You are on page 1of 80

Regional Report on Nutrition

Security in ASEAN
Volume 1

Regional Report on Nutrition
Security in ASEAN
Volume 1
This work is a product of ASEAN and UNICEF with support
from EU/UNICEF Maternal and Young Child Nutrition Security
Initiative in Asia (MYCNSIA)

ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community Department
UNICEF EAPRO (East Asia and the Pacific Regional Office)

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) was established on 8 August 1967.
The Member States of the Association are Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR,
Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam.
The ASEAN Secretariat is based in Jakarta, Indonesia.
For inquiries, contact:
The ASEAN Secretariat
Public Outreach and Civil Society Division
70A Jalan Sisingamangaraja
Jakarta 12110
Indonesia
Phone : (62 21) 724-3372, 726-2991
Fax : (62 21) 739-8234, 724-3504
E-mail : public@asean.org
Catalogue-in-Publication Data
Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN – Volume 1
Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat, March 2016
The text of this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, provided proper acknowledgement
is given and a copy containing the reprinted material is sent to the Public Outreach and Civil
Society Division of the ASEAN Secretariat, Jakarta.
General information on ASEAN appears online at the ASEAN Website: www.asean.org
Copyright Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) 2016
All rights reserved
This publication is supported by:

ASEAN or UNICEF does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work.
The boundaries, colours, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work
do not imply any judgment on the part of ASEAN or UNICEF concerning the legal status of any
territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
United Nations Children’s Fund
UNICEF East Asia and Regional Office (EAPRO)
19 Phra Atit Road
Bangkok 10200
Thailand
Website: www.unicef.org/eapro
E-mail: asiapacificinfo@unicef.org

ii

Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN
Volume 1

Data contained herein may. Any queries on rights and licenses. including subsidiary rights. should be addressed to ASEAN or UNICEF EAPRO. and the World Health Organization (WHO). The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union or UNICEF. This work is a product of ASEAN and UNICEF with external contributions from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Cover (from top left. be updated in the companion Volume 2 (2016). © UNICEF Lao PDR/2007/Holmes © UNICEF EAPRO/2014/Foote © UNICEF Indonesia/2015/Sukotjo © Samantoniophotography | Dreamstime. clockwise). Because ASEAN and UNICEF encourage dissemination of its knowledge. This report (Volume 1) was endorsed and launched at the 12th ASEAN Health Ministers Meeting in September 2014. Photo Credits. The e-version of this document was produced with financial assistance of the European Union and UNICEF.Acknowledgement T his work is a product of ASEAN and UNICEF with support from the EU/UNICEF Maternal and Young Child Nutrition Security Initiative in Asia (MYCNSIA). This printed version was produced with the support of funds from the ASEAN Secretariat and the European Union. in whole or in part. The material in this work is subject to copyright. this work may be freely quoted or reprinted. the World Food Programme (WFP).com Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 iii . for non-commercial purposes as long as full attribution to this work is given. in some cases.

addressing food and nutrition security among various strategies. ASEAN is integrating all these actions into a comprehensive action plan with the ultimate goal of improving health outcomes in the region. These efforts were further strengthened by the adoption of the Bandar Seri Begawan Declaration on Noncommunicable Diseases in ASEAN in October 2013. Volume 1. ASEAN is committed to achieving a Healthy ASEAN Community by 2015. Le Luong Minh Secretary-General of ASEAN iv Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . By promoting healthy lifestyles. of which nutrition is one of the critical factors. Regional strategies in Promoting Healthy ASEAN Lifestyles — including those relevant to nutrition — have been incorporated into the national plans and implemented by ASEAN Member States. ASEAN is ensuring the wellbeing of our peoples and the continued prosperity of the ASEAN Community. By achieving food and nutrition security necessary for healthy lifestyles. ASEAN has emphasized the promotion of healthy lifestyles in the region.Message from the Secretary-General of ASEAN S ince 2002. the publication of this evidence-based Joint Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN. will be a useful document for ASEAN officials and policy-makers to track the progress of food and nutrition security at regional and national levels. As ASEAN seeks to further enhance its monitoring and evaluation capabilities. Aligned with the goals of the ASEAN Strategic Framework on Health Development for 2010 to 2015.

active lives. that progress has not been equitable for all countries and also not been uniformly distributed through the different groups within the countries. vitamin and mineral deficiencies. This is the “double burden” of malnutrition. but not all people have benefited from this growth. Although the region has also seen notable improvements in food security and in nutrition. UNICEF EAPRO T he Asia and Pacific region has made considerable economic gains over the past several decades. in collaboration with FAO. as well as incalculable loss of human potential and social and economic development. WFP and WHO. The production of a series of Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) country profiles for each of the countries in the ASEAN Community is aimed to generate awareness on sensitive issues related to the gaps in achieving the best results in food security and nutrition. Those who do not get enough energy or key nutrients cannot sustain healthy. Countries still struggling to feed their people face the costs of preventing obesity and treating diet-related noncommunicable illness. At the same time.Message from the Regional Director. The result is poor physical and mental development. devastating illness and death. has been developed to signal those inequities in food and security and nutrition. Problems of undernutrition. Daniel Toole Regional Director UNICEF East Asia and the Pacific Regional Office (EAPRO) Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 v . hundreds of millions of people suffer from diseases caused by excessive or unbalanced diets and many developing nations are now dealing with severe health issues at both ends of the nutritional spectrum. obesity and diet-related chronic diseases increasingly exist side by side across many countries. A joint activity of the ASEAN Taskforce on Maternal and Child Health and the UNICEF East Asia and the Pacific Regional Office.

.

.......................................... Philippines ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 2...............................................................................viii Introduction .................................................................. 7 3................................................................. 31 7.......................................................................................................................................... Malaysia ........................................................................................................................... Indonesia ................................. iv Message from the Regional Director ............. Viet Nam ....................................................................................................................................... 49 10.... 19 5............................................................................................................ 62 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 vii ............................. 25 6.......................................... ix Food and Nutrition Security Country Profiles 1.......................................................................................................................................................................... Brunei Darussalam ................................................................. 55 References ............................... Lao PDR ..................................... 61 Definitions ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 13 4............................................................................................................................ Cambodia ................. Myanmar . Thailand .............................................................................................CONTENTS Acknowledgement............................................................... Singapore ...... iii Message from the Secretary General of ASEAN .................................................................................................................................................................................. 37 8.................................... v Acronyms and abbreviations ........................................................................................................................................................ 43 9........................................

Sanitation and Hygiene WDI World Development Indicators WFP World Food Programme WHA World Health Assembly WHO World Health Organization viii Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 .Acronyms and abbreviations AHMM ASEAN Health Ministers Meeting ATFMCH ASEAN Task Force on Maternal and Child Health ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations BMI Body mass index BMS Breastmilk substitutes CCT Conditional cash transfers CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women CMAM Community-based management of acute malnutrition DES Dietary energy supply DHS Demographic and Health Survey EPI Expanded programme on immunization FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FNS Food and nutrition security GDP Gross domestic product ICP International Comparison Programme IDD Iodine deficiency disorder IFA Iron and Folic acid ILO International Labour Organization IMCI Integrated management of childhood illness IYCF Infant and young child feeding LBW Low birth weight M&E Monitoring and Evaluation MAM Moderate acute malnutrition MCH Maternal and Child Health MDER Minimum dietary energy requirement MDGs Millennium Development Goals MNP Micronutrient powders MNs Micronutrients MoH Ministry of Health NCD Non-communicable disease PM Prime Minister PPP Purchasing power parity SAM Severe acute malnutrition SOWC State of the World’s Children SUN Scaling Up Nutrition TWG Technical working group UIC Urinary iodine concentration UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund USI Universal salt iodization VAD Vitamin A Deficiency WASH Water.

Immediate causes of undernutrition are an inadequate dietary intake and frequent disease exposure. with an estimated 36% of pregnant women affected by anaemia. Nevertheless. Food and nutrition security is of particular concern to ASEAN countries. Structures and processes which undermine human rights and perpetuate poverty may result in poor nutrition by limiting or denying vulnerable populations access to essential resources. access to. Food and nutrition security exists when all people at all times have physical. Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 ix . and is supported by an environment of adequate sanitation. the latest available data indicate that an average of 31. Similarly. 38% of children under five (21. This can by brought about by underlying factors. social and economic access to food. a stunted child enters adulthood with a greater propensity for developing obesity and chronic diseases. or ASEAN. Also of concern in the region is the 5. chronic undernutrition can lead to poverty.7 million children. inadequate care and feeding practices for children. economic. such as household food insecurity (lack of availability of.4 million children who are wasted. school performance and future earnings. In ASEAN countries. allowing for a healthy and active life. facing greater threats to their survival in their early years when they are most vulnerable. negatively affects linear growth.4 million) suffer from anaemia. These children are more susceptible to illness. several countries are making positive progress in controlling anaemia through various strategies. A child can be affected by both stunting and wasting and recent analysis has shown that wasting. In ASEAN countries. aims to accelerate economic growth and social progress by promoting active collaboration and mutual assistance on matters of common interest. maternal under and over nutrition poses serious health and economic challenges for the region. making it a serious public health issue in the region. unhealthy household and surrounding environments. health services and optimal feeding and care practices. creating a vicious cycle. These children face a nine times greater risk of dying. which can have long-term consequences for cognitive ability.Introduction The Association of Southeast Asian Nations. which is consumed in sufficient quantity and quality to meet their dietary needs and food preferences. as it brings a wide range of benefits for the region’s children and families. Stunting and other forms of undernutrition are associated with sub-optimal brain development. This amounts to a staggering 17. and political factors can also have a long-term influence on maternal and childhood undernutrition. communities and economies. and/or utilization of a diverse diet). Social. Moreover. especially repeated episodes.5% of children under 5 years of age are affected by stunting. At the same time. and a lack of access to adequate health care.

The looming costs of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) can and must be curtailed through the prevention of under.1.2 on the “Development of evidencebased advocacy tools for selected issues.g. up to 2 years of age. processed foods in place of traditional cereals. These include health services strengthening. fortification of foods. fruits and vegetables and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle. an estimated 4. treatment of acute undernutrition and energy and protein supplementation.and over-nutrition. and children under 2 years of age. The Joint Regional Report on Nutrition Security is a two volume publication. micronutrient supplementation. families. social transfers. sanitation and hygiene (WASH). including maternal. together with appropriate and nutritious complementary food. education and provision/promotion of clean water. The FNS Profiles were produced and finalized in consultation with the Ministries of Health and Ministries of Agriculture of the respective countries.” This phenomenon is exacerbated by exposure to “obesity prone” environments characterized by consumption of energy-dense. in particular pregnant and lactating women. Overnutrition and undernutrition increasingly co-exist in the same communities. These interventions largely focus on women. early childhood development. if scaled up and utilized. can significantly reduce stunting. In ASEAN countries. an overweight yet anaemic woman).5 million children under five are currently overweight or obese. x Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . This will require healthier diets and appropriate levels of physical activity. particularly in the most disadvantaged populations.000 days of life tend to lay down fat in later childhood and adulthood due to their early life “programming.Evidence shows that children who experience faltered growth during the first 1. and warrant scale-up in their own right. activity 2. Volume 1 presents the compilation of the Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) Profiles for the 10 ASEAN nations. agricultural diversification. They include support for exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding. and a burden to health care systems in the region. particularly for more sedentary sub-groups of the population. The “double burden” of malnutrition poses a threat both to maternal and child health. Nutrition-sensitive approaches address the underlying determinants of undernutrition and future overweight and obesity. The activity stems from the ATFMCH Workplan 2011-2015. animal foods. while also bringing dividends to each of these sectors. Nutrition-specific interventions. infant and young child nutrition”. International consensus supports multisectoral approaches which combine proven nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions to effect a more holistic sustainable response to improve child and maternal nutrition. micronutrient deficiencies and wasting as well as the risk of overweight and obesity. with an emphasis on child nutrition. and even at an individual level (e. The ASEAN Task Force on Maternal and Child Health (ATFMCH) with UNICEF have developed a Joint Regional Report on Nutrition Security as an advocacy tool on nutrition.

validated and properly published information available until June 2014. strategies. The target audience of the publication is principally policy makers. First.The preparation of each of the Food and Nutrition Security Country Profiles has followed a thorough process of development and validation. The Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN (Volumes 1 and 2) therefore aims to strengthen and facilitate evidence-based planning and decision making to achieve optimal results in nutrition security through multi-sectoral strategies. and identified challenges. and action plans which create the enabling environment for nutrition security at country level. the Report provides an excellent opportunity to exchange views on the progress made by member countries on food and nutrition security as well as addressing the remaining challenges. policies. the profiles were generated in a 6-page (per country) format. it also serves to facilitate comprehensive understanding of food and nutrition security issues at national level by policy makers and other key stakeholders. narratives for the figures which were prepared by the UN technical staff and professionally edited. and others). Third. Volume 2 of the report will be a more in-depth synthesis of the nutrition situation in the ASEAN region and the determinants of malnutrition. published sources. This will include an overview of the post-2015 sustainable development goals and the World Health Assembly nutrition targets in the context of ASEAN. Second. While this effort serves as an advocacy tool. the socio-economic costs and implications of the current burden of malnutrition and the economic rationale for investing in nutrition. Suggested amendments during the validation phase were incorporated with the same criteria of qualified. As such. WHO. and a list of relevant laws. The information included is backed by recognized. a database on food security and nutrition indicators was compiled using the latest available information from national level publications and/or qualified global databases (FAO. Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 xi . based on the data in the Profiles. The Profiles appear in alphabetical order in Volume 1. policy and financing mechanisms. including graphs and figures of the selected indicators. World Bank. case studies and evidence on effective interventions and approaches in multiple sectors to improve nutrition. the Profiles were circulated to health and agriculture authorities and UN partners at country level for validation and input. UNICEF.

.

4 Child Mortality From 1990 to 2012: • Under-5 mortality reduced 35%. PPP (constant 2011 dollars) Undernourished in total population 2010 3000 Figure 1.Brunei Darussalam .1) 20 0 1990 2011 10 Animal Origin 9 Vegetal Origin - - Overweight adults (BMI >= 25 kg/m2) - - 10. • More information is needed to understand why Low Birth Weight and anemia persist in spite of high household income (high GDP per capita).4 77000 2786 MDG Target 12. but will not reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target • Infant mortality reduced 29% • Neonatal mortality reduced 33% 2005 From 1990 to 2011: •DES increased 6% •Animal-origin supply increased 21% •Vegetal-origin products increased 2% and remained the major DES source 2000 Figure 1. For decades. Children <5 years Overweight 4 8.5 kg/m2) Source: 2012 2nd National Health and Nutritional Survey NHANSS Proportion of infants with low birth weight Source: Brunei Darussalam Vital Statistics 2010.5 Anaemia Anaemia is a notable public health issue. It is high among pregnant women (39%) however.8% 2010 3 2012 Total Dietary Energy Supply (DES) Source : FAOSTAT FBS: 2014 update Underweight women (BMI < 18.3 Child Malnutrition In 2012 • Stunting rates were at 20% • Underweight stood at 10% • Wasting affected 3% of young children • Overweight was 9% • Low Birth Weight stood at 11% 500 4. more recent data from Ministry of Health indicates that anaemia in pregnancy has significantly declined to less than 20% (unpublished.3 2015 International $ 79000 2012 GDP per person. 2013).1 Food Availability 39 0 20 40 60 80 Prevalence of Anaemia (%) 100 Source: WHO Worldwide prevalence of Anaemia (1993-2005) Anthropometry (Table 1. Prime Minister's Office Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 1 .7 24 Non .2 9.5 8 76448 6.4 Under fives 20 Pregnant women Stunting 6. • In spite of the country's progress in certain areas. food availability has been stable and undernourishment has remained low.2 Undernourishment and Economic Growth From 1990 to 2012: • GDP per capita decreased 7% • Undernourishment remained low and unchanged 2949 Percent 10 9.6 1990 601 Neonatal Wasting 4. Department of Statistic.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Brunei Darussalam .2 Infant 69000 2000 6.6 75000 71080 71000 2291 2347 1000 67000 2012 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1992 Source: GDP: WDI 2014 / Undernourished: FAO FSI_2013 Figure 1.8 4 1995 73000 495 6 5 2010 2500 5 7.5 2 Source: Inter-agency Group for CME (2013) 0 1990 Kcal per person per day 1500 5.pregnant women of reproductive age Underweight 8 Figure 1. Moderate non-pregnant women (20%) Total <2amongst yr and under-5 children (24%). JPKE.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Key Indicators • Brunei Darussalam has one of the highest rates of GDP per capita and of Dietary Energy Supply (DES) per person in the region. the proportion of infants with Low Birth Weight is high and anaemia persists among women and young children. Figure 1.

9 4 3 Food Availability 2 1 Figure 2.949 Kcal in 2011) •Main food commodities contribute to more than 80% of DES • Cereals remain the most important source of food energy. milk and eggs Other 16 9 0 % Total expenditure per person per day % Dietry energy Consumption Source: UN_FAO RAP based on national HIES.949(2011) 2011 0. HLSS_2013 Update. whereas fruits and vegetables contribute only 4% •Vegetable oils have increased their contribution to DES from 8% in 1990 to 11% in 2011 80 Cereals 42 Fruits and vegetables 60 Fish 5 1 13 Sugars 40 Veg oils 20 14 Meat. ECS.5 . at 44% • Sugars and syrups contribute 13% to DES.Brunei Darussalam .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Availability / Food Access Access to food Figure 2. 42% of Dietary Energy Consumption was from cereal 538 421 397 304 Sugars and syrups 113 Fruits & vegetables 126 329 231 Vegetable oils Fish & Fish products 36 Animal fats 27 Pulses 31 Starchy roots 47 0 49 25 Figure 2.1 Food supply by food group From 1990 to 2011: 748 705 From 2000 to 2012: • Food inflation and general inflation are correlated overall • In 2009.3 Share of food expenditure 16 100 Non food items 36 400 800 1.600 Source: UN_FAO Food Balance Sheets_2014 Update Percent • Food availability increased 6% (DES = 2.200 1. SES. Brunei 2 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 -3 Source: ILOSTAT Database Consumer Price Indices 2014 435 291 Meat & Milk & Eggs 2002 -2 1305 1269 Wheat 2001 -1 1990 Cereals Rice 2000 0 (kcal/person/year) Total dietary energy supply= 2. NSO.2 Economic access to food General and food inflation Percent General inflation Food inflation 6 5 3.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Brunei Darussalam .

2 Open Defecation Figure 3.1) Zinc No Data Share of children under age 5 with diarrhoea receiving zinc treatment - Existing policy framework Zinc Supplementation and Reformulated Oral Rehydration Salt in the Management of Diarrhea Source: Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 3 .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Water and Sanitation Figure 3.4 Diarrhoea Management of Diarrhoea (Table 3.3 Access to Improved Water Sources No Data No Data No Data Food Safety Figure 3.Brunei Darussalam .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Brunei Darussalam .1 Access to Improved Sanitation Figure 3.

Brunei Darussalam .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Brunei Darussalam . Exclusive breast feeding rate (0-5 months) 100 Figure 3.6 Complementary Feeding Early initiation of breastfeeding 92.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Nutrition and Health Figure 3.9 Vitamin A No Data No Data Iodine (Table 3.7 Duration of Breastfeeding No Data Figure 3.199µg/L Source: 4 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 .2%) is correlated with lower infant mortality and relatively prolonged breastfeeding.8 Child Malnutrition and Poverty Micronutrient Status Figure 3.2 80 No Data Percent 60 40 20 0 Source: 2012 2nd National Health and Nutritional Status Survey (NHANSS) Phase 1: 0 -5 Years Old Figure 3.2) Households consuming adequately iodized salt - Iodine deficiency (Urinary Iodine Concentration <100µg/L) among schoolage children - *Optimal UIC 100 .5 Exclusive Breastfeeding in 2012: • Early initiation of breastfeeding (92.

Ministry of Health June 2000 Nutrition related issues covered in these policies Maternal and Child Undernutrition Obesity and diet related NCDs Infant and Young Child Nutrition Covered Child undernutrition Yes Low Birth Weight Yes Maternal undernutrition Yes Child obesity Adult obesity Yes Diet related NCDs Yes Breastfeeding Yes Complementary feeding Yes Comments Community Nutrition Division was established in 1992. but only for citizens and permanent residents in the private sector Social Protection policies or legislation including food or nutrition component 1. Multisectoral Action Plan for the Prevention & Control of Non-Communicable Diseases 2013-2018 Oficially released on 21/09/2013 6. Int’l Code of Marketing of BMS Supplementation: Vitamin A children/women Vitamins and Minerals Iron Folate children/women Zinc children Yes Yes Other vitamins & min child/women Yes Food fortification No Food Safety Yes Food security Yes Underlying and contextual Food Aid factors Nutrition and Infection universal coverage under MCH Programme only if necessary.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table .1 Enabling environment for Nutrition and Food security . Ministry of Health Vision 2035 Promotes 5 key pillars. National Health Promotion Blueprint 2011-2015 (MoH. On of the key pillars includes 'A Nation That Embraces and Practices Healthy Lifestyle" (MoH Brunei 2009).Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Brunei Darussalam . 2. National Health Care Plan (2000-2010).Brunei Darussalam . No No Gender No Maternal leave Yes 15 weeks for all Government servants. Public Health (Food) Act (since 2000) 2. National Breastfeeding Policy of MOH(officiated in 2001) 7. 2011) 3. Brunei Darussalam National Multisectoral Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2013-2018 5.Infectious Diseases Act Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 5 .Policy documents addressing nutrition issues 1. Maternity Leave Regulations 2011 (Prime Ministers Office) 4. universal coverage In terms of Breastfeeding as Food Security.A Strategic Framework for Action.

2) Adolescent birth rate (number of births per 1. validity and proper publication are met.5.3 % 2001 Income share held by households /c Number of children <5 years (thousand) Education level of mothers of under-fives: None (%) Male Gini index /c (100= complete inequality. 6 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 .5.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Brunei Darussalam .3) Year 412 2012 GDP annual growth rate /c 2. is backed by recognized. MDG database 2013 Update.2 Demographic Indicators (Table . c/ World Bank. The information included in this Food Security and Nutrition Security Profile. 0= complete equality) Unemployment rate /c Life expectancy at birth (Years) /c Female Year Adolescents (Table .39 % 2012 GDP per capita (PPP) (constant 2011 international dollars) /c 71. State of the World Children 2014 (data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified) e/ UN Statistics Division.4 % 2001 Poverty gap ratio /e Women employed in agriculture sector (% of total female employment) /c) 0.5. b/ FAOSTAT 2014 Update.1) Population size (thousands) /a Average annual population growth /a Proportion of population urbanised/c Year Economic Indicators (Table .Brunei Darussalam . until requirements of quality. validated and properly published information available until June 2014.3 % 2012 34 2012 - - 77 2012 80. d/ UNICEF.25 (PPP) per day /c (%) - - - - Poorest 20% - - Richest 20% - - 76. 2014 Update.3 2012 Agriculture population density(people/ ha of arable land /b) 0.15 % 2012 1. Although updated information might be available at national level form different sources. World Development Indicators Database.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table .000 adolescent girls aged 15-19) /a 23 2012 Adolescent girls aged 15-19 currently married or in union /d - - Women aged 20-24 who gave birth before age 18 /d (%) - - Sources: a/ World Bank Health Nutrition and Population Statistics 2013. it has not been included in this profile.8 % 2012 Population below US $ 1.080 2012 - - - - 3.2 2006-2008 Employment in agriculture sector (% of total employment) /c 1.

7 37 37. PPP (constant 2011 dollars) Undernourished in total population International $ 3200 116.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Key Indicators • Although Cambodia has an integrated framework for food and nutrition security.Cambodia . Cambodia has experienced rapid growth in per-capita GDP and Dietary Energy Supply (DES).4 35 216 2200 85 81.1) Underweight women (BMI < 18. was found to be a serious situation DHS 2010 /WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Source: Malnutrition 2013 2 2010 500 Source: GDP: WDI 2014/ Undernourished: FAO/FSI_2013 2009 1709 15 700 2008 2195 1000 Kcal per person per day 1500 Infant 2005 25 133 2000 1700 1990 1841 1995 30 2000 33. at 40% • Underweight declined 32%. improved water and sanitation continues to be far below internationally acceptable levels. but persists as very high. Nevertheless. but remains significant at 15. dietary quality remains poor. it has not yet achieved the desired nutritional outcomes. at 11%. but also remains high at 28% • Overweight reduced from 7% to 2% • Wasting.2 Undernourishment and Economic Growth : • From 1993 to 2012 GDP per capita increased 178% • From 1990 to 2012 Undernourishment declined 61%. and Vitamin A deficiencies.5 Anaemia • Anaemia represents a severe public health issue. • Another factor associated with poor nutritional outcomes arises from insufficient access to improved sanitation and water sources.3 Child Malnutrition From 1996 to 2010: • Stunting declined 30%. non-pregnant women (44%) and under-5 children alike (55%) • Deworming and iron supplementation can be effective for reducingTotal anaemia <2 yr in pregnant women as well as children Children <5 years 55 Non .6 43. • This poor quality of diet is the main factor responsible for persistently high levels of stunting and underweight. it is high among pregnant women (53%).Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Cambodia .pregnant women of reproductive age 44 Pregnant women 53 0 20 40 60 80 Prevalence of Anaemia (%) 100 44 40 40 Anthropometry (Table 1. Although the country has recently made progress in this area.9 1200 15.4 2500 Figure 1.5 kg/m2) 19 % 2010 Overweight adults (BMI >= 25 kg/m2) 11 % 2010 40 28 29 29 28 11 2 2 2005 4 2000 1996 7 Neonatal Source: Inter-agency Group for CME (2013) Source: KHM_Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2010_2011 Vegetal Origin Total Dietary Energy Supply (DES) 2011 2008 2005 2002 Overweight 49 0 1990 1999 1996 1993 1990 Figure 1. population < 20 should be analyzed using WHO growth reference for school aged children and adolescents Proportion of infants with low birth weight Source: 8.4% GDP per person.4 19.9 18. Figure 1.7 2015 40 2700 2411 MDG Target 39 110. high levels of anaemia.1 Food Availability From 1990 to 2011: •DES has increased 31% •Animal-origin supply increased 62% •Vegetal-origin products increased 28% and remained the major DES source * BMI values calculated using adult cut off points.5 Percent 45 2789 39.2 % 2010 DHS 2010 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 7 .4 Child Mortality From 1990 to 2012: • Under-5 mortality reduced 66% and is set to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target • Infant mortality reduced 60% • Neonatal mortality reduced 50% 2012 Figure 1.8 39.3 35.4 20 1004 59 2011 43 Animal Origin Stunting Underweight Wasting Source : FAOSTAT FBS: 2014 update 2010 Under fives Figure 1.

which follows the general rate of inflation.3 Share of food expenditure 100 400 800 1. dietary diversity remains a challenge • A lack of fat in the diet contributes to poor absorption of Vitamin A and other fat-soluble micronutrients Fruits and vegetables 16 60 9 40 20 Sugars 16 1 71 Fish Veg oils 0 15 14 2 Meat. While cereals contribute 63% of daily food intake. and starchy roots rose 214% .200 1. they only comprise 16% of food expenditures at household level 175 21 Vegetable oils 2008 0 Sugars and syrups Fruits & vegetables 2007 Source: ILOSTAT Database Consumer Price Indices 2014 124 98 Meat & Milk & Eggs 2006 -40 1520 1461 Wheat 2005 -30 1644 1527 Cereals 19 2004 -20 1990 Rice 2003 -10 2002 Figure 2. milk and eggs Other 4 6 3 2 11 0 % Total expenditure per person per day % Dietry energy Consumption Sources: UN_FAO RAP based on national HIES. with rice comprising 63% • Sugars and syrups expanded 733%. ECS.411 Kcal in 2011 • Cereals remained the most important source of food energy (68%).Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Cambodia .600 Non food items 2.2 Economic access to food General and food inflation Percent General inflation Food inflation 30 20 10 (kcal/person/year) Total dietary energy supply= 2.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Availability / Food Access Access to food Figure 2. Cambodia 8 2012 2011 2010 2009 • Although inflation was significant in 2008. SES. pulses increased 380%.1 Food supply by food group From 1990 to 2011: 3 0 2000 0 2001 Food Availability Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . • Families spend more than 70% of their income on food.000 29 Source: UN_FAO Food Balance Sheets_2014 Update Cereals 80 Percent •The main food commodities contributed to more than 80% of DES • DES = 2. However. HLSS_2013 Update. food prices dropped that year. by 2009 food prices had returned to the usual trend.Cambodia .411 (2011) 2011 57 58 135 30 74 22 Fish & Fish products 17 Animal fats 13 Pulses 48 10 Starchy roots 88 28 0 (2009) Figure 2. vegetable oils increased 350%.

On the consumption side.1) Zinc Share of children under age 5 with diarrhoea receiving zinc treatment 2. the prevalence of diarrhoea among under-5 children is relatively high for all wealth quintiles (Fig 3. Even so. Coverage of improved management of diarrhoea with zinc supplementation remains too low to have an impact. ranging from 25among the poorest to 11% among the wealthiest. Water and Sanitation Figure 3. the situation remains serious. reflecting disparities in sanitation as well as in general hygiene and food safety • Diarrhoea is a public health concern in all economic quintiles. particularly the presence of diarrhoea. In Cambodia.8 15 15. food production and consumption. transport.4 15. Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Figure 3.2 Open Defecation From 1990 to 2012: • Open defecation decreased 39% in 22 years • In rural areas.7 10 Management of Diarrhoea (Table 3.4 % Existing policy framework 5 0 Lowest Source: KHM_DHS_ 2010 Second Middle Wealth quintile Fourth Highest Zinc Supplementation and Reformulated Oral Rehydration Salt in the Management of Diarrhea Source: KHM_DHS_ 2010 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 9 .3 Access to Improved Water Sources From 1990 to 2012: •Access to improved water sources increased 232% during 22 years •Disparities in access to improved water sources between urban and rural areas remain constant • 71% of the population has sustainable access to improved water % Population Figure 3.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Cambodia . 2014 Food Safety Quality and food safety efforts address all elements of the complex chain of agricultural production. which influence the nutrient content of consumed foods. with only 33% of people having access to improved sanitation and 69% of the rural population still practicing open defecation.4 Diarrhoea • Diarrhoea among under-5 is most common among the poorest wealth quintile (42% higher than the wealthiest).Cambodia . Nutrient absorption in the gut is strongly influenced by health status. 2014 80 40 32 0 0 94 2002 26 1996 3 1990 0 18 1993 20 60 66 100 1999 40 88 1996 37 80 1993 60 93 1990 % Population 80 % Population 82 100 1990 100 Figure 3.1 Access to Improved Sanitation From 1990 to 2012: • Improved sanitation increased significantly in 22 years. 18% Percent 20 18. this unhygienic practice is more than five times more common than in urban areas 66 54 40 Total 71 60 66 Urban Rural 22 20 0 Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. and to the absorption of nutrients by the human body after consumption.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Food utilization refers both to household food preparation practices.1 12 10. 2014 Total Rural 2011 2011 2008 2005 2002 1999 1996 1993 Total 20 2008 7 2005 20 2011 2008 2005 2002 1999 Rural Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme.4). water and sanitation conditions (and nutrition indicators) have been improving for the past 20 years. processing. but still covers just 37% of the population • 74% of the population in rural areas does not have access to improved sanitation • The disparity between urban and rural areas persist. Hygienic environmental conditions with regard to water and sanitation are important determinants of health and infection incidence and prevalence.

found among 22.8 Vitamin A Supplementation Coverage . • Exclusive breastfeeding has increased sharply during the last decade.6 11.3% of pre-schoolers.2) Households consuming adequately iodized salt (2010)/a Iodine deficiency (Urinary Iodine Concentration <100µg/L) among schoolage children *Optimal UIC 100 . and deserve ongoing attention 100 51. and continued breastfeeding with complementary feeding is recommended from 6 months until age 2 years and beyond 20 40 60 80 100 KHM_Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2010 100% Figure 3. indicate that Vitamin A is still lacking in the daily diet. b/ WHO Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in population at risk 19952005 report.full – children 6-59 months /a 98 Iodine (Table 3.1 50 44.7µmol/L) 11.Cambodia . attain the minimum meal frequency • Meeting the recommended quality of diet remains a challenge • Most Cambodian children are fed the recommended number of meals per day.5 Exclusive Breastfeeding From 2000 to 2010.4 Percent 40 75 39. and that food-based interventions.6 30 24.7 Duration of Breastfeeding Percent Not breastfeeding 80% 60% Breast milk and complementary foods 40% 20% Exclusively breastfed 0% 0-1 mo 2-3 mo 4-5 mo Breast milk and plain water only 6-8 mo 9-11 mo Breast milk and non-milk liquids 12-17 mo 18-23 mo Breast milk and other milk Source: KHM_DHS_ 2010 Figure 3.3 35.6 20 11. 2005 2010 Source: KHM_Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2010 28 0 Source: • Duration and frequency of breastfeeding affect the health and nutritional status of both mother and child •Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to age 6 months.1 2 2.6 Complementary Feeding • Introduction of complementary feeding is timely • 79% of children 6-23 mo.3 Vitamin A Deficiency (Pre-School Aged Children) <0.5 9. but only one-third get the diversity of food needed.4 34. persistent Vitamin A deficiencies. State of the World's Children 2014.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Cambodia .9 Fourth Highest Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 22.8 Child Malnutrition and Poverty •Children in the wealthiest quintile have 55% less stunting and weight deficits than children in the lower income quintiles •Serious levels of wasting are reported for children in all income quintiles •Overweight is not a public health issue Overweight Stunting Underweight Wasting 60 Micronutrient Status Figure 3.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Nutrition and Health Figure 3.9 Source: a/ UNICEF.1 Source: KHM_Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2010 10 25 23. from 11% to 74%. Even so.4 Second Middle 15.9 Vitamin A •Successful Vitamin A supplementation – a child survival intervention – is a likely contributor to observed reductions in child mortality •However. including food fortification.6 1. 10.7umoL /b * VAD is a severe public health problem if >20% of preschool children (6-71 months) have low serum retinol (<0.1 0 Lowest 50 0 27.2 32.199µg/L Source: a/KHM_Cambodia Demographic Health Survey 2010 82.9 10 1.7 % - .5 0. semi-solid or soft food 66 40 11 35 2000 34 Minimum meal frequency 79 Minimum acceptable diet 11 0 88 Minimum dietary diversity 60 20 Figure 3. about one-quarter of infants under 6 months old are not exclusively breastfed •Early initiation of breastfeeding also has increased significantly (11% to 66%) 100 Early initiation of breastfeeding Exclusive breast feeding rate (0-5 months) 60 Percent 80 74 Introduction of solid.

and postpartum women updated in 2007. 2007. Joint Prakas on Implementation of Sub-Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding -. Prakas Iodized Salt 2004.gov. but rarely occur in practice Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 11 . Ministry of Commerce. nationwide Gov. National Policy and Guidelines for Micronutrient Supplementation to Prevent and Control Deficiencies. 2012 Nutrition related issues covered in these policies Maternal and Child Undernutrition Obesity and diet related NCDs Infant and Young Child Nutrition yes Low Birth Weight yes Maternal undernutrition yes Child obesity Adult obesity Diet related NCDs both Breastfeeding yes Complementary feeding yes Int’l Code of Marketing of BMS yes Supplementation: Vitamin A children/women Vitamins and Minerals Covered Child undernutrition yes yes Zinc children yes Other vitamins & min child/women yes Food fortification yes Food Safety yes Food security yes Food Aid yes Gender Maternal leave Covers stunting. National Nutrition Strategy 2009-2015. services delivery at community level – outpatient. Cambodia Child Survival Strategy 2006-2015. Vitamin A Communication Strategy 2008. IFA Communication Strategy 2010. Voluntary: Flour. food aid.foodsecurity. National Interim Guidelines for the Management of Acute Malnutrition 2011 14. National Policy on the Control of Acute Respiratory Infection and Diarrheal Disease. http://www. National Policy on Infant and Young Child Feeding. yes Iron Folate children/women Underlying and contextual Nutrition and Infection factors Comments yes yes 12 weeks Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF)policy 2008 includes IYCF in emergencies Adoption of many provisions of Int’l Code on BMS. MoH Circular on Infant and Young Child Feeding 2007 Adopted by Ministry of Health. Joint Prakas on Iodized Salt 2004 M&E by National Subcommittee on Food Fortification 10. Prime Minister Circular on Food Security and Nutrition (1999. Fish & Soy sauce. Ministry of Health 2007. one of the key results is increased allocation of resources in the area of food security and nutrition 6. Ministry of Health 11. Ministry of Health 2008 7.kh/otherdocs/SFrameworkFSN-Eng. Baby Friendly Community Initiative Implementation Guidelines 2009 15. Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition in Cambodia 2008-2012. Ministry of Health 2011 Updates and replaces previous policies and guidelines on Vitamin A and anaemia 9. Sub-Decree on the Management of Iodized Salt Exploitation 2003.Cambodia . Policies promote a multisectoral approach to nutrition Agriculture. Sub-Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding. twice a year. and public works are how food security is primarily addressed Updated Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines integrating malnutrition up to standard Policy exists for universal access to safe drinking water and strategy for improved sanitation Maternity leave paid by employer at 50% of wages Provisions for nursing breaks after return to work are paid. M&E by The four line ministries 12. IYCF Communication Strategy 2005. Salt Iodization Advocacy Plan 2008 13. Health Strategic Plan II 2008-2015. Ministry of Information and Ministry of Industry. Cambodia Nutrition Investment Plan 2005 3. wasting and underweight. Council for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) of Council of Ministers 2008 CARD given the mandate to develop implementable strategy by Prime Minister at 2012 National Seminar on Nutrition.pdf 4.Policy documents addressing nutrition issues 1. Ministry of Health 2009 Overall goal of reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality by improving nutritional status of women and children.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Cambodia . Ministry of Health 2007 M&E by National Nutrition Programme.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . 2003) 2. cover ban on marketing for children up to 24 months old Campaign to promote Complementary Feeding in Cambodia 2011-13 Vitamin A Supplementation guidelines for children 6-59 mo. Ministry of Health 2008 (National Nutrition Programme) 5. nationwide Vitamin A campaigns Deworming for children 12-59 mo. Ministry of Health 2006 M&E by Ministry of Health 8. Ministry of Health 2005.1 Enabling environment for Nutrition and Food security . National Vitamin A Policy Guidelines. Mines and Energy. Deworming for pregnant and lactating women under iron folic acid (IFA) guidelines Adoption of policy to use zinc with Oral Rehydration Salts in management of diarrhoea (2011) MN supplementation guidelines for children and women part of the national policy and guidelines (2011) IFA supplementation policy 2007 – health-facility based: 90 IFA tablets (pregnancy) and 42 tablets (postpartum) Recommendation for weekly IF A to women of reproductive age Mandatory: Salt. Complementary Feeding Communication Strategy 2011.

Forestry and Fisheries and Ministry of water Resources and Meteorology (2007) M&E by Ministry of Agriculture & Agro-based Industry 2.2) Adolescent birth rate (number of births per 1. adopted by Ministry of Agriculture. 2013 update.865 2012 GDP annual growth rate /c 7.45 % 2009 Education level of mothers of under-fives: None (%) /f Male Life expectancy at birth (Years) /c Female Women employed in agriculture sector (% of total female employment) /c) Year Adolescents (Table . until requirements of quality. f/ Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2010 The information included in this Food Security and Nutrition Security Profile is backed by recognized. http://www.1) Year Economic Indicators (Table . Law on The Quality & Safety of Products. 0= complete equality) 37.25 (PPP) per day /c (%) Employment in agriculture sector (% of total employment) /c 51 % 2012 Poverty gap ratio /e 6.76 % 2012 2.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Cambodia .2 2012 18.000 adolescent girls aged 15-19) /a 44 2012 Adolescent girls aged 15-19 currently married or in union /d 10 % 2005-2012 7 2008-2012 Women aged 20-24 who gave birth before age 18 /d (%) Sources: a/ World Bank.1 2007 52. Strategy for Agriculture and Water 2006-2010. Sub decree on the Establishment of Cambodia Food Reserved System 2012 Includes role of FSN Data Analysis Team and Quarterly FSN Bulletins 4.2 Social Protection policies or legislation including food or nutrition component 1.Note on cash transfers with a focus on addressing nutrition http://www. MDG database 2013 Update.85 2008 69 2012 Unemployment rate /c 1. 2014 Update.asianfoodreg.000 households.com/regulations_detail. State of the World Children 2014 data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified) e/ UN Statistics Division.2 % 2012 GDP per capita (PPP) (constant 2011 international dollars) /c Number of children <5 years (thousand)/a 1. National Social Protection Strategy for the Poor and Vulnerable (2011-2015) Poor and vulnerable children and mothers benefit from social safety nets to reduce poverty and food insecurity and enhance the development of human capital by improving nutrition… Technical consultations .6 2009 Agriculture population density(people/ ha of arable land /b) 2.php?id=140&cid=5&induid=11&catid=6 Agricultural policies addressing food security 1.kh/ Food safety policies or legislation 1.kh/publication 2. 12 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 .gov. Health Nutrition and Population Statistics. Forestry and Fisheries (2006) Demographic Indicators (Table .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . validity and proper publication are met. Health Equity Fund Guidelines and Standard Benefits Package. d/ UNICEF.gov. Adopted by Ministry of Agriculture. focused on poor rural pregnant and lactating women plus children under 5.socialprotection.5 % 2012 74.5.03 2009 16 2010 Gini index /c (100= complete inequality. c/ World Bank. b/ FAOSTAT 2014 Update.3) Year Population size (thousands) /a 14.670 2012 36.5.93 % 2009 Richest 20% 44.789 2012 Proportion of population urbanised /c 20.4 2006-2008 Population below US $ 1. National Programme for Household Food Security and Poverty Reduction 2007-2011. Although updated information might be available at national level form different sources. it has not been included in this profile.Cambodia . Goods & Services 21/06/2000 http://www. validated and properly published information available until June 2014. revised 2012 Standard Benefits Package revised in 2012 to support management of acute malnutrition 3.socialprotection. Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) pilot programme under Council for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Pilot for around 10. World Development Indicators Database.5.8 % 2012 Income share held by households /c Poorest 20% 7.26 % 2012 Average annual population growth /a 1.

non-pregnant women (33%) and under-5 children (45%) • Deworming iron supplementation can be effective Totaland <2 yr for reducing anaemia 5 2010 2536 4297 4000 2007 1500 Kcal per person per day 2000 1000 1990 5500 107 25. population < 20 should be analyzed using WHO growth reference for school aged children and adolescents Proportion of infants with low birth weight Source: 9% 2007 WHO BMI Database/ LBW DHS 2007 re-analyzed by UNICEF 2009 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 13 .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Key Indicators • The levels of underweight and stunting remain high in Indonesia. both at 12% in 2013 •Low Birth Weight was 9% in 2007 500 0 1990 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1992 Source: GDP: WDI 2014 / Undernourished: FAO FSI_2013 20 12 12 2013 2159 Infant 15 15. should be considered. efforts to promote the availability of adequate complementary foods. despite a considerable increase in GDP per capita. and nearly half do not meet the recommended quality of diet.4 % 2001 * BMI values calculated using adult cut off points. along with education on appropriate complementary feeding practices. Because the typical diet is largely rice-based.Indonesia .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Indonesia .1 Food Availability From 1990 to 2011: •Dietary Energy Supply (DES) increased 20% •Animal-origin supply increased 65% •Vegetal-origin products (mainly cereals) increased 17% and remained the major DES source Anthropometry (Table 1.4 61. • Poor dietary diversity – low on protein and vitamins but high in carbohydrates – may be a determinant of underweight and stunting. PPP (constant 2011 dollars) Undernourished in total population International $ 9000 10 5000 9.9 Figure 1. Notable disparities exist between geographic areas and wealth quintiles.1 4500 Overweight Stunting Underweight Wasting 42 2011 26 30 23 23 23 23 Vegetal Origin Source : FAOSTAT FBS: 2014 update 2 20 5 2012 18 20 11 13 12 Source: IDN_Basic Health Research_2010 and 2013/ WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition 2013 2015 2010 2005 2000 Neonatal Under fives Source: Inter-agency Group for CME (2013) Children <5 years/a 45 Non .6 20 7000 177 28 52. Figure 1.5 kg/m2) Overweight adults (BMI >= 25 kg/m2) - - 13.2 7500 2713 83.pregnant women of reproductive age/a 33 Pregnant women/b 37 0 20 40 60 80 100 Prevalence of Anaemia (%) Source: a/WHO Worldwide prevalence of Anaemia (1993-2005) b/Basic Health Research 2013 36 37 24 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 1995 2 1992 40 29 25 27 Animal Origin Total Dietary Energy Supply (DES) 2010 Figure 1. but still stood at 20% in 2013 • Wasting and overweight levels are a serious concern. but prevalence remains high at 37% • Underweight declined 48% from 1992. however progress has stagnated in recent years and the achievement of the MDG target may be at risk • Infant mortality reduced 58% • Neonatal mortality reduced 50% 1995 Figure 1.4 Child Mortality From 1990 to 2012: • Under-5 mortality reduced 63%.7 1990 2500 MDG Target 22. high among pregnant women (37%). About one third of children aged 6-23 months do not meet the minimum meal frequency.8 22 15 6000 31 41.8 27.9 6500 2266 33.2 Undernourishment and Economic Growth From 1990 to 2012: • GDP per capita increased 106% • Undernourishment declined 59% GDP per person.3 Child Malnutrition • Stunting declined 12% from 2000 to 2013. • Indonesia has joined the global Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) movement and has developed its own framework to scale up nutrition through a multisectoral approach.1 29.8 2012 8500 Percent 25 8856 8000 3000 Figure 1.5 Anaemia • Anaemia is a severe public health issue. one quarter do not achieve the minimum dietary diversity.1) Underweight women (BMI < 18.

Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Indonesia .600 Non food items 2.Indonesia .200 1.000 Cereals Source: UN_FAO Food Balance Sheets_2014 Update 80 Percent • Cereals remain the most important source of food energy (63%). Indonesia 14 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 •Food inflation and general inflation are correlated in general in Indonesia •Families generally spend more than 36% of their income on food. ECS.713 (2011) 2 1311 1252 Rice 143 133 Sugars and syrups 122 56 Fruits & vegetables 356 157 Vegetable oils 58 Fish & Fish products Animal fats 10 Pulses 19 30 9 Figure 2. they affect only 11% of food expenditures at household level 110 69 Meat & Milk & Eggs 2004 Source: ILOSTAT Database Consumer Price Indices 2014 169 63 Wheat 2000 Cereals 0 2003 0 1711 1505 2002 1990 2001 2011 6 4 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . milk and eggs 5 Other 20 0 2 9 % Total expenditure per person per day % Dietry energy Consumption Sources: UN_FAO RAP based on national HIES. While cereals contribute more than half (61%) of food intake. Nonetheless.1 Food supply by food group 6 (kcal/person/year) Total dietary energy supply= 2.2 Economic access to food General and food inflation Percent General inflation Food inflation 18 16 14 12 Food Availability 10 8 Figure 2. animal fats are largely non-existent.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Availability / Food Access Access to food Figure 2. they still comprise only 2% and 4% of DES respectively •Rice contributes 48% of food energy Fruits and vegetables 64 61 Fish 60 Sugars 40 Veg oils 7 11 1 0 2 5 20 4 4 1 Meat. HLSS_2013 Update.3 Share of food expenditure 34 100 167 154 Starchy roots 0 400 800 1. SES. but Vegetable oils have increased 127% and fruits and vegetables have increased 118% • Fish has increased 93% and meat 59%.

but remain an issue • Almost no progress has been made on urban coverage of improved water sources.3 Access to Improved Water Sources From 1990 to 2012: •Disparities in access to improved water sources between urban and rural areas have decreased. which remained at 93% • At least 85% of people have sustainable access to improved water 1993 Figure 3.4 Diarrhoea • Diarrhoea among young children is most common among the poorest wealth quintiles.5 15 13. reflecting disparities in improved sanitation as well as in general hygiene and food safety • None of the quintiles has a prevalence of diarrhoea among under-5 children 25 than 10% of less Percent 20 16. Water and Sanitation Figure 3.Indonesia . whereas 71% of urban dwellers have such access.4 Management of Diarrhoea (Table 3. and to the absorption of nutrients by the human body after consumption. 2014 Total Rural 2011 2008 2005 2002 0 1999 2011 2008 2005 2002 1999 2011 2008 2005 2002 1999 1996 1993 1990 Total Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. which influence nutrient content of consumed foods. resulting in a decrease in diarrhoea prevalence. • 41% of people overall do not have access to improved sanitation Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. as shown in Fig 1.9 15 15.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Indonesia . this unhygienic practice remains at rates more than double those in urban areas 100 22 19 20 Rural % Population 76 60 61 40 20 Total Urban Rural Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. These improvements may have contributed to the reduction in malnutrition among under-5 children.1 % Existing policy framework 5 0 Lowest Second Middle Wealth quintile Source: IDN_Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2012 Fourth Highest Zinc Supplementation and Reformulated Oral Rehydration Salt in the Management of Diarrhea Source: IDN_Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2012 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 15 .1 Access to Improved Sanitation From 1990 to 2012: • Access to improved sanitation increased 67% in 22 years • Disparities between rural and urban areas have continued. 2014 85 70 14 0 0 80 1996 24 31 93 90 1990 46 40 1996 20 35 50 40 1993 40 60 1990 60 59 % Population % Population 71 61 100 80 100 80 Figure 3. In Indonesia.3. Nutrient absorption in the gut is strongly influenced by health status. 2014 Food Safety Figure 3.4 10 10. Only 46% of the rural population has access to improved sanitation. Hygienic environmental conditions related to improved water and sanitation are important determinants of health and infection incidence and prevalence. particularly the presence of diarrhoea. water and sanitation conditions have improved during the past 20 years.2 Open Defecation From 1990 to 2012: • Open defecation decreased 43% in 22 years • In rural areas.1) • No data are available on whether children receive zinc supplementation following an episode of diarrhoea Zinc Share of children under age 5 with diarrhoea receiving zinc treatment 1.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Food utilization refers both to household preparation practices of foods.

9 Vitamin A •Successful Vitamin A supplementation (76%) is a likely contributor to the observed reductions in child mortality.7µmol/L) Source: a/ IDN Basic Health Research 2013 b/ WHO Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in population at risk 19952005 report.8 Child Malnutrition and Poverty •Children in the wealthiest quintile have 57% less stunting deficits than children in the lower income quintiles Overweight 50 Stunting Underweight Figure 3.Indonesia .9 % *Optimal UIC 100 .full – children 6-59 months /a 75. Only about four out of ten of infants younger than age 6 months are exclusively breastfed.6 Vitamin A Deficiency (Pre-School Aged Children) <0.1 % Iodine deficiency (Urinary Iodine Concentration <100µg/L) among schoolage children (2013) 14. and indicate that Vitamin A is still lacking in the daily diet.7umoL /b 0 5 Lowest Vitamin A Supplementation Coverage . Nevertheless less than one half of children received such early initiation 100 1997 1994 32 39 8 66 Minimum dietary diversity 29 58 Minimum acceptable diet Percent Source: IDN_Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2012/Riskesdas re-analyzed by UNICEF 2010 91 Minimum meal frequency 42 2012 8 40 2010 43 Introduction of solid.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Indonesia . •Vitamin A deficiencies (20 % of pre-schoolers) remain a moderate public health concern. Iodine (Table 3. is recommended from 6 months until age 2 years and beyond 40 60 80 100 Not breastfeeding 80% 60% Breast milk and complementary foods 40% 20% Exclusively breastfed 0% 0-1 mo 2-3 mo 4-5 mo Breast milk and other milk 6-8 mo 9-11 mo Breast milk and plain water only 12-17 mo 18-23 mo Breast milk and non-milk liquids Source: IDN_Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2012 Micronutrient Status Figure 3.7 Duration of Breastfeeding • Duration and frequency of breastfeeding affect the health and nutritional status of both mother and child •Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to age 6 months.5 Exclusive Breastfeeding • Exclusive breastfeeding has decreased (6%) from 1991 to 2012. and continued breastfeeding with complementary feeding. semi-solid or… 2007 42 20 0 •The Minimum accepatble diet is reached only by a third of infants 49 44 2002-2003 45 1991 Percent 40 • Introduction of complementary feeding is timely for 91% of young children • 66% of children aged 6-23 months meet the minimum meal frequency • Meeting the recommended dietary diversity of diet remains a challenge for more than 4 out of 10 children Early initiation of breastfeeding Exclusive breast feeding rate (0-5 months) 80 60 Figure 3. from 1994 to 2012 early initiation of breastfeeding increased by more than 5 times.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Nutrition and Health Figure 3. • Paradoxically.6 Complementary Feeding 37 0 20 Source: IDN_Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2012 100% Figure 3. bordering on severe.5 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 * VAD is a severe public health problem if >20% of preschool children (6-71 months) have low serum retinol (<0. Wasting 47 45 43 100 38 40 75 34 Percent 35 30 25 27 24 20 20 15 10 14 12 13 12 17 16 13 13 15 14 11 11 10 0 Second Middle Fourth Highest Source: IDN Basic Health Research 2013 16 50 25 19.199µg/L Source: IDN Basic Health Research 2013 .2) Households consuming adequately iodized salt (2013) 77.

1 Enabling environment for Nutrition and Food security .140/7/2010 Guidelines on Food and Nutrition Surveillance System 7. lists micronutrient supplements. National Medium-Term Development 2010-2014 (RPJMN) This document covers the entire spectrum of development actions and includes a specific target to reduce stunting from 37 to 32% 2. MNP for children under two Mandatory: Salt. President Regulation No. Government Regulation No. Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Movement formalized through a Presidential Decree SUN Movement in Indonesia has been formalized through a Presidential decree (Number 42/2013)in May 2013. Presidential Decree No 741 Provides guidance on the minimum health standards (SPM). Program Nastional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Generasi (PNPM Generasi) Community empowerment programme that provides villages with block grants to improve health and nutrition outcomes 2. 68 / 2002 on Food Security Nutrition related issues covered in these policies Maternal and Child Undernutrition Obesity and diet related NCDs Infant and Young Child Nutrition Covered Child undernutrition yes Low Birth Weight yes Maternal undernutrition yes Child obesity Adult obesity both Diet related NCDs yes Breastfeeding yes Complementary feeding yes Int’l Code of Marketing of BMS yes Supplementation: Vitamin A children/women Vitamins and Minerals Iron Folate children/women Zinc children Other vitamins & min child/women yes yes no children Food fortification yes Food Safety yes Food security yes Underlying and contextual Food Aid factors Nutrition and Infection Gender Maternal leave Comments Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) programme implemented Laws and decrees address part of the provisions of the Int’l Code on BMS. growth monitoring. 22 / 2009 Policy on Scale Up of Food Diversification Consumption of Local Food-based. with a focus on improving the supply of health and nutrition services and strengthening the relationship between supply and demand initiatives to increase service uptake Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 17 . Wheat Flour close to 100% flour fortified.Indonesia . and postpartum women Deworming guidelines for children 12-59 mo. 43/Permentan/OT. SUN Policy Framework (2012) developed that reinforces the need for multi-sector actions and multi-stakeholder involvement 4.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Indonesia . Policy allows for treatment of pregnant women on diagnosis of a worm infection (no mass deworming) Policy to use zinc with Oral Rehydration Salts in management of diarrhoea adopted. Social Protection policies or legislation including food or nutrition component 1. Provisions for Nursing breaks after return to work . Programme Keluarga Harapan (Family Hope Programme) 3-year pilot to enhance the impact of the ongoing CCT on childhood stunting. Food and Nutrition Plan of Action (RAN-PG) (2011-2015) Putting in place first multisectoral approach to nutrition. 6. Ban on marketing for children up to 12 mo. old). supplementary feeding and treatment of severely malnourished children as basis for nutrition 5. (updated in 2012 to include children from 1 yr.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . Voluntary: vegetable oil yes yes no 13 weeks Maternity leave paid by employer at 100% of wage. Old Vitamin A Supplementation guidelines for children 6-59 mo. Ministry of Agriculture / Chairman of National Food Security Board Regulation No.Policy documents addressing nutrition issues 1. Objective to reduce stunting from 37 to 32% taken form the 2010-2014 RPJMN 3.

com/regulations_standard.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table .8 % 2012 7 2008-2012 Women aged 20-24 who gave birth before age 18 /d (%) Sources: a/ UN_United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. National Decentralized Support Programme for Food Security Demographic Indicators (Table . Joint Regulation Ministry of Internal Affairs and Chairman of National Food and Drug Control Agency. reviewing those already in existence as well as creating new ones. Food Act (1996) The Act comprehensively covers legislative regulations related to food. Agricultural policies addressing food security 1. Ministry of Health Regulation No.2 2011 Agriculture population density(people/ ha of arable land /b) 2. f/ IDN_Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2012 The information included in this Food Security and Nutrition Security Profile is backed by recognized.Indonesia .000 adolescent girls aged 15-19) /a 48 2012 Adolescent girls aged 15-19 currently married or in union /f 12.2) Adolescent birth rate (number of births per 1. 43 / 2013 and No.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Indonesia . Many of Indonesia's regulations related to marketing of food are unclear and therefore either not enforced or only enforced inconsistently.2 2006-2008 Population below US $ 1. 18 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 .asianfoodreg.864 2012 GDP annual growth rate /c 6.1 2011 3 2012 Gini index /c (100= complete inequality.1 % 2012 Poverty gap ratio /e 3. 69 / 1999 on Food Labelling and Advertisement 3.5. MDG Database_2013 Update b/ FAOSTAT 2013 Update.World Development Indicators Database_Dec 2014 Update d/ UNICEF.4 % 2012 GDP per capita (PPP) (constant 2011 international dollars) /c Number of children <5 years (thousand) /a 24. Salt and Fat Contents also Health Message on Processed Food and Fast Food.php?id=9&induid=11”) 2. State of the World Children 2014 (data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified) .7 2012 16.2 Food safety policies or legislation 1.5 % 2012 Income share held by households /c Poorest 20% 7.3) Year Population size (thousands) /a 246.6 % 2012 72.5. c/ UN_World Bank . No.98 % 2011 Education level of mothers of under-fives: None (%)/f Male Life expectancy at birth (Years) /c Female Year Adolescents (Table . 0= complete equality) 34 2005 69 2012 Unemployment rate /c 6.25 (PPP) per day /c (%) Employment in agriculture sector (% of total employment) /c 35. ( http://www.856 2012 Proportion of population urbanised /c 51. 30 / 2013 Inclusion of Information on Sugar. e/ UN Statistics Division.27 % 2011 Richest 20% 45.6 2009 Women employed in agriculture sector (% of total female employment) /c) 34.5. Although updated information might be available at national level form different sources. it has not been included in this profile. until requirements of quality. validity and proper publication are met. 2 / 2013 Inspection of Hazardous-Substances in Food 4. Government Regulation No.466 2012 38.1) Year Economic Indicators (Table .2 % 2012 Average annual population growth /a 1. validated and properly published information available until June 2014.25 % 2012 8. MDG database 2013 Update.

2 Undernourishment and Economic Growth From 1990 to 2012: • GDP per capita increased 170% • Undernourishment declined 40%.5 kg/m2) 14.5 % 2000 * BMI values calculated using adult cut off points.9 2005 40 3000 108 71. but is unlikely to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target without further acceleration of progress • Infant mortality reduced 52% • Neonatal mortality reduced 38 % 2000 Figure 1. • Although the country has experienced significant improvements in access to improved water sources and improved sanitation. Nevertheless.8 37.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Laos . Figure 1. but is still very high at 44% • Underweight declined 33%.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Key Indicators • In Lao PDR.9 Percent 50 2012 GDP per person. • Lao PDR joined the global Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) movement in 2011 and has adopted also a series of national food and nutrition security policies to address food and nutrition security.5 % 2006 Overweight adults (BMI >= 25 kg/m2) 8. Vitamin A deficiency and anaemia. non-pregnant women (46%) and under-6 children alike (48%) • Deworming and iron supplementation can be effective for reducing anaemia in pregnant women as well as children. but is still high at 27% • Wasting was 6 % in 2011. Lao PDR thus still faces high levels of stunting. undernutrition indicators have not been ameliorated.2 30 Source: Inter-agency Group for CME (2013) 1000 2154 1936 26.5 Anaemia • Anaemia is a severe public health issue. population < 20 should be analyzed using WHO growth reference for school aged children and adolescents Proportion of infants with low birth weight Source: 15 % 2011 Lao LSIS 2011-2012 /National Nutrition Survey.pregnant women of reproductive age 500 Overweight Neonatal Figure 1.7 2000 1000 78. a public health concern Children <6 years 0 1990 2011 40 Wasting 48 36 36 Animal Origin 48 32 Source : FAOSTAT FBS: 2014 update 2006 2000 1993 1994 Total Dietary Energy Supply (DES) 1 3 Source: LAO_LSIS 2011-2012/WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition 2013 56 0 20 40 60 80 Prevalence of Anaemia (%) 100 Source: WHO Worldwide prevalence of Anaemia (1993-2005) 44 27 Vegetal Origin 46 Pregnant women 6 2 2011-2012 54 53 Stunting Underweight Under fives 48 Non . these continue to be key development challenges.Lao PDR .7 500 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1992 Source: GDP: WDI 2014 / Undernourished: FAO FSI_2013 Figure 1.7 2356 MDG Target 54 120 2015 4500 2500 162. but remains at 27% overall 58. Total <2 yr 25 1990 Kcal per person per day 1500 2010 35 Infant 1500 1622 54 27.8 84.4 Child Mortality From 1990 to 2012: • Under-5 mortality reduced 56%. Large disparities exist between urban and rural settings. GDP per capita has increased consistently during recent years.5 1990 2000 45 3500 202 2044 4388 4000 44. • Overweight stood at 2% Low Birth Weight is 15%.2 28. high among pregnant women (56%). underweight. PPP (constant 2011 dollars) Undernourished in total population International $ 5000 Figure 1.1) Underweight women (BMI < 18. 2006 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 19 . as has Dietary Energy Supply (DES) per person.1 Food Availability From 1990 to 2011: •DES increased 15% •Animal-origin supply increased 87% •Vegetal-origin products increased 11% and remain the major DES source Anthropometry (Table 1.4 111.2 1995 2500 43.3 Child Malnutrition From 1993 to 2011: • Stunting declined 18%.

5% of income was spent on fish.000 Cereals Source: UN_FAO Food Balance Sheets_2014 Update 80 Fruits and vegetables 59 Percent • Cereals remain as the most important source of food energy (67%). milk and eggs (46%) all have increased significantly.1 Food supply by food group 6 (kcal/person/year) Total dietary energy supply= 2. fish and fish products (59%).Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Laos .3 Share of food expenditure 28 108 Starchy roots 100 800 1. they only affected 16% of food expenditures at household level. SES. milk and eggs Other 1 2 1 0 5 5 6 % Total expenditure per person per day % Dietry energy Consumption Sources: UN_FAO RAP based on national HIES.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Availability / Food Access Access to food Figure 2.356 (2011) 1436 1434 Rice 15 Wheat 58 21 167 41 Fruits & vegetables 105 29 Vegetable oils Fish & Fish products 32 Animal fats 18 Pulses 28 13 13 0 Figure 2. ECS. with rice comprising more than 90% of that • Fruits and vegetables (75%). though overall contributions are still minimal (2008) Non food items 155 400 60 Fish 81 Sugars 40 Veg oils 16 5 20 5 0 9 0 0 Meat.2) • Families spent 41% of their income on food. and meat. Laos 20 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 • General inflation is correlated with food inflation (Fig. In contrast. 2.600 2.2 Economic access to food General and food inflation Percent General inflation Food inflation 20 18 16 14 12 Food Availability 10 8 Figure 2. which represents 1% of food intake. While cereals contributed with 81% of daily energy consumption.200 1.Lao PDR . 152 82 Sugars and syrups 2004 Source: ILOSTAT Database Consumer Price Indices 2014 4 Meat & Milk & Eggs 2000 Cereals 0 2003 0 1580 1565 2002 2 1990 2001 2011 6 4 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . sugars and syrups (64%) . HLSS_2013 Update.

7 5 Share of children under age 5 with diarrhoea receiving zinc treatment 4. 2014 Food Safety Figure 3.7 0 Lowest Second Middle Wealth quintile Source: LAO_Lao Social Indicator Survey 2011-2012 Fourth Highest 1% Existing policy framework Zinc Supplementation and Reformulated Oral Rehydration Salt in the Management of Diarrhea Source: LAO_Lao Social Indicator Survey 2011-2012 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 21 . reflecting disparities in improved sanitation as well as in general hygiene and food safety 25 Percent 20 15 Management of Diarrhoea (Table 3. where access increased 88% 1996 Figure 3.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Food utilization refers both to household preparation practices of foods. but 35% of people still do not have such access • Disparities between rural and urban areas persist. particularly the presence of diarrhoea. although both areas have increased their access to improved sanitation Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. mostly in rural areas (42%) 100 60 42 40 Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme.1) Zinc 15 11.2 Open Defecation From 1994 to 2012: • In 2011 29% of households continued this unhygienic practice. 2014 Rural 2012 2010 2008 0 2006 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 2012 2009 2006 2003 2000 1997 1994 Total 34 20 4 0 Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Nutrient absorption in the gut is strongly influenced by health status. 2014 40 65 40 2004 12 29 26 60 2002 20 72 70 2000 20 70 1998 51 40 80 1994 60 % Population % Population 65 62 84 78 80 80 0 100 90 % Population 100 20 Figure 3. Water and Sanitation Figure 3.1 Access to Improved Sanitation From 1994 to 2012: • Access to improved sanitation increased 221% in 18 years.3 Access to Improved Water Sources From 1994 to 2012: •Access to improved water sources increased 80% during 18 years •Disparities in access between urban and rural reduced considerably. Hygienic environmental conditions related to improved water and sanitation are important determinants of health and infection incidence and prevalence.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Laos . mostly by improving the situation in rural areas.Lao PDR .4 10 5.6 8. and to the absorption of nutrients by the human body after consumption.4 Diarrhoea • Diarrhoea is three rimes more frequent among the poorest wealth quintiles as among the wealthiest. which influence nutrient content of consumed foods.

7µmol/L) 25.8 5.1 1.2) Households consuming adequately iodized salt /a 79. semi-solid or soft food 100 Early initiation of breastfeeding Exclusive breast feeding rate (0-5 months) Percent 80 60 40 32 Figure 3. Iodine (Table 3. 100 50 Percent 41.7 29.2 20 50 0 31.1 10 0 6.4 2 2.5 Lowest Second 5.5 30 19. deserve ongoing attention.8 Child Malnutrition and Poverty •Children in the poorest quintile have 3 times higher stunting and weight deficits than children in the waelthier quintile •Overweight is not a public health issue Overweight 8-9 mo Wasting 60.2 5.6 Figure 3.6 6.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Laos . • Vitamin A deficiencies still represent a severe public health concern at 45%.4 12.1 Middle Fourth Highest Source: LAO_Lao Social Indicator Survey 2011-2012 22 59.199µg/L Source: a/ LAO_Lao Social Indicator Survey 2011-2012 b/WHO Global database on idodine deficiency .7 2 2.7umoL /b * VAD is a severe public health problem if >20% of preschool children (6-71 months) have low serum retinol (<0.9 % *Optimal UIC 100 .6 Complementary Feeding • Introduction of complementary feeding is timely for 50% of children • Only 43% of children aged 6-23 months meet the minimum meal frequency Minimum dietary diversity 40 30 Minimum meal frequency 39 20 26 0 2000 43 Minimum acceptable diet 2006 20112012 Source: LAO_Lao Social Indicator Survey 2011-2012 Figure 3.7 19.4 Vitamin A Supplementation Coverage .2 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 Source: a/ LAO_Lao Social Indicator Survey 2011-2012 b/ WHO Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in population at risk 1995-2005 report.9 Vitamin A • Vitamin A supplementation of 59% is not satisfactory and may be related to high vitamin A deficiency levels. but still more than half of children don't exclusively breast fed from 0-5 months.5 % Iodine deficiency (Urinary Iodine Concentration <100µg/L) among schoolage children (2003) /b 26.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Nutrition and Health Figure 3. and that food-based interventions. including food fortification.7 Vitamin A Deficiency (Pre-School Aged Children) <0.Lao PDR . Introduction of solid.full – children 6-59 months /a 75 50.7 Duration of Breastfeeding • More than 50% of children continued to breastfed after age 2 years • Complementary feeding begins prior to age 6 months for a significant proportion of breastfed children 50 Percent 20 40 60 Source: LAO_Lao Social Indicator Survey 2011-2012 100% Not breastfeeding 80% Breast milk and complementary foods 60% 40% 20% Exclusively breastfed 0% 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 mo mo mo mo Breast milk and other milk 70 60 Stunting Underweight 10-11 12-13 14-15 mo mo mo Breast milk and plain water only Source: 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 mo mo mo mo Breast milk and non-milk liquids LAO_Lao Social Indicator Survey 2011-2012 Micronutrient Status Figure 3.9 40 36. indicating that Vitamin A remains lacking in the daily diet.5 Exclusive Breastfeeding •Early initiation of breastfeeding increased from (32% to 39%) from 2000 to 2011 • Exclusive breastfeeding have increased significantly.1 25 44.

National Food Safety Policy. monitoring and inspection of food and food business to ensure quality. Decree on (mandatory) Universal Salt Iodization Nutrition related issues covered in these policies Maternal and Child Undernutrition Obesity and diet related NCDs Infant and Young Child Nutrition Child undernutrition yes Low Birth Weight yes Maternal undernutrition yes Child obesity Adult obesity both Diet related NCDs yes Breastfeeding yes Complementary feeding yes Int’l Code of Marketing of BMS yes Comments Policy covers stunting. National Nutrition Policy 2008 3.Lao PDR . Policy to use zinc with Oral Rehydration Salts in management of diarrhoea adopted but not implemented Ministry of Health is developing delivery modalities for home fortification with multiple microntrient powder for young childre through public and private sectors Food fortification yes Mandatory: Salt Food Safety yes Food security yes Supplementation: Vitamin A children/women Vitamins and Minerals Covered Underlying and contextual Food Aid factors Nutrition and Infection Gender Maternal leave yes yes yes The National Nutrition Policy promotes a multisectoral approach. effectiveness. monitoring and inspection of food and food business to ensure quality. Food law (2013) This Law defines principles. although multi sectorial coordination mechanisms need further strengthening. and under the WFP school feeding programme Food safety policies or legislation 1. provisions for nursing breaks after return to work 13 weeks Social Protection policies or legislation including food or nutrition component No institutionalized cash transfer schemes in Lao PDR.1 Enabling environment for Nutrition and Food security .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Laos .Policy documents addressing nutrition issues 1. revised in 2007and undergoing another revision to be strengthened further. regulations and measures on the management.net/laopdr/index. effectiveness. Ministry Health No 020/MoH. Maternity leave for 105 days at full pay. and safety aiming at protection consumers' health. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2012) This Law defines principles. requires capacity strengthening National Guidelines on Infant and Young Child Feeding 2013 Provisions of the Int’l Code on BMS partially adopted (1995).php?option=com_remository&Itemid=13&func=fileinfo&id=44 Other policies addressing food security Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 23 . regulations and measures on the management. monitoring and enforcement weak. adopted by PM degree No: 028/PM 03/02/2009 http://www. 2. 3.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . National Food Security Strategy 2000-2010 2. although a few donor-supported pilots are currently in operation The World Food Programme (WFP) provides unconditional food transfers. wasting and underweight Community-Based Management of Acute Malnutrition (CMAM) piloted in vulnerable areas. National Nutrition Strategy and Plan of Action 2010-2015 4.foodsecuritylink. Law on Hygiene. in the form of either on-site feeding or take-home rations. Deworming guidelines for children 12-59 mo. Iron Folate children/women Zinc children both both yes Other vitamins & min child/women both Vitamin A Supplementation guidelines for children 6-59 mo. and safety aiming at protection consumers' health.

MDG database 2013 Update.7 2006-2008 Population below US $ 1. validated and properly published information available until June 2014. validity and proper publication are met.2) Adolescent birth rate (number of births per 1.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Laos . f/ LAO_Lao Social Indicator Survey 2011-2012 The information included in this Food Security and Nutrition Security Profile is backed by recognized. State of the World Children 2014 (data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified) e/ UN Statistics Division.84 % 2008 Male Life expectancy at birth (Years) /c Female Year Adolescents (Table .89 % 2012 4. World Development Indicators Database.25 (PPP) per day /c (%) Employment in agriculture sector (% of total employment) /c 85.646 2012 GDP annual growth rate /c 8.2 % 2012 Average annual population growth /a 1. it has not been included in this profile.1) Year Economic Indicators (Table .74 2008 Education level of mothers of under-fives: None (%) /f 32 2011 Gini index /c (100= complete inequality.5. d/ UNICEF. until requirements of quality.3 % 2012 69.3) Year Population size (thousands) /a 6.64 % 2008 Richest 20% 44.388 2012 Proportion of population urbanised /c 34.4 % 1995 Poverty gap ratio /e 9 2008 Women employed in agriculture sector (% of total female employment) /c) 89. 24 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 .Lao PDR .2 2012 33. c/ World Bank.2 Demographic Indicators (Table .5.3 % 2011 GDP per capita (PPP) (constant 2011 international dollars) /c Number of children <5 years (thousand) /a 860 2012 36. Although updated information might be available at national level form different sources. 2014 Update. 0= complete equality) 32.000 adolescent girls aged 15-19) /a 65 2012 Adolescent girls aged 15-19 currently married or in union /d 25 % 2005–2012 18 2008–2012 Women aged 20-24 who gave birth before age 18 /d (%) Sources: a/ World Bank Health Nutrition and Population Statistics 2013 b/ FAOSTAT 2013 Update.3 % 1995 Income share held by households /c Poorest 20% 7.5.88 2008 Agriculture population density(people/ ha of arable land /b) 3.63 2002 66 2012 Unemployment rate /c 1.

Unhealthy dietary practices and lack of physical activity could be the contributing factors for overweight and obesity in the country.6 Percent 10 2012 International $ 24000 2656 1500 • Neonatal mortality reduced 45% GDP per person.Malaysia . adherence to the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is voluntary and only about one in every seven infants is exclusively breastfed until 6 months of age.5 Source: Inter-agency Group for CME (2013) 2 1990 Kcal per person per day 2336 4 3 12000 7.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Malaysia . Total <2 yr 0 500 0 1990 Infant 1 8000 4.3 6 16000 10000 8. although unpublished data from the Health Informatics Centre indicate success in reducing anemia among pregnant women from 38% in 2004 to 12% in 2013.2 14.1) Underweight women (BMI < 18.5 Anaemia • Anemia is still a moderate public health issue in Malaysia for women and young children.2 5.4 8. Figure 1. it is encouraging to note that Malaysia has managed to reduce the rate of increase of obesity prevalence in 2011 to 15. PPP (constant 2011 dollars) Undernourished in total population 2855 2500 Figure 1.5 5 1995 5 5 7. The prevalence of obesity in Malaysia has increased from 4.5 kg/m2) 8. population < 20 should be analyzed using WHO growth reference for school aged children and adolescents Proportion of infants with low birth weight Source: 11 % 2007 National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011 /LBW SOWC 2014 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 25 . • In Malaysia. a public health concern Overweight Stunting Underweight Wasting 23 22 23 20 18 2011 17 17 6 2006 1995 1994 1993 1999 6 1992 2015 2010 2005 20 40 60 80 Prevalence of Anaemia (%) 100 Source: WHO Worldwide prevalence of Anaemia (1993-2005) Vegetal Origin 1991 38 0 13 1990 30 Pregnant women Animal Origin Source : FAOSTAT FBS: 2014 update 32 Non .2 7 18000 2000 10. with 17% overall stunted.1%.4% in 1996 to 14% in 2006.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Key Indicators • Malaysia has doubled its per-capita GDP in real terms and kept undernourishment stable and at very low levels.3 4. • Access to improved water and sanitation is nearly universal in rural and urban Malaysia.4 2000 14000 6 8.3 Child Malnutrition From 1990 to 2006: • Stunting declined 17%. However.1 Food Availability From 1990 to 2011: •DES increased 7% •Animal-origin supply increased 7% •Vegetal-origin products increased 8% and remain the major DES source 1000 2171 10155 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1992 Source: GDP: WDI 2014 / Undernourished: FAO FSI_2013 Figure 1.7 8.2 % 2011 Overweight adults (BMI >= 25 kg/m2) 44.4 Child Mortality From 1990 to 2012: • Under-5 mortality reduced 49% • Infant mortality reduced 49% 1990 3000 Figure 1.3 8 20000 519 MDG Target 9 21897 22000 485 16. with 13% overall underweight. which affects nearly half of the adult population. routine data indicate a very successful decline in anaemia amongst pregnant women in recent years. considered a low level • Underweight declined 42%. a medium level •Low Birth Weight was 11% in 2007.1% in 2011.2 Undernourishment and Economic Growth From 1990 to 2012: • GDP per capita increased 115% • Undernourishment remained below 5% Source: WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition 2013 Anthropometry (Table 1. and then increased gradually to 15.5 % 2011 * BMI values calculated using adult cut off points. • Although anemia amongst women and children has been a moderate public health issue.pregnant women of reproductive age 15 Total Dietary Energy Supply (DES) Under fives Children <5 years 21 21 Neonatal Figure 1.

811 110 98 Fruits & vegetables 437 414 Vegetable oils 104 84 Fish & Fish products Animal fats 22 Pulses 39 Starchy roots 27 0 28 Figure 2.855 (2011) 1 397 215 Wheat Meat & Milk & Eggs 393 372 Sugars and syrups 402 351 • Food prices are correlated to general inflation. HLSS_2013 Update. Malaysia 26 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 Source: ILOSTAT Database Consumer Price Indices 2014 751 Rice 2004 2000 Cereals 0 2003 0 1253 1080 2002 1990 2001 2011 3 2 .200 1.600 Source: UN_FAO Food Balance Sheets_2014 Update Percent • Cereals remained the most important source of food energy (44%).Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Malaysia . ECS. wheat has increased its contribution by 85% • Vegetable oils have slightly increased (6%). (almost 4 times as much) 80 Cereals 46 Fruits and vegetables 60 Fish 3 Sugars 4 13 40 Veg oils 13 20 Meat. SES.2 Economic access to food General and food inflation Percent General inflation Food inflation 10 9 8 7 6 Food Availability 5 4 Figure 2. Rice continues to be the major contributor among cereals.3 Share of food expenditure 28 (2009) 100 Non food items 77 400 800 1.Malaysia . and they still contribute significantly to overall DES • Fruits and vegetables contribute only 4% of DES.1 Food supply by food 3 (kcal/person/year) Total dietary energy supply= 2. whereas sugars and syrups contribute 14%. however.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Availability / Food Access Access to food Figure 2. milk and eggs Other 0 % Total expenditure per person per day 13 8 % Dietry energy Consumption Source: UN_FAO RAP based on national HIES.

2014 Food Safety The mandate for Ministry of Health Malaysia to ensure food safety and protect consumers against fraud in the preparation.1) Zinc No Data Share of children under age 5 with diarrhoea receiving zinc treatment - Existing policy framework Zinc Supplementation and Reformulated Oral Rehydration Salt in the Management of Diarrhea Source: Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 27 . 2014 20 1 1 0 82 100 99 1999 6 2 20 80 100 1996 40 94 88 1990 60 100 9 96 95 84 81 Figure 3. just 1.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Food utilization refers both to household preparation practices of foods.2 Open Defecation • Open defecation has almost completely been solved. Hygienic environmental conditions related to improved water and sanitation are important determinants of health and infection incidence and prevalence. sale and use of food is provided through the Food Act 1983 and its regulations. In Malaysia. Figure 3. Nutrient absorption in the gut is strongly influenced by health status.1 Access to Improved Sanitation From 1990 to 2012: • Access to improved sanitation increased 13% in 22 years and covers 96% of the population • Disparities between rural and urban areas are non-existent Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. which influence nutrient content of consumed foods. 2014 Rural 2011 2008 0 2005 2011 2008 2005 2002 1999 1996 1993 1990 2011 2008 2005 2002 1999 1996 1993 1990 Total 0 2002 0 0 Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Water and Sanitation 10 8 60 5 40 4 Rural Urban Total Rural Total Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme.Malaysia . Based on this mandate. and to the absorption of nutrients by the human body after consumption.2% of the population in rural areas continues this practice 1993 Figure 3. particularly the presence of diarrhoea. strategies and activities are formulated to ensure that an effective food control system is in place to ensure that unsafe food is not placed on the market (including for export) and that systems exist to identify and respond to food safety problems in order to protect consumers' health.4 Diarrhoea Management of Diarrhoea (Table 3.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Malaysia .3 Access to Improved Water Sources From 1990 to 2012: • Almost 100% of homes have improved water source access % Population % Population 80 96 88 % Population 100 Figure 3. to the extent that they no longer represent a key development issue. water and sanitation conditions have improved during the past 20 years.

Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) III. Source: Infant Feeding.9 Vitamin A •Vitamin A deficiencies (only 3. 2006.5 * VAD is a severe public health problem if >20% of preschool children (6-71 months) have low serum retinol (<0.199µg/L Source: National IDD Survey Malaysia.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Malaysia .8 Child Malnutrition and Poverty Micronutrient Status Figure 3. 2008 28 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 .5 Exclusive Breastfeeding Figure 3. Figure 3.4% Source: Infant Feeding. Iodine (Table 3. b/ WHO Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in population at risk 19952005 report (2009). Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) III.full – children 6-59 months /a Percent 75 No Data 50 Vitamin A Deficiency (Pre-School Aged Children) <0.7 Duration of Breastfeeding • Continued breastfeeding rate (20-23 months) = 37.2 % *Optimal UIC 100 .5% • Timely complementary feeding rate (6-9 months) = 41. Ministry of Health Malaysia.2) Households consuming adequately iodized salt 2008 17.5% of pre-schoolers) indicate that Vitamin A is adequate in the daily diet 100 Vitamin A Supplementation Coverage . 2006. Ministry of Health Malaysia. Ministry of Health Malaysia.Malaysia . Third National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) III.5% Source: Infant Feeding. Figure 3.7µmol/L) Source: a/ UNICEF. 2006.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Nutrition and Health Figure 3.7umoL /b 25 0 0 3.6 Complementary Feeding • Exclusive breastfeeding rate (<6 months) = 14.6 % Iodine deficiency (Urinary Iodine Concentration <100µg/L) among schoolage children 48. State of the World's Children 2014.

National Dietary Guidelines for Malaysians and Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysia. Social Protection policies or legislation including food or nutrition component 1. through collaborative efforts to safeguard human health. Guidelines for the Feeding of Infants and Young Children 6. Dietary Guidelines.National Policy and Plan of Action for Children 2007. Nutrition related issues covered in these policies Maternal and Child Undernutrition Obesity and diet related NCDs Infant and Young Child Nutrition Child undernutrition yes Low Birth Weight yes Maternal undernutrition yes Child obesity Adult obesity both Diet related NCDs yes Breastfeeding yes Complementary feeding yes Int’l Code of Marketing of BMS Vitamins and Minerals Covered Comments Code of Ethics for the Marketing of Infant Foods and Related Products.1 Enabling environment for Nutrition and Food security . Family and Community Development Malaysia Food safety policies or legislation 1. 2005 4. 2. The National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition operates through the establishment of five technical working groups (TWGs): Policy. Training and Research in collaboration with other government and non-government agencies.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . Legislation Food Safety and consumer protection against fraud in the preparation. Adherence to provisions in the international code of BMS is voluntary Voluntary Supplementation: Vitamin A children/women Iron Folate children/women Zinc children Other vitamins & min child/women no yes no yes Food fortification yes Voluntary for various types of food such as flour.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Malaysia . Food Hygiene Regulations 2009 and Food Irradiation Regulations 2011.Malaysia . Family and Community Development Malaysia 2. spreads and biscuits. National Food Safety Policy and Its Plan of Action Food safety activities in Malaysia are guided by the National Food Safety Policy developed in 2002. Promotion. will ensure that the food safety policies are well managed and implemented. Paternity leave of 7 days for government employees. Ministry of Women. The Food Safety and Nutrition Council. milk. National Nutrition Policy of Malaysia (Ministry of Health. chaired by the Honourable Minister of Health Malaysia. Food Safety Underlying and contextual Food security factors yes Food Aid yes Nutrition and Infection yes Gender Maternal leave Iron Folate and other vitamines available for pregnant women yes 12 weeks Maternity leave allowance for non-wage labourers not less than RM6 per day Tax exemptions for employers that set-up crèches to facilitate paid nursing breaks after return to work. The policy provides direction to all stakeholders in establishing and implementing food safety measures. National Plan of Action for Nutrition Malaysia (2006-2015) Provides the multisectoral framework for the country’s nutrition interventions. 2005) 2. National Policy and Plan of Action for Child Protection 2007 Ministry of Women. bread. The subsidiary legislation under the Food Act 1983 inclues the Food Regulations 1985. sale and use of food through the Food Act 1983 and related regulation. 3. National Breastfeeding Policy – (1993) Government has directed the public sector to set up crèches to facilitate breast-feeding at the workplace 5. Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 29 . The subsidiary legislation under the Food Act 1983 includes the Food Regulations 1985. sale and use of food is governed through the Food Act 1983 and related regulation. Malaysian Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents.Policy documents addressing nutrition issues 1. yes The Ministry of Health ensures food safety and protects consumers against fraud in the preparation. Food Hygiene Regulations 2009 and Food Irradiation Regulations 2011. cereal-based foods.

health condition and personal hygiene.4 % 2012 Number of children <5 years (thousand) 2. Although updated information might be available at national level form different sources. validity and proper publication are met.2 2012 Agriculture population density(people/ ha of arable land /b) 0.21 2009 46 2007 Unemployment rate /c 3. e/ UN Statistics Division.6 % 2012 Poverty gap ratio /e Women employed in agriculture sector (% of total female employment) /c) 8. The information included in this Food Security and Nutrition Security Profile is backed by recognized. b/ FAOSTAT 2013 Update. This includes the requirements such as: the conduct and maintenance of food premises including implementation of food safety assurance programme and food traceability system. it has not been included in this profile.45 % 2009 Proportion of population urbanised 73. drug residues. Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry Demographic Indicators (Table . pesticide residue. National Agrofood Policy 2011-2020. packing.5.54 % 2009 Richest 20% 51. 0= complete equality) 46.3) Year Population size (thousands) /a 29.25 (PPP) per day /c (%) 0 2009 0 2009 Poorest 20% 4.240 2012 GDP annual growth rate /c 5. Food Irradiation Regulations 2011 Food Irradiation Regulations 2011 regulates irradiated food and its premises.897 2012 Gini index /c (100= complete inequality. 2013 update. d/ UNICEF.1 % 2012 Population below US $ 1. 2014 Update. iii.000 adolescent girls aged 15-19) /a 14 2008 Adolescent girls aged 15-19 currently married or in union /d 5% 2005-2012 - - Women aged 20-24 who gave birth before age 18 /d (%) Sources: a/ World Bank. serving. State of the World Children 2014 (data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified) . additives. Ministry of Agriculture & Agro-based Industry 2. validated and properly published information available until June 2014. preparing.2 i. Malaysian Food Regulations 1985 The Food Regulations 1985 prescribe standards for food including standards of identity for foods. 30 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . c/ World Bank.66 % 2012 GDP per capita (PPP) (constant 2011 international dollars) /c 21. until requirements of quality.2) Adolescent birth rate (number of births per 1. Food Hygiene Regulations 2009 The Food Hygiene Regulations 2009 regulates food premises and activities in relation to these premises.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . MDG database 2013 Update. World Development Indicators Database.5.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Malaysia . ii. Food Security Policy 2008 .5. and special requirements in handling.64 % 2012 Average annual population growth 1.483 2012 - - 73 2012 77. microbiological contaminants and labelling of foods. The Food Regulations 1985 is updated on a regular basis to be in line with Codex and current needs.2 % 2012 Income share held by households /c Education level of mothers of under-fives: None (%) Male Life expectancy at birth (Years) /a Female Year Adolescents (Table . storing and selling specific food.Malaysia . Health Nutrition and Population Statistics. Other policies addressing food security 1.5 2006-2008 Employment in agriculture sector (% of total employment) /c 12. food handlers training.2010.1) Year Economic Indicators (Table .

1 56.0 58.3 1990 2500 41.7 41.1 Food Availability From 1990 to 2011: •DES increased 30% •Animal-origin supply increased 373% •Vegetal-origin products increased 14 % and remain the major DES source Figure 1. insufficient progress to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target • Infant mortality reduced 46% • Neonatal mortality reduced 36% 106.5 52. but remains very high. iodine and Vitamin A deficiencies. a lack of diversity in the food supply.5 kg/m2) 16.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Key Indicators • Myanmar has experienced growth in Dietary Energy Supply (DES).2005 50 1997 2000 27.4 % 2009 * BMI values calculated using adult cut off points. population < 20 should be analyzed using WHO growth reference for school aged children and adolescents Proportion of infants with low birth weight 9% 2009-2010 Source: Noncommunicable Disease Risk Factor Survey 2009 /MICS 2009-10 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 31 .4 Child Mortality From 1990 to 2012: • Under-5 mortality reduced 51%.3 43. Dietary quality remains poor. along with high levels of anaemia. extremely high among pregnant women (71%). a poor outcome • Overweight reduced from 12% to 3% 500 46 Overweight Stunting Underweight Wasting 48 39 0 1990 Children <5 years Non .5 Anaemia • Anaemia is a severe public health issue. Figure 1. and children under 5 (75%) and Total also high in non-pregnant women (45%) <2 yr Figure 1. and inadequate access to improved sanitation have also playd a role in child malnutrition.1) 35 30 23 2 2 Source: Myanmar MICS 2009 .2 Undernourishment and Economic Growth Figure 1.2003.5 % 2009 Overweight adults (BMI >= 25 kg/m2) 25. at 23% • Wasting in 2009 was 8%.4 3000 MDG Target 35 78. low on protein and vitamins and with high carbohydrates. In addition.Myanmar . • While there have been improvements in child nutrition. poor diet quality has contributed to high levels of stunting and underweight. Most household expenditures are related to food.1 34. at 35% of young children • Underweight declined 31%. The country launched its entry into the global Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) movement in May 2013.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Myanmar .pregnant women of reproductive age 41 Source : FAOSTAT FBS: 2014 update 25 1994 1995 12 1991 20 40 60 80 Prevalence of Anaemia (%) 100 Anthropometry (Table 1. low levels of exclusive breastfeeding.2010 / WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition 2013 3 8 2009-2010 Vegetal Origin Total Dietary Energy Supply (DES) 71 0 41 2003 28 30 2000 Animal Origin 45 Pregnant women 2011 33 75 Source: Myanmar National Nutrition Center Surveys 2001. • Myanmar is making significant efforts to address the nutrition situation.8 76.5 2000 2528 Underweight women (BMI < 18.3 Child Malnutrition From 1991 to 2009: • Stunting declined 24%. but also remains very high.6 26.4 No Data Infant Neonatal 2015 2012 2010 2005 1995 430 1938 Under fives Source: Inter-agency Group for CME (2013) 91 1500 2098 1000 Kcal per person per day 1846 Figure 1.

Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Myanmar .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Availability / Food Access Access to food Figure 2.3 Share of food expenditure 160 42 Pulses 100 400 800 1. Vegetable oils have also increased 52% and are also significant contributors to DES • The diet is evidently rice-based. but their contribution to overall DES has decreased • Products from animal origin increased notably.1 Food supply by food group 30 20 1170 Rice 46 Wheat 1357 56 164 52 Sugars and syrups 126 60 Fruits & vegetables 304 200 Vegetable oils 96 27 Fish & Fish products 30 Animal fats 8 Figure 2. for example. HLSS_2013 Update.600 • Cereals remain the most important source of food energy (50%).2 Economic access to food General and food inflation Percent General inflation Food inflation 100 90 80 70 60 Food Availability 50 40 Figure 2. SES.528 (2011) . ECS. While cereals contributed 52 % to food intake. meat. Myanmar 32 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 Source: ILOSTAT Database Consumer Price Indices 2014 • General inflation was correlated with food inflation • Families spent more than 70% of their income on food. they only affected 17% of food expenditure at household level 22 306 Meat & Milk & Eggs 2006 1423 4 2005 Cereals -10 2004 1261 0 2003 0 2002 1990 2001 2011 10 2000 (kcal/person/year) Total dietary energy supply= 2.Myanmar . milk and eggs have increased 446%. milk and eggs 4 1 4 13 Other 6 3 3 % Total expenditure per person per day % Dietry energy Consumption Sources: UN_FAO RAP based on national HIES.200 Cereals 1. with rice contributing to 92% of cereals 80 Percent 0 Source: UN_FAO Food Balance Sheets_2014 Update (2006) Non food items 54 10 Starchy roots 42 Fruits and vegetables 60 70 Fish Sugars 17 40 Veg oils 10 20 8 0 5 9 0 Meat.

Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Myanmar . especially in rural areas.3. 2014 Total Rural 81 56 60 48 40 Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. These improvements have contributed to the reduction in malnutrition among under-5 children shown in Fig.3 5 5 0 Lowest Source: MMR_MICS 2009-2010 Second Middle Wealth quintile Fourth Highest Share of children under age 5 with diarrhoea receiving zinc treatment - Existing policy framework Zinc Supplementation and Reformulated Oral Rehydration Salt in the Management of Diarrhea Source: Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 33 .1 Access to Improved Sanitation From 1991 to 2012: • Access to improved sanitation increased 46% in 21 years. although they have been reduced to a 14% difference 1993 Figure 3. Water and Sanitation Figure 3. 2014 Food Safety Figure 3. 1.2 Open Defecation In 2012: • 5% of the population practiced open defecation 100 100 80 80 95 40 20 Rural Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. In Myanmar.1) 7.8 7. which influence nutrient content of consumed foods. but 24% of the population still does not have such access • Disparities between rural and urban areas have decreased significantly Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. 2014 Total Rural 2011 2008 2005 2002 0 1999 5 1990 2009 2007 1 2005 2011 2009 2007 2005 2003 2001 1999 1997 1995 1993 1991 Total 1991 0 0 86 80 20 8 15 2 2011 20 20 2003 45 2001 40 60 1999 53 1997 60 1995 72 1993 76 % Population % Population 77 % Population 84 80 1996 100 Figure 3. and is slightly more common among the poorest wealth quintiles Percent 20 Zinc 15 10 Management of Diarrhoea (Table 3.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Food utilization refers both to household preparation practices of foods. and to the absorption of nutrients by the human body after consumption.Myanmar .3 Access to Improved Water Sources From 1990 to 2012: • Access to improved water sources increased 54% during 22 years • Disparities in access between urban and rural areas remain. Hygienic environmental conditions related to improved water and sanitation are important determinants of health and infection incidence and prevalence. water and sanitation conditions have been improving during the past 20 years.2 6.8 6. Nutrient absorption in the gut is strongly influenced by health status.4 Diarrhoea • Diarrhoea among young children ranges from 5% to 8%. particularly the presence of diarrhoea.

1 30 27.2) Second Middle Fourth 6.7 33.7 Duration of Breastfeeding • Continued breastfeeding at one year of age (12-15 months) is 91%. but is more prevalent in wealthier quintiles Overweight Stunting Underweight Figure 3.8 Child Malnutrition and Poverty Stunting and underweight are more than twice as common in the poorest quintile as in the wealthiest Wasting exhibits a poor outcome in all quintiles • Overweight is not a public health issue overall. • Continued breastfeeding at two years of age (20-23 months) is 65%.5 Exclusive Breastfeeding •Early initiation of breastfeeding stands at 76% •Exclusive breastfeeding rate for children aged 0-5 months is 24% Figure 3.Myanmar .6 35 50 Percent 40 35.199µg/L Source: a/ UNICEF State of the World’s Children 2014 b/USI Monitoring System.6 15 5 9.7 Vitamin A Deficiency (Pre-School Aged Children) <0. not a satisfactory coverage rate.8 0 Lowest 55.6 45 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 93 % 22. Source: MMR_MICS 2009-2010 Micronutrient Status Figure 3.9 20 10 Vitamin A Supplementation Coverage .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Myanmar .6 Iodine (Table 3. Iodated Salt Consumption Surveys . semi-solid or soft food 100 76 Percent 80 60 40 20 Minimum dietary diversity Minimum meal frequency 24 11 81 57 Minimum acceptable diet 2000 2009-2010 0 Source: MMR_MICS 2009-2010 Percent 0 20 40 60 80 100 Source: MMR_MICS 2009-2010 Figure 3.9 2 2.7 16.9 Vitamin A • Vitamin A supplementation (60%).6 20.5 7.7 2.6 Complementary Feeding Introduction of complementary feeding is timely for 81% of children Early initiation of breastfeeding Exclusive breast feeding rate (0-5 months) Introduction of solid.7 25 21.1 7.7µmol/L) Source: a/ MICS 2009-2010 b/ WHO Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in population at risk 1995-2005 report.9 0 23.4 Iodine deficiency (Urinary Iodine Concentration <100µg/L) among schoolage children (2006) /b Highest Source: Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009-2010 34 25 13.3 % *Optimal UIC 100 .9 Households consuming adequately iodized salt (2008-2012)/a 3.full – children 6-59 months /a 75 46. 2.7umoL /b * VAD is a severe public health problem if >20% of preschool children (6-71 months) have low serum retinol (<0.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Nutrition and Health Figure 3.6 7.2 36. • Severely high rates of Vitamin A deficiencies (37% of pre-schoolers) indicate that Vitamin A is lacking in the daily diet Wasting 100 50 39.

street food quality is handled by City Development Committee. National Food Law (1997) Monitoring by Food and Drug Board of Authority.Myanmar . National Food and Nutrition Policy In 2002 an inter-sectorial Technical Working Group with participants from 19 departments was designated by the Central Board for F&N to take a multi-sectorial approach to nutrition forward and decided to develop a Food and Nutrition Policy. A total of 99 per cent of the population has no access to predictable social protection. the plan is multi-sectorial in its approach 3.. Food safety activities are coordinated by Food and Drug Board of Authority Other policies addressing food security Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 35 . Department of Developmental Affairs (DDA) is responsible for food hygiene and food safety of food manufactures and food stalls. Discussion on social transfers for poverty alleviation have been initiated (UNICEF-ODI document 2011) Food safety policies or legislation 1. They include cash transfers to families with three or more children.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . and school feeding programmes for Early Childhood Development.1 Enabling environment for Nutrition and Food security . adolescent girls and pregnant women Mandatory: Salt (new law just submitted to Parliament) ? yes ? Policies take a multisectoral approach to nutrition ? 12 weeks Social Protection policies or legislation including food or nutrition component Social protection programmes are offered by sector Ministries.Policy documents addressing nutrition issues 1. subsidies for medical care for pregnant women. assistance to rural families. and produce departmental profiles with nutrition related activities 2.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Myanmar . child obesity is not addressed specifically Iron Folic Acid supplementation guidelines for children 6-36mo. has not been finalized and approved. National Plan of Action for Food and Nutrition (NPAFN) (2005-2010) Monitoring by Central Board for Food and Nutrition under the National Health Committee NPAFN updating process initiated in 2011. Public Health Law (1993) Nutrition related issues covered in these policies Maternal and Child Undernutrition Obesity and diet related NCDs Infant and Young Child Nutrition Vitamins and Minerals Covered Child undernutrition yes Low Birth Weight yes Maternal undernutrition yes Child obesity Adult obesity both Diet related NCDs yes Breastfeeding yes Complementary feeding yes Int’l Code of Marketing of BMS yes Supplementation: Vitamin A children/women Iron Folate children/women Zinc children Other vitamins & min child/women both both ? ? Food fortification yes Food Safety yes Food security Underlying and contextual Food Aid factors Nutrition and Infection Gender Maternal leave Comments Although obesity and related NCDs feature as emerging issues in the NPAFN.

5.1 2012 Agriculture population density(people/ ha of arable land /b) 2.2010 The information included in this Food Security and Nutrition Security Profile is backed by recognized.393 2012 10 2009-2010 63 2012 67.Myanmar .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . validity and proper publication are met. Although updated information might be available at national level form different sources.000 adolescent girls aged 15-19) /a 12 2012 Adolescent girls aged 15-19 currently married or in union /d 7.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Myanmar . d/ UNICEF.8 % 1990 - - - - - - 6% 1990 Population below US $ 1.7 % 1998 - - Education level of mothers of under-fives: None (%) Male Gini index /c (100= complete inequality.3) Year 2. State of the World Children 2014 (data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified) e/ UN Statistics Division. 0= complete equality) Unemployment rate /c Life expectancy at birth (Years) /a Female Women employed in agriculture sector (% of total female employment) /c) Year Adolescents (Table .5. World Development Indicators Database.797 2012 GDP annual growth rate /c Average annual population growth 0.25 (PPP) per day /c (%) - - Poverty gap ratio /e - - Poorest 20% - - Richest 20% - - Population size (thousands) /a 52. it has not been included in this profile.2 % 2012 Number of children <5 years (thousand) 4.85 % 2012 GDP per capita (PPP) (constant 2011 international dollars) /c Proportion of population urbanised 33.5.4 % 2009-2010 13 2000-2007 Women aged 20-24 who gave birth before age 18 /d (%) Income share held by households /c Sources: a/ World Bank Health Nutrition and Population Statistics 2013 b/ FAOSTAT 2013 Update.2) Adolescent birth rate (number of births per 1. 2014 Update.2 Demographic Indicators (Table .9 2006-2008 Employment in agriculture sector (% of total employment) /c 62. validated and properly published information available until June 2014. c/ World Bank. f/ Myanmar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009 . MDG database 2013 Update. 36 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 .1) Year Economic Indicators (Table . until requirements of quality.

but remained high at 30% • Underweight declined 26%.3 % 2011 31. In addition. FNRI b/2008 NNS.1 % 2013 21 % 2008-2012 a/SOWC 2014/Nutrition Facts and Figures 2011 FNRI-DOST b/8th National Nutrition Survey.5 2608 2500 20 40. • In addition.8 23.5 22.4 25 1000 2014 39 27 0 1990 2011 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 Overweight Stunting Underweight 40 39 Wasting 26 36 Children 1-5 years/a Source : FAOSTAT FBS: 2014 update Pregnant women/a 0 2010 40 20 21 20 20 7 7 8 Underweight women (BMI* < 18.7 5500 24. it is still most prevalent in the youngest children (39%).Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Key Indicators • Although the Philippines has experienced growth in per-capita GDP and Dietary Energy Supply (DES).6 30.2 15 4010 1992 2000 1995 4500 275 2218 20 1990 390 17. Figure 1. FNRI -DOST 21 7 1998 25 34 6 1996 21 32 8 8 1992 1993 2005 Non . will not achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target • Infant mortality reduced 43% • Neonatal mortality reduced 39% Figure 1.5 kg/m2)/a Underweight adolescent girls aged 10-19 (BMI -2SD)/a 4 5 Overweight adults (BMI* >= 25 kg/m2)/b 7 6 6 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 Source: 8th National Nutrition Survey 2013.9 2290 1500 24.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Philippines .Philippines .6 2000 5000 29.7 Source: Inter-agency Group for CME (2013) 10 3500 1990 Kcal per person per day 4000 Infant 16. the dietary quality has remained poor and based on cereals.2 Undernourishment and Economic Growth From 1990 to 2012: • GDP per capita increased 50% • Undernourishment declined 34% GDP per person.1 Food Availability Anthropometry (Table 1.5 2015 From 1990 to 2011: •DES increased 14% •Animal-origin supply (including livestock and fish) increased 42% •Vegetal-origin products (mainly cereals) increased 10% and remained the major DES source 2012 Figure 1.4 Child Mortality From 1990 to 2012: • Under-5 mortality reduced 49%. and obesity represents an emerging issue because of unbalanced and calorie-dense diets as well as reduced levels of physical activity. and inadequate access to improved sanitation and high levels of food inflation have also contributed to malnutrition.5 Anaemia • Anaemia levels have declined in recent years. Source: GDP: WDI 2014 / Undernourished: FAO FSI_2013 500 14.7 % 2011 10.pregnant women of reproductive age/b Animal Origin Total Dietary Energy Supply (DES) 11 33 24 Vegetal Origin 39 34 24 23 Under fives Children 6-11 months/a Figure 1. at 8%. • The poor quality of diet has contributed to high levels of stunting and underweight among young children. one-third of adults are overweight. FNRI 30 2013 2011 3 2008 2005 2003 2001 20 60 80 100 Prevalence of Anaemia (%) Source: a/8th National Nutrition Survey 2013. and stood at 5% •Low Birth Weight (21%) represents a serious public health concern 41 Neonatal 14. FNRI Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 37 .3 Child Malnutrition From 1992 to 2013: • Stunting declined 27%.1) Proportion of infants with low birth weight/a Source: 10.4 41. socioeconomic inequalities have been highly associated with malnutrition.0 6005 6000 MDG Target 58. • There is still a need to further decrease anemia. but remained high at 20% • Wasting. comprised a “poor” situation • Overweight increased 400%. PPP (constant 2011 dollars) Undernourished in total population International $ 6500 3000 Percent 30 31.0 Figure 1.

Philippines - Food and Nutrition Security Profiles
Philippines - Food and Nutrition Security Profiles
Food Availability / Food Access
Access to food
Figure 2.2 Economic access to food
General and food inflation
Percent

General inflation
Food inflation

14
12
10

Food Availability

8

Figure 2.1 Food supply by food group - main food commodities
contributing in aggregate to more than 80 percent of the dietary energy

6

(kcal/person/year) Total dietary energy supply= 2608 (2011)

4
2.3

1990

2

110

Wheat

233

Fruits & vegetables

205
200

268

151
126

Vegetable oils
60

Fish & Fish products

70

58
24

Animal fats

21

Pulses

0

Figure 2.3 Share of food expenditure

15

82

Starchy roots

100

400

800

1,200

1,600

Cereals

80

Percent

56

Fruits and
vegetables

59

•Although cereals remain the most important source of food energy,
animal fats have more than doubled their availability, by 142%, and
meat increased 51%
• Rice contributes to 56% of the food intake; more than 75% of rice
consumed in Philippines is locally produced. Nevertheless, imports
and stock management still play an important role in rice availability.

(2009)

Non food items

106

Source: UN_FAO Food Balance Sheets_2014 Update

60

Fish
Sugars

8

40
12

3

Veg oils

9

5
20

6

1
10

0

6

1

5

Meat, milk and
eggs

11

Other

10

% Total expenditure per person
per day

% Dietry energy Consumption

Sources: UN_FAO RAP based on national HIES, ECS, SES, HLSS_2013 Update, Philippines

38

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

•Food prices are in general correlated to the general price index.
•Families generally spent one-third of their income on food. While cereals
contributed more than half (56%) of food intake, they only affected 10%
of food expenditure at household level.

273
181

Sugars and syrups

2005

Source: ILOSTAT Database Consumer Price Indices 2014

150

Meat & Milk & Eggs

0
2004

927

0

1168

2003

Rice

1465

2002

1204

2001

Cereals

2000

2011

Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN
Volume 1

Philippines - Food and Nutrition Security Profiles
Philippines - Food and Nutrition Security Profiles
Food Utilization
Food utilization refers both to household preparation practices of foods, which influence nutrient content of consumed foods, and
to the absorption of nutrients by the human body after consumption. Nutrient absorption in the gut is strongly influenced by
health status, particularly the presence of diarrhoea. Hygienic environmental conditions related to improved water and sanitation
are important determinants of health and infection incidence and prevalence. In Philippines, water and sanitation conditions have
improved during the past 20 years, resulting in a decrease in diarrhoea prevalence. These improvements have contributed to the
reduction in malnutrition among under-5 children shown in Fig 1.3. At the same time, coverage of improved management of
diarrhoea with zinc supplementation is still too low to have a notable impact.

Water and Sanitation
Figure 3.1 Access to Improved Sanitation
From 1990 to 2012:
• Access to improved sanitation increased 30%
in 22 years
• Disparities in access between rural and urban
areas have decreased (from 24% to 10%)
• 26% of people do not have access to improved
sanitation

Figure 3.2 Open Defecation
From 1990 to 2012:
• Open defecation decreased 51% in 22 years
• In rural areas (12%) this unhygienic practice
is three times more common than in urban
areas (4%).

Figure 3.3 Access to Improved Water Sources
From 1990 to 2012:
•Disparities in access to improved water
sources between urban and rural areas have
been essentially overcome
• At least 92% of people have sustainable
access to improved water

100

100

80

80

100

69

60

74
69

57
45

40

% Population

80

% Population

84
79

60
40

75
60
40

23

Rural

Total

Urban

Rural

20

Urban

Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, 2014

Total

2011

2008

2005

2002

1999

1996

1993

0
1990

2011

2008

2011

2008

2005

2002

1999

1996

1993

1990

Total

Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, 2014

2005

0

0

2002

8

8
4
1999

12

1996

16

1993

20

20

1990

% Population

93

92

Rural

Urban

Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme, 2014

Food Safety
Quality and food safety efforts cover the entire complex chain of agriculture production, processing, transport, and food
production and consumption. On the production side, food safety challenges exist at farm level and in the processing stage. On
the consumption side, the prevalence of diarrhoea among under-5 children is relatively low for all wealth quintiles (Fig 3.4), even
as food contaminants remain a challenge.

Figure 3.4 Diarrhoea
• Diarrhoea among young children is most common in the poorest wealth
quintiles, reflecting disparities in sanitation as well as in general hygiene and
food safety
•Therapeutic zinc is used for diarrhoea treatment in only 2% of cases
25

Percent

10

Therapeutic zinc supplementation for diarrhoea treatment was only
recently introduced, and coverage was still low during the latest national
survey (2008).

Zinc

20
15

Management of Diarrhoea (Table 3.1)

10.3

11.1

8.1

Share of children under age 5 with diarrhoea receiving zinc
treatment
6.9

7.4

5
0
Lowest
Source: PHL_NDHS_2008

Second

Middle
Wealth quintile

Fourth

Highest

1.5 %

Existing policy framework
Zinc Supplementation and Reformulated Oral Rehydration Salt in the
Management of Diarrhea
Source:

PHL_NDHS_2008

Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN
Volume 1

39

Philippines - Food and Nutrition Security Profiles
Philippines - Food and Nutrition Security Profiles
Food Utilization
Nutrition and Health
Figure 3.5 Exclusive Breastfeeding From 1993 to 2008:
• Exclusive breastfeeding increased from 25% to 34%. Nevertheless, about
two-thirds of infants younger than 6 months old were not exclusively
breastfed.
•Early initiation of breastfeeding (54%) is correlated with lower infant
mortality and relatively prolonged breastfeeding.

Percent

100
Early initiation of breastfeeding
80

60
40

Exclusive breast feeding rate (0-5 months)

Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft
food

52

Minimum dietary diversity

48.9

Minimum meal frequency

54

41

36

37.0

20

Figure 3.6 Complementary Feeding
• Introduction of complementary feeding is timely for 84% of
children
• 22% of children aged 6-23 months meet the minimumdietary
diversity

54

33.5

25.1

34.0

1998

2003

Source: PHL_NDHS_2008, Nutritional Survey 2011

2008

22

Minimum acceptable diet

0
1993

84

2011

Percent

0

40%

Breast milk and
complementary foods

20%

Exclusively breastfed

0%
0-1 mo

Stunting

2-3 mo

4-5 mo

6-8 mo

9-11 mo

12-17 mo

Breast milk and non-milk liquids

Underweight

Wasting

15

10
5

75
Percent

36
30
29

10
3
Lowest

50

0

8

13
11
9
5

8

4

4

Second

Middle

6
Fourth

15.2

Vitamin A Deficiency
(Pre-School Aged Children)
<0.7umoL /b

* VAD is a severe public health problem if >20% of preschool children (6-71
months) have low serum retinol (<0.7µmol/L)

20
13

7

Vitamin A Supplementation
Coverage - full – children 6-59
months /a

90

25

23

0

Highest

Source: 8th National Nutrition Survey, FNRI 2013

40

PHL_NDHS_2008

100

40

19

24-35 mo

Figure 3.9 Vitamin A
• Successful Vitamin A supplementation (90%) is a likely contributor to
the observed reductions in child mortality
• Vitamin A deficiency in preschool children recently declined (from
40% in 2003 to 15% in 2008). Continued supplementation and foodbased interventions, including food fortification, deserve ongoing
attention. Vitamin A deficiency is the leading preventable cause of
paediatric blindness and increases the mortality risk of episodes of

45

20

18-23 mo

Breast milk and other milk

Micronutrient Status

50

25

100

60%

Figure 3.8 Child Malnutrition and Poverty
• Children in the lowest wealth quintile are 3.5 times more likely to be
stunted than children in the highest quintile, while the wealthiest children
are 3.6 times more likely to be overweight than the poorest.

30

80

80%

Source:

35

60

Not breastfeeding

Breast milk and plain water only

45

40

100%

Figure 3.7 Duration of Breastfeeding
• Duration and frequency of
breastfeeding affect the health and
nutritional status of both mother and
child.
•Exclusive breastfeeding is
recommended up to age 6 months, and
continued breastfeeding with
complementary feeding is
recommended from age 6 months to 2
years and beyond
• The proportion of children receiving
any breastmilk declines from 63% at age
6-8 months to 38% at age 1.5-2 years

Overweight

20

Source: FNRI_DOST Updating survey 2011

Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN
Volume 1

Source: a/ UNICEF, State of the World's Children 2014,
b/ 7th National Nutrition Survey 2008, FNRI

Iodine (Table 3.2)
Households consuming adequately iodized salt /a

44.5 %

Iodine deficiency (Urinary Iodine Concentration <100µg/L) among schoolage children (2003) /b

23.8 %

*Optimal UIC 100 - 199µg/L
Source: a/ UNICEF State of the World’s Children 2014 b/WHO Global database on idodine
deficiency

Philippines - Food and Nutrition Security Profiles
Philippines - Food and Nutrition Security Profiles
Policy Table - 1

Enabling environment for Nutrition and Food security - Policy documents
1. AO No. 2008-00201 Strategy for maternal and new-born child health and nutrition (MNCHN) 2008-2014, Department of Health 2008
M&E by Department of Health; Existing legislation monitored and enforced – Monitors Guide to the Milk Code Department Circular 2009-0228

2. AO No. 2005-0014: National Policies on Infant and Young Child Feeding
Nationwide implementation involving government and other partners agencies

3. AO No. 2010-0010: Revised Policy on Micronutrient Supplementation
Nationwide implementation. Policy includes general guidelines specifying the roles and responsibilities of different concerned agencies. Department of Health is tasked for the overall
execution of the policy.

4. AO No. 2007-0045 Zinc Supplementation and Reformulated Oral Rehydration Salts in the Management of Diarrhoea, Department of Health 2007
M&E by Department of Health; nationwide implementation ongoing. Policy includes scope and coverage by all Government health agencies as well as private and other health facilities.

5. Philippine Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes (E.O. 51), Administrative Order 2006-0012 (Revised Implementing Rules and Regulations of Executive
Order No. 51m (The "Milk Code", Relevant International Agreements, Penalizing, 15-05-06), and Expanded Breastfeeding Promotion Act of 2009 (RA 10028).
A bill was filed in 2012 before the House of Representatives seeking to amend the Milk Code (known as Executive Order 51) and the Expanded Breastfeeding Promotion Act of 2009,
also known as Republic Act 10028. The bill seeks to limit application of the law to infants aged 0 to 6 months instead of 0-36 months.

6. NNC Governing Board Resolution No. 1 Series of 2009, National Policy on Nutrition Management in Emergencies and Disasters
Covers interventions during emergencies, i.e. infant and young child feeding, vitamin A supplementation and management of acute malnutrition.

Nutrition related issues covered in these policies

Maternal and Child
Undernutrition

Obesity and diet related
NCDs

Infant and Young Child
Nutrition

Child undernutrition

Yes

Low Birth Weight

Yes

Maternal undernutrition

Yes

Child obesity
Adult obesity

Yes
Yes

Diet related NCDs

Yes

Breastfeeding

Yes

Complementary feeding

Yes

Int’l Code of Marketing of BMS

Yes

Supplementation:
Vitamin A children/women

Vitamins and Minerals

Covered

Iron Folate children/women
Zinc children
Other vitamins & min child/women

Both
Both
Yes
Child

Food fortification

Yes

Food Safety

Yes

Food security

Yes

Underlying and contextual Food Aid
factors
Nutrition and Infection
Gender
Maternal leave

Yes
Yes
No
8 weeks

Comments
Covering stunting, wasting and underweight
Universal health care, conditional cash transfers, growth monitoring and
promotion, acute malnutrition management and Infant and Young Child
Feeding are strategies to manage and prevent undernutrition.
Moderate acute malnutrition/severe acute malnutrition (MAM/SAM)
management guidelines (draft 2011; still to be formalized), localized
community-based management
Interim guidelines for integrated management of acute malnutrition for
piloting

National Guidelines published by FNRI including overweight and obesity in its
contents
Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) policy and guidelines approved 2005;
guidelines for emergency IYCF 2010
Promotion of breastfeeding Implemented at national scale
Behaviour change communication and/or counselling for improved
complementary feeding implemented at national scale
Deworming of children 6-59 mo. is implemented nationwide as part of child
health weeks
Vitamin and mineral supplementation is implemented nationwide based on
2005 guidelines,
Diarrhoea management guidelines, including zinc, approved 2007
Mandatory (nationwide): Salt, Flour, Rice, Oil, Sugar.
Review of RA 8172 Promoting Salt Iodization Nationwide and for related
Purposes is complete, resulting in a draft amended RA 8172.
Review of RA 8976 Food Fortification Law reviewing mandatory food
fortification in complete, but limiting coverage of mandatory food fortification
requires enactment of the law.
Food Safety Act of 2013 (RA 10611) was approved in Senate in July 2012.
Emergency rice supplies and mechanisms in place to ensure availability and
price stability during disasters and calamities.
Primary health care programmes such as EPI, WASH, Accelerated Hunger
Mitigation programmes, mixed small scale food crop, gender mainstreaming
address underlying factors of malnutrition
Nursing breaks after return to work for at least 40 minutes per day.

Social Protection policies or legislation including food or nutrition component
1. Pantawid Pamilia (Poverty Reduction Strategy – Conditional Cash Transfers) - 2010
Conditional cash transfer reaching 3 million out of 5 million of the registered poor, conditionality’s comprising primary health care for pregnant women and children; key household
members have to attend Family Development Sessions regularly, including nutrition information and Infant and Young Child Feeding community counselling, as part of the materials on
nutrition education.

2. Magna Carta Of Women IRR Republic Act 9710, 2009
Legal instrument that protect the rights of women in line with UN CEDAW, ensuring that women especially in marginalized sectors have food security and access to production
resources, etc. Implementation is mandate of all state agencies, offices, and institutions at all levels.

Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN
Volume 1

41

000 adolescent girls aged 15-19) /a 47 2012 Adolescent girls aged 15-19 currently married or in union /d 10.707 2012 GDP annual growth rate /c 6.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Philippines . it has not been included in this profile. Although updated information might be available at national level form different sources. and for other purposes. Act to strengthen the food safety regulatory system in the country to protect consumer health and facilitate market access of local foods and food products.2 % 2012 Poverty gap ratio /e 5.1) Year Economic Indicators (Table .8 % 2012 Average annual population growth /a 1. World Development Indicators Database.69 % 2009 Education level of mothers of under-fives: None (%) Male Life expectancy at birth (Years) /c Female Women employed in agriculture sector (% of total female employment) /c) Year Adolescents (Table . c/ World Bank. 4 Provides 13% market-share of rice at subsidised price.307 2012 42.Philippines .5.42 2009 Agriculture population density(people/ ha of arable land /b) 3.72 % 2012 6.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . Discoloration due to iron fortification reduces demand.04 2006 65 2012 Unemployment rate /c 7% 2012 72.2) Adolescent birth rate (number of births per 1. validated and properly published information available until June 2014.1 2006-2008 Employment in agriculture sector (% of total employment) /c 32. 2014 Update.3) Year Population size (thousands) /a 96. State of the World Children 2014 (data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified) . until requirements of quality. National Food Authority: Emergency Rice Reserves for Disaster and Crisis Preparedness Program – Presidential Decree Circular No. largest consumer sector is institutional sector rather than poor households where anaemia prevalence is high.98 % 2009 Richest 20% 49. Food Safety Act of 2013.1 % 2012 GDP per capita (PPP) (constant 2011 international dollars) /c Number of children <5 years (thousand) /a 11.5 2006 21 % 2012 Income share held by households /c Poorest 20% 5. Demographic Indicators (Table .5. e/ UN Statistics Division. aims to ensure rice availability during disasters. 0= complete equality) 44.005 2012 Proportion of population urbanised /c 49. MDG database 2013 Update.2 Food safety policies or legislation 1.5.98 2009 2 2011 Gini index /c (100= complete inequality. f/ FNRI-DOTS Philippines Nutrition Facts and Figures 2011 The information included in this Food Security and Nutrition Security Profile is backed by recognized. d/ UNICEF. 42 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 .25 (PPP) per day /c (%) Sources: a/ World Bank Health Nutrition and Population Statistics 2013 b/ FAOSTAT 2013 Update. Other policies addressing food security 1.3 % 2008 7 2008-2012 Women aged 20-24 who gave birth before age 18 /d (%) Population below US $ 1. validity and proper publication are met.1 2012 18.

Public policies need to be reinforced to promote physical activity and prevent overweight and obesity.1 3.9 8 3. underweight 3% and wasting 4%.6 60000 MDG Target 3 1.pregnant women of reproductive age 18 Pregnant women 24 0 20 40 60 80 Prevalence of Anaemia (%) 100 Source: WHO Worldwide prevalence of Anaemia (1993-2005) 4 Anthropometry (Table 1.1 Food Availability Source: WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition 2013 Source: 8% 2000 National Health Survey 2010/ SOWC 2014 (LBW) Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 43 . PPP (constant 2011 dollars) Undernourished in total population 71475 70000 7.5 kg/m2) 8. Figure 1.Singapore .2 1.2 Undernourishment and Economic Growth From 1990-2012: • GDP per capita increased 111% Figure 1.4 Child Mortality From 1990 to 2010: • Under-5 mortality reduced 62%.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Singapore . overweight and obesity are public health issues that need to be addressed. Nutritional outcomes are satisfactory with low levels of stunting and underweight.5 Anaemia • Anaemia is a public health issue among pregnant women (24%). population < 20 should be analyzed using WHO growth reference for school aged children and adolescents Proportion of infants with low birth weight 2000 No Data 1995 1990 2 Infant 33860 1.9 2. Singapore has already attained the child mortality Millennium Development Goal (MDG).7 30000 20000 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1992 2005 2000 Source: Inter-agency Group for CME (2013) 0 1990 Neonatal Under fives Figure 1.3 Child Malnutrition • Stunting 4%.8 3 2015 Percent 10 2012 International $ 80000 2010 Figure 1. given that four out of ten adults in Singapore are overweight.1 % 2010 * BMI values calculated using adult cut off points.  Nevertheless. all considered low by World Health Organization (WHO) standards • Overweight 3% • Low Birth Weight 8% in 2000 Overweight Stunting Underweight Wasting Children <5 years 19 Non .2 % 2010 Overweight adults (BMI >= 25 kg/m2) 40. women (18%) and under-5 Total non-pregnant <2 yr children alike (19%) Source: GDP: WDI 2014/ Undernourished: FAO FSI_2013 Figure 1.1) 4 3 3 Underweight women (BMI < 18.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Key Indicators  Per capita GDP has continued on an upwards trend and is the highest in the region.1 4 40000 2.6 6. aligned to the MDG target • Infant mortality reduced 62% • Neonatal mortality reduced 67% GDP per person.2 6 50000 2.3 2.

Singapore . Due to land constraints in Singapore.1 Food supply by food group . Imports of rice are managed through a strategic reserve under which licensed importers are required to stockpile rice equivalent to twice their monthly import quantity.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Singapore . Access to food Figure 2.3 1 Source: 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2000 -1 2001 0 0 ILOSTAT Database Consumer Price Indices 2014/ Singapore Department of Statistics Food inflation and general inflation are correlated No Data Figure 2.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Availability / Food Access Singapore has developed a multi-pronged approach to its own food security. Public-private partnerships are also forged to support these strategies. stockpiling.2 Economic access to food General and food inflation Percent General inflation Food inflation 9 8 7 6 5 Food Availability 4 3 2 2. Its core strategies for food security focus on diversification of its food sources.3 Share of food expenditure 100 Non food items Percent 80 60 78 Food Item 40 20 22 0 % Total expenditure per person per day Source: Household Expenditure Survey 2007-2008 44 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 % Dietry energy Consumption 2012 Figure 2. agricultural innovation is promoted to enhance farming technology and increase productivity. as well as local production to provide a buffer in times of sudden import disruptions.

Robust monitoring and inspection programmes are also put in place to ensure that international standards are maintained. Food Safety Singapore has in place an integrated food safety system and adopts a science-based risk analysis approach that is based on international standards to ensure all locally produced and imported food products are safe for consumption. inspection and testing.  According to Singapore Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources.2 Open Defecation Figure 3.1) Zinc No Data Share of children under age 5 with diarrhoea receiving zinc treatment - Existing policy framework Zinc Supplementation and Reformulated Oral Rehydration Salt in the Management of Diarrhea Source: Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 45 . Figure 3. certification. any food for sale to the public must be prepared at a licensed food premises.3 Access to Improved Water Sources According to Singapore Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources.Singapore . Water and Sanitation Figure 3. These licensed premises are routinely inspected to ensure that food is prepared hygienically. Key Environmental Statistics 2013. and a reliable traceability system.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Singapore has sustained access to improved sanitation and water sources for all the population.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Singapore . At the retail level. 100% of households have sustained access to improved water sources in 2012. Key Environmental Statistics 2013. 100% of households have sustained access to improved sanitation in 2012. This system involves accreditation at source.4 Diarrhoea Management of Diarrhoea (Table 3.1 Access to Improved Sanitation Figure 3.

Figure 3.e. Solid food can be introduced at seven months of age.Singapore .7 Duration of Breastfeeding Health Promotion Board (HPB) in Singapore recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed (i. and breastfeeding should continue till the child is 12 months old and thereafter as long as mutually desired. even water) during the first six months of life. the infant is given only breast milk with no other food or fluids.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Singapore .6 Complementary Feeding No Data No Data Figure 3.9 Vitamin A No Data No Data Iodine (Table 3.5 Exclusive Breastfeeding Figure 3.2) Households consuming adequately iodized salt - Iodine deficiency (Urinary Iodine Concentration <100µg/L) among schoolage children *Optimal UIC 100 .199µg/L Source: 46 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 - .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Nutrition and Health Figure 3.8 Child Malnutrition and Poverty No Data Micronutrient Status Figure 3.

gov.gov.sg/NR/rdonlyres/0CA18578-7610-4917-BB67-C7DF4B96504B/17826/57web_WholesomeMeatandFishAct.gov.pdf Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 47 . Holistic Health Framework Ministry of Education: http://www.ava.aspx?id=2780&specialgroup=Food+%26+Beverage+Industry 3. child growth.ava. School-going children (7-18 years old) are routinely screened to assess their growth and development.gov.g.Policy documents 1.pdf 5.moe.hpb.ava.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Singapore . mainly through medical/health records.sg/NR/rdonlyres/0CA18578-7610-4917-BB67-C7DF4B96504B/17820/51web_SaleofFoodAct1. and anaemia in pregnant women. Medisave for Chronic Disease Management Programme Ministry of Health http://www.sg/NR/rdonlyres/0CA18578-7610-4917-BB67-C7DF4B96504B/17773/7web_ABAct. draft awaiting final approval at time of research Voluntary no no no no Voluntary : Salt Food fortification yes Food Safety yes Food security yes Underlying and contextual Food Aid factors Nutrition and Infection Gender Maternal leave yes yes Maternity leave is paid at 66% of wages. Animals and birds (Licensing of Farms) Rules (Revised Edition 2004)).Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . Healthier Hawker Food Programme Health Promotion Board Document web-link: http://www. Environmental Public Health Act (chapter 95) 1987 (revised edition 2002) and the Environmental Public Health (Food Hygiene) Regulations (revised edition 2000) 2. Wholesome Meat and Fish (Import. Food Regulations (Revised Edition 2005)) http://www. http://www.g. Maternal undernutrition Obesity and diet related NCDs Infant and Young Child Nutrition Child obesity Adult obesity both Diet related NCDs yes Breastfeeding no Complementary feeding no Int’l Code of Marketing of BMS Vitamins and Minerals Supplementation: Vitamin A children/women Iron Folate children/women Zinc children Other vitamins & min child/women Infant and Young Child Feeding guidelines updated in 2012. Healthier Choice Symbol Programme Health Promotion Board: National food-based dietary guidelines for adults were first developed in 1988 and were reviewed in 1993 and 2002.sg/chronicdisease/ 4.sg/foodforhealth/article.aspx?id=2784&specialgroup=Food+%26+Beverage+Industry Nutrition related issues covered in these policies Covered Comments Child undernutrition Maternal and Child Undernutrition Low Birth Weight no Information is routinely collected on birth weight.1 Enabling environment for Nutrition and Food security .sg/education/programmes/holistic-health-framework/ 2.g. The food-based dietary guidelines for children and adolescents aged 0-18 years were developed and released in 2007… http://www.gov. no 16 weeks Social Protection policies or legislation including food or nutrition component Food safety policies or legislation 1.pdf 4. Animal & Birds Act (Chapter 7) and related subsidiary legislation e.g. Wholesome Meat & Fish Act (Chapter 349A) and related subsidiary legislation (e.gov. Sale of Food Act (Chapter 283) and related subsidiary legislation (e.gov. Export and Transhipment) Rules (Revised Edition 2001)) http://www.pdf 3.hpb. Control of Plants Act (Chapter 57A) and related subsidiary legislation (e.sg/NR/rdonlyres/0CA18578-7610-4917-BB67-C7DF4B96504B/17790/23web_COPAct.hpb.Singapore . Control of Plants (Import and Transhipment of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables) Rules (Revised Edition 2006)) http://www.gov.sg/foodforhealth/article.ava. Code of Ethics for the Sale of Infant Foods in Singapore M&E by Sale of Infant Foods Ethics Committee Singapore (SIFECS) 5.

6 % 2013 Number of children <5 years (thousand) Education level of mothers of under-fives: None (%) Male Gini index /c (100= complete inequality. b/ FAOSTAT 2013 Update.32 % 2012 Average annual population growth 2.312 2012 GDP annual growth rate /c 1. State of the World Children 2014 (data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified) . c/ World Bank.1) Year Economic Indicators (Table .475 2012 Proportion of population urbanised 100 % 2012 GDP per capita (PPP) (constant 2011 international dollars) /c 272 2012 43 1998 - - - - 80 2012 2. 2014 Update.sg/NR/rdonlyres/0CA18578-7610-4917-BB67-C7DF4B96504B/17810/43web_FisheriesAct.8 % 2012 84. validated and properly published information available until June 2014.5. e/ UN Statistics Division. World Development Indicators Database.Singapore .5. d/ UNICEF.9 % 2013 Richest 20% 43.5 2012 - - Agriculture population density(people/ ha of arable land /b) 5.2) Adolescent birth rate (number of births per 1.6 % 2009 Income share held by households /f Poorest 20% 4. Health Nutrition and Population Statistics. f/ Singapore.ava. MDG database 2013 Update.gov. 48 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . it has not been included in this profile. Singapore's Food Security Roadmap 2. Deaprtment of Statistics 2013 The information included in this Food Security and Nutrition Security Profile is backed by recognized.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . 2013 update.1 % 2009 Poverty gap ratio /e - - Women employed in agriculture sector (% of total female employment) /c) 0.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Singapore .5.25 (PPP) per day /c (%) Employment in agriculture sector (% of total employment) /c 1.3) Year Population size (thousands) /a 5.pdf Demographic Indicators (Table .000 adolescent girls aged 15-19) /a 6 2012 Adolescent girls aged 15-19 currently married or in union /d - - Women aged 20-24 who gave birth before age 18 /d (%) - - Sources: a/ World Bank. Ministry of Manpower. Fisheries Act (Chapter 111) http://www.0 2006-2008 Population below US $ 1. Although updated information might be available at national level form different sources. validity and proper publication are met.2 Other policies addressing food security 1. until requirements of quality.45 % 2012 71. 0= complete equality) Unemployment rate /c Life expectancy at birth (Years) /a Female Year Adolescents (Table .

both for children and one third of the adult population.1) 11 9 8 Animal Origin 5 22 0 15 Vegetal Origin 18 Pregnant women 18 2011 25 Non .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Thailand . an emerging issue is that of overweight.5 % 2003 * BMI values calculated using adult cut off points.5 Anaemia • Anaemia is a public health issue for pregnant women (22%).6 % 2012 MICS 2012 /UN_WHO Global Database on BMI_2013 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 49 .8 30 10000 14.2 19.5 kg/m2) 9.4 Child Mortality From 1990 to 2010: • Under-5 mortality reduced 65% and is set to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target • Infant mortality reduced 63% • Neonatal mortality reduced 58% 1995 Figure 1. The country has experienced rapid growth in per-capita GDP and Dietary Energy Supply (DES).1 Food Availability From 1990 to 2011: •DES increased 33% •Animal-origin supply increased 47% •Vegetal-origin products increased 31% and remained the major DES source Proportion of infants with low birth weight Source: 7. PPP (constant 2011 dollars) Undernourished in total population 35 11000 347 25 9000 2069 8000 236 7000 2410 1000 6369 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 15 Source: Inter-agency Group for CME (2013) Infant 10 11.Thailand .1 40 2012 13586 45 13000 2010 43. non-pregnant women (18%) and under-5 children alike (25%) 5 Total <2 yr Figure 1.1 Under fives Figure 1.8 5000 1990 1500 Kcal per person per day 6000 1992 2000 12.6 20 2012 5. with a National Food Safety and Nutrition plan.pregnant women of reproductive age 16 7 7 Underweight women (BMI < 18.3 MDG Target 2005 14000 38.2 12. Nevertheless.3 Child Malnutrition From 1993 to 2012: • Stunting declined 23% • Underweight declined 44% • Wasting stood at 7% in 2012 • Overweight increased 132% in 18 years 21 500 Overweight Stunting Underweight Wasting Children <5 years 16 20 40 60 80 Prevalence of Anaemia (%) 100 Source: WHO Worldwide prevalence of Anaemia (1993-2005) Anthropometry (Table 1.2 Undernourishment and Economic Growth From 1990 to 2012: • GDP per capita increased 113% • Undernourishment declined by 87% GDP per person.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Key Indicators • Thailand has an integrated framework for food and nutrition security. as well as a sustained decline in undernourishment rates.2 Source: GDP: WDI 2014 / Undernourished: FAO SOFI_2013 1833 0 1990 8. with a current review to strengthen legislation. • The International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is being implemented on a voluntary basis.3 2015 12000 1990 2757 13 22.6 % 2004 Overweight adults (BMI >= 25 kg/m2) 31.2 19. • Thailand displays a declining trend in underweight and stunting. Figure 1. population < 20 should be analyzed using WHO growth reference for school aged children and adolescents Source: Thailand MICS 2012 2012 2006 1995 1993 Total Dietary Energy Supply (DES) Source : FAOSTAT FBS: 2014 update Neonatal 13.2 Percent 50 2000 International $ 15000 3000 2500 Figure 1.4 8.6 31. Anaemia and Vitamin A deficiencies continue to be matters of public health concern.

food prices increased significantly more than general prices and continued that trend through 2012 In 2011: • Families generally spent more than 23% of their income on food • While cereals contributed 47% of food intake. ECS.3 Share of food expenditure 21 62 Starchy roots 100 400 800 1.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Thailand .757 (2011) 2011 5 4 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . SES.200 1. milk and eggs Other % Total expenditure per person per day 3 6 25 % Dietry energy Consumption Sources: UN_FAO RAP based on national HIES. with rice representing 90% of these cereals • Sugars and Syrups (123%) and vegetable Oils (153%) have increased considerably and are significant contributors to DES (2011) Non food items 33 Source: UN_FAO Food Balance Sheets_2014 Update 47 Fruits and vegetables 77 60 Fish 3 Sugars 2 Veg oils 16 40 20 0 0 4 3 5 8 2 0 Meat. Thailand 50 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 • In 2008.1 Food supply by food group - 2 1109 1036 Sugars and syrups 177 147 Fruits & vegetables 395 191 283 112 Vegetable oils 52 Fish & Fish products Animal fats 18 Pulses 33 0 39 15 Figure 2. they only affected 4% of food expenditure at household level 276 181 Meat & Milk & Eggs 2003 Source: ILOSTAT Database Consumer Price Indices 2014 83 41 Wheat 2002 -2 1285 1080 Rice 2000 1990 Cereals 0 0 2001 (kcal/person/year) Total dietary energy supply= 2. and contribute to 52% of food intake. HLSS_2013 Update.Thailand . during the global food crisis.600 Cereals 80 Percent • Cereals remain the most important source of food energy.2 Economic access to food General and food inflation Percent General inflation Food inflation 14 12 10 8 Food Availability 6 Figure 2.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Availability / Food Access Access to food Figure 2.

access is more frequent in rural than in urban areas 11% of houses in urban areas do not have proper sanitation Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. 2014 2005 1.4 Diarrhoea • Diarrhoea in young children is not a public health concern in any of the wealth quintiles. Hygienic environmental conditions related to improved water and sanitation are important determinants of health and infection incidence and prevalence.6 12 60 1996 40 40 96 95 82 1990 60 2002 80 93 80 80 1999 60 89 86 1996 82 97 96 100 1993 80 96 87 Figure 3. Nutrient absorption in the gut is strongly influenced by health status. 2014 Total Rural 2011 2008 0 2005 2011 2008 1990 2011 2008 2005 2002 1999 1996 1993 1990 Total Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme.5 5. particularly the presence of diarrhoea. 2014 Food Safety Quality and food safety efforts cover the entire complex chain of agriculture production. Figure 3. and to the absorption of nutrients by the human body after consumption.8 0 Lowest Source: THA_MICS 2012 Second Middle Wealth quintile Fourth Highest - Existing policy framework Zinc Supplementation and Reformulated Oral Rehydration Salt in the Management of Diarrhea Source: Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 51 .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Food utilization refers both to household preparation practices of foods.Thailand .Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Thailand . improved water and sanitation conditions have been achieved during the past 20 years.1) 20 Percent 15 Zinc 10 5 4.7 4. transport. Water and Sanitation % Population Rural Urban Total Rural 20 Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme.2 0 0 0 00 2002 20 20 40 1999 16.2 Open Defecation From 1990 to 2012: • No longer a development issue 1993 Figure 3. In Thailand.1 Access to Improved Sanitation From 1990 to 2012: • Access to improved sanitation increased 14% in 22 years • Disparities between rural and urban areas have been reversed. food production and consumption. which influence nutrient content of consumed foods.8 Share of children under age 5 with diarrhoea receiving zinc treatment 6.3 Access to Improved Water Sources From 1990 to 2012: • Disparities between urban and rural areas in access to improved water sources have essentially been solved • At least 96% of people have sustainable access to improved water 100 % Population % Population 100 Figure 3. processing. Management of Diarrhoea (Table 3.4 3.

3 % *Optimal UIC 100 .7µmol/L) 6.5 7.5 5 10.9 Iodine (Table 3.8 Child Malnutrition and Poverty Underweight is 4 times more frequent in the lower wealth quintile than in the higher. semi-solid or soft food 100 Early initiation of breastfeeding Percent 80 60 Figure 3.7 6.5 8.7 Source: a/ UNICEF. It has decreased to 46% in 2012 from 50% in 2005.7 Vitamin A Deficiency (Pre-School Aged Children) <0. and stunting is more than double in the poorere quintile tahn in the richest ones.7 Lowest Vitamin A Supplementation Coverage .7umoL /b * VAD is a severe public health problem if >20% of preschool children (6-71 months) have low serum retinol (<0. State of the World's Children 2014. Wasting 23. including food fortification.3 10 10 10.full – children 6-59 months /a 75 19.Thailand .7 14.8 6. Highest Source: Thailand MICS 2012 52 25 10.5 Exclusive Breastfeeding •Early initiation of breastfeeding is correlated with lower infant mortality and relatively prolonged breastfeeding. deserve on going attention.9 Fourth Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 0 15.2 7.1 20 100 Percent 15.6 Complementary Feeding • Introduction of complementary feeding is timely for 3 out of 4 children •Minimum meal freqeuncy is also met by 78% of children 50 Minimum dietary diversity 46 40 20 5.9 Middle 7 5. 2008-09 .9 13. b/ WHO Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in population at risk 19952005 report.4 75 Minimum meal frequency 15 12.9 Vitamin A •Vitamin A deficiencies (16% of pre-schoolers) indicate that Vitamin A is still lacking in the daily diet.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Thailand . 25 Overweight Stunting Underweight Micronutrient Status Figure 3. avery poor situaton Introduction of solid.2 11.3 2009 2012 0 78 Minimum acceptable diet 2005-2006 Percent 0 Source: THA_MICS 2012 Source: Thailand MICS 2012 20 40 60 80 100 Figure 3.5 15 13.7 Duration of Breastfeeding No Data Figure 3. (Remained far from optimal) Exclusive breastfeeding was only 12% in 2012. Overweight is nearly double in the richest quintile compared to the poorest ones.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Nutrition and Health Figure 3.6 0 Second 50 0 3.9 % Iodine deficiency (Urinary Iodine Concentration <100µg/L) among schoolage children (6-14 years old)/b 24.2) Households consuming adequately iodized salt (2012)/a 70. and that food-based interventions.199µg/L Source: a/ Thailand MICS 2012 b/ Fourth National Health Examination Survey.

Act covers matters relative to food safety and hygiene. especially those in the non-formal sectorgroups of Thai people.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_079931 Nutrition related issues covered in these policies Maternal and Child Undernutrition Obesity and diet related NCDs Infant and Young Child Nutrition Vitamins and Minerals Covered Child undernutrition yes Low Birth Weight yes Maternal undernutrition yes Child obesity Adult obesity both Diet related NCDs yes Breastfeeding yes Complementary feeding ? Comments Only inpatient treatment of SAM Voluntary agreement between government and business companies on adherence to Int’l Code on BMS. Iodine supplementation in pregnant and lactating women (for 6 months after delivery). currently extensive review on BMS Code legislation to strengthen the Code Int’l Code of Marketing of BMS yes Supplementation: Vitamin A children/women Iron Folate children/women Zinc children Other vitamins & min child/women ? yes ? yes Iron (and/or folate) supplementation in pregnant and lactating women. but legislation is pending. the strategy addresses the continuum from agriculture to health 2. Policies focusing on the management of food system and food safety supervised by the newly established National Food Committee 4. especially those in the non-formal sector 2. and in school aged children 6-14 years old. 30 national agencies. Food fortification yes Iodization of salt. Social Protection policies or legislation including food or nutrition component 1.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . Five-Year Social Welfare Strategies (2007-2011) The ultimate goal is to lead the country to balanced and sustainable development.1 Enabling environment for Nutrition and Food security .dh. developed and approved the Food Strategy Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 53 . 2522) 1979 Minister of Public Health is designated by law to be in charge of the execution.Thailand . 30 relevant Acts. 30 national agencies. Thailand National Food Committee Act of 2008 Act covers food security. 30 relevant Acts. food quality and food education: committee chaired by prime minister and meeting at least twice a year: 11 related ministries.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Thailand . food safety. food production. Food Act (B. Thailand Food Strategy 2010 Using a food chain approach the strategy address the continuum from agriculture to health… 2. Thailand Food Strategy 2010 Using a food-chain approach. food quality and food education: committee chaired by prime minister and meeting at least twice a year: 11 related ministries. trade in food. No provisions for nursing breaks or childcare after return to work.gov. weekly dose of iron supplementation in children aged 6 months. fish sauce.Policy documents addressing nutrition issues 1. Improving Nutritional Care: A Joint Action Plan from the Department of Health and Nutrition Summit stakeholders Monitoring by Nutrition Action Delivery Board http://www. developed and approved the Food Strategy 3. soya sauce and salt brine made mandatory in 2011 Food Safety yes Policies promote a multi-sectorial approach to nutrition Food security yes Underlying and contextual Food Aid factors Nutrition and Infection ? ? Gender Maternal leave ? 12 weeks Payment after first 45 days is 50%. food safety.5 years old. Thailand National Food Committee Act of 2008 Act covers food security. The Second Strategic Plan (2012-2016) remains to be approved at the time of research. specifically the Food and Drug Administration and the Provincial Offices of Public Health are responsible for legal food control operations. it seeks to empower society and expand the country’s social security system to cover all groups of Thai people. and there administration Other policies addressing food security 1. National Food and Nutrition Plan Formulated to guarantee security and safety of food and nutrition through the establishment of the national food safety system. Social Welfare Promotion Act 2003 (revised 2007) Food safety policies or legislation 1. National Health Assembly approved maternity leave period to be doubled to 6 months.E.

2014 Update.2 Demographic Indicators (Table . c/ World Bank.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . Although updated information might be available at national level form different sources. MDG database 2013 Update.Thailand .2) Adolescent birth rate (number of births per 1. f/ Thailand Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2012 The information included in this Food Security and Nutrition Security Profile is backed by recognized. until requirements of quality.586 2012 39. validated and properly published information available until June 2014.8 % 2012 Income share held by households /c Education level of mothers of under-fives: None (%)/f Male Life expectancy at birth (Years) /c Female Year Adolescents (Table . 54 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 .730 2012 4 2012 Gini index /c (100= complete inequality.69 % 2012 0.6 % 2012 Poverty gap ratio /e Women employed in agriculture sector (% of total female employment) /c) 37. validity and proper publication are met. World Development Indicators Database.000 adolescent girls aged 15-19) /a 41 2012 Adolescent girls aged 15-19 currently married or in union /d 14.5. 0= complete equality) 71 2012 Unemployment rate /c 77. it has not been included in this profile.76 % 2010 Richest 20% 46.38 2010 2 2009 Poorest 20% 6. d/ UNICEF.49 % 2012 Average annual population growth/a 0.785 2012 GDP annual growth rate /c 6.6 % 2008-2012 47 2008-2011 Women aged 20-24 who gave birth before age 18 /d (%) Population below US $ 1.1) Year Economic Indicators (Table .5 % 2012 Number of children <5 years (thousand) 3.5 2006-2008 Employment in agriculture sector (% of total employment) /c 39.67 % 2010 Proportion of population urbanised/c 34. e/ UN Statistics Division.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Thailand .3) Year Population size (thousands) /a 66.02 2009 0. State of the World Children 2014 (data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified) .6 2012 Agriculture population density(people/ ha of arable land /b) 1.5.25 (PPP) per day /c (%) Sources: a/ World Bank Health Nutrition and Population Statistics 2013 b/ FAOSTAT 2013 Update.31 % 2012 GDP per capita (PPP) (constant 2011 international dollars) /c 13.37 2010 40.5.

Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Key Indicators • Viet Nam has experienced sustained growth in per-capita GDP and Dietary Energy Supply (DES) in recent years.5 % 2010 Overweight adults (BMI >= 25 kg/m2) 5. population < 20 should be analyzed using WHO growth reference for school aged children and adolescents Proportion of infants with low birth weight Source: 5% 2010-2011 General Nutrition Survey 2009-2010/MICS 2010-2011 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 55 .5 Percent 2015 GDP per person.Viet Nam . • Viet Nam has seen sharp declines in underweight and stunting. • Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence is low. PPP (constant 2011 dollars) Undernourished in total population 5500 1500 Figure 1.4 24.7 2012 4000 23.6 % 2010 * BMI values calculated using adult cut off points. anemia represents a persistent issue.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Viet Nam .0 18.4 2000 48.4 Figure 1.9 10 8. however.pregnant women of reproductive age Underweight 1998 1999 2000 0 1990 Under fives 52 Children <5 years Overweight 42 Neonatal Total <2 yr 25 24 23 3 3 23 18 20 3 12 6 4 2010 2011 53 12. Figure 1.1 Food Availability From 1990 to 2011: •DES increased 42% •Animal-origin supply increased 230% •Vegetal-origin products increased 23% and remain the major DES source Source: MICS 2010-2011/GNS 2009-2010/WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition 2013 estimates Underweight women (BMI < 18. Wasting stood at 4% • Overweight increased to 4% 61 500 Infant Source: Inter-agency Group for CME (2013) Source: GDP: WDI 2014 / Undernourished: FAO/FSI 2013 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 1727 500 18. non-pregnant women (24%) and under-5 children alike (29%). a recent extension of maternity leave and ban on advertising of breastmilk substitutes have the potential to help to increase exclusive breastfeeding.3 4500 2703 MDG Target 17.5 kg/m2) 18.5 Anaemia • Anaemia is a public health issue for pregnant women (32%).3 Child Malnutrition From 1993 to 2011: • Stunting declined 62% • Underweight declined 67% • in 2011.1) 31 29 33 1 2 3 32 0 45 43 27 24 Pregnant women Stunting 36 29 Non .4 15 1501 1000 23.0 55 1990 5000 3000 50. as well as a sustained decline in undernourishment rates. it is a severe issue among under-2 children (52%) 5 Figure 1. However.6 2010 574 31.5 45 2005 2500 36.6 15.4 12. particularity among pregnant women and children under 5 years of age.3 1990 Kcal per person per day 2129 1000 22.2 Undernourishment and Economic Growth From 1990 to 2012: • GDP per capita increased 227% • Undernourishment declined 83% International $ 4912 50 1902 2000 40 3500 35 3000 30 2500 25 2000 20 1500 174 2011 37 41 Animal Origin Total Dietary Energy Supply (DES) Source : FAOSTAT FBS: 2014 update 3 1993 1994 Vegetal Origin 2012 2010 2008 2006 2004 2002 2000 1998 1996 1994 1992 Wasting 20 40 60 80 Prevalence of Anaemia (%) 100 Source: GNS2009-2010/WHO World Anaemia prevalence(1993-2005) 35 34 33 Anthropometry (Table 1.4 Child Mortality From 1990 to 2012: • Under-5 mortality reduced 54% and will not achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target • Infant mortality reduced 49% • Neonatal mortality reduced 45% 1995 Figure 1.

SES.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Availability / Food Access Access to food Figure 2. ECS.000 Cereals 39 80 Fruits and vegetables Percent 58 •Although cereals remain the most important source of food energy.200 1. •While animal fats doubled their availability (229%) and meat and milk increased by 242%.703 (2011) 1397 1335 Rice Meat & Milk & Eggs 139 Fruits & vegetables 139 84 Vegetable oils 163 37 Fish & Fish products 53 Animal fats 46 Pulses 57 Starchy roots 46 0 475 22 14 Figure 2.Viet Nam . Viet Nam 56 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 •During the global food crisis in 2008. and eggs contribute 18% of food intake 102 49 Sugars and syrups 2003 Source: ILOSTAT Database Consumer Price Indices 2014 66 24 Wheat 2002 -5 1554 1417 Cereals 0 2001 0 1990 2000 2011 5 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . (2011) Non food items 80 Source: UN_FAO Food Balance Sheets_2014 Update 60 Fish 5 6 6 3 19 15 Veg oils 1 2 20 Meat.1 Food supply by food group - 10 (kcal/person/year) Total dietary energy supply= 2.3 Share of food expenditure 22 100 400 800 1. While cereals contributed a significant share (39%) of food intake.600 2. food prices increased 37% while general prices increased 23% In 2011: •Families generally spent more than 42 % of their income on food. milk. HLSS_2013 Update. they only affected 6% of food expenditure at household level • Meat. their contribution declined from 70% in 1990 to 57% in 2011.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Viet Nam .2 Economic access to food General and food inflation Percent General inflation Food inflation 40 37 35 30 25 Food Availability 20 15 Figure 2. milk and eggs Other 0 1 12 Sugars 40 6 % Total expenditure per person per day 18 10 % Dietry energy Consumption Sources: UN_FAO RAP based on national HIES.

food production and consumption.1) Second Middle Wealth quintile Fourth Highest 1% Existing policy framework Zinc Supplementation and Reformulated Oral Rehydration Salt in the Management of Diarrhea Source: VNM_MICS 2010-2011 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 57 . and to the absorption of nutrients by the human body after consumption. these improvements have contributed to the reduction in malnutrition among under-5 children shown in Fig 1. On the production side. Percent 20 15 10 9. Figure 3. Figure 3.3 Access to Improved Water Sources From 1990 to 2012: •Disparities between urban and rural areas in access to improved water sources have been significantly reduced • At least 95% of the population has sustainable access to improved water 100 100 % Population 39 20 24 3 0 Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. food safety challenges exist at farm level and in the processing stage.3 7. although they have decreased to 22% • 25% of the population does not have access to improved sanitation Urban Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme.Viet Nam . reflecting disparities in sanitation as well as in general hygiene and food safety. 2014 Source: WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme.4 7. transport. which influence nutrient content of consumed foods. 25 underweight and death. Water and Sanitation Figure 3. the prevalence of diarrhoea among under-5 children is relatively low for all wealth quintiles (Fig 3. In Viet Nam. particularly the presence of diarrhoea. processing.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Food utilization refers both to household preparation practices of foods. • Only 1% of children younger than age 5 receive zinc treatment during episodes of diarrhoea. Hygienic environmental conditions related to improved water and sanitation are important determinants of health and infection incidence and prevalence. 2014 Total Rural 2011 2008 Urban 2005 2005 Rural 2002 Total 0 1999 Urban 2002 2011 2008 Rural 2005 2002 1999 1996 1993 1990 Total 1999 0 0 54 40 1996 20 62 60 1990 31 43 40 1996 20 65 37 1993 40 64 60 1990 % Population 60 94 80 80 2011 75 80 % Population 93 2008 100 98 90 1993 Figure 3.4 Diarrhoea • Diarrhoea in young children is most common among the poorest wealth quintiles.1 Access to Improved Sanitation From 1990 to 2012: • Access to improved sanitation increased 101% in 22 years • Disparities between rural and urban areas continue. Nutrient absorption in the gut is strongly influenced by health status.3 6.3.1 0 Lowest VNM_MICS 2010-2011 Zinc Share of children under age 5 with diarrhoea receiving zinc treatment 5 Source: Management of Diarrhoea (Table 3. Chronic diarrhoea in children can lead to stunting. On the consumption side.2 Open Defecation From 1990 to 2012: • Open defecation decreased 95% in 22 years • The practice still occurs in 3% of rural households.4).4 6. water and sanitation conditions have improved during the past 20 years.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Viet Nam . 2014 Food Safety Quality and food safety efforts cover the entire complex chain of agriculture production.

Viet Nam .9 Iodine (Table 3.1 2.2) 6.199µg/L Source: a/Viet Nam MICS 2011 45% - .9 5.7 Duration of Breastfeeding • Duration and frequency of breastfeeding affect the health and nutritional status of both mother and child •Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to age 6 months. b/ WHO Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in population at risk 19952005 report.1 Households consuming adequately iodized salt (2011)a 3.6 13.5 4.4 25 0 20.1 2.6 10 50 * VAD is a severe public health problem if >20% of preschool children (6-71 months) have low serum retinol (<0.6 Lowest 4.7 82 Minimum meal frequency/a 54 40 1997 46 2013 Nutrition Surveillance Profiles 2013/ VNM_MICS 2010-2011 66 0 Source: Percent 40 60 20 80 100 a. Exclusive breastfeeding for first six months of age has not changed and about 4 out of 5 of infants are not exclusively breastfed • More than half of the new borns are brest fed within the first hour of life 100 Percent Exclusive breast feeding rate (0-5 months) 60 20 0 Source: Introduction of solid.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Food Utilization Nutrition and Health Figure 3.7umoL /b Source: a/ UNICEF.9 Middle Fourth 8. 45 40 100 40.6 Complementary Feeding • Introduction of complementary feeding (46%) is not timely for most children. semi-solid or soft food/b Early initiation of breastfeeding 80 40 Figure 3. and continued breastfeeding with complementary feeding is recommended from age 6 months until 2 years and beyond Not breastfeeding 80% 60% Breast milk and complementary foods 40% 20% Exclusively breastfed 0% 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 mo mo mo mo Breast milk and other milk Stunting Underweight 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 mo mo mo mo Breast milk and non-milk liquids Source: VNM_MICS 2010-2011 Micronutrient Status Figure 3. Minimum dietary diversity/a 57 28 2002 2006 2011 87 Minimum acceptable diet/a 17 16.full – children 6-59 months /a 75 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 *Optimal UIC 100 .MICS 2010-2011 100% Figure 3.2 0 11. underweight and wasting are more common in the lower wealth quintiles Overweight is more than 4 times more prevalent in the wealthiest quintile than in the poorest Overweight 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 mo mo mo mo Breast milk and plain water only Wasting Figure 3. State of the World's Children 2014.9 Vitamin A •Successful Vitamin A supplementation (98%) is a likely contributor to the observed reductions in child mortality •Vitamin A deficiencies (12% of pre-schoolers) indicate that Vitamin A has significantly improved in the daily diet.Nutrition Surveillance Profiles 2013/ b.5 6.3 1.1 Iodine deficiency (Urinary Iodine Concentration <100µg/L) among schoolage children Highest Source: VIET NAM MICS 2011 58 12 Vitamin A Deficiency (Pre-School Aged Children) <0.9 98 Percent 35 30 24.3 8. 15.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Viet Nam .2 25 20 24.5 Exclusive Breastfeeding : • From 1997 to 2011.4 2. • 87 % of children aged 6-23 months meet the minimum meal frequency and 82% meet adequate diversity • Two thirds of children (66%) got the minimum acceptable diet.7µmol/L) 15 5 Vitamin A Supplementation Coverage .8 Second 4.8 Child Malnutrition and Poverty Stunting.

Includes a nutrition indicator (% of underweight children) in its M&E framework 5.000 days is under development. ensuring minimum levels in income and basic needs including reduction of malnutrition of U5 children to lower than 10% by 2020 2. Support food subsidies for children under 5 in pre-schools (29/2011/TTLT-BGDĐT-BTC) Aims at reaching universal preschool participation of children under 5.Viet Nam . National Child Survival Action Plan 2010-2015. particularly disadvantaged. Nutrition related issues covered in these policies Child undernutrition Maternal and Child Undernutrition Obesity and diet related NCDs Infant and Young Child Nutrition Vitamins and Minerals Covered yes Comments Covers stunting. multi sectorial collaboration and coordination mechanisms need strengthening. local Ready-to-Use-Supplementary-Foods under development. disabled.M&E by Mother and Child Health Department. 2. Decree 21 being revised to be in line with law on advertisement and Intl Code Food safety law last updated in 2010. Resolution 80/NQ-CP on sustainable poverty reduction during 2011-2020 Range of policies focusing on increased income per capita of poor households. Food fortification yes Voluntary: Salt.National Nutrition Strategy 2011-2020. poor and ethnic minorities. MOH 2009 . 3. Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 59 . There is a sector policy on elimination of open defecation. 226 /QÐ-TTg .Policy documents 1. progress monitoring not yet integrated in MoH routine monitoring and reporting system.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Viet Nam . women and children in poor districts and remote areas .1 Enabling environment for Nutrition and Food security . Policy under revision for mandatory Food Safety yes Food security yes Underlying and contextual Food Aid factors Nutrition and Infection Gender Maternal leave yes yes No specific guidelines IYCF guidelines (2013) guidances for IYCF implementation. Flour.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . prioritizing disadvantaged.Ư on key social policy issues. Party Resolution 15-NQ/T. and postpartum women Deworming guidelines (2007) target children aged 24-59 months in 18 disadvantaged provinces Diarrhoea management guidelines include zinc (2009) A new national guidelines for micro-nutrient deficiencies prevention and control are being developed and will be approved by the MOH. Ministry of Health Plan aims to address health care disparities and increasing coverage. 3. Ministry of Planning and Investment 2011-15 Plan has a sub-component on improving the quality and healthcare and people’s wellbeing which addresses nutrition (Strengthen physical growth and reduce malnutrition and ensure food safety). wasting and underweight MAM/SAM management guidelines (2010) Interim guidelines for integrated management of acute malnutrition for piloting Low Birth Weight yes Maternal undernutrition Child obesity Adult obesity yes yes yes Diet related NCDs yes Breastfeeding yes Complementary feeding yes Int’l Code of Marketing of BMS yes Supplementation: Vitamin A children/women both Iron Folate children/women both Zinc children yes Other vitamins & min child/women child Vitamin A Supplementation guidelines for children 6-59 mo. 2012-2020 Range of policies aiming at providing basic social security for all. Socio-economic plan. highlights importance of equity approach and public-private partnerships to address malnutrition. Food safety agency coordination mechanism in place Emergency nutrition mainstreamed in Disaster Risk Management programmes. poor and ethnic minority areas. With a Vision Toward 2030 (ratified Feb 2012) Strategy focused on stunting reduction and emerging issues. targeting elderly. including food subsidies (15 kg rice pp/mo). related plan of action with detailed approach for first 1.IYCF National Plan of Action 2012-2015 Developed and approved by MOH in 2013 provided guidances for IYCF implementation. Government Decree No: 21/2006/ND-CP on Trading In and Use of Nutritious Products for Infants Decree will be updated to reflect stricter rules banning BMS advertisement for children up to 24 months in the new law on advertisement approved in June 2012 and with effect from January 2013 4. as well as policy for universal access to safe drinking water no 6 months Social Protection policies or legislation including food or nutrition component 1.

3) Year Population size (thousands) /a 88. validated and properly published information available until June 2014.046 2012 6 2011 Gini index /c (100= complete inequality. Vietnam Food Safety and Agricultural Health Action Plan -2011 Plan under the National Strategy on Food Hygiene and safety 2011-2020 and the vision to 2030 Other policies addressing food security 1.4 % 2011 3 2011 Women aged 20-24 who gave birth before age 18 /f (%) Population below US $ 1. Under this law.25 (PPP) per day /c (%) Sources: a/ World Bank.Viet Nam . MoH developed technical standards for food additives. validity and proper publication are met.41 % 2008 Proportion of population urbanised/c 31. environment and culture and disaster risk reduction.5.5 % 2012 Income share held by households /c Education level of mothers of under-fives: None (%)/f Male Life expectancy at birth (Years) /c Female Year Adolescents (Table .1 % 2012 GDP per capita (PPP) (constant 2011 international dollars) /c 4. Although updated information might be available at national level form different sources. Food safety policies or legislation 1.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Policy Table . Health Insurance Law – 2008 Includes children under six and near-poor people into a compulsory scheme to increase coverage of universal health insurance. especially in Mekong and Red river deltas 2. and micronutrient fortification 2.24 % 2012 Average annual population growth/a 1. d/ UNICEF.4 % 2012 Poverty gap ratio /e Women employed in agriculture sector (% of total female employment) /c) 49. Under revision to include nutrition services and therapeutic food for children with severe acute malnutrition. Health Nutrition and Population Statistics Database 2014 Update b/ FAOSTAT 2013 Update.National strategy of food security to 2020 and vision 2030. f/ Viet Nam MICS 2011 The information included in this Food Security and Nutrition Security Profile is backed by recognized. 60 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . considering aspects of human resources. World Development Indicators Database.57 2008 35. it has not been included in this profile. Resolution No.5.24/2008/NQ-CP On the issuance of Action Plan Resolution on Agriculture and Rural development for the uplifting targets development and modernization of agriculture to ensure food security.85 2008 2. 2014 Update.2010 The law specifies tasks along the food chain and management responsibility and coordination mechanisms of related government agencies and sanctioning of violations. socio-economic infrastructure. Resolution No 63/ NQ-CP on National Food Security .8 2006-2008 Employment in agriculture sector (% of total employment) /c 47. 0= complete equality) 71 2012 Unemployment rate /c 80. State of the World Children 2014 (data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified) e/ UN Statistics Division.1) Year Economic Indicators (Table .000 adolescent girls aged 15-19) /e 35 2011 Adolescent girls aged 15-19 currently married or in union /f 8.2 4.Food and Nutrition Security Profiles Viet Nam . until requirements of quality. Demographic Indicators (Table . Aims to protect rice land and further step up intensive rice farming and productivity.5.2) Adolescent birth rate (number of births per 1.7 % 2012 Number of children <5 years (thousand)/a 7.75 2006 2% 2012 16. Viet Nam National Food Safety Law . c/ World Bank.3 2008 Poorest 20% 7. which will facilitate integrated management of acute malnutrition.42 % 2008 Richest 20% 43.912 2012 35.0 2012 Agriculture population density(people/ ha of arable land /b) 5.773 2012 GDP annual growth rate /c 5. MDG database 2013 Update.

UN_WHO Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005 report based on WHO’s Global Database on Anaemia_2008 28. Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey 2013 Preliminary report 11. Viet Nam Nutrition Surveillance Profiles 2013 Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 61 . World Urbanization Prospects The 2011 Revision 22. WHO/WPRO Health Information Profiles 2002 (MOH) 30. ECS. Myanmar Preliminary report of country-wide school-based survey on availability of iodized salt at household level 9. The achievable imperative for global progress 2013 34. IDN_Basic Health Research_2010 4.References 1. SES. Thailand Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2005-2006 12. HLSS_2014 Update 15. Myanmar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2009-2010 8. 31. UN_United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. UN_WHO Global Data Bank on Infant and Young Child Feeding May 2012 23. UNICEF.FOOD SECURITY INDICATORS 2014 14. Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2005_2006 3. UN_WHO Global Database on Body Mass Index_2013 25. Thailand Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2012 13. UN_United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. UN_WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation_2014 29. Lao Social Indicator Survey 2011-2012 6. UN_Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (UNICEF. UN_FAO STAT_2014 Update 16. IDN_Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2007_2008 5. Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2010 2. Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010-2011 39. MDG Database_2013 Update 20. UN_WHO Global Database on Iodine Deficiency 2013 26. UN_WHO Global Database on Child Growth and Malnutrition 24. UN_United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. UN FAO . Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006_2007 38. World Bank Health Nutrition and Population Statistics 2013. UNICEF-WB-WHO Joint Global Nutrition Dataset_2013 35. World Population Prospects_The 2012 Revision 21. Viet Nam General Nutrition Survey 2009-2010 37. The World Bank)_2014 18. UNSD_MDG_2013 Global Monitoring Data 36. Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey 2008 10. UN_FAO RAP based on national HIES. UNICEF : IMPROVING CHILD NUTRITION. United Nations Population Division. WHO. UN_WHO Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995-2005 27. LAO_Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2006 7. World Bank . UN_UNICEF Tracking progress on child and maternal nutrition_2013 19.World Development Indicators Database_2014 Update 32. UN_ILO LABORSTA Labour Statistics Database_2013 Update 17. State of the World Children 2014 33.

through domestic production commercial imports and food aid. 62 Body Mass Index (BMI) Body Mass Index (BMI) is an index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify underweight. Food expenditure share The proportion of a household’s total expenditure which is spent on food. the average consumption in dietary energy expressed in Kcal/person/day. oral rehydration solution. Dietary energy consumption Based on national-level data on food availability and requirements. Food availability The total quantity of food that is physically present in the area of concern. Child Mortality – Neonatal Mortality Probability of dying in the first month of life. national. price policies. Child Mortality – Infant Mortality Probability of dying between birth and exactly one year of age. which varies in relation to market integration. expressed per 1. expressed per 1. and local economies (in terms of employment and livelihoods).000 live births). The target range for complementary feeding is generally considered to be 6–23 months. even water or tea. market access. Food availability alone is not enough to ensure food security.000 live births). Exclusive breastfeeding Infant receives only breastmilk (including breastmilk that has been expressed or from a wet nurse) and nothing else. It is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/ m2). through purchase.000 live births (deaths per 1. Also known as the Engel Ratio. either by producing it themselves. Food access depends on household purchasing power. and therefore other foods and liquids are needed along with breastmilk or a breastmilk substitute. This may be aggregated at the regional. district or community level. hunting. overweight and obesity in adults. exchanges or as gifts. Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . Food access The ability of individual households to acquire food. vitamins and minerals. Complementary feeding The process starting when breastmilk alone or infant formula alone is no longer sufficient to meet the nutritional requirements of an infant.000 live births).000 live births (deaths per 1. Purchasing power is a key determinant of access in most settings. Anaemia among pregnant women: Percentage of pregnant women with haemoglobin concentration <110 g/L. Child Mortality – Under 5 Mortality Probability of dying between birth and exactly five years of age.Definitions Term Definition Anemia prevalence Anaemia among non-pregnant women: Percentage of non-pregnant women 15–49 years old with haemoglobin concentration <120 g/L. fishing or gathering from wild sources. expressed per 1. as recommended by health providers. are allowed during exclusive breastfeeding. Medicines.000 live births (deaths per 1.

It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. It may characterise individuals. safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (SOFI. Data are in current international dollars based on the 2011 ICP round. It includes how food is distributed within a household. However. This often depends on the health of the individual. preparation and consumption methods. quantity (or both) to meet their nutritional requirements. PPP GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity (PPP).Term Definition Food insecurity Food insecurity exists when people are at risk of.S. A household’s use of the food to which they have access. groups. 2001). Improved sanitation facilities Number of household members using improved sanitation facilities (facilities that ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact). Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Iodine deficiency Urinary iodine concentration < 100 µg/L). at all times. plot or yard Other improved – Number of household members living in households using public taps or standpipes. Individuals’ ability to absorb and metabolize the nutrients – the conversion efficiency of food by the body. Includes all food handling. protected springs or rainwater collection. septic tank or pit latrine. including flush or pour flush toilet/latrine to piped sewer system. An international dollar has the same purchasing power over GDP as the U. GDP at purchaser’s prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. transitory. 2. dollar has in the United States. Food insecurity may be chronic. a lack of social or economic access to adequate food. social and economic access to sufficient. Food utilization 1. hygiene and sanitation. and composting toilet. tube wells or boreholes. Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 63 . Improved water sources Piped into dwelling. This may be a result of the physical unavailability of food. or actually are consuming food of inadequate quality. direct measurement of food security is complex and problematic. The optimal urinary iodine concentration is between 100-199 µg/L. PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates. plot or yard – Number of household members living in households using piped drinking water connection located inside the user’s dwelling. Food security A situation that exists when all people. have physical. Low birth weight Low birth weight is defined as weight of less than 2. ventilated improved pit latrine. Food security is most frequently based upon the absence of food insecurity. households. and waste disposal. pit latrine with slab. or acute. inadequate food utilization or a combination thereof. or cyclical. areas or an entire country.500 grams at birth. protected dug wells.

Underweight Underweight is a composite form of undernutrition that includes elements of stunting and wasting. forests. Vitamin A deficiency Vitamin A deficiency is a severe public health problem is > 20% of preschool children (6-71 months) have low serum retinol (< 0. undernourishment refers to the condition of people whose dietary energy consumption is continuously below a minimum dietary energy requirement (MDER) for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity. compared to a normal range of 18.1. Undernourishment is a key indicator for Millennium Development Goal 1. diversity.64 Term Definition Nutrition security Nutrition security exists when all people at all times consume food of sufficient quantity and quality in terms of variety. Undernourishment Calculated on a per capita basis at the national level. coupled with a sanitary environment. Underweight women BMI < 18.7 µmol/L). population < 20 should be analyzed using WHO growth reference for school aged children and adolescents. bushes. Overweight Overweight is defined as the percentage of children aged 0 to 59 months whose weight for height is above two standard deviations (overweight and obese) or above three standard deviations (obese) from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards. education and care. Open defecation Number of household members defecating in fields. bodies of water or other open spaces. Overweight Adults BMI >= 25 kg/m2 Overweight adults BMI >= 25 kg/m2 Stunting Stunting reflects chronic undernutrition during the most critical periods of growth and development in early life. It is defined as the percentage of children aged 0 to 59 months whose weight for height is below minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe wasting) and minus three standard deviations (severe wasting) from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards. nutrient content and safety to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Obesity in adults For adults. It is defined as the percentage of children aged 0 to 59 months whose weight for age is below minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe underweight) and minus three standard deviations (severe underweight) from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards. It is defined as the percentage of children aged 0 to 59 months whose height for age is below minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe stunting) and minus three standard deviations (severe stunting) from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards. Regional Report on Nutrition Security in ASEAN Volume 1 . obesity refers to populations with a Body Mass Index (BMI) score of 30 and above. adequate health. Wasting Wasting reflects acute undernutrition.5 to 25. Obesity in children (birth to age 5) Body mass index (BMI) > 3 standard deviations above the WHO growth standard median.5 kg/m2 where BMI values calculated using adult cut off points.

.

org .unicef.org/eapro E-mail: asiapacificinfo@unicef.United Nations Children’s Fund UNICEF East Asia and Regional Office (EAPRO) 19 Phra Atit Road Bangkok 10200 Thailand Website: www.