Harry Sedgwick Morrel Subject: Physics The Atom Rutherford's model

Teacher: Chris
Plum pudding model ^ 
Geiger and Marsden scattering Experiment 
Most of the alpha particles pass straight through the gold sheet with deflections of only 1 or 2 degrees this would be predicted with every model. However some of the deflections were much longer with around 1 in 8000 deflections being greater than 90 degrees. This can only be explained by Rutherford’s nuclear model of the atom. Rutherford’s theory proved because firing
positive atoms at positive atoms means that it would repel back.
Structure of the nucleus 
Symbol proton = P or H  Neutron = N  Electron = e  Beta particle = B or e  Alpha particle = A or He Isotopes – atoms having the same proton number but different nucleon number (number of neutrons). Particle physicsQ = charge B = baryon number L = lepton number (every particle has an antiparticle  you can tell because there is always a line above the original sign e.g. B) P Particle physics diagram 
(An antiquark is the same letter but it has a line above it) Leptons (Tau neutrino = Ve)
Hadrons reactions  during any reaction the following properties must be conserved Baryon number lepton number charge strangeness mass/energy (don’t worry)
B Decay  (nucleon number remains constant but neutron number decreases by 1 and proton number increases by 1)
During B decay a neutron is changed into a proton  thus meaning an up quark changes into a down. In this process a b particle and a antielectron neutrino are emitted.
There is also beta +  decay where it is the opposite  a proton changes into a neutron! Exchange particles  responsible for the forces between particles  also known as force mediators and Gauge bosons. The fundamental forces of nature Weak interaction W+ W and Zo bosons Strong interactiongluons Gravitygraviton Electromagneticphotons (gamma)
Feynman diagrams  illustrate the exchange of vector bosons when particles react
Rutherford’s model of the atom  Problems  the electron will eventually spiral into the nucleus 
Electrons orbit the nucleus Electrons are accelerating Electrons will lose energy by emitting photons of electromagnetic radiation as they orbit the nucleus. Rutherford’s  Bohr’s postulates 1. Electrons can only exist in certain discrete orbits within the atom e.g.
2. While in a discrete orbit in the atom the electron does not emit radiation (lose energy) 3. If an electron moves from a higher orbit to a lower orbit it emits a single photon. Equations EV = J 1.6x10 to 19 E= H= F= W= En = Hxc λ e F c λ E T E = Hf = = = = = energy volts = joules 1.6x10 to 19 energy = planks constant x speed Wavelength planks constant = energy frequency frequency = speed Wavelength power = energy time
1 = energy (number) = 1 N² number ² e=hf ^ (above) = the larger the energy transition the greater the frequency and the smaller the wavelength Work function = planks Constant x frequency – energy Threshold frequency = work function / planks constant Planck’s constant = 6.63 x 1034 Ek max = HF – ø = planks constant x frequency – work function Speed = speed of light (3 x 10 to 8)
Emission line spectrum
– Each element has a characteristic line spectrum which the element can be identified – Each line in the spectrum is produced by an energy transition from a higher to a lower energy level. – Electrons can only exist in discrete energy levels (Bohr) when an electron moves from a higher to a lower energy level it emits a single photon – The wavelength/frequency of the photon depends on the energy change, only a limited number of wavelength/frequencies can be emitted because there are a limited amount of energy transitions. Therefore there will only be a limited number of lines in the line spectrum, each line in the spectrum represents a particular energy transition. The energy of the photon = energy jump of the electron Questions 
Pair production  The energy of the photon is converted into the mass/ energy of the particles  The minimum energy required for pair production is equal to the equivalent rest energies of the particles produced  The extra energy in the photon will become kinetic energy of the particles Refraction  change in speed of light when it moves from one medium to another.
Refractive index of medium with respect to medium 1 N1 = C1/C2 N1 = 3x10 to 8 / 2 x 10 to 8
N1=1.5
N1, sin01 = N2, sin02 Critical angle 
C1 = sin01= N2= 1N2 (refractive index of medium 2) C2 sin02 N1 Sin C = N2/N1
Question out of the book – 1. a. calculate the wavelength of a gammaray photon which has an energy of 1.6x10 to 15  λ = c x h/e λ = 3 x 10 to 8 x 6.63 x 10 to 34/ 1.6 x 10 to
λ = 1.24 x 10 to 10 B. an Xray photon is generated which the same energy as the gammaray has described in part a. Compare these two photons in respect of their – 1. Speed of transmission in a vacuum – their speed would be fast because of the small wavelength. 2. Their ability to penetrate a material would be very good because they have a small wavelength meaning a lot of energy to pass through. MODULE 2 Scalar quantity – has magnitude (size) only e.g. mass, time, distance, speed, energy Vector quantity – has magnitude AND direction e.g. velocity, force (including weight) displacement, momentum and acceleration. Speed and velocity 
15
Distance and displacement –  A man walks 3Km west and 4Km north what is the total distance travelled? = 7Km This is distance ^  A man walks 3Km west and 4Km north what is his displacement? = 5Km northwest at 53 This is displacement ^ (Pythagoras theorem) 32 + 42= 25 √25 = 5Km
Force – two forces acting on a point calculate the resultant force 
1. 5N + 10N = 15N
2. 10N – 5N = 5N
3.
102 + 52= 125 √125 = 11.1N and 63 degrees
Resolution of a force into 2 components at right angles 
Tan angle = opp/adj SOH CAH TOA Equations of motion – uniform acceleration –
V (final velocity) = U + aT same  > a (acceleration) = (vu)/T 2 2 S (displacement) = uT + 1/2aT V (final velocity) = u2+ 2as Questions – 1. Starting from rest, a bus accelerates to a speed of 8ms1 after 10s. What is its average acceleration? –  a = (v – u)/ T a= (8 – 0)/ 10  a = 0.8ms2 2. A sprinter has an acceleration of 5ms2 during the first 2 secs of a race. What
velocity does she reach? –  V = u + aT  V = 0+ 5 x 2  V = 10ms1 3. A train slows down from 60ms1 to 20ms1 in 50 secs. What is its acceleration?  a = (v – U)/T  a = (20 – 60) / 50  a = 0.8ms2
Time graphs 
Projectile motion –
Time is common to vertical and horizontal motion. They hit the ground at the same time.
Question – a ball is kicked horizontally with a speed of 15m/s form the top of a cliff, the cliff is 120m high. A. How long does it take for it to reach the beach?  S = UT + ½AT2 => 120 = 0T + ½10T2 => 120 = 5T2 => T =4.9secs B. How far does it travel horizontally?  4.9 secs x 15m/s = 73.5M C. what is the vertical velocity when the ball hits the beach  V = U +AT => V = 0 + 10 x 4.9 => V = 49m/s Question– 1.What is its maximum height? 2. How long is the time of flight? 3. How far does it travel horizontally (its horizontal range?)
Kinetic energy and potential energy – Kinetic energy – The energy of an object possesses due to its motion.
1. V2 = U2+ 2AS V2 = (30sin45)2+ 20s 2. V = U + at 0 = 30sin45 10t 2 3. S = UT + 1/2 at S = 30sin45 x 4.2
0 = 450 + 20s 22.5 = s 2.1 x 2 = 4.2 seconds = t 89m
Ek = ½ x M (kg) x V2 (ms1) Gravitational potential energy–energy possessed by an object due to its position above earth.
Ep = M (kg) x g (ms1) x h (m) Potential energy on ground is 0 on the ground Momentum – a property an object has due to its motion
P (M/kg) = M (kg) x V(m)
e.g. Law of conservation of momentum – The momentum of a system remains constant provided there are no resultant external forces acting on the system. E.g. if a ball is kicked, considering friction is not there, it will travel at constant speed.
Another example –
What would happen with kinetic energy? 
= 792 J Ek = 1/2MV2 Ek = ½ x 6 x 2.72 Ek = 21.9 J An inelastic collision – loss of kinetic energy An elastic collision – kinetic energy conserved Momentum has to remain 0 if there are no external forces acting upon it and it is still moving E.g. a space shuttle.
Examples of Newton’s third law 
Work Work done = force x displacement W = F x S angle – W = F x S cos x angle – Find the work done of a 1000kg car that is travelling at 31ms1 and can be brought to a stop in 75m V=0 U=31ms1 S=75m V2 = u2 + 2as a = v2 – u2 / 2s a = 0 – (31m1)2 / 150 = 6.4ms2 Find force M=1000kg A=6.4kg2 F = M x A F = 1000kg x 6.4ms2 F = 6400N Therefore find work done – F=6400kg S=75m W = F x S W = 6400 x 75 W = 480000J = 480KJ
– Find force from pushing a 5kg weight up 12m... M = 5kg H= 12m increase in potential energy = Mgh = 5 x 10 x 12 Work = F x s = 600J F = 600J / 12 F = 50N
600J
Find force from pushing a 5kg weight up a 30 degree slope with height of 12m... M = 5kg H = 12m angle = 30degrees increase in Ep = 5 x 10 x 12 600J = work done = F x S sin30 = H / S S = 12/sin30 s = 24m F = w / s = 600/24 F = 25N
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– Find work done when pushing a block with 50N of force 20M. F = 50N S = 20m angle = 60 degrees W = F x S x cos x 60 W = 50 x 20 x cos x 60 W = 500J Energy – the principle of conservation energy says that the total amount of energy in any isolated system is constant  Ek = ½ x m x v2 Power – is energy transferred per second  Power (J/S or W) = work done (J) / time taken (S) P = W / T Efficiency – energy out / maximum energy x 100% Terminal velocity and energy given off 
Ep1 (potential energy) = mgh1 and Ep2 (potential energy) = mgh2 Therefore ∆Ep = Ep1 – Ep2 = mgh1 – mgh2 ∆Ep = mg (h1h2) To find kinetic energy – it equals same as potential ∆Ep = ∆Ek = 1/2mv2 Work done by gravitational force = f x s = m x g x s
Same instance but counting air resistance and terminal velocity –
As velocity of an object increases Air resistance increases (fa) And resultant force R decreases because R = mg  Fa Acceleration also decreases until it reaches 0 and terminal velocity. Terminal velocity is the loss in energy due to air resistance = ∆Ep  ∆Ek. Work is done by air resistance = Fa x s = ∆Ep  ∆Ek. Specific heat capacity – the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1Kg of a substance by 1 degree (1Kalvin)
Energy lost/gained by a substance = Mass x specific heat capacity x change in temperature J = Kg x JKg1C1/K1 x C/K
Heat gained by water = Heat lost by copper Find the final heat of the water M of water x C of copper x ∆ in water temp = M of copper x C of copper x ∆ in copper temp 3 x 4200 x (t10) = 0.2 x 400 x (250 T) 12600T – 126000 = 80T + 120000 12600 – 146000 = 80T 12680T = 146000 T = 11.51 degrees Change in state – Melting /fusion evaporating/boiling Solid liquid vapour (gas) Freezing condensation Solid liquid vapour (gas) Heat required to change the state not cause a change in temperature – LATANT HEAT
Specific Latent heat of fusion/ vaporisation = the heat required to change the state of 1Kg of a substance from solid to liquid/ liquid to vapour without a change in temperature.
The ideal gas laws – 1. The volume of molecules is negligible compared to the volume occupied by the gas 2. The forces between molecules are negligible. 3. Collisions between molecules are perfectly elastic – no loss in kinetic energy
1. Bolyes Law  ‘the volume ‘V’ of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its absolute pressure at constant temperature’ Pressure inversely proportional to Volume.
2. Charles Law – for a given mass of gas at constant pressure the volume V in directly proportional to its thermodynamic temperature. Volume is proportional to temperature
Absolute zero is where the motion of molecules stop – no K.E (273 degrees) 3. The pressure Law – The pressure of a fixed gas is directly proportional to its thermodynamic temperature. Provided it’s at a constant volume.
Pressure is proportional to Temperature (K)
For a fixed mass! Or Pressure x Volume = constant x Temperature The actual example – e.g. a gas occupies a volume of 0.10m3 at 1.8MPa. Determine – a) The pressure if the volume is increased to 0.06m3 b) The volume if the pressure is changed to 2.4Mpa (Assume isothermic changes) a) P1, V1=P2, V2 p2 = p1v1/v2 = 1.8x106 x 0.1 / 0.06 = 3 x 106 = 3MPa b) P1, V1=P2, V2 V2 = p1v1/p2 1.8 x 106 x 0.1/2.4 x 106 = 0.075m3
Change in volume and pressure Kinetic theory – What do I understand about these? Temperature – can be measured in degrees or in Fahrenheit Celsius, it measures how hot or cold something is. How fast the atoms vibrate, fast = hot, slow = cold. Pressure – the force pushing down on an area divided by the area over which it acts. Force/area Gas – a substance which cannot usually be seen. It is a lot less dense than any solid or liquid. The particles are spread out, not connected Kinetic energy – is the energy of an object because it is moving. KE=1/2MV2
Universal gas equation – PV = nRT
Molar mass – 1 mol of 12C has a mass of 12g 1 mol of 16O has a mass of 16g
Mass of gas = no. of moles x molar mass
Temperature of a gasTemperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a molecule of an ideal gas. Temperature is proportional to average kinetic energy (Ek) (1/2 x m x average translational kinetic energy ( ½xmx = mean square speed) )–
= 3 x R x T = 1.38 x 1023 (Boltzmann’s constant (k)) 2 Na
So
½xmx
= 3/2kT