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.MORPHOLOGY •  What is morphology? •  When are we supposed to teach morphology to the students? •  What is its importance to the development of communica8ve competence? •  How course-books deal with morphological aspects of language? Basic and primary to understanding how the wri8ng system works and how meaning is conveyed.

" (Soifer) •  "Morphology is to words what syntax is to sentences..MORPHOLOGY Defini9ons •  "The study of word forma8on. or how morphemes combine to form words. The internal structure of words" (Parker & Rilley) •  "The spelling-meaning connec8on." (Templeton) The meaning structure of words how meaning takes shape ..

” (Parker & Rilley) •  “A unit of grammar smaller than a word”. (Moats) •  “More or less constant meaning associated with more or less constant form.Morphemes = form + meaning •  “The smallest unit”. (MaOhews) •  “An indivisible unit of meaning”. (Ebbers) .

] Inflec8onal <s> <ing> <ed> <er> <est> ..WRITTEN MORPHEMES Affixes are always bound ELEMENTS Base Free Lexical Nouns Verbs Adjec8ves Adverbs Bound Gramma8cal Pronouns Aux-verbs Preposi8ons Conjuc8ons ar8cles Affix Prefix Suffix Deriva8onal <ness> <ment> <ful> <ly> [..


PROCESSES OF WORD FORMATION •  AFFIXATION PREFIXES SUFFIXES unhappy / discourage / represent Forming nouns: kingdom / categoriza9on / militancy Forming verbs: Purify / colonize / shorten Forming adjec8ves: educa8onal / believable / 8reless / greenish .

yellowjacket. pickpocket b) Endocentric à fog-lamp. blackhead b. or coordina8ve compounds. redneck.•  COMPOUNDING Nouns a) Exocentric à red-skin. rockopera c. secretary-treasurer. armchair. teapot c) Coordina8ve à producer-director. biOersweet Exercise For each set of words below. breathtest. Jus8fy your iden8fica8on. say whether the words are endocentric. exocentric. cocktail. a. scholar-administrator .

fail-safe (V+Adj). breath test (N+N). overlook (P+V). bad-mouth (Adj+N). turn-key (V+N) . biOersweet (Adj+Adj). solf-land (Adj +V). freeze-dry (V+V). Adverbs – up8ghtly Adjec9ves space-born (N+Adj).Verbs sky-dive (N+V).

exam. UNICEF d)  Borrowing - change. volunteer . a boOle – to boOle / to call – a call •  UNPREDICTABLE FORMATIONS/SOURCES a)  Clipping – lab. dorm.•  CONVERSION (Func9onal shiR or zero deriva9on) E.g. smog c)  Acronyms – TOEFL. math b)  Blending – gasohol.

. which is lei to students’ guessing skills and ability to use the dic8onary. •  “Word expressions are said to be lexically simple since there are produc8ve rules which enable users to construct new words out of pre-exis8ng ones. but neither gramma8cal or communica8ve approaches seem to deal directly with word forma8on.” (Lyons.PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS •  Grammar and course-book usually focus on syntax and teaching-learning structure. 1981).

.•  The knowledge about morphologic rules and paOerns makes the meaning more predictable and contributes to enriching students’ vocabulary. •  Understanding how morphemes are built can help us both broaden and deepen struggling readers’ and writers’ understanding not only on how things are spelled and how they sound. but specially what they mean. •  Teaching English Language should improve the ability to construct sentences and other linguis8c structures on one’s own.

•  How can we address the subject in a meaningful way? •  What’s the impact of morphological knowledge to students’ communica8ve skills? •  How to integrate this content with the others prescribed by schools curriculum? •  Based on your experience as a student. how was morphology taught by your teachers? .

References •  DELAHUNTY. 1992. James J. Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English watch?v=UtZn3qKX7qg •  CRYSTAL. David. •  HAMDALLAH. . Na-Najah. Vol. English Word Forma8on and its pedagogical implica8ons for ESL. The English language : from sound to sense. GARVEY. Available in hOp://www. Gerald Patrick. Res. Rami. Colorado: Parlor Press •  COOKE. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. English Morphology: What is it and how it can help struggling readers and writers. Gina. 2003. 2 Number