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International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 80 (2003) 253271

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Review

Finite element analysis of fastening and joining:


A bibliography (1990 2002)
Jaroslav Mackerle*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoping Institute of Technology, S-581 83 Linkoping, Sweden
Received 30 January 2003; revised 28 February 2003; accepted 28 February 2003

Abstract
The paper gives a bibliographical review of finite element methods applied for the analysis of fastening and joining from the theoretical as
well as practical points of view. The bibliography at the end of the paper contains 726 references to papers and conference proceedings on the
subject that were published between 1990 and 2002. These are classified in the following categories: pin joints; thread connections; bolted
joints, screws, nuts; rivets; fittings; tubular joints; expansion joints; gaskets; and other types of fastening.
q 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Finite element; Bibliography; Fasteners; Joints

1. Introduction
The output of scientific papers in general is fast growing
and professionals are no longer able to be fully up-to-date
with all the relevant information. The increasing specialization in various engineering fields has resulted in the
proliferation of subject-oriented journals and conference
proceedings directed to specialist audiences. The researchers have more channels for communicating the results of
their research at their disposal, but on the other hand finding
the necessary information may be a time-consuming and
uneasy process. Another question is whether researchers/
scientists are willing to spend time looking for information.
It has been pointed out that in engineering, informal
knowledge channels are the most frequently used means
of obtaining information.
In the last almost four decades the finite element method
(FEM) has become the prevalent technique used for
analyzing physical phenomena in the field of structural,
solid, and fluid mechanics as well as for the solution of field
problems.
Fastening and joining are defined as an act of bringing
together, connecting or uniting to becoming one or a unit.
There are many types of fasteners such as bolts and nuts,
adhesive bonds, welds, etc. This paper concentrates mainly
* Tel.: 46-13-281111; fax: 46-13-282717.
E-mail address: jarma@ikp.liu.se (J. Mackerle).

on mechanical fasteners. Mechanical fasteners are used in


assemblies for their strength, reusability and appearance.
Readers interested in welding are referred to Refs. [1,2] and
in bonding to Refs. [3,4].
The bibliography is divided into the following parts and
concerns:

Pin joints;
Thread connections;
Bolted joints, screws, nuts;
Rivets;
Fittings;
Tubular joints;
Expansion joints;
Gaskets;
Other types of fastening

The bibliography is organized into two main parts. In the


first, each topic is handled and current trends in modelling
techniques are mentioned, usually as the keywords. The
second part, Appendix A, contains a list of papers published
in the open literature in the period of 1990 2002 on subjects
listed above. References have been retrieved from the
authors database, MAKEBASE. Also the INSPEC and
COMPENDEX databases have been checked. Hopefully,
this bibliography will save time for readers looking for
information on finite element analyses of mechanical
fastening and joining. Readers interested in the finite

0308-0161/03/$ - see front matter q 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/S0308-0161(03)00030-9

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J. Mackerle / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 80 (2003) 253271

element literature in general are referred to the authors


Internet Finite Element Books Bibliography (http://www.
solid.ikp.liu.se/fe/index.html) where approximately 500
book titles are listed and completed with bibliographical
data and abstracts. Other authors bibliographies in
connection with the analysis of pressure vessels and piping,
where FEMs are applied, can be found in Refs. [5 7].

2. Finite element analysis of fastening and joining


2.1. Pin joints
Pin joints represent either 3D double shear or 2D single
shear joints that are applied in many engineering structures
from the skeletal frameworks to the outer skin of aircraft,
automobiles, buildings, pressure vessels, etc. The stresses
and slips in the vicinity of contact regions determine the
static strength, plasticity, frictional damping and vibration
levels, and affect the structural performance as, for example,
the fatigue life, earthquake resistance [8]. The FEM makes it
possible to analyse/simulate the more realistic pin connections, not only a single pinned joint as is possible by using
analytical, closed-form methods. The effect of various
parameters (dimension, geometry, material, friction) on the
contact area, contact pressure and tangential stress distribution can also be studied.
The use of composite materials to strengthen engineering
structures has received considerable attention in recent
years. Mechanical joining is easier and more economical
than, for example, adhesive bonding but it is necessary to
drill holes resulting in large stress concentrations. Some
papers listed in Appendix A deal with stress and failure
predictions in mechanically fastened joints in composite
laminates. Applied finite element models can take into
account the contact interface, large deformations, nonlinear
shear stress strain, progressive damage and other factors. A
review of analytical and numerical methods applied in
mechanically fastened joints in fiber reinforced plastics is in
Ref. [9].
Topics included. 2D and 3D static and dynamic analysis
of single- and multi-pin joints; deformation, stress and
failure analysis; thermomechanical analysis; buckling
analysis; strength analysis; determination of load distribution; effects of material nonlinearity; effect of temperature; effect of interface fits; thickness effects; contact
problems; fretting and wear; fracture mechanics problems;
progressive failure analysis; fatigue crack growth.
2.2. Thread connections
Threaded components are the most important structural
elements influencing significantly the strength and endurance of the whole structural assembly. Threaded connections are used for their ability to develop a clamping force
and for the disassembly possibility that is important for

maintenance. When a dynamic load is applied as is the case


in many assemblies, failure may occur due to fatigue and
vibration induced loosening. These failures can be avoided
by proper joint design where the finite element studies can
be helpful. A review of the load and stress distributions in
the threads of fasteners can be found in Ref. [10].
Topics and types of threaded connections. 2D and 3D
analysis of threaded connections; dynamic behavior of
threaded connections; thermomechanical analysis; stress
concentration at threaded roots; complex stress distribution
in threads; load distribution between threads; axial and
bending stress concentration factors; fracture mechanics
problems; strength analysis; fatigue analysis and life
estimation; stress intensity factor for threaded joints;
residual stresses in threaded connections; effect of cracks
on load distribution; effect of taper variation; helical effect
on threads; threaded fasteners; geometrically exact threads;
conical threaded connections; buttress threads; drillstring
threaded joints; threaded end closures; threaded pressure
vessels; threaded pipes.
2.3. Bolted joints, screws, nuts
The FEM can study bolted joints with finite sliding
deformable contact where the helical and frictional effects
on the load distribution of each thread are included. The
studies of bolted connections are rather complicated
because the model should be 3D (2D solutions give stiffer
and stronger results) and take into account many factors
such as material and geometrical nonlinearities, contact,
friction, slippage, bolt-plate interaction and fracture. The
quality of computed results also depends on the element
type used, discretization, constitutive equations, step size,
kinematic description, etc. Finite element modelling has
been extended to study the structural behavior of coldformed steel bolted connections. The advantages of using
cold-formed steel are derived from their long-term durability and high yield strength.
Composite materials with bolted joints have also been
extensively used in various assemblies in recent years
(electronic packaging, aircraft industry, automotive industry, etc.). The local contact between the bolt and composite
material may induce high stress concentration and break the
material. The stress distribution near the region around
the bolt joint where the interaction between the bolt and the
loaded hole is taken into account, can be determined by
finite element analyses.
Topics and types of connections. 2D and 3D static and
dynamic stress and deformation analysis of bolted joints;
thermomechanical analysis; heat transfer across bolted
joints; effect of thermal loading; thermal contact resistance;
assembly stress and deflection; deformation in screw thread;
mechanical properties of bolted connections; time-dependent behavior of bolted joints; effect of bolt threads on the
joint stiffness; computation of member stiffness; tensile
behavior of bolted joints; bolted joints subjected to high

J. Mackerle / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 80 (2003) 253271

eccentric loads; load distribution studies; load distribution


in bolt-nut connector; centrically loaded bolt joints; load
distribution in screws; determination of bolt forces;
environmental effects; fracture mechanics problems; ultimate limit load calculation; strength analysis; stress
intensity factor; mixed-mode fracture; contact problems;
thermoelastic contact problems; constraining effect of
bolted joints; fatigue analysis; damage; progressive damage
modelling; lifetime prediction; deformation and fracture of
nuts; separation problems of bolted connection; bending of a
screw plate; prying and shear in end-plate connection; axial
loads due to screw fastening; relaxation in bolted connection; tightening process of bolted joints; bolted joints with
various clamping configurations; bolted joints with tensioner; prestressed bolted connections; prestressed screw
joints; pretension in bolted connections; leakage of bolted
flanged joints; nut-bolt connections; axisymmetric bolt
joints; end-plate connections; isolated and extended bolted
end-plate connections; semi-rigid bolted end-plate connections; semi-rigid bolted beam connections; bolted flanged
connections; rectangular bolted flanged connections;
flanged connections for high temperature applications;
bolted joints at cryogenic temperature; bolted beam to
column joints; cold formed bolts; cheese-head bolts;
countersunk bolts; U-bolts; self-threading bolts; rockbolts;
bolted brackets; swaged bolts; railroad bolts; anchor bolts;
cable bolt support system; bolt-nut-washer-compressed
sheet joints; hollow type bolted joints; stud bolt fastening;
multiple-row bolted connection; multiple-bolted joints;
bonded/bolted joints; single lap screw connection; ballscrew joints; bolted connections in wood; bolted connections in composites; combining adhesive with bolts.
2.4. Rivets
Topics of this section. 2D and 3D static and dynamic
riveted joint modelling and analysis; fracture mechanics
problems; joint failure; strength evaluation; fatigue life
prediction; stress intensity factor; crack nucleation; fretting
problems; energy absorption; skin-rivet contact prediction;
effect of interference and clamping on fretting; residual
stresses; riveted joint design; laminates connected by rivets;
riveted single lap joints; adhesively bonded joints with
rivets; riveted airframes.
2.5. Fittings
Topics and type of fittings. 2D and 3D mechanical and
thermomechanical analysis of fit joining; stress and deflection analysis; thermally loaded fits; fracture mechanics
problems; contact problems; creep at the interface; stress
intensity factor; fatigue evaluation; residual stresses; press
fits; clearance-fit joining; interference fits; shrink-fits; end
fittings; crimped end fittings; ball snap-fits; cantilever snapfits; L- and U-shaped snap-fits; bayonet-finger snap-fits;

255

elbow and tee fittings; pipe fittings; plumbing fittings; fitted


cylindrical liners.
2.6. Tubular joints
Some structures, i.e. offshore structures, consist of a large
number of tubular members connected to one another by
special joints. Tubular members are jointed together at their
intersections in a variety of geometrical forms. These joints
represent structural discontinuities that give rise to stress
concentrations. Parametric finite element studies can
generate a database of stress concentrations and degree of
bending for various geometries of tubular joints.
The combination of high stress concentration with
dynamic loads makes fatigue damage almost unavoidable.
Due to high stress concentrations, plastic deformation can
occur at the intersection before the ultimate failure of the
joint. The elastoplastic finite element analyses can estimate
the static and fatigue strengths of tubular joints. In
computations various conditions such as combined modes
of loading, size effects, materials, environmental factors,
etc. can be included to get a more realistic stress behavior of
an entire tubular joint. A review of fracture mechanics
models for tubular joints is in Ref. [11] and various methods
for determining stress intensity factors for these joints are
discussed in Refs. [12,13].
Topics and types of tubular joints. 2D and 3D linear and
nonlinear stress and deflection analysis; static and dynamic
studies; stress concentration factors; force-displacement
characteristics; joint flexibility; hot spot stresses; influence
of loading on the joint performance; fracture mechanics
problems; strength and failure analysis; ultimate strength
analysis; stress intensity factors; cracked tubular joints;
damage; fatigue; multiaxial fatigue; residual stresses; NDT
detection of cracks; effect of imperfection on the strength;
stiffened and unstiffened tubular joints; multiplanar tubular
joints; square-to-round tubular joints; square-to-square
tubular joints; tubular joints with brackets; tubular lap
joints; overlapped tubular joints; plate-reinforced tubular
joints; circular flange joints; grouted tubular joints;
composite-to-metal tubular joints; tubular stub-columns;
K-, L-, T-, X-, Y-, ST-, KK-, DT-, DX, XX-, XT and YTtubular joints.
2.7. Expansion joints
Topics and types of expansion joints. 2D and 3D static
and dynamic analysis of expansion joints; creep, shrinkage
and temperature effects; fracture mechanics problems;
residual stresses; fatigue analysis; expanded tube-to-tubesheet joints; modular expansion joints; bellows-type expansion joints; expansion joints for seismic protection;
expansion joints in piping systems.

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J. Mackerle / International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 80 (2003) 253271

2.8. Gaskets

References

Topics and type of gaskets. stress analysis and sealing


performance of gaskets in bolted flanged connections;
contact problems; creep relaxation; determination of stress
levels during thermal transients; local bifurcation problems;
support testing; sheet gaskets; spiral wound gaskets; layered
gaskets; cylinder block gaskets; taper-seal gaskets; plug,
claw and gasketed closures.

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[8] Iyer K. Solutions for contact in pinned connections. Int J Solids Struct
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[9] Camanho PP, Matthews FL. Stress analysis and strength prediction of
mechanically fastened joints in FRP: a review. Composites A 1997;
28(6):52947.
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threads of fasteners: a review. J Mech Behav Mater 1989;2(1/2):
87 105.
[11] Haswell J, Hopkins P. Review of fracture mechanics models of tubular
joints. Fatigue Fract Engng Mater Struct 1991;14(5):483 97.
[12] Haswell JV. A fracture mechanics methodology for the assessment of
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offshore tubular structures. PhD Thesis. University of Wales,
Swansea; 1996

2.9. Other types of fastening


Topics of this section. 2D and 3D, linear and nonlinear
analysis in and around fasteners in general; load distribution; creep relaxation; residual stresses; contact problems;
fracture mechanics problems; failure strength prediction;
progressive damage modelling; cracking near fastener
holes; effects of fastener hole defects; cold-worked fastener
holes; fatigue life prediction; stress intensity factor;
structural fasteners for bracing connectors; multiple fasteners; mechanically fastened joints in composites; fastening
elements in concrete; mechanically fastened lap joints; track
fastening; fastening in automotive engineering; smart
structural fasteners.

Acknowledgements
The bibliography presented in Appendix A is by no
means complete but it gives a comprehensive representation
of different finite element techniques applied to the analysis
of fastening and joining. The author wishes to apologize for
the unintentional exclusions of missing references and
would appreciate receiving comments and pointers to other
relevant literature for a future update.

Further Reading
Pin joints

Appendix A. A bibliography (1990 2002)


This bibliography provides a list of literature references
on finite element analyses of fastening and joining, theory
and applications. The listing presented contains papers
published in scientific journals, conference proceedings, and
theses/dissertations retrospectively to 1990. References
have been retrieved from the authors database, MAKEBASE. Entries are grouped into the same sections described
in the first part of this paper, and sorted alphabetically
according to the first authors name. In some cases, if a
specific paper is relevant to several subject categories, the
same reference can be listed under the respective section
headings, but the interested reader is expected to consider
also areas adjacent to his/her central area of research
interest.

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3. Choo YS, et al. Effects of eyebar shape and pin-hole tolerance on its
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257

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Thread connections
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