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Global Fishery Production

UGEC2210 Food and Hunger
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CONTENT

1. Importance of fisheries
2. Global fishery production
– Aquaculture production
– Capture fisheries production

3. Status of capture fishery resources
4. Fishing methods
5. How to stop overfishing and illegal fishing?

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Importance of Fisheries
• People depend upon fisheries for food, income & livelihood.
• Importance on employment

– 58.3 million people (4.4% of 1.3 billion) in 2012
– 84% of them in Asia
Historically, employment in the fisheries has grown faster than the world’s
population and than employment in the traditional agriculture sector

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Importance of Fisheries: Employment 4 .

about 200 countries export fishery • products Fishery trade has expanded considerably – 25% in 1976 to 37% in 2012 • Since 2002.Importance of Fisheries: Food Trade • The most traded food commodities • In 2012. China has been the largest exporters 5 .

Importance of Fisheries: Food Trade • Developing countries increased their trade share from 34% of world trade • • in 1982 to 54% in 2012. Developed countries continue to dominate world imports of fish and fishery products. For many developing countries. fisher trade represents a significant source of foreign currency earning. 6 .

Importance of Fisheries: Food Security
• Fishery products play a critical role in nutritional needs of people.
• Rich in micronutrients, minerals, essential fatty acids and proteins
– A portion of 150 g of fish can provide about 50-60% of an adult’s daily
protein requirements.

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Importance of Fisheries: Food Security

• 2.9 billion people receive more than 20% of animal protein from fisheries.
• Protein availability has risen overall, but his increase has not been equally
distributed.
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Fishery Item Share of Total Food Budget

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fresh or chilled (46% in 2012) 2. Consumption as food (86% in 2012) – Live.Utilization of Fishery Production 1. Fishery products as non-food uses • Used for animal feeding • Fishing as a source of leisure activities 10 .

Capture fisheries production 2. Aquaculture production or fish farming 11 .Global Fishery Production 1.

6% World per capita fish consumption increased from 9.Global Fishery Production and Utilization • Growth in the last five decades with the average annual rate of 3.2% • – Outpacing world population growth at 1.9 kg in 1960s to 19.2kg in 2012 12 .

Fishery Production by Country 13 .

5 (33.China is the largest producer! • In 2006. respectively.2%) million tonnes from capture fisheries and aquaculture. 14 .8%) million tonnes of reported fishery production including 16.6 (67.9 (17. 47.8%) and 30.

Food Fish Supply by Region • China: 35.1 kg in 2010 15 .

Fishery Food Supply in the World and China .

17 . was raised in ponds. algae and other aquatic organisms • The earliest records of fish farming date back thousands of years to China where carp.What Is Aquaculture Production? Aquaculture production or fish farming The cultivation of fish or shellfish. a freshwater species.

2% in 2012 • Unevenly distributed around the globe both in volume and value terms 18 .9% of total fishery production in 1970 to 42.Aquaculture Production • Aquaculture is the fastest growing sector of the world food economy – increasing by more than 10% per year for most species – by weight. increasing from 3.

Aquaculture Production by Region and Country 19 .

20 . • However. there are signs that the rate of growth for global aquaculture may have peaked. although high growth rates may continue for some regions and species.Aquaculture Production in Future • Aquaculture continues to grow more rapidly than all other animal food-producing sectors.

Aquaculture waste 3. Aquaculture feeds 2. Diseases and parasites 4. Interactions between wild and farmed fish 21 .Criticisms of Aquaculture Production 1.

Capture Fisheries Production Top Ten Countries in 2006 22 .

Inland .1 11.7 11.8 9.6 93.3 93.3 23 .8 93.5 81.9 77.7 91.3 10.Capture fisheries includes inland and marine capture fisheries .0 89.3 84.1 82.1 2011 2012 11.6 79.5 84.8 92.Marine Total capture 2002 2005 2006 2010 (Million Tonnes) 8.

Inland Capture Fisheries • Continual upward trend • Important in Africa – one-third of total capture fisheries production comes from inland waters 24 .

Marine Capture Fisheries • 11 of them are in Asia • Most of these Asian counties have shown considerable increases in marine catches in the last 10 years. except Japan and Philippines 25 .

Status of Marine Fishery Resources • State of exploitation of the world marine fishery in 2006 – Recovering: 1% – Depleted: 8% – Overexploited: 19% – Fully exploited: 52% – Moderately exploited: 18% – Underexploited: 2% 26 .

9.Trend of the Global Marine Stocks • In the years of 1974 -2011 – 10% .61.8% in overfished – 50% .28.3% in fully fished – 40% .9% in underfished 27 .

Status of Marine Fisheries – a historical perspective .

Marine Capture Fisheries Production Principal marine fisheries areas in 2006 29 .

Marine Capture Fisheries Production 30 .

Living in the Environment: Principles. Connections and Solutions © Brooks / Cole .Nearshore ecosystems are the most productive fishing areas MILLER.

Trend in Mean Depth of Catch Since 1950 Millennium Ecosystem Assessment .

Increased Fish Harvest from High Seas Areas since 1950 • High seas areas lie outside of the Exclusive Economic Zone of any country (>200 miles) .

Rapid Depletion of Fisheries for 9 oceanic (a-i) and 4 continental shelf (j-m) ecosystems Data from Myers and Worm (2003) .

1 2011 2012 11. habitat loss and other environmental degradation • Impacts: ??? 35 .Inland .1 11.3 2005 2006 2010 (Million Tonnes) 9.5 93. illegal fishing.6 93. fishing technique.3 Status of Marine Capture Fisheries • Marine capture fisheries are in a state of decline. • Causes: overfishing.0 89.Marine Total capture 8.3 10.8 92.5 81.3 84.7 91.1 82.8 93.6 79.Marine Capture Fisheries 2002 .7 11.8 84.9 77.

org/docrep/006/x1357e/X1357E03.Some Basic Economic Ideas Single Species Fishery • Moderate fishing gives maximum catch • Too much fishing causes extinction or depletion www.htm 36 .fao.

Shark Overfishing .

~150 years . long-lived.Orange Roughy • Distribution: world wide. high concentrations in New Zealand • Found: 700-1000m depth • Life span: slow-growing.

Some Basic Economic Ideas Multi-Species Fishery • Total catch approximately constant • Valuable species become extinct or depleted first 39 .

大西洋藍鰭吞拿魚數量日少 2010年3月13日 40 .

Fisheries Collapses Atlantic cod Atlantic salmon Pacific sardine Haddock Atlantic halibut Peruvian anchovy Collapse of the Atlantic Cod Fishery Millennium Ecosystem Assessment .

Some Basic Economic Ideas Economics of Multi-Species Fishery • Moderate fishing gives maximum profit • Too much fishing may give zero profit 42 .

• Fishing methods Trawling Angling Kite fishing Explosive fishing Cormorant fishing Poison fishing …… 43 .Fishing Methods and Sustainability of Fishery Production • Fishery production is affected by the critical issue of how to capture fishes.

Fish nets 44 .

Torch Light Net 【焚寄網】 Set Net 【定置網】 45 .

Gill Net 【流刺網】 Binding Net 【巾著網】 46 .

Trawling Net 【拖網】 Purse Seiner 【大型圍網】 47 .

Trawling Bottom trawling Midwater trawling .

Before and After Trawling .

turtles often caught in trawls.Bycatch (or bykill) Problem: • • animals unintentionally killed during harvest of the target species Trawling: Bycatch trawling is very high (125 to 830% of the catch is discarded as bycatch). .

Angling 51 .

Pole and Lines Boots 【一支釣】 Longline Fishing 【延繩釣】 52 .

Squid Jigging 【魷釣】 Spear Fishing 【鏢旗魚】 53 .

Kite Fishing 54 .

Cormorant Fishing 鸕鶿抓魚 55 .

Explosive Fishing (dynamite fishing ) 炸藥捕漁 56 .

Poison Fishing (Cyanide Fishing) 毒物捕漁 57 .

Electrofishing 58 .

Ice fishing 59 .

The Fishless Seas • Because of overfishing. illegal fishing and unsustainable fishing methods. 60 . the total catch of the Philippines has declined by 90% over the last 50 years.

Output controls – Total Allowable Catch (TAC) 61 . Input controls – – – – limiting the number of participants Restricting season length Closing fishing areas as marine protected areas Restricting types and amount of gear 2.How to solve the problem of overfishing? 1.

How to Stop Illegal Fishing • Strengthening governance at national. regional and global levels • Sharing expertise and information • Providing coordination and cooperation • Equipping with new and advanced technologies 62 .

High-tech in Stopping Illegal Fishing 63 .

濫捕致數量大減. 是否全面禁止國際交易? 2010年3月13日 64 .

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It is estimated that the city accounts for 50 per cent to 80 per cent of the global trade.300 tonnes of dried and • frozen shark fins last year. 66 .Should we stop eating shark fins? • Hong Kong imported more than 9.

Reference: FAO (2014).Conclusion • People depend upon fisheries for food. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome 67 . income & livelihood. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: Opportunities and Challenges. • Sustainable fishery production is important.