling and grouting operations carried out. d) date of each advance.12 Record of Operations The Contractor shall keep accurate records on approved forms as follows of all drilling. duration of any delays and number of times chuck was raised if applicable. a record of all information required by Gener in a suitable book. f) type and number of bit for each advance/run. this book shall become the property of the Employer. the Contractor has no responsibility for backfilling of the hole. c) dates of setting up and removal. This book shall be kept up to date. i) reasons for any core loss. q) depth of top of grout after grouting operation. In the record book. for inspection by Gener.

. planes of weakness in rock. The Contractor shall provide a daily return of a summary of all drilling operations on an approved form. pumps. During the testing. changes in rock quality occur. seams. 4. and depth of each run. water meter reading. u) any other item that may be of relevance to the interpretation of the core or the administration of the contract. v) determine depth at which changes of strata. The Contractor shall in addition to drilling and water testing of boreholes provide: Water and power necessary for execution of testing. the time of completion shall be recorded. leakage rate. On completion of the test and after equipment is removed from the whole. vehicles. Equipment for stress measurements in rock. rods stuck etc.4 Services for Rock Mechanical Testing and Rock Stress Measurements Testing and measurements will be done by professionals engaged and co-ordinated by the Contractor and subjected to Gener's approval. x) core recovery per run. fissures. equipment.3. 4. water loss. mechanical. gauge pressure. 20 mm diameter reinforcing bars welded to a stainless steel head to suit the convergence tape used for measurement purposes. t) details and records of tests or surveys conducted.5 Convergence Stations Convergence anchors shall be min 0. sealing properties and any other relevant information shall also be recorded on the test forms. other machinery and materials as required during testing. The measurements shall be performed according to Suggested Methods by ISRM. Water Test Record : Before commencing the water pressure test. and the form shall be signed by the Contractor’s representative who performed the test. Core drilling machine with drill rods for inserting packers in drill holes Personnel. including hydraulic power unit capable of delivering a power of 25 kW at an oil pressure of 200 bar. the details of time. w) geological description with Rock Quality Designation (RQD) and fracture frequency.g.3.s) 600-TU-ETG-001 64 time of and reason for delays e.5 m long. the time of testing shall be recorded on forms approved by Gener.

The convergence measurements shall be taken by means of a stainless steel convergence tape. At least one spare convergence tape in excellent condition shall be available at all times. Convergence stations shall generally be installed within 1 m of the excavation front and the zero reading established before the front is advanced. Reading frequencies shall be as for convergence stations. The reference head shall be recessed to afford blast protection. The protective sleeve shall be made according to the supplier’s specification. Borehole Extensometers Borehole extensometers shall consist of multiple aluminium rods in protective sleeves with groutable anchors. Readings shall be taken between all stations. . Readings shall be taken at the following frequencies: after each blast. Extensometer stations will consist of multiple extensometers in the crown or walls of underground excavations directed by Gener. a reference head and protective cap. The rods shall be recoverable for inspection and repair. and shall generally be installed within 1 m of the face and the zero reading established before the face is advanced. until the graph show the initial rapid linear convergence phase has passed thereafter at two blast intervals until the face has advanced to at least 20 m thereafter at weekly intervals until the readings have stabilised The convergence tape extensometer and compatible anchor points shall be as supplied by the following or equivalent manufacturer: ITM-Soil Interfels DGSI Slope Indicator Co. Multiple point rod extensometers and compatible dial gauges or remote readout facilities shall be obtained from approved suppliers. The reference head shall be designed to allow fitting of inductive displacement transducers into the bushings where remote readout is required.600-TU-ETG-001 65 The convergence anchors shall be fully resin bonded into a drilled holed enlarged at the surface to allow the head to be recessed.

Contractor shall also supply a water level indicator such as the RocTest CPR4. concrete or soil. Hollow stem augers with a minimum internal diameter of 83 mm may be used for drilling overburden. The method of installation will depend on the foundation. The fixed points shall consist of a 25 mm brass rod.100f or equivalent. but the Contractor may modify these to take into account conditions encountered during the work. Backfill and Bentonite seal materials shall be installed in such a manner as to prevent bridging or hanging up of the material within the borehole. Standpipe piezometers intended for long-term monitoring shall be equipped with Casagrande piezometer tips or equivalent. complete with protective cap. If any piezometer is found to be ineffective due to deficiencies in the Contractor’s installation procedures.7 Surface Settlement Monuments and Fixed Points Monuments for precision triangulation instruments will be established. The backfill around the standpipe piezometer tip shall conform to the supplier’s specification. soil or rock.600-TU-ETG-001 66 4. shall be installed. Immediately upon completion of a piezometer installation. The supplier’s installation procedures shall generally be followed. membrane. There will be two types of monuments depending on the type of foundation. Boreholes for standpipe piezometer installations shall be drilled using rotary and diamond drilling methods. which shall be embedded in concrete.6 Piezometers Electric piezometers shall consist of stainless steel housing.3. the Contractor shall install a replacement piezometer. Two piezometer tips shall be installed within the same monitoring interval in each hole. vibrating wire type sensor and single reinforced connecting cable without splicing.3. . corrosion resistance porous filter. a protective casing. Piezometers and readout units shall be supplied by the following or equivalent: Glotzl GmbH Sick Maihak RocTest Telemac Geokon 4. Contractor shall provide a graduated tape with a suitable weight attached in order to measure the depth.

4. 4. 12.11 Measuring Range Measuring range of the instrument shall be as follows: Remote-readout electric piezometers 0 to 500 kPa. electrical sensor. Connections shall be waterproofed.3.10 Materials Multi-conductors used for connection of piezometers and extensometers shall be according to the supplier’s specification for permanent installations.12 Accuracy and Resolution Accuracy of the instrument shall be as follows: Remote-readout electric piezometer 5 kPa Borehole extensometer 0.3. Displacement will be measured in only one direction but the instrument must allow movement of at least 25 % of the total range in the direction not measured without damage to it. 4.05 % .600-TU-ETG-001 67 The establishment and positioning of the monuments and fixed points shall be as directed by Gener.9 Ground Water Monitoring Ground water monitoring and reporting shall be performed as requested by Gener. 4.3. 15 med mer 4.3. depending on location Borehole extensometer + 200 mm without resetting Joint meter 6. Grout materials used for instrumentation purposes shall be approved by Gener. 0 to 1 MPa and 0 to 2 MPa. Instruments may be established for monitoring movements of the monuments.1 mm Joint meter 0. watertight shielded cables and digital readout equipment. Joint deformation meters shall be obtained from approved suppliers.3.8 Joint Deformation Meters Joint deformation meter shall consist of anchoring assembly.

PAVEMENT IN WATER TUNNELS Specifications. which shall be done early enough to avoid contraction cracks. Surface finish should be T2 (N° 600-CI-ETG-018). All water tunnel floors shall be cleaned to top of rock and levelled with tunnel spoil properly compacted. Contraction joints shall be placed for every 6 m distance transverse to the tunnel axis. 6. . Concrete shall be Class H-30 (NCh170 Of85) with reinforcement mesh min. Where specified the tunnels shall be paved with concrete of minimum 150 mm as shown in the Drawings. Pavement in the access tunnel.600-TU-ETG-001 68 Resolution of the instrument shall be as follows: Remote-readout electric piezometer 2. Finishing of the surface shall be minimum Class UB (N° 600-CI-ETG-018). The joints may be sawed.02 mm Joint meter 0. All soft material shall be removed and replaced by drainable material. Pavement of the access tunnels shall be according to applicable drawings. including drainage facilities shall be carried out by the Contractor for Engineer’s approval.5 kg/m2 (deformed bars 420 N/mm2). The pavement shall have drain holes with minimum diameter 35 mm at a distance of maximum 3 m.5 kPa Borehole extensometer 0.01 % 5. Final design of the pavement in the access tunnel.