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Confrontative Surface Values

BAHALA NA rests on a belief that one can leave matters as they are by
following the line of least resistance, as the supernatural spirits will take care of him
or her (Panopio and Rolda, 2007). By etymology, it literally means leave it up to GOD
or more popularly and locally known as BATHALA. It was directly linked to the culture
of adaptation of the Filipinos when they faced stressful points or crisis of their life.
BAHALA NA was viewed as a manifestation of the fatalistic outlook of the
Filipino – the “let come what may” attitude/perspective). In fact it was defined and
interpreted by Thomas Andres on his book Dictionary of Filipino Culture and Values
as “the Filipino attitude that makes him accept sufferings, and problems leaving
everything to GOD.
Another point of view emerge from Filipino Psychologists. They point out that
bahala na is not fatalism. Instead it is viewed as determination or risk-taking. It is
viewed that Filipinos are determined and that stating “bahala na” is a form of
readiness on whatever would be the possible outcome on the near or far future.
It was even symbolized as a pump or push to self to be courageous on facing
such challenging task.

When a person is able to adjust to certain factors affecting his decision like beliefs. According to Virgilio Enriquez (1989). ideologies. The concept of PAKIKIBAKA is closely associated with pakikisama.Confrontative Surface Values: (PAKIKIBAKA) Rationale: PAKIKIBAKA or resistance – this value refers to the ability of a person to battle complexities and hardships such as death. convictions for the sake of social orientation is a proof of its harmonious relationship. principles. For him. pakikisama and pakikibaka are two harmonious values. PAKIKIBAKA san be simply defined as cooperative resistance and a level of fusion in a common struggle in the face of injustice and exploitation. morals. .

This states of mood ranged from kusang-loob. masamang-lob. pagbabalik-loob at marami pang iba. Lakas ng loob is also considered one of the state of loob of a Filipino. Literally. it is meant to depict the inner energy of the person. Lakas ng Loob is viewed by Filipino Psychologists as the strength and courage the Filipino depicts in times of challenges. This is seen as a positive attribute by most of the Filipino. This inner energy is said to exist in order to drive the person to strive and to thrive despite of hardship that is present to his or her life. courage to hurdle difficulties and courage to conquer trials and difficulties. Courage to face everything.Confrontative Surface Values: (LAKAS NG LOOB) Rationale: Translated as Resentment or guts. LAKAS ng LOOB is referred as an attitude of a Filipino to be courageous in the middle of crises and uncertainties. .

or performing a socially unacceptable action. Hiya can create a multiple forms. Salazar (1981) identified two aspects of HIYA. Armado Bonifacio (1976) expounded further on his study that napahiya could be different from nakakahiya or ikininahihiya. Thus. The first English translation is shame and the other translation is “sense of propriety” which is considered the most acceptable and appropriate for Filipino Psychologist. But on the perspective of Philippine language.Accommodative Surface Values: (HIYA) Rationale: HIYA has been interpreted differently by different psychologist. it was suggested that proper understanding of affixation is vital in the analysis of Filipino language especially if we are dealing with the word HIYA. In general. . On the other hand. External is viewed to be interpersonal – HIYA felt towards other person while Internal is viewed to be intrapersonal or being – HIYA felt inside by the person. The first aspect is external and second is internal. there were two emerging English translation for HIYA. HIYA was seen by LYNCH (1961) as uncomfortable feeling that accompanies awareness of being in a socially unacceptable position.

Further. the opportunity to show utang na loob is not absolutely obligatory in the immediate future. The process sometimes is difficult to understand as the time and quantification to repay the gratitude is not fully defined. demands a return. “Ang hindi lumingon sa pinangalingan ay hindi makakrating sa paroroonan. It was translated by KAUT (1961) as “debt of gratitude”. Reciprocity is viewed as principle where every service received. . It could be on your generation or next generation. this value is very popular to Filipinos. According to Enriquez (1977). It is embedded on the a saying which states. failure to repay or to show the gratitude may cause the development of HIYA.Accommodative Surface Values: (UTANG NA LOOB) Rationale: UTANG NA LOOB was interpreted by a kind of reciprocity. Although not fully defined. whether solicited or not. The form of gratitude is paid by the person who wanted to show his/her gratitude for whatever service or product he/she received from the sender.

it is defined as a folk concept of good human relations and it implies giving in or yielding to the wish of majority even if it contradicts one’s own ideas. It is translated by Lynch (1961) as maintenance of smooth interpersonal relations by going along with the group or the majority decision – companionship/esteem. It can be observed on different people on different walks of life. wherein we were still young children. PAKIKISAMA is one of the most important and highly valued qualities.Accommodative Surface Values: (PAKIKISASAMA) Rationale: PAKIKISAMA is a Filipino attitude guided by being able to get along well with others or the ability to conform with the majority. . We were introduced on rules such as not to fight with each other share whatever we have and develop social skills needed for possible future relationships with the so-called KAPWA or others. On a book entitled Culture and Society. On a study by Randolf David (1977). It implies getting along with others even they are not interested or enticed with the idea being served by the group. PAKIKISAMA can be traced way back on our home.