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Understanding their uses, differences, and how they overlap
ECRIF and PPU are two different but related frameworks. ECRIF is an articulation or description of the learning process - anyones process of learning anything.
PPU, on the other hand, is a teaching framework a teachers lesson framework intended to structure and support students learning. In thinking about teaching
and learning, ECRIF names or identifies the learners process, and PPU is a teachers way of planning for and organizing a learning opportunity. The PPU
framework serves the learning process; ECRIF is the process of learning that the teaching framework serves. In brief:

PPU is a framework that describes how a teacher can structure a lesson. It is mostly used in planning the stages of a lesson.

ECRIF describes the learning process and what students go through as they learn during a lesson or series of lessons. It can be used during the
planning of a lesson, provides a basis for assessing learning during a lesson, and can be used to guide and focus reflection on individual student

1. Chart comparing the two

Course book Materials (Lesson on Rejoinders from Conversation

Strategies by David and Peggy Kehe. Pro Lingua Associates.


Sample lesson explained in terms of ECRIF and PPU


Sample reflection using ECRIF

5. A discussion of Pros and Cons of each

As you read, think about how each framework can affect you and
participants in teaching.
How would you use/adapt these materials if you were to teach a lesson
on rejoinders?
What do you think the pros and cons of using ECRIF and PPU might be
for participants on a course?
How might the ECRIF framework help participants in reflection and
What other Pro or Cons would you add to the list?

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1. Chart Comparing PPU and ECRIF

This is a stage in which the teacher assures that the learners
have been exposed to the target information. Questions a
teacher may think about in designing and implementing the
presentation stage:
How will I present the target language?
What will the context be?
What activities or questions will I use to guide them to
demonstrating what they already know, and/or to
awareness and understanding?
Will I present the language through a text? A
brainstorming session?


This is when the learner becomes aware of the target information. We
can see learners encountering when they show that they are becoming
aware of something new.
Students may say/think: Whats this? What does this mean? How do you
pronounce this? When is it okay to use this? How do I make that structure?
Teachers need to think about how the students will encounter the target
language. Questions a teacher might ask include:
In what context will they encounter it?
What will they be doing while encountering it? Ex. Will they be
involved in a communicative speaking or writing task? (Note
how the F in ECRIF can loop back here much like a Test-TeachTest lesson)
Will they be peer teaching through brainstorming?
Where will the target language come from (ex. the teacher, a
text, another student?)
The teacher also asks: What will I be doing? How will I assess whether
or not the learners have encountered the target material?
This is a stage when the learners themselves are asking questions about
what is the correct meaning, form or use of the target language.
Students may say/think: Oh I see. Is this right? Can I say? Can you say
it again?
The teacher asks: How will students clarify the meaning, form, and use
of the target language? How I know this is happening or has happened?
(Note that it is the students that clarify not the teacher. The teacher may

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use examples, explanations, descriptions, scenarios, drawings etc. to

help students clarify but it is the students who need to understand for
themselves and their learning process is best served when they are
active in figuring out the meaning, form, and use of the target language.
Teachers can use techniques such as checking questions to assess if Ss
have clarified.)
This is the stage when the teacher designs activities for learners
to practice the target language. Ideally teachers help learners
move from slower to faster production, from having to think
more about what is being produced to its being more
spontaneous, from isolated chunks of language to integrated
language. Teachers use a variety of individual, pair and small
group work activities to give learners ample opportunities to
practice the target language.
A teacher thinks: What activities will provide practice of the
target language? How will I set up activities that help the
students practice the target language? In what order should I
do the activities?

This is the stage in which teachers design or select a task in
which the learners are using the language in a meaningful,
independent and interactive way. The teacher is able to assess
students learning by watching learners in the task.
A teacher thinks: How will I set up activities that help the
students use the target language for communicative purposes?

This is the stage when learners are focused on memorizing the specific
target language. They are focused mostly on the language bits and their
meaning, form and/or use.
Students may say/think: What was that again?
The teacher asks: How will students begin to move key elements about
the target language into their long-term memory so they can recall it?
This is the stage when learners are able to remember the language bits
enough that they can begin to use them more naturally in broader, more
varied contexts.
The teacher asks: How will students begin to make associations
between the target language and their own experiences? How will they
personalize it and begin using it to express their own ideas?
Fluent Use
This is the stage when learners are able to use the language bits
automatically in a real and meaningful way without thinking too much
about them.
The teacher asks: How will the students use the target language for
communicative purposes with ease?

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2. Sample lesson explained in terms of ECRIF and PPU

(Please refer to the copy of the unit on Rejoinders from Conversation Strategies by David and Peggy Kehe. Pro Lingua)

Stage Aim
in terms of PPU


-To give Ss an opportunity for

free discussion/use of language
-To give Ss an oral interaction
experience in which rejoinders
would usually be used


Procedure/Steps for the

What exactly will the students be
doing? Arrangement? Materials?
Listen to the teacher/Think about their
Discuss their weekend with a partner

Volunteer ideas to the whole class.

-To activate knowledge of and

elicit rejoinders sts may already
know and use
-To present the concept of what
a rejoinder is

Procedure/Steps for
What will you be
doing? What will you
say? Ex. Instructions?
Modeling? Checking?
-Write on the board SoHow was
your weekend?
-Briefly get Ss thinking about their
weekend. Ex. People, places, things,
-Ask Ss to chat about their weekends

Weekend Conversation

-Write rejoinder on w/b

-Elicit by using a simple two line gapfill
A. I went to a caf last night.
B. ____________ Who did you
go with?

Conversation gap-fill

Presentation: Meaning

Match the list of example rejoinders to the

correct feeling Adj. (Sad, Happy, Interested,
or Surprised)

Additional aims
-To make focus of lesson clear
-Model the taskto match the example
rejoinders to the correct feeling Adj.
-Pass out the strips to each groups

Practice I

-Read Introductory Exercise and fill in the

blanks with the correct rejoinder

-Hand out exercise and ask 1 student to

read directions aloud

-To present the meaning of

rejoinders by categorizing them
according to emotion.

-To do controlled practice

Stage aim in terms of ECRIF

To give students a chance to fluently

use vocabulary and grammar related
to the topic and activities to come.
Ss will also have an opportunity to
fluently use rejoinders so that the T
can see what they already know.
To give Ss a chance to encounter
and clarify the meaning of new
rejoinders as other Ss/T explain offer
and explain them.

Rejoinders List

To help Ss encounter and clarify the

meanings of more rejoinders such as
those for surprise and sadness.

Dialogue gap-fill

To help Ss clarify and remember

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working with the meaning of

rejoinders as they choose which
is appropriate as a response to
events/feelings being expressed

-Check with a partner

-Check as a whole class

-Check student understanding

-Write TL on whiteboard

the meanings of all the rejoinders

covered up to this point.

Present II: Pronunciation

-Identify which intonation arrow pattern

goes with which emotion
-Identify the correct emotion as T hums
them. Ex. You sound sad, happy, interested,

-Draws intonation arrow patterns,

hums it and asks Ss which emotion it
sounds like.

Intonation Boardwork

Practice II
-To do controlled practice

-Do humming/guessing activity in pairs.

-Monitors, corrects, and provides

additional models

Intonation Pairwork

-To present intonation patterns

different emotions
-To do controlled practice
identifying which emotion is
being expressed

with emotion intonation

patterns by producing and
identifying which emotion is
being conveyed

(Optional: Ss read the dialogue from the

introductory exercise aloud focusing on
using the correct intonation)

To give Ss a chance to encounter,

clarify, and begin to remember the
pronunciation of the rejoinders by
linking them to auditory and visual
intonation patterns.
To give Ss a chance to clarify,
remember, and begin to internalize
the pronunciation of the rejoinders
by linking them to intonation

Practice III
-To give Ss controlled practice

-in A/B pairs, Ss do Step 1, Pair Practice. Ss

listen to a sentence and choose the
appropriate rejoinder.
-(Option) Ss say You sound bored,
interested, etc
-group correct

-Describe how Ss will complete the

-Model sentence 1; write the two
choices on the w/b (Thats great! and
Thats too bad) and ask one student to
read aloud

Listen and Choose rejoinder

Practice IV

-PW: complete the sentences in Step 3 with

their own answers in writing
-PW: take turns to read and respond using
appropriate rejoinders

-Describe two steps: first, write. Then

read to a partner and they give an
appropriate rejoinder

Personalized Sentences

-Write appropriate rejoinders to Ts


Additional aims
- To give Ss opportunity to personalize
the activity
-Erase TL from the W/B
-Say 5 of my own made-up

listening to a speaker and

responding with appropriate
-To give controlled practice
listening to and identifying what
emotion their respondents
reaction conveys
-To give Ss freer practice
responding with an appropriate
rejoinder and appropriate

Practice V

-To give Ss freer practice

To help Ss clarify, remember, and

internalize the intonation and
meaning of rejoinders as they
recognize the correct rejoinder.

To continue to clarify, remember,

and internalize the meaning and
intonation of rejoinders. The fact that
it is more personalized puts an
emphasis on internalizing. Also,
they have to now produce rejoinders

Listen and respond

To continue to clarify, remember,

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choosing and saying an

appropriate rejoinder to the Ts

-To give Ss an opportunity to
use rejoinders by choosing how
to respond to what the speaker
says using an appropriate
rejoinder from their memory
with appropriate intonation

sentences relevant to our

context, for example There
will be a test tomorrow.

-Jot down notes to be prepared for Step 4

-PW: standing, conversing about a recent
travel experience
-purpose: classroom conversation is most
often seated, whereas real world
conversation is most often not, so by
standing Ss get a more realistic feel for an
authentic situation

Additional aims
-To model the final activity
-Explain step 4; give time (5
minutes) to jot down notes
-Model, For Thanksgiving my wife and
I went to Chicago. Yeah. etc.
-Monitor and note down errors for

and internalize the meaning and

intonation of rejoinders. The fact that
it is more personalized puts an
emphasis on internalizing. Also,
they have to now produce rejoinders
rather than select them.

Travel Conversation
-To give students a chance to
fluently use some of the rejoinders
as they talk about travel experiences.

Additional aims
-To give sts time to create their own
-To create a more authentic
conversation encounter

3. Sample Reflection Using ECRIF terminology

During the Listen and Choose stage, Won and Raphael were partners. When Won said Thats nice, Raphael said, You sound bored. Won then tried it
again and they hummed the intonation pattern again. I think Raphaels comment helped Won clarify the intonation pattern for the interested feeling I also
noticed that when Raphael touched the paper with the intonation pattern and moved it as he spoke, it seemed to help Won clarify it and start to remember
it. At the same time, I think that Raphael was able to further internalize the intonation pattern by first noticing the problem in Wons pronunciation and
also teaching it to him. During the same activity, I saw Jennifer and Hiroko working together. Jennifer has very natural intonation (she lived abroad for a
while) and was able to respond very fluently and sometimes didnt even look at the rejoinders and just responded. In fact, during the activity when Hiroko
said My father is a famous movie star, Jennifer responded by saying No way! At this point, Hiroko encountered a new rejoinder. She then looked puzzled
and asked Jennifer what the meaning was. Jennifer explained that it was the same as Youre kidding, which helped Hiroko clarify the meaning. A minute or
two later, Jennifer called me over and asked me if No way was okay to use with a teacher in school. I explained that it might be a bit rude in a more formal
situation because it was strong and meant that you dont believe somebody. I think my explanation helped her clarify the usage for her a bit. She then
continued by giving some situations and asking if she could say No way in those cases. She seemed to be actively clarifying and perhaps even
remembering/internalizing through the association with concrete experiences.

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4. Pros and Cons of using PPU and ECRIF with participants

Possible Pros of PPU

Can provide a simple template for Ps to follow.

When used in conjunction with the PPU pyramid (Moran) Can help Ps see
that the presentation part of a lesson needs to be relatively short and that
Ss can only learn so much new information at a time.
As above Can help Ps see that the majority of the lesson needs to be the Ss
working with the language
Can help Ps understand the difference between a focus on accuracy
(practice) and a focus on communication (use)

Possible Cons of PPU

Can convey the idea that the teacher needs to be presenting as opposed
to the students learning.
Does not explicitly help Ps focus and reflect on what individual students
were doing during the lesson.
Can encourage teacher to focus on students as monolithic entity rather
than individual learners.
Can encourage teacher to focus on stages and activities rather than on
Ps may get the impression that learning happens in a linear way and in
the same way for all students and feel frustrated when students dont
conform to their lesson plan.
Teachers may get the impression that they must do the PPU steps in a
particular order. Ex. Present everything first, then practice, then use as
opposed to considering the students and the target language when
staging the lesson and breaking the target language down into
manageable chunks.
Teachers may think learners learn in a single lesson

Possible Pros of ECRIF

The above Pros for PPU (template, amount of information to be

encountered and clarified, amount of time needed to
remember/internalize, the need to have opportunities for fluency)
Helps Ps focus on individual student behavior during the learning
Can help Ps see that students learn in different ways and realize that it is
their job to set up activities that can provide opportunities for learning.
Can be used with any teaching framework (TBL, TTT, PPU, ARC) or with
various approaches (TPR, Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Audio-lingual, etc).
Aids in reflection by inviting Ps describe and interpret what individual Ss
are doing with target language at any given point in the lesson.
Provides a rationale for continuous noticing and assessment of learning
and reflection-in-action
For students Supports peer teaching and collaboration at all stages
For students Helps ensure their active engagement in their own learning

Possible Cons of ECRIF

Can be frustrating for Ps who want to know the right way to teach.
Can be initially challenging for participants to understand the difference
between the stages.
Can be alarming for Ps to realize that students may doing many things at
any given point in a lesson i.e. seem chaotic (this can also be a Pro!)

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