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International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 80 (2003) 253–271

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Review

Finite element analysis of fastening and joining:
A bibliography (1990 – 2002)
Jaroslav Mackerle*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linko¨ping Institute of Technology, S-581 83 Linko¨ping, Sweden
Received 30 January 2003; revised 28 February 2003; accepted 28 February 2003

Abstract
The paper gives a bibliographical review of finite element methods applied for the analysis of fastening and joining from the theoretical as
well as practical points of view. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 726 references to papers and conference proceedings on the
subject that were published between 1990 and 2002. These are classified in the following categories: pin joints; thread connections; bolted
joints, screws, nuts; rivets; fittings; tubular joints; expansion joints; gaskets; and other types of fastening.
q 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Finite element; Bibliography; Fasteners; Joints

1. Introduction
The output of scientific papers in general is fast growing
and professionals are no longer able to be fully up-to-date
with all the relevant information. The increasing specialization in various engineering fields has resulted in the
proliferation of subject-oriented journals and conference
proceedings directed to specialist audiences. The researchers have more channels for communicating the results of
their research at their disposal, but on the other hand finding
the necessary information may be a time-consuming and
uneasy process. Another question is whether researchers/
scientists are willing to spend time looking for information.
It has been pointed out that in engineering, informal
knowledge channels are the most frequently used means
of obtaining information.
In the last almost four decades the finite element method
(FEM) has become the prevalent technique used for
analyzing physical phenomena in the field of structural,
solid, and fluid mechanics as well as for the solution of field
problems.
Fastening and joining are defined as an act of bringing
together, connecting or uniting to becoming one or a unit.
There are many types of fasteners such as bolts and nuts,
adhesive bonds, welds, etc. This paper concentrates mainly
* Tel.: þ46-13-281111; fax: þ46-13-282717.
E-mail address: jarma@ikp.liu.se (J. Mackerle).

on mechanical fasteners. Mechanical fasteners are used in
assemblies for their strength, reusability and appearance.
Readers interested in welding are referred to Refs. [1,2] and
in bonding to Refs. [3,4].
The bibliography is divided into the following parts and
concerns:








Pin joints;
Thread connections;
Bolted joints, screws, nuts;
Rivets;
Fittings;
Tubular joints;
Expansion joints;
Gaskets;
Other types of fastening

The bibliography is organized into two main parts. In the
first, each topic is handled and current trends in modelling
techniques are mentioned, usually as the keywords. The
second part, Appendix A, contains a list of papers published
in the open literature in the period of 1990– 2002 on subjects
listed above. References have been retrieved from the
author’s database, MAKEBASE. Also the INSPEC and
COMPENDEX databases have been checked. Hopefully,
this bibliography will save time for readers looking for
information on finite element analyses of mechanical
fastening and joining. Readers interested in the finite

0308-0161/03/$ - see front matter q 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/S0308-0161(03)00030-9

material. step size. The use of composite materials to strengthen engineering structures has received considerable attention in recent years. complex stress distribution in threads. effect of taper variation. Mackerle / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 80 (2003) 253–271 element literature in general are referred to the author’s Internet Finite Element Books Bibliography (http://www. effect of thermal loading. Mechanical joining is easier and more economical than. heat transfer across bolted joints. bolt-plate interaction and fracture. Some papers listed in Appendix A deal with stress and failure predictions in mechanically fastened joints in composite laminates. geometry. for example. effect of temperature. nonlinear shear stress – strain. Topics and types of connections. The FEM makes it possible to analyse/simulate the more realistic pin connections. bolted joints subjected to high . The stress distribution near the region around the bolt joint where the interaction between the bolt and the loaded hole is taken into account. A review of analytical and numerical methods applied in mechanically fastened joints in fiber reinforced plastics is in Ref. computation of member stiffness. the fatigue life. can be determined by finite element analyses. progressive damage and other factors. fatigue crack growth.and multi-pin joints.html) where approximately 500 book titles are listed and completed with bibliographical data and abstracts. 2D and 3D static and dynamic stress and deformation analysis of bolted joints. buttress threads. failure may occur due to fatigue and vibration induced loosening. fracture mechanics problems.). assembly stress and deflection. dynamic behavior of threaded connections.2. The quality of computed results also depends on the element type used.3. [10]. earthquake resistance [8]. drillstring threaded joints. thermomechanical analysis. Finite element modelling has been extended to study the structural behavior of coldformed steel bolted connections. thermal contact resistance. for example. [9]. 2D and 3D analysis of threaded connections. buildings. thickness effects. These failures can be avoided by proper joint design where the finite element studies can be helpful. fatigue analysis and life estimation. determination of load distribution. large deformations. effect of cracks on load distribution. effect of bolt threads on the joint stiffness. progressive failure analysis. helical effect on threads. 2. fracture mechanics problems. plasticity. When a dynamic load is applied as is the case in many assemblies. [5 – 7]. deformation. stress and failure analysis. threaded fasteners. discretization. solid. Thread connections Threaded components are the most important structural elements influencing significantly the strength and endurance of the whole structural assembly. contact. The studies of bolted connections are rather complicated because the model should be 3D (2D solutions give stiffer and stronger results) and take into account many factors such as material and geometrical nonlinearities. and affect the structural performance as. etc. threaded pipes. stress intensity factor for threaded joints. aircraft industry. thermomechanical analysis. screws. buckling analysis. kinematic description. residual stresses in threaded connections. pressure vessels. threaded pressure vessels. strength analysis. 2D and 3D static and dynamic analysis of single. adhesive bonding but it is necessary to drill holes resulting in large stress concentrations. deformation in screw thread.se/fe/index. axial and bending stress concentration factors. The local contact between the bolt and composite material may induce high stress concentration and break the material. thermomechanical analysis. etc. stress concentration at threaded roots. Applied finite element models can take into account the contact interface. The stresses and slips in the vicinity of contact regions determine the static strength.1. conical threaded connections. Finite element analysis of fastening and joining 2. Pin joints Pin joints represent either 3D double shear or 2D single shear joints that are applied in many engineering structures from the skeletal frameworks to the outer skin of aircraft. closed-form methods. frictional damping and vibration levels. contact pressure and tangential stress distribution can also be studied. fretting and wear. threaded end closures. friction) on the contact area.ikp. Composite materials with bolted joints have also been extensively used in various assemblies in recent years (electronic packaging. automobiles. 2.liu. can be found in Refs. Other author’s bibliographies in connection with the analysis of pressure vessels and piping. etc. constitutive equations. friction. time-dependent behavior of bolted joints. The effect of various parameters (dimension. nuts The FEM can study bolted joints with finite sliding deformable contact where the helical and frictional effects on the load distribution of each thread are included. load distribution between threads. contact problems. geometrically exact threads. A review of the load and stress distributions in the threads of fasteners can be found in Ref. not only a single pinned joint as is possible by using analytical. The advantages of using cold-formed steel are derived from their long-term durability and high yield strength. 2. effects of material nonlinearity. Topics and types of threaded connections. tensile behavior of bolted joints. automotive industry.254 J. Threaded connections are used for their ability to develop a clamping force and for the disassembly possibility that is important for maintenance. effect of interface fits. Bolted joints. Topics included. strength analysis. where FEMs are applied. mechanical properties of bolted connections. slippage.

contact problems. expansion joints in piping systems. combining adhesive with bolts. 2D and 3D mechanical and thermomechanical analysis of fit joining. Expansion joints Topics and types of expansion joints. bending of a screw plate. joint flexibility. bolted brackets. stiffened and unstiffened tubular joints. tubular joints with brackets. centrically loaded bolt joints. relaxation in bolted connection. . residual stresses. anchor bolts. plate-reinforced tubular joints. X-. rectangular bolted flanged connections. fatigue analysis. stress and deflection analysis. cheese-head bolts. ball snap-fits. expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints. bayonet-finger snap-fits. axisymmetric bolt joints. Mackerle / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 80 (2003) 253–271 eccentric loads. 2.e. residual stresses. isolated and extended bolted end-plate connections. fracture mechanics problems. damage. semi-rigid bolted end-plate connections. multiple-bolted joints. grouted tubular joints. environmental factors. force-displacement characteristics. creep at the interface. Due to high stress concentrations. square-to-square tubular joints. The combination of high stress concentration with dynamic loads makes fatigue damage almost unavoidable. stress concentration factors. U-bolts. riveted airframes. hot spot stresses. rockbolts. load distribution studies. offshore structures. strength and failure analysis. residual stresses. effect of interference and clamping on fretting. end-plate connections.7.13]. L-. cold formed bolts. interference fits. stress intensity factor. fitted cylindrical liners. prestressed screw joints. ultimate limit load calculation. NDT detection of cracks. riveted joint design. residual stresses. bolted connections in composites. DT-. swaged bolts. bonded/bolted joints. countersunk bolts. strength evaluation. laminates connected by rivets. strength analysis. Tubular members are jointed together at their intersections in a variety of geometrical forms. 255 elbow and tee fittings. contact problems. thermally loaded fits. fatigue evaluation. The elastoplastic finite element analyses can estimate the static and fatigue strengths of tubular joints. Rivets Topics of this section. leakage of bolted flanged joints.5. stress intensity factor. cantilever snapfits. effect of imperfection on the strength.and U-shaped snap-fits. shrink-fits. L. load distribution in bolt-nut connector. Parametric finite element studies can generate a database of stress concentrations and degree of bending for various geometries of tubular joints. end fittings. fatigue analysis. bolted connections in wood. stress intensity factor. stud bolt fastening. tubular stub-columns. deformation and fracture of nuts. These joints represent structural discontinuities that give rise to stress concentrations. plastic deformation can occur at the intersection before the ultimate failure of the joint. 2D and 3D static and dynamic analysis of expansion joints. tubular lap joints. 2D and 3D linear and nonlinear stress and deflection analysis. XX-. pretension in bolted connections. bellows-type expansion joints. In computations various conditions such as combined modes of loading. shrinkage and temperature effects. lifetime prediction. hollow type bolted joints. bolted joints with various clamping configurations. ultimate strength analysis. composite-to-metal tubular joints. size effects. clearance-fit joining. ballscrew joints. circular flange joints. semi-rigid bolted beam connections. 2. riveted single lap joints. nut-bolt connections. joint failure. expansion joints for seismic protection. multiaxial fatigue. damage. modular expansion joints. DX. fatigue life prediction. separation problems of bolted connection. bolted beam to column joints. materials. influence of loading on the joint performance.6. stress intensity factors. fracture mechanics problems. Tubular joints Some structures. Y-. [12. tightening process of bolted joints. fracture mechanics problems. prying and shear in end-plate connection. XT and YTtubular joints. energy absorption. creep. i. cracked tubular joints. K-. static and dynamic studies. flanged connections for high temperature applications. axial loads due to screw fastening. overlapped tubular joints. 2D and 3D static and dynamic riveted joint modelling and analysis. bolt-nut-washer-compressed sheet joints. adhesively bonded joints with rivets. fretting problems.J. multiple-row bolted connection. 2. T-. pipe fittings. load distribution in screws. crimped end fittings. plumbing fittings. press fits. Fittings Topics and type of fittings. fracture mechanics problems. consist of a large number of tubular members connected to one another by special joints. can be included to get a more realistic stress behavior of an entire tubular joint. environmental effects. bolted joints at cryogenic temperature. prestressed bolted connections.4. railroad bolts. fracture mechanics problems. bolted flanged connections. multiplanar tubular joints. etc. 2. progressive damage modelling. square-to-round tubular joints. cable bolt support system. self-threading bolts. fatigue. single lap screw connection. KK-. thermoelastic contact problems. Topics and types of tubular joints. crack nucleation. A review of fracture mechanics models for tubular joints is in Ref. determination of bolt forces. skin-rivet contact prediction. constraining effect of bolted joints. mixed-mode fracture. [11] and various methods for determining stress intensity factors for these joints are discussed in Refs. ST-. bolted joints with tensioner.

an addendum: a bibliography (1996– 2002). 6.14(5):483– 97. [12] Haswell JV. J Mech Behav Mater 1989. 3-D responses of vertical pipe bottom pin-joined to a horizontal pipe to ship motion and thrust on pipe. Finite element analysis and simulation of welding: a bibliography (1976–1996). multiple fasteners. 2:265–71. Matthews FL. [11] Haswell J. editors. Stress and failure analysis of mechanically fastened joints in composite laminates. Compos Struct 2000. Effects of eyebar shape and pin-hole tolerance on its ultimate strength. structural fasteners for bracing connectors. soldering and brazing: a bibliography (1976–1996). Swansea. 1991. fastening elements in concrete. creep relaxation. cold-worked fastener holes.10(6):637– 71. Mackerle / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 80 (2003) 253–271 2. Hopkins P. contact problems. creep relaxation. stress analysis and sealing performance of gaskets in bolted flanged connections. Dano ML. 5. theory and applications. . Chen WH. Chung JS.5(2):159–85. [3] Mackerle J. et al.38(50):9133–48.15(3):419–37.26(2/3):153–69. 3-D response of vertical pipe bottom pin-joined to a horizontal pipe to ship motion and thrust on pipe. Finite element analysis and simulation of adhesive bonding. track fastening. but the interested reader is expected to consider also areas adjacent to his/her central area of research interest. PhD Thesis. layered gaskets. Di Scalea FL. 6. failure strength prediction. 10th Int Offshore Polar Engng Conf Seattle 2000. References have been retrieved from the author’s database. claw and gasketed closures. local bifurcation problems. [7] Mackerle J. soldering and brazing. a bibliography (1998–2001). 2:1– 7. Finite element analysis and simulation of adhesive bonding. if a specific paper is relevant to several subject categories. Composites A 1997. mechanically fastened joints in composites. spiral wound gaskets. In: Marshall IH. cracking near fastener holes. Part I. sheet gaskets. Exp Technol 1998. Cheng B. Modell Simul Mater Sci Engng 2002. Review of fracture mechanics models of tubular joints. Acknowledgements The bibliography presented in Appendix A is by no means complete but it gives a comprehensive representation of different finite element techniques applied to the analysis of fastening and joining. et al. UK. et al. 7. 9th Int Offshore Polar Engng Conf ISOPE 1999. Other types of fastening Topics of this section. Abd-El-Naby SFM. contact problems. Finite elements in the analysis of pressure vessels and piping: an addendum. mechanically fastened lap joints. Finite elements in the analysis of pressure vessels and piping: an addendum (1996–1998). MAKEBASE. Int J Pressure Vessels Piping 1999. [2] Mackerle J. [1] Mackerle J. et al. 1. J Therm Stress 1992. 1991 [13] Bowness D. 1996 2. A bibliography (1990 –2002) This bibliography provides a list of literature references on finite element analyses of fastening and joining. p. 4. Petterson EA. Stress analysis and strength prediction of mechanically fastened joints in FRP: a review. Effect of temperature on the contact stresses and residual bearing strength of pin-loaded composite laminates. Finite elements in the analysis of pressure vessels and piping: a bibliography (1976– 1996). fatigue life prediction. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 1991. University of Wales.76(7):461– 85. Chung JS. conference proceedings. The author wishes to apologize for the unintentional exclusions of missing references and would appreciate receiving comments and pointers to other relevant literature for a future update. effects of fastener hole defects. PhD Thesis. Int J Pressure Vessels Piping 2002. and sorted alphabetically according to the first author’s name. linear and nonlinear analysis in and around fasteners in general. 2D and 3D. Entries are grouped into the same sections described in the first part of this paper. Finite element analysis and simulation of welding—an addendum: a bibliography (1996–2001). smart structural fasteners.22(5):25–7. cylinder block gaskets. Modell Simul Mater Sci Engng 1976. fracture mechanics problems. Load distribution in two-pinned polymer composite joints. Strain in isotropic pin-joints: experimental and numerical analysis. [5] Mackerle J.9. [9] Camanho PP. stress intensity factor. taper-seal gaskets. The listing presented contains papers published in scientific journals. Int J Pressure Vessels Piping 1976. support testing. load distribution.256 J. Modell Simul Mater Sci Engng 1996. In some cases. 553– 74. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Int J Solids Struct 2001. Part II. MSE and FEM modeling. determination of stress levels during thermal transients. residual stresses. Solutions for contact in pinned connections. 3. progressive damage modelling. and theses/dissertations retrospectively to 1990.69:279–339. 4(5):501–33. fastening in automotive engineering. Gaskets References Topics and type of gaskets. 2. 28(6):529–47. The distribution of load and stress in the threads of fasteners: a review. [6] Mackerle J. Lee YJ.50(3):287 –96.79(1):1 –26. vol. [10] Kenny B. Further Reading Pin joints Appendix A.2(1/2): 87– 105. Modell Simul Mater Sci Engng 1997. Composite Struct. Fracture mechanics based assessment of fatigue cracks in offshore tubular structures. the same reference can be listed under the respective section headings. J Constr Steel Res 1993.8. Comparison of MSE and FEM results. plug. A fracture mechanics methodology for the assessment of fatigue cracks in tubular joints. [8] Iyer K. [4] Mackerle J. Choo YS.10(3):295–318. Teeside Polytechnic..

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