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Paper 2 is a case-study enquiry with a set of sources which assesses your ability to use sources and develop your own arguments. Each year there are set topics on Crime and Punishment which indicate the period and context of the enquiry, however, the paper will not cover every aspect of the topics nominated. You will be given about ten sources and need to use these to answer eight questions. The tasks allow you to work through the sources in carefully managed stages. Do the questions in numerical order.
The nominated topics for 2008 are: Law Enforcement and Protest 1900 to the present day Conscientious objectors and their treatment: the First and Second World Wars. The Poll Tax protests 1990-92. Responding to terrorism: the London bombing 2005.
Contents: An interview with the chief examiner – You’d be a fool not to read this! Sources – A guide to the type of sources you can expect in the paper Questions – How the questions will look Answers – What sort of answers the examiner will be looking for
Online reading – Where you can build your background knowledge Produced by Dafydd Humphreys, May 2008 With thanks to the HT Discussion Forum Students should register at www.learnhistory.org.uk/forum for more resources.
Interview with the Chief Examiner Q: What will be the focus of the exam? A: The focus can be taken from the heading: It's about Protest and Law enforcement (probably better in that order). So, key questions might be: What forms did the three protests take? How have governments reacted to these challenges to the authority of the state? What impact did these protests have on law-making and law enforcement? The factual support expectation is not demanding. The first two protests are reasonably covered in textbooks. For the 2005 bombings, the Home Office site: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/security/ will provide information in the areas suggested above. Q: Is there anything else students should consider? A: They should consider these over-riding questions when revising the topics and answering the questions: Why do laws get made? Why do attitudes change? Why do some actions become crimes which weren’t before? Why do other actions stop being crimes? Think too, of the bigger picture – what type of government is in charge? What social, economic, industrial and cultural changes are taking place? Are there ground-breaking events at the time that would affect events at home, e.g. the Russian Revolution, the Great War, the ‘War on Terror’? Q: What are the key features of conscientious objection they need to know? A: First World War: Conscription Act 1916 called up every male between 18 and 41. But they were allowed right to object on grounds of conscience. 14,000 did so – most on internationalist socialist grounds, some religious pacifists. Each case heard by a tribunal, but these were often hostile. Only 400 received exemption. 6,000 sent on “work of national importance” 5,000 non-combatants, 2,600 rejected. But of these 13,600, 6000 refused to fight or even to do “work of national importance”. They were often harshly treated: imprisoned and put in solitary confinement. Those sent to the army refused to wear uniform: this was a more serious offence and punishments included fake firing squads. Eventually the army realised they were wasting their time, but COs
lost the right to vote for 5 years after the war. Later, in the Second World War there were 59,000 COs, but they were better treated by the authorities, if not by the general public. Q: What is the big issue in this topic? A: Has the state the right to make you fight/die/overrule your principles? Q: What about the Poll Tax protests? A: The ‘Poll Tax’ (officially called “Community Charge”) was introduced by Margaret Thatcher’s Conservative government in 1988, who had been in power since 1979. Replaced rates with per head (poll) charge. It was seen as regressive – taxing the poor more than the rich. It was also difficult to collect as it was hard to track down non-payers who moved around, like students. It provoked the questions - How to protest? How should democratically-elected govt react? The Poll Tax was bitterly opposed – culminating in a big protest in Trafalgar Square on the 31st of March 1990 – the numbers were far bigger than planned. Police made mistakes – also protesters turned violent. There were attacks on police, shops and cars. Selected buildings were burnt. Also a campaign of non-violent protest: people refused to pay & went to prison, including some councillors and one MP, Terry Fields. Thatcher resigned in November 1990 over refusal to withdraw the Poll Tax. Tax was withdrawn in 1992. It’s estimated that over half the population didn’t pay it. Photos of the Poll Tax Riot on: http://www.caliach.com/paulr/news/polltax/ Q: The July 7 bombings only happened in 2005 – what should I learn for the exam? A: 52 people + 4 bombers died, 700 injured in by bombs at three tube stations and on a bus. It was a new kind of terrorism in Britain: Suicide bombers – the first in Europe. Motives seem to have been hostility to British closeness to US policy in the Middle East, widely seen as anti-Muslim, especially the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and continued support for Israel. It prompted a crisis for the PM, Tony Blair - How should government react? Government reaction: New crimes: “Advocating terrorism. “ Heightened border security, armed police, right to deport, right to hold suspects without trial extended. The reaction clashed with 1998 Human Rights Act.
Home Office policy: Prevent, Pursue, Protect and Prepare. The Home Office site has lots of material here: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/security/
Sources There will be about ten sources which will be selected to highlight the key focus of the exam. The sources will probably cover all three of the nominated topics. There will be a broad selection of source types, including written and pictorial. There may be diary entries, letters, newpaper articles, cartoons, photographs, song lyrics, poems, artifacts and extracts from history books or even your school textbook! Here are some examples of what to expect: Source A: It was clear that millions just could not afford to pay the poll tax. But pleading poverty would not defeat it. A mass movement had to be organised and built and, above all, effective support given to all those who refused to pay. The Fed played the key role in this task and, at its height, had over 2,000 anti-poll tax unions, trade union bodies and community groups affiliated under its banner. In the run-up to 31 March, tens of thousands lobbied local councils, marched and attended meetings as councils, including Labour councils, rolled over and began to implement the poll tax. – Mark Wainwright, Militant Labour (Socialist Party) Source B: 'Why should a duke pay more than a dustman? It is only because we have been subjected to socialist ideas for the last 50 years.’ – Secretary of the State for the Environment, Nicholas Ridley, a leading member of Thatcher’s government. Source C: Maggie said community charge You better watch out the governments at large You don’t fill it in £50 fine So you better send it back in time Don’t pay the poll tax Stick it up her arse “Don’t Pay the Poll Tax” by The Exploited, a punk rock band.
Source D: Bradford Telegraph and Argus, 1989 Source E: I showed the court I couldn’t afford the poll tax. I could have paid £1 a week, but I wasn’t paying on principle. They sent me down for three months. The council leader said I was a stupid girl who needed a spanking. When other prisoners being taken from the court heard what I was in for, they started rocking the prison van, shouting, “Let her out!” - Beccy Palmer, Poll tax prisoner Source F: Often attack is the only effective form of defence and, as a movement, we should not be ashamed or defensive about these actions, we should be proud of those who did fight back. - Danny Burns, “Poll Tax Rebellion”, 1992.
Source G: The very isolation gave me a strange sense of joy perhaps an expression of my combatant instinct! Now and again, as I met men and women whose convictions were leading them along the same unpopular course, came the feeling that here was something worth doing, that we must somehow hang on to this foundation of truth and sanity we had discovered. For an individual to attempt to resist the power of the state would be a tremendous venture. – Conscientious objector Harry Stanton, talking of his experiences during WWI.
Source H: Just before the trials, a captain told Alfred that his papers were marked 'Death': was he going to continue to resist? Alfred said, 'Yes. Men are dying in agony in the trenches for the things that they believe in and I wouldn't be less than them.' To Alfred's astonishment, 'he stepped back and saluted me, then shook my hand.' – From the Peace Pledge Union website, describing the experience of Alfred Evans in WWI
Source I: 'For refusing to be a soldier I am told I may have to forfeit my life. I cannot understand it. I thought the days of religious persecution were over, and that an Englishman could hold and express his convictions.' – The statement of Croydonborn Mark Hayler (26), a Quaker, at his court-martial in WWI Source J: 'It was a useless and exasperating effort to attempt to force such people to act in a manner contrary to their principles.' If the principles were 'conscientiously held, we desire that they should be respected, and that there should be no persecution'. – Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain talking about conscientious objection during the Second World War. Chamberlain was PM when war broke out in 1939, but was replaced by Winston Churchill in 1940.
Source K: "The purpose of terrorism is not only to kill and maim the innocent; it is to put despair and anger in people's hearts. It is by its savagery designed to cover all conventional politics in darkness, to overwhelm the dignity of democracy and proper process with the impact of bloodshed and of terror. There is no hope in terrorism, nor any future in it worth living. And it is hope that is the alternative to this hatred." – Prime Minister Tony Blair, speaking to the press on July 8th, 2005.
Acts Preparatory to Terrorism This aims to capture those planning serious acts of terrorism. Encouragement to Terrorism This makes it a criminal offence to directly or indirectly incite or encourage others to commit acts of terrorism. This will include the glorification of terrorism, where this may be understood as encouraging the emulation of terrorism. Dissemination of Terrorist Publications This will cover the sale, loan, or other dissemination of terrorist publications. This will include those publications that encourage terrorism, and those that provide assistance to terrorists. Terrorist training offences This makes sure that anyone who gives or receives training in terrorist techniques can be prosecuted. The Act also criminalises attendance at a place of terrorist training.
Source L: New criminal offences created under the Terrorism Act, 2006 Labour MP Jeremy Corbyn - one of the leading rebels against the terror laws - branded the glorification ban "absurd". "The legislation is misguided and the whole concept of glorification is frankly absurd and will end up entrapping the innocent and preventing legitimate debate. "What some would call a freedom fight going on in another country others might term a terrorist offence.
"Nelson Mandela was branded a terrorist by Margaret Thatcher; he was later branded a freedom fighter," he said. Source M: From The Guardian newspaper, April 13th, 2006.
Questions These are the sort of questions you will get: 1) Study Sources G and I. (4 marks) What can you learn from sources G and I about why people objected to war in 1914? 2) Study Source A and use your own knowledge (7 marks) Why did a huge protest take place in London on March 31st 1990? Explain your answer using your own knowledge and Source A 3) Study Source B (6 marks) How can you tell that Ridley was against the protest? Explain your answer, using Source B. 4) Study Sources B, D and E. (7 marks) How far do Sources D and E disagree with what Ridley says in Source B about the community charge? Explain your answer using Sources B, D and E. 5) Study Source M and use your own knowledge (8 marks) Why did the Blair government find public reaction to its Terrorism Act unpopular in places? Explain your answer using your own knowledge and Source M. 6) Study Sources C and F . (7 marks) Compare the value of Sources C and F for someone enquiring into what happened at Trafalgar Square in 1990. Explain your answer, using Sources C and F . 7) Study Sources G, H and J. (9 marks) How far can we rely on the evidence in source J about Chamberlain’s reasons for not judging COs harshly in the Second World War? Explain your answer, using Sources G, H and J.
8) Study Sources B, J, M and use your own knowledge. (12 marks) Do you think that governments ever listen to protestors? Explain your answer, using your own knowledge, Sources B, J and M and any other sources you may find helpful.
Answering the Questions The role of recalled information in Paper 2 In preparing for Paper 2, you need to know the key issues of the period or topic, but it is more important you can show the skills and abilities to interpret, analyse and evaluate source material rather than you have a great depth of detail about the nominated topic. No question will rely solely on recalled information, but two or three of them will require need you to use your knowledge together with the sources material. Question types and targets in paper 2 Comprehension and inference: For example: What can you learn from these sources about…? This is the first question and serves as an introduction to the topic. You simply have to tell the examiner what it shows and infer as to what it suggests about the topic you don’t need to say what cannot be learned or look at the source’s reliability or bias. • Analysis of sources: For example: How can you tell that source … sympathises with / is against…?; In what ways does source…try to persuade …that..? Here you need to comment on specific words and phrases and look at what the source tells you or doesn’t tell you and how it does this so you can show the point of view or purpose of the author. Comprehension of sources and use of own knowledge: For example: Explain why...using the source and your own knowledge; Use the source(s) and your own knowledge to explain how ... changed; What part did ... play in...? Use the source(s) and your own knowledge to explain your answer. To do well here you need to use both of the material in the source and of your own knowledge. Many students lose marks because they concentrating on one or the other. To achieve the highest levels three your answer needs to use both the relevant materials from the sources and your own knowledge, it also needs you to focus on exactly what the question wants you to explain. So for example a 'why' question needs you to show how their material explains an outcome or event. • •
• Evaluation of reliability or utility: For example: How useful are… to the historian studying… Compare the value of sources … to; Do you think the statement …in source …is reliable? Etc. A good approach to these questions looks at the nature of the evidence and what the question asks you to explain. You will explain how useful the source/s are by considering what the source says in the light of its origin (who made it) and purpose (why they made it) and in relation to what it is we are trying to find out. Don’t waste time explaining in detail what the source says, or be over– influenced by whether it is primary or secondary. However, it is essential that you use the details of the caption in preparing your answer. Analysis, evaluation of interpretations and representations: For example: How are …portrayed in …; How accurately does the author portray the…; Do you agree with the view that…; Why is it difficult to find out whether…? These types of question need you be able to understand the nature and process of historical enquiry and the nature of representations (eg looking at cartoons, paintings, novels) and the nature and status of interpretations of history. Understanding that historians reach conclusions based on evidence and that evidence is open to interpretation, is the key here; You need to appreciate the difficulties involved in dealing with gaps in evidence, in selecting from available evidence etc. These allow you to explore the accuracy or nature of portrayals and representations in carton or novels, for example, or to assess the fairness of judgements about individuals Cross – referencing: This tests your ability to use more than one source, comparing what they suggest or tell you about a given topic. For example: Does source Y support / challenge … in source Z?; How does source Y help you understand … in source Z; Does source Y suggest that … in source Z is accurate? You need to carefully use both sources and show clearly that you can explain what the question is testing. The common reason for losing marks is that you don’t explain exactly how they support each other or disagree. Explain exactly! An answer that begins ‘it supports it because source Y says’ might only answer half the task. To get higher levels, you need to 14 • •
consider the reliability, usefulness of the evidence as well as what is said. • Reaching conclusions: For example: Do you think that …was the most important factor in How important was…in… Do you agree that…? Use sources…and your own knowledge to explain you answer. This is normally the last question and uses all of the evidence from the sources. You need to use material from two or more sources and your own knowledge to support your answer. To score the higher levels you need to show developed cross– referencing, reasoning and argument. The best answers will be in essay form focussing on the question, rather than rehearsing the content of the sources in detail. You must refer to the sources to answer the question and use your subject knowledge to support your answer.
Online Reading: Links Conscientious Objectors http://www.ppu.org.uk/learn/infodocs/cos/st_co_wwtwo.html – Conscientious objection in WWII http://www.ppu.org.uk/learn/infodocs/cos/st_co_wwone.html – Conscientious Objection in WWI http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/conscientious_objectors.htm - school history website http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWco.htm - Spartacus entry on WWII Cos http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/categories/c1173/ - People’s first-hand recollections of WWII Poll Tax Protests http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poll_Tax_Riots - Wikipedia entry
- BBC ‘On this day’ looks back at the riot http://www.militant.org.uk/PollTax.html - The Socialist Party looks back at its role in the protests Responses to July 7th Bombings http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/security/terrorism-and-thelaw/terrorism-act-2006/?view=Standard - Terrorism Act 2006 http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/uksecurity - Articles in liberal newspaper ‘The Guardian’ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/in_depth/uk/2005/london_explosions/def ault.stm - BBC website about the bombings All topics http://learnhistory.org.uk/forum/ - register to access revision notes and video documentaries etc
Produced May 2008 with thanks to the History Teachers Discussion Forum and Dave Wallbanks in particular for some of the question guides and Dan Moorhouse for the interview with Chris Culpin, chief examiner.