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I.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
Muscles are eksitabel network and sensitive excitatory networks, which
may be induced chemically, electrical, and mechanical to cause an action
potential. There are three types of muscle, the skeletal muscle, smooth muscle,
and cardiac muscle. Forty percent of human body weight is composed of skeletal
muscle and 10% is composed of smooth muscle of the heart muscle. Smooth
muscle found in the walls of the gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, uterus and
blood vessels, while the heart muscle is at the heart. Skeletal muscle cells consist
of cells that have striae, slinders shaped, and has a lot of core (multinukleus) and
is under the control of consciousness. The cells are parallel to each other, and
attached to the bone through a network of collagen that forms the tendon
(Wulangi, 1993).
Cardiac muscle cells have STERIA has many core, cylindrical and
branches as well as the contract not under the influence of consciousness. Smooth
muscle cells do not have STERIA, has only one core and also not under the
influence of consciousness. Three types of muscle contraction mechanism is
almost the same. The heart is an organ that is pulsed with a certain rhythm
(rhythmic contractions). The main function of the heart is to pump blood towards
the systemic and pulmonary circulation. The heart is located in the mediastinum in
the chest cavity, which is between the two lungs. Lining surrounding the heart
(pericardium) consists of two parts: the inner layer, or visceral pericardium and
the outer layer or parietal pericardium. The second layer of the pericardium are
separated by a little lubricant serves to reduce friction in the pumping motion of
the heart itself. The front part of the pericardium is attached to the breastbone
(sternum) attached to the lower part of the spine, while the bottom diaphragm.
Visceral pericardium have any direct contact with the surface of the heart
(Wulangi, 1993).

1995).2 Purpose The purpose this practicum is to determine the effect of electrical stimulation of the muscle contraction gastroknemous magnitude of response and the effects of chemical stimulation of the heart muscle contraction frog.Muscles can contract both isometric. . These fibers appear larger. isotonic. Long contraction adapted to the function of each muscle. Gastroknemous have fast muscle fibers adapted for muscle contraction is very fast and powerful as running and jumping. or a combination of both. Gastroknemous muscles must contract with sufficient speed to the movement of the legs for running or jumping. Sarcoplasmic reticulum wider so quickly can release calcium ions to initiate muscle contraction (Guyton. 1. Isometric contraction of the muscles has long contraction gastronekmous approximately 1/30 sec.