Harry Sedgwick Verity Bullen Subject: physics MODULE 1 – atoms and stuff
The electromagnetic spectrum The smaller the wavelength the more energy waves carry (Least energy - long wavelength)Radio, microwaves, infra red, UV light, X-ray and Gamma rays (most energy - short wavelength) Radio - telecommunications, radio Microwaves - telecommunications, cooking Infra red - cooking Visible - telecommunications, optical fibers UV light - security in dark, sun beds X-ray - medical uses Gamma rays All waves are speed of light (3x10 to 8) ‘C’ What are we looking at this term? Refraction Snell’s law TIR Photoelectric effect Electrons - collisions, ionization, excitation, and energy levels Wave - particle duality Refraction - change in direction of wave due to change in its speed e.g. when a wave passes from one material to another. - When a beam of light passes from a less dense material to another It bends towards the ‘normal‘ (Normal is 90° to the point it hits)
- How can we calculate by how much the angle is refracted? -
Snell’s law – n x sinθ = n x sinθ
(law of refraction) e.g.
Table to help with different velocities material Vacuum Air Water Glass - (Perspex 1.63) Diamond Gallium phosphate Velocity 1.0000 1.0003 1.333 1.5 2.417 3.50 Highest lowest
Feynman diagrams -
The photoelectric effect Is an electron a particle or a wave? - They both exhibit properties of particles and waves! E.g. electrons can be used as waves in electron microscopes. Light in the form of can displace particles (this is the photoelectric effect) For an electron to be ejected from the surface of a Metal - Energy incident > work function Light - Energy incident = intensity of light = amplitude (increasing intensity does not EJECT electrons if none where emitted at low intensity Photon - intensity = number of photons - For a given metal there is a minimum freq which will eject an electron - The number of electrons emitted = number of protons - The Ek of electrons = the frequency or incident radiation (Ek = more energy being let out) (Ek = 0.5xMxV²)
Energy photon = frequency (E=Hf) <- planks constant - important equation - E= Hf < W = eO - energy < work function (in this case no electron emitted) (work function is the least amount of energy needed to knock an electron of the surface of a metal) Energy of moving electron -> Ek = 0.5xMxV² Hf (energy in) = EO (work to remove electron from surface) + 0.5xMxV² (energy of electron once emitted) - Work function Hf = ∅ + E - Threshold frequency f = ∅/h
Particles of waves - Reflection particles (CAN do this) - Refraction (can’t do this) - Interference (can’t do this) - Diffraction (can’t do this) - if a particle diffracts, it must be acting as a wave. Equation for wavelength -
λ (wavelength) =
H (Planck’s C) = H (plank’s C) P (momentum) Mv (momentum)
Example question - find the wavelength of Scott (100kg) if he walks at 2m/s if he walks through a 1m wide door, will he diffract?
λ (Wavelength) = λ (Wavelength)= λ (Wavelength)=
H (Planck’s C) or H (plank’s C) P (momentum) Mv (momentum) 6.63 x 10-34 or P (momentum) 6.63 x 10-34 Mv (momentum)
3.315 x 10-36 (So he won’t diffract because too small wavelength)
- The smaller the wavelength, the less chance something will diffract - Energy can also be measured in electron volts (eV). 1eV is the energy whenever a electron moves through potential difference of 1v (1eV = 1.6 x 10-19 J) - If an electron is accelerated through several hundred volts, the wavelength (approximately equal to x-rays or gamma rays) which is a similar size to the spacing of the in crystal - The pattern which you get when electrons pass through graphite -
MODULE 3 – electricity -
Charge (Q) - coulombs (C) Current (I) - amps (A) Potential difference (V) – volts (V) Energy (E) - joules (J) Power (P) - Watts (W) Resistance (R) - Ohms (Ω) Equations E = V x Q or V = E/Q (volts = energy/charge) Q = I x T or I = Q/T (current = charge/time) P = I x V or P = V2/R or P = I2 x R (power = current x voltage P.D) V = R x I or R = V/I (resistance = voltage/current)
Questions – 1. What current must flow if 0.24 coulombs is to be transferred in 15 milliseconds? - I = Q/t -> I = 0.24 / (15 x 10-3) -> I = 16 amps 2. If a current of 10A flows for four minutes, what charge has been transferred? - Q = I x T -> Q = 10 x 240 -> Q = 2400 Coulombs 3. The current flowing through a resistor is 0.8A when a P.D of 20V is applied, what is the resistance? - R = V/I -> - R = 20/0.8 -> R = 25 0hms
Practical – resistance measurements –
Graphs for practical –
Non - Ohmic resistance graph -
What affects resistance – The heat because there is more kinetic energy so more electrons collide, The thickness of material because the more can flow through (skin effect), The type of material because of the number of free electrons, The length of material because there is less distance to travel. R = ρ (resistivity) L (length) / A (area of cross sectional area) ρ (resistivity) = 1/σ (conductivity) Resistance of a material changes with the temperature according to its type: Metals – resistance increases as temperature increases Semiconductors – resistance decreases with temperature
Temperature coefficient of resistance The temperature coefficient of resistance of a material is the increase of resistance when a 1 ohm resistor in that material is subjected to a 1 degree temperature rise. Rθ = R0 (1 + alpha x θ)
Answers next page.....
Internal resistance and EMF – - What happens to the lights on a car when the engine is started? - They dim..... This is because the starter motor draws a large current and the internal resistance of the battery is more noticeable at high currents. - The battery provides electromotive force (EMF) to the circuit which provides energy to coulombs to allow them to move around in the circuit. Є = E/Q (EMF = energy/charge) - However we need to push the charge through the battery itself and so there is a difference between the EMF of the battery and the potential difference across the terminals. energy voltmeter EMF PD Energy per coulomb produced by the battery Energy Per coulomb delivered to the circuit Reading when NO current flows Reading when current flows
How do we work this out? – PD terminal = Є – P.D internal resistance but P.D = I x R (r=internal resistance) -V=Є–Ixr Є=V+Ixr Є = I x R + I x r Є = I (R + r). - So everything depends on current – higher current – more energy lost – lower efficiency
How much voltage is actually coming from the battery? V=Є–Ixr
How much voltage is actually coming from the battery?
V=Є–Ixr 12 – 30 x 0.2 12 – 6 = 6V Efficiency = energy out / maximum energy x 100%
6J / 12J x 100 = 50%
(Sensor circuit) 1. P.D = 5.0V when 1.2mA flows and drops to 1.8V when 30mA flows find Є and r. Є= V + I x r Є = 5 + 1.2 x 10-3x r Є = 1.8 + 3 x 10-3 x r 5 + 1.2 x 10-3 x r = 1.8 + 3 x 10-3x r 3.2 = r (3 x 10-3 – 1.2 x 10-3) 3.2 = r (1.8 x 10-3) r = 1777.8 ohms r = 1.8 K ohms 7.1324V 2. I=120A PD terminal=168V r=0.1 ohms find Є Є = V + I x r Є = 168 + 120 x 0.1 180V 3.E=112W R=7 ohms Є = 30V find r Find power (p) P = I2x R (assume T=1) I = square root P/R =4A Є= I (R +r) r = Є/I –R 0.5 ohms
Resistors in circuits –
I = V/R I = 12 volts /6 ohms
I = 2 amps
answer 6/11 - Series circuit –
1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 1/Rt = 1/1 + 1/2 + 1/3 11/6 take reciprocal of
Components on the same line resistance Rt = R1 + R2 Voltage V1 = I x Rt, V2 = I x R1, V3 = I x R2 Amps A1 = A2 = A3 (constant current) Power I2 x Rt - Parallel circuit -
Components not on same line Voltage V1 = V2 = V3 (constant flow) Amps A1 = V/Rt, A2 = V/R1, A3 = V/R2 Power P = V2/Rt
Resistance 1/Rt = 1/R1 + 1/R2 and Rt = (R1 x R2) / (R1 + R2) only works with
Example (parallel and series) –
Amps = V/Rseries
Volts = 12V Resistance Rt= 3 x 4 / 3 + 4 12/7
Find total resistance, Amps and volts – 12 / 2 + 2 3 amps
Complex circuits – Kirchhoff’s first law –
’The algebraic sum of currents at a junction is zero’ ‘What goes in must come out’ ‘charge is conserved’ ∑ I = 0 and at point P = I1 + I2 = I3 + I4 Kirchhoff’s second law –
’Around a closed circuit loop, the algebraic sum of EMP’s is Equal to the algebraic sum of potential difference’ €1 - €2 = V1 + V2 = IR1 + IR2and ∑€ = ∑V = ∑IR This is for resistive circuits.
- This is Kirchhoff’s first law because what goes in must come out ^
- This is Kirchhoff’s second law ^ so E1 – E2 = 8v and V1 +V2 = 30ῼ I = V/R I = 8/30 I = 0.26 amps Potential dividers – Often in science we need to measure things remotely. We sometimes do this by measuring changes in resistance. The most common way of doing this is by using something called a potential divider, or a potentiometer, which ‘divides’ the voltage by changing the resistance values in series.
Important I = V/R = V in/ (R1 +R2) V out = IR1 = R1 (V in/ R1 + R2) V out = v in (R1/R1 +R2) So the potential is divided in the same ratio as the resistors V out / V in = R1/Rt (RT = R1 + R2) Experiment – Results every 1.6cm along the variable resistor (v in = 9.3)– Length V out (v) Ratio (V out/V Rt (ohms) R1 (m) in(9.3V)) (ohms) 0.016 0.05 5.38 x 10 -3 5.027 0.027 0.032 0.66 0.107 5.38 0.382 0.048 1.24 0.133 5.7 0.769 0.064 1.73 0.186 6.14 1.143 0.080 2.28 0.245 6.62 1.62 0.096 2.84 0.273 6.98 1.98 0.112 3.28 0.353 7.72 2.27 0.128 3.98 0.428 8.74 3.64 0.144 4.45 0.478 9.58 4.58 0.160 4.75 0.511 10.2 5.2 We can change the variable resistor depending upon what we are measuring. (LDR – light intensity, Thermistor – temperature, potentiometer – Null point) - Ra = R1/Rt R1 = RaR1 + RaR2 R (1-Ra) R1 = RaR2 / (1-Ra) Ra = V out/ V in Potentiometers is a variable resistor and can be used as audible control and dimmer switches.
Alternating current –
In AC the voltage and current follow a sinusoidal (alternating) pattern. We use AC in the national grid as it is easier and cheaper to generate and distribute. So the power output with a purely resistive load will look like this –
P = V2/R The average power is more useful – P = ½ x Vo2/R = (Vo2/2)/R = (Vo/√2)2/R RMS voltage (root mean squared)
The RMS value can be found for any sinusoidal wave form and for voltage and current can be taken as the DC equivalent value for that circuit e.g. 1 amp (RMS) generates the same heating effect as 1 amp (d.c) in a purely resistive load. 1. What is the peak voltage on the mains power supply? (vrms = 240V) - Vrms = Vo/√2 Vo = √2 x Vrms √2 x 240 339.4 volts 2. Calculate the peak current through 8ohms speaker connected to an amp at 72WRMS from AC (sinusoidal)? - P = I2 x R I2 = P/R I2 = 72/8 I2 = 9 I = 3 x √2 4.2 amps
Summary – - RMS values are given by Vrms = Vo/√2 (VO = Vrms x √2) Irms = Io/√2 - RMS power is ½ the peak value of a pure sine wave - RMS values can be used as DC equivalents in all the equations we have so far learnt
P = I2 x R, P = v2/r