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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 1 -´÷-Ja 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 3

A. Bunganna Munagalapadu
past = í∫ûªç; speed = ¢Ëí∫ç. 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 Å®√n-
(Kurnool Dist.)
•£æ›¨» O’®Ω’ fast èπ◊ speed èπÿ ûËú≈ ûÁ©’-Ææ’- ©èπ◊ dictionary
Q. Please let me know the past
éÓ-¢√-©-†’-èπ◊-Ø√o-Í®¢Á÷.Fast = ¢Ëí∫ç Ö†o/ ¢Ëí∫-´ç-ûª- îª÷úøçúÕ.
tense and past participle forms
¢Á’i†; speed = ¢Ëí∫ç. 9. Measure up =
of 'read' and 'beat'.
This is a fast train = ÉC ¢Ëí∫çí¬ v°æߪ÷- Åçîª-Ø√-©èπ◊ ûªT†ô’d
A. Read - Past tense and Past íÌ°æpí¬ Öçúøôç.
ùÀçîËÈ®j©’.
Participle - Read (Pronounced
It travels fast = ÉC ¢Ëí∫çí¬ ¢Á∞¡Ÿ-ûª’çC. 10. °æ¤®Ó-í∫AéÀ
'Red'). Beat - Past tense: Beat (Pronounced
The speed of the train = È®j©’ ¢Ëí∫ç. ÅúøfçéÀ/ Å´-®Óüµ¿ç –
same as the present tense form in pronuncia- His absence from the team is a serious set Öçö«®·). English Chandamama, English™
Q. Dead, died, death Ñ °æü∆-©†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
tion) Past Participle: beaten. back to it = ´Ææ’h†o Vidyabharathi ´÷Ææ-°æ-vAéπ ¢Á·ü¿ô îªü¿-
A. Dead = îªE-§Ú-®·†; (îªö«d-™«xç-öÀN) Å´’-™ x-™‰E.
Åûªúø’ ïô’d™ ™‰éπ-§Ú-´úøç, ïô’dèπ◊
K. Satyanarayana, Narsipatnam Bv´ Å´-®Óüµ¿ç. ´çúÕ. ûª®Ω’-¢√ûª °ü¿l novelsèπ◊ ¢Á∞¡x-´îª’a.
Died = îªE-§Ú-ߪ÷®Ω’/ îªE-§Ú-®·çC.
11 & 12 : Refer to dictionary. Q. éÀçC-¢√-öÀE ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  ûÁ©’-°æçúÕ.
Q. Duration †’ îÁÊ°p-ô-°æ¤púø’ ¢√úË for †’ perfect (Past tense of 'die').
13.  ´’öÀd éπJ-°œç-î √úø’, áüËl¢√ îËߪ’úøç
tense ™ ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√ú≈-©E îªC-¢√†’. éÌEo-îÓôx Death = î√´¤. üÁj y§ƒ-éÀ~éπ = È®çúø’ ´®√_© ´’üµ¿u.
simple past Bilateral relations between India and Pak = A. Made him/ her bite the dust.
™ èπÿú≈ ®√Ææ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. ÅC áçûª Q. Proper, native °æü∆-©†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
´®Ωèπ◊ ÆæÈ®j-†C? I have waited here for one ¶µ«®Ωû˝èπ◊, §ƒé˙èπ◊ – Ñ È®çúÕçöÀ ´’üµ¿u Ææç•ç-üµ∆©’. Ridicule/ scoff/ mock.
A. Proper = ÆæÈ®j†.
hour. 14. ņ’-èπ◊†o v°æ鬮Ωç ïJÍ홫 à®√p-ô’-îË-ߪ’úøç. Q. éÀçC-¢√-öÀE ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ņ’-´-Cç-îªçúÕ.
He comes from Nellore proper =
The President is scheduled to come here at  He's head over heels in love.
Åûªúø’
I waited there for one hour.
5 PM. -
ØÁ©÷x®Ω’ †í∫-®√-EéÀ (ô’d-°æ-éπ\© Ü∞Ïxç é¬èπ◊çú≈)
Ñ È®çúÕç-öÀ™ àC ÆæÈ®j-†C? îÁçC-†-¢√úø’. v°Ɯ-úÁçö¸ Ééπ\-úÕéÀ Å®·CçöÀéÀ ´îËa™« A. Åûªúø’ vÊ°´’™ ûª©-´·-†-éπ-©’í¬ ÖØ√oúø’.
A. For †’ duration ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ à tense ™†-®·Ø√ Native = äéπ v°æüË-¨»-EéÀ îÁçC-†-¢√®Ω’.
à®√pô’x ïJ-í¬®·.  I think they will tie the knot.
¢√úøû√ç, ¢√ú≈-LqçüË. 15. áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√úË Å®Ωnç – éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç. A. ¢√∞¡Ÿx °Rx îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«-®Ω-†’-
e.g: I have waited

I put her under your wings


èπ◊ç-ö«†’.
here for two hours =  I don't want to steal
ØËE-éπ\úø É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπ◊ his thunder.
È®çúø’ í∫çô-©’í¬ áü¿’-®Ω’- A.
ÅûªúÕ íÌ°æpü¿Ø√Eo
îª÷-¨»†’. (Éçé¬ îª÷Ææ’h- ؈’ éÌõ‰d-ߪ÷-©-†’-éÓ-´-úøç-
Ø√o†’ ÅE èπÿú≈ Å®Ωnç ™‰ü¿’. (°æE äéπ-JC,
´Ææ’hçC). Åçü¿’èπ◊ ¢Á’°æ¤p-§Òç-ü¿ôç ÉçéÌ-éπ®Ω’) – Éûª-®Ω’©’ äéπ
I waited there for one hour =
véÃú≈-§Úöà -Å-ØË -Å®Ωn-´‚ -Öç-C.
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 539
í∫ûªç™ á°æ¤púÓ íÌ°æp °æE îËÊÆ-´·çüË ´’†ç Ç °æE-îËÆœ ´’ç* Ê°®Ω’
Q. éÀç-C ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®√n©’ N´-Jç-îª
äéπ í∫çô-ÊÆ°æ¤ ØËE-éπ\úø áü¿’-®Ω’- îª÷-¨»†’. Ææ秃-Cç-îªúøç.
 I put her under your wings.
I will wait for you for 10 minutes = ؈’ F
-í∫-©®Ω’.
a) Value added services b) Make the most
éÓÆæç °æ-C EN’-≥ƒ©’ áü¿’-®Ω’-îª÷-≤ƒh†’ (Future I am a native of Nellore = A.
of now c) You may have to enter the pass-
Ç¢Á’†’ F Ææç®Ω-éπ~-ù™ Öç-ûª’Ø√o.
™). India had to wait for more than a ´÷C ØÁ©÷x®Ω’.  It's three miles as the crow flies.
word d) Coffee at its best e) Simple the
century to become free = ¶µ«®Ω-ûª-ü˨¡ç
.
B Chandini Nisar, Ananthapur
M.SURESAN best. A. ´÷´‚-©’í¬ ®Óúøx†’ ņ’Ææ-Jç* ¢Á∞¡x-èπ◊çú≈, äéπ-
≤ƒyûªçvûªuç §Òçü¿ú≈-EéÀ äéπ ¨¡û√•lç éπçõ‰
A. a) Value added services =
Q. Åü¿-†°æ¤ îÓ-öÀéÀ °æéÀ~-¢Á∞Ïx ´÷®Ω_ç™ ü¿÷®Ωç.
 She's no spring chicken.
áèπ◊\´é¬©ç áü¿’®Ω’ îª÷ú≈Lq ´*açC. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ
N©’´ûÓ ÉîËa ÊÆ´©’ – Åçõ‰, ´÷´‚©’
G. Raju, Rajavommangi (E.G.Dist.)
îÁ§ƒp™ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
A.
 'éπ©©’ éπ†çúÕ— ÊÆ´© éπçõ‰ é¬Ææh Ø√ùuûª Ö†o ÊÆ´©’. Ç Å´÷t®· Åçûª *†o °œ™‰xç é¬ü¿’. – '*†o
Q. ؈’ ûÁ©’í∫’ O’úÕߪ’ç Nü∆u-JnE. Spoken A. Dream/ Dream on. b) ¶µºN-≠æuû˝™  à´’-´¤-ûª’çüÓ ûÁLߪ’ü¿’ 鬕öÀd ¶ÔÊ°pç é¬ü¿’— ÅE ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Åçô’çö«ç.
English ØË®Ω’a-éÓ-¢√-©-† ’-èπ◊ç-ô ’-Ø√o†’. v°æÆæ ’hûªç  Ñ Öçí∫®Ωç F ¢Ë©’èπ◊ °ô’déÓ. É°æpöÀ °æJ-Æœn-ûª’© †’çîË Åûªuçûª ™«¶µºç Sreenu, Narasapuram
SGT í¬ °æE-îË-Ææ’h-Ø√o†’. ÉçTx≠ˇ ™„éπa-®Ω-®˝í¬ áü¿-í¬- §Òçü¿úøç. Q. Sravani: Put down her books.
A. Wear the ring/ Put on the ring.
©-†’çC. Ñ N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ IIEFL ᙫ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-  Åvéπ´’ ®Ω¢√-ù«Â°j ÅCµ-鬮Ω ߪ’çvû√çí∫ç îª÷Æ‘-îª÷-úø- Let's make the most of the money we have Pavani: Put away her books.
í∫-°æ-úø’-ûª’çC. Éçé¬ á™«çöÀ éÓ®Ω’q©’ îËߪ’-´îª’a. now = É°æ¤púø’†o úø•’s†’ ¶«í¬ ¢√úø’-èπ◊çü∆ç.
鬩 ´u´-CµE N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. v°æÆæ’hûªç M.A. †ô’x ´u´-£æ«-J-≤ÚhçC. Ñ ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ Å®√nEo ûÁ©’-°æçúÕ.
c) O’®Ω’ computer ™E Ææ´÷-î √®Ωç ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊-ØËç-
A. The official machinery is turning a blind eye Who is tidier? Ñ v°æ¨¡oèπ◊ Ææ´÷-üµ∆†ç ûÁ©’-°æçúÕ.
English ü¿÷®Ω-Nü¿u ü∆y®√ îËÆæ’h-Ø√o†’. ÉçTx≠ˇ Å®Ωnç ü¿’èπ◊ password †’ ë«S™ Eç°æçúÕ.
to the illicit transport. A. Pavani is the tidier - put down books - table
îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫-©’-í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o†’. é¬F ´÷ö«x-úø-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’-Ø√o†’. d) v•£æ…tç-úø-¢Á’i† coffee = ´’ç* coffee Åçõ‰
 Have a nice day. Have a happy period.
A. O’®Ω’ MA ûª®√yûª EFLU (IIEFL é¬ü¿’) É™« Öçú≈L. O’ü¿ °ôdôç/ °æúË-ߪ’úøç.
Certificate Course in English, DTE (Diploma A. Have a nice day = Ñ ®ÓV O’èπ◊ ¶«í∫’ç-ú≈-©E. Put away = ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬ äéπ-îÓô Öçîªúøç/
e) ÉçÍéç îÁ°æp-éπ\-Í®xü¿’. ÉC Öûªh´’ç – äéπ\
in Teaching English) ™«çöÀCourses îËßÁ·îª’a. Have a happy period = O’®Ω’ (äéπ îÓô/ äéπ ü∆ߪ’úøç.
´÷ô™ îÁ§ƒp-©çõ‰. Tidy = ¨¡Ÿv¶µºçí¬, Å´’-J-éπí¬ Öçúøôç.
 Å´’t é¬èπ◊çú≈ ÉçÈé-´®Ω’ îÁ•’-û√®Ω’?
´·çü¿’í¬ O’®Ω’ O©-®·-†°æ¤úø™«x ÉçTx≠ˇ îªü¿-´úøç, Ææçü¿®Ωs¥ç) ÆæçûÓ-≠æçí¬ í∫úø-§ƒ-©E ´÷ éÓJéπ.
 It can be of significant value ÅØËC éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? Q. Sudha: You must have your shoes polished.
A. Who will; if mother doesn't?
´÷ö«x-úøôç, ®√ߪ’úøç îËÆæ’hç-úøçúÕ. O’®Ω’ ´÷éÀ-°æ¤púŒ
Öûªh®Ωç English™ ®√Ææ’ç-úÌa éπü∆. A. Correct. ü∆EéÀ íÌ°æp N©’´ ÖçúÌa. Sindhu: You must have polished your

 Let 'R' be a relation. shoes.
ÅûªúÕûÓ ††’o °æJ-îªßª’ç îË®·ç. DEo ÉçTx-≠ˇ™
M. Satyanarayana, Hyderabad ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL?
A. 'R' †’ •çüµ¿’´¤ ņ’éÓ/ ņ’-èπ◊çü∆ç. Whose shoes are not cleaned? Need to be
A. Get/ Have me introduced to him.
Q. More, over, excess  Mean polished?

OöÀE á°æ¤púø’, áéπ\úø ᙫ éÀ î√™« Å®√n-©’-Ø√o-ߪ’E NØ√o†’. OöÀ
A. Sudha's shoes need polish. You must have
¢√ú≈L? í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-°æçúÕ. îËûª-•-úÕE ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ à´’ç-ö«®Ω’?
A. îÁúø’ °∂æL-û√-©-EîËa ÅEo ´÷çvAéπ v°ævéÀ-ߪ’-©†÷ your shoes polished = shoes pol-
A. More - A. Mean 1) Å®Ωnç 2) ÖüËl-Pç-îªúøç 3) Ææí∫ô’ F´¤ F †’
ÉC á°æ¤púø÷ §ÚLa-†-°æ¤púË ¢√úøû√ç. äéπ-
ü∆-E éπçõ‰, N’í∫-û√-¢√-öÀéπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ black magic Åçö«®Ω’. ish polish
îË®·ç--éÓ-¢√L – Éçé¬ †’´¤y îË®·ç-
4) Fîª-¢Á’i†
She is more intelligent than he. (ÅûªúÕ éπçõ‰ –  '°æçîª-¶µº÷-û√© ≤ƒéÀ~í¬— G. Rambabu, Tenali îª-™‰ü¿’.
§ÚLéπ). A. English™ É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥-©èπ◊ ÆæÈ®j† ´÷ô©’ Q. Main film yet to be certified or censored. ÅC You must have polished your shoes = †’´¤y
shoes polish
His salary is more than hers. ™‰´¤. ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ É™«çöÀ †´’t-鬩’ ™‰´¤ 鬕öÀd. ÂÆØ√q®˝ Å®·-†ö«x? 鬶-ûª’çü∆? ûÁL-ߪ’ -ñ‰-ߪ’çúÕ. F †’ îË®·ç--èπ◊ç-ö«´¤. (Åçü¿’-éπØË
A. Yet = Éçé¬; àüÁjØ√ Å´-™‰ü¿’/ Éçé¬ é¬¢√Lq ÖçC ÅN ¢Á’®Ω’-Ææ’h-Ø√o®·)
(Ç¢Á’ @ûªç éπçõ‰ ÅûªúÕ @ûªç áèπ◊\´) N. Suresh Babu, Anantapur
Q. She said, "I go to church".
Ñ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x over/ excess ¢√úøç. Q.
ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ ¢√úøû√ç.
She said, "I go to church every Sunday".
éÀçC °æü∆-©èπ◊ Å®√n-©†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. He is yet to come = Åûª-Eçé¬ ®√¢√Lq ÖçC,
Over - ÅCµéπç – ÆæÈ®j† ü∆Eéπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ – Ééπ\úø Indirect speech simple past
1. referenced 2. referential 3. refer to 4.con- Åçõ‰ ®√™‰-ü¿ØË éπü∆. °j -¢√é¬u-©’ ™ éÀ
§ÚLé𠙉ü¿’ éπü∆. ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈ over †’ ÉçéÓ text 5. speed up 6. conclusive 7. exclusive Main film yet to be censored or certified = -´÷®Ω-û√-ߪ÷?
°æü¿ç ´·çü¿’ îËJa ¢√úøû√ç – Over do, over 8. inclusive 9. measure up 10. set back 11. ÅÆæ©’ ÆœE´÷ Éçé¬ censor/ certify Å¢√Lq A. È®çúÕç-öÀéà Indirect speech ™ simple present
act, over exercise etc. pointed to 12. commodity 13. bi-lateral 14. èπ◊ •ü¿’©’ simple past ´Ææ’hçC. Å®·ûË äéÓ\-
ÖçC; Åçõ‰ Å´-™‰-ü¿ØË éπü∆.
Excess - ÅCµéπç/ ÅN’ûªç/ ´’K. schedule (verb) 15. meet. ≤ƒJ future †’ ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ èπÿú≈ simple pre-
P. Simhachalam, Vijayawada
He has excess of confidence = He has over A. 1. Referenced = äéπ N≠æߪ’ç v°æ≤ƒh-´† Ö†o sent ¢√úøû√ç. Å™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™ x future †’
confidence. °æ¤Ææh-é¬-©†’, °ævû√-©†’ í∫’Jç* ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’úøç. Q. Spoken English Éçv°æ‹¢˛ îËÆæ’-éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ O’JîËa ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ Indirect speech ™éÀ ´÷Í®a-ô-°æ¤púø’
novels, short stories would ¢√úøû√ç.
Police excesses - Each section of his research paper is
§ÚM-Æˇ©’ ÅAí¬ v°æ´-Jhç-îªúøç. ¢√u≤ƒ-©-ûÓ-§ƒô’ îªü¿-¢√L
They indulge in excess - ´’K ÅAí¬ îËÆæ’h- referenced.
ÅØ√o®Ω’ éπü∆? Ææ®Ω-∞¡-¢Á’i† ¶µ«≠æ™ ÖçúË °æ¤Ææh-鬩’ Direct speech: She said, "I start teaching
from tomorrow."
(indulge in =
Ø√o®Ω’/ îË≤ƒh®Ω’. §ƒ©p-úøôç). 2. Adjective form of reference. áéπ\úø ©Gµ-≤ƒh®·?
A. ÉçTx-≠ˇ™  *†o, *†o éπü∑¿©’ îªü¿-´úøç, *†o, *†o
Q. Past, speed Ñ °æü∆-©†’ ᙫ ¢√ú≈L? 3. v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-îªúøç: He referred to you while we Indirect speech: She said that she would
story books (ÉN book shops™ üÌ®Ω’-èπ◊-û√®· –
A. Past, speed - ÉN È®çúø÷ °æ‹Jhí¬ ¢Ë®Ω’. were discussing the matter - Ç îª®Ωa™ F start teaching from the next day.
N≠æߪ’ç v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-î√úø’. *†o Classesèπ◊ non-detailed booksí¬

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 8 -´÷-Ja 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Satphala: What's keeping you so busy? Not to a) The workers


be seen at all?
(ÅC é¬ü¿’™‰. Éü¿çû√ ÇJnéπ ´÷çü¿uç are on strike
-´-©x. éÀçC-≤ƒn®· ÖüÓu-í∫’© †’ç* °jéÀ
(áçü¿’-´©x Åçûª BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o´¤? against the
°æC ¨»ûªç ÖüÓu-í∫’-©†’ ûÌ©-Tç-î√-©E
ÅÆæ©’ éπE-°œç-îªúøç ™‰ü¿’?) îμÁj®ΩtØ˛ ÇüË-¨¡çûÓ ´·úÕ°æ-úÕ† N≠æߪ’ç.) company's
Suchitra: Me? Busy? You must be out of your decision to lay
Satphala: What next then?
mind to say that. off workers =
(Å®·ûË ûª®√yA ´÷õ‰çöÀ?) ÖüÓu-í∫’©/ é¬Jt-
Suchitra: Nothing for the present. I have
(ØËØ√? BJé𠙉èπ◊ç-ú≈Ø√? Å™« Åçõ‰
Fèπ◊ •’v®Ω ™‰†õ‰d.) enough savings to last till this year
èπ◊© ûÌ©-Tç-°æ¤-†èπ◊
Satphala: I say that again. I haven't seen you end. In the mean time I'll sharpen my
éπç°F E®Ωg-ߪ÷-EéÀ 6) Be taken up with = Çéπ-J{-ûª’-©-´úøç
for a whole week now. What does skills, update my knowledge and
´uA-Í®-éπçí¬, ¢√∞¡xç-ü¿®Ω÷ Ææ¢Á’t îËÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ω’. I am quite taken up with the little child. =Ç
that mean? Something must be wait for an opportunity. b) Following the economic slow down, at
keeping you busy.
*†o Gúøf ††’o °æ‹Jhí¬ Çéπ-J{ç-*çC/ Ø√èπ◊ î√™«
(Éçûª-´-®ΩÍéç ņ’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’. ؈’ üΔ-èπ◊†o least, 2 million employees may be laid off ´·ü¿’lí¬ ÖçC.
in the next few months in the US and
5) To take on = ¶«üμ¿uûª BÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç.
(Ç ´÷õ‰ ´’Sx Åçö«-ØËo†’. E†’o úø•’s Ñ àú≈CéÀ ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC. Ñ™-°æ©
¢√®Ωçí¬ îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’ ؈’. üΔ†®Ωnç àçöÀ? Europe = ÇJnéπ ´÷çü¿uç 鬮Ω-ùçí¬ Å¢Á’-Jé¬,
Ø√ ØÁj°æ¤-ù«uEo °ç-èπ◊çö«, Å´-鬨¡ç The manager likes her because she is willing
àüÓ E†’o BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ îËÆæ’h-†o-ü¿ØË éÓÆæç áü¿’-®Ω’-îª÷≤ƒh.) ߪ‚®Ω-°ˇ-©™ üΔüΔ°æ¤ 20 ©éπ~© ´’çCE ÖüÓu- to take on any responsibility = Ç¢Á’ à ¶«üμ¿u-
éπüΔ?) éÌCl鬩çí¬ ´’†ç English ™ ûª®Ωîª÷ ¢√úË ÅA- í¬© Eç* ûÌ©-Tç-îª-´îª’a. ûª-ØÁjØ√ Æ‘yéπ-Jç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ Æœü¿l¥çí¬ Öçô’çC. 鬕öÀd,
Suchitra: True. We haven't met for a week, but Ææ-®Ω-∞¡-¢Á’i† Phrasal Verbs í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√oç c) Because of the losses, the workers fear a
that doesn't mean I am busy. In fact
¢Ë’ØË-ï-®˝èπ◊ Ç¢Á’ Åçõ‰ É≠ædç.
éπüΔ? Å™«çöÀ ´’J-éÌEo high frequency phrasal lay off = †≥ƒd© ´©x ÖüÓu-í∫’© ÖüΔy-Ææ† Öçúø- 8) Be in for = àüÓ îÁúø’ ï®Ω-í∫-¶-´úøç.
I've been quite idle and have been verbs †’ (ÅN ´’† conversation ™ Ææçü¿-®Ós¥- a) If you continue to be late any more, you
´-îªaE ÖüÓu-í∫’©’ ¶μºßª’-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
lazing about. *ûªçí¬ ¢√úø-éπ-§ÚûË ´÷´‚©’ English èπÿú≈ ûÁLߪ’- Ñ lay off (ÖüÓu-í∫’-©†’ ûÌ©-Tç-îª-úøç)èπ◊ are in for trouble =
(idle =
Éçéπ à´÷vûªç Ç©-Ææuçí¬
°æØËç-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç) †õ‰x) É°æ¤púø’ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çüΔç. °j conversation Ææç•ç-Cμç*†¢Ë ´’®Ó È®çúø’ expressions - 7) to ´*aØ√ F °æE Å®·-†õ‰d/ Fèπ◊ Péπ~ °æúø’-ûª’çC.
Satphala: Have you been on leave or what? get the sack, 9) to get the pink slip- Ñ b) She never thought she would be in for
Åçû√ ÖüÓuí∫ç éÓ™p´úøç, üΔEéÀ Ææç•ç-Cμç*† N≠æ-
punishment =
(ÂÆ-©-¢Ë-¢Á’i-Ø√ °ö«d¢√?) ߪ÷-©†’ í∫’Jç* ÅE ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊Ø√oç éπüΔ. È®çúÕçöÀE èπÿú≈ É°æ¤púø’ îª÷üΔlç. ûª†èπ◊ Péπ~ °æúø-¶-ûÓç-ü¿E Ç¢Á’
Suchitra: No. No need ņ’-éÓ-ØË-™‰ü¿’.

You must be out of your mind


of that I am
among those K. Achari, Vaikuntapuram
the company Q. A. Applications shall be sub-
has laid off. mitted in person to ......
Looking for B. Applications shall be pro-
another job. 7) To get the sack (Past tense & past par- duced by the candidate ....
(™‰ü¿’. Ç Å´-Ææ®Ωç ÉçÍéç ™‰ü¿’. ticiple- got the sack) = ÖüÓuí∫ç Üúøôç C. Hall tickets will be
ÖüÓuí∫ç™ç* ûÌ©-Tç-*† ¢√∞¡x™x ØËØÌ-éπ- -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 540 (ÖüÓuí∫ç §Ú´úøç) despatched .....
üΔEo. ÉçéÓ ÖüÓuí∫ç éÓÆæç ¢Á-ûª’-èπ◊\ç- a) A number of software engineers have D. Candidates shall be selected .....
ô’Ø√o.) Look at the following dia- already got the sack and a few more are Åçúø-®˝-™„jØ˛ îËÆœ† verbs í∫’Jç* ÆæçüË-£æ…-©’-
Satphala: I'm really sorry to hear that. How's it logues from the conversa- likely to be sacked = É°æp-öÀÍé î√™«-´’çC Ø√o®·. ¢Á·ü¿öÀ ¢√éπuç™ shall be submitted
I didn't know about it? tion above. software (computer) ÖüÓu-í∫’-©èπ◊ ÖüÓuí∫ç Åçõ‰ Ææ´’-Jpç-îª-•-úø-û√®· ÅE éπüΔ Å®Ωnç. Ææ´’-
(Eïçí¬ ¶«üμ¿í¬ ÖçC N†-ú≈-EéÀ. 1) You must be out of your M.SURESAN §Ú®·çC. Éçé¬ éÌçûª-´’ç-CéÀ §Ú´îª’a. Jpç-îª-•-ú≈L ÅØË Å®Ωnç ®√¢√-©çõ‰ should be
Éçûª´-®Ωèπÿ Ç N≠æߪ’ç Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’-éπ- mind to say that b) Because of the shoddy job she does, she submitted or shall have to be submitted
§Ú-´-úø-¢Ë’çöÀ?) 2) I've been lazing about got the sack = °æE-Ææ-Jí¬ îËߪ’éπ§Ú´úøç ´©x ÅE ®√¢√L éπüΔ. È®çúÓ ¢√éπuç™ E•ç-üμ¿-†©
Suchitra: Not a piece of happy news to share 3) I am among those the company has laid off Ç¢Á’ ÖüÓuí∫ç ÜúÕçC. (Ç¢Á’†’ ûÌ©-Tç-î√®Ω’) v°æ鬮Ωç îËߪ÷L ÅØË ü¿%≠œdûÓ ¢√ú≈L 鬕öÀd,
with others, is it? In fact I was hoping 4) I was hoping to get ahead in the company shoddy = (°æE) ÆæJí¬_ îËߪ’-éπ-§Ú-´úøç should be produced or shall have to be
to get ahead in the company, when when the news came as a bolt from the blue His repair of my car was shoddy = Åûªúø’ produced ÅE ®√¢√L éπüΔ. N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
this news came as a bolt from the 5) You were taking on more responsibility than Ø√ car †’ ÆæJí¬ JÊ°®˝ îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’. A. 1) Shall be, shall be + PP with he, she, it
blue. you were asked to Her cooking is shoddy = Ç¢Á’ ´çô ÆæJí¬ and they Applications (They) -
– Ééπ\úø
(ÉüËç ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† ¢√®Ωh é¬ü¿’í∫üΔ Éûª- 6) They were taken up with you, you said îËߪ’ü¿’. Ñ ´÷ô î√™« áèπ◊\-´í¬ ¢√úø’-ûª’ç- á°æ¤púø÷ E•ç-üμ¿-†-©†’ ûÁ©’-°æ¤-û√®·.
®Ω’©ûÓ îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊? ÅÆæ©’ Ñ éπç°-F™ 7) I got the sack when I least expected it ö«®Ω’. O’®Ω÷ practice îËߪ’çúÕ. Applications shall be submitted - ÅN sub-
8) I am in for trouble üΔüΔ°æ¤ ÖüÓuí∫ç §ÚíÌ-ô’d-éÓ-´-ú≈-EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*† mit îËߪ’-•-ú≈L – Rule/ Order.
¶«í¬ °jéÌ-≤ƒh-†E ÇP-Ææ’h†o Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™
°œúø’-í∫’-™«çöÀ Ñ ¢√®Ωh ´*açC.) 9) I did not expect you to get the pink slip ÉçéÓ-´÷ô .. Should ÅØ√o èπÿú≈ Order/ Necessity E ûÁL-

share = ¶μ«í∫ç ÅØË é¬èπ◊çú≈, Ææ´÷-î √®Ωç, ¢√®Ωh©÷ 10) ... The Chairman's laying down that 10% of 9) to get the pinkslip = ÖüÓu-í∫ç-™ ç* ûÌ©-Tç- Ê°C. Rules ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ should Åçûªí¬ ¢√úø®Ω’.
the employees must go îªúøç/ ÖüÓuí∫ç §Ú´úøç. Hall tickets will be issued – Hall tickets -
™«çöÀ-¢√-öÀE Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ îÁ°æpúøç. they 鬕öÀd They + will - future - É´y-•-úø-
Satphala: The company will be the poorer for 1) Be out of one's mind = ûÁL-N-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ a) following the recession, a number of
employees are afraid they may get the û√®·. Ééπ\úø rule v°æÆæ-éÀh-™‰ü¿’.
loosing you. You were taking on ´‚®Ω^çí¬ v°æ´-Jhç-îªúøç, Å®Ωnç ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ´÷ö«x-úøôç.
pink slip = Candidates (they)shall be selected - áç°œéπ
more responsibility than you were a) Quitting job now and starting a business? ÇJnéπ´÷çü¿uç ´©x î√™«-´’çC ÖüÓu-
You must be out of your mind = í∫’©’ ûª´’ ÖüÓuí∫ç §Ú´-îªaE ¶μºßª’-°æ-úø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. îËÆæ’-éÓ-•-ú≈L/ ûª°æpéπ áç°œéπ îËÆæ’-éÓ-•-úø-û√®Ω’.
asked to. They were even taken up àçöÀ,
(Recession = ÇJnéπ ´÷çü¿uç – ¢√u§ƒ-®√©’, Shall have to be produced - ÉC ņ-´-Ææ®Ω
with, you said the way you handled ÖüÓuí∫ç ´C-™‰Æœ ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç °úø-û√¢√? Fèπ◊
ÊÆ´-©èπ◊ T®√éà ™‰éπ-§Ú-´úøç, †≥ƒd©’ §Òçü¿-úøç) ví¬çC∑éπç/ §ƒçúÕûªuç. Shall be produced Åçõ‰
your responsibility. Eïçí¬ °œîÁa-éÀ\çC (ÅC ´‚®Ω^ûªyç).
b) I was out of my mind to have told him I'd b) The company has decided to give the ûªèπ◊\´ °æö«-ö-°æçûÓ ÅüË Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC éπüΔ?
Suchitra: Yea. I got the sack when I least manager the pink slip = A, B - ©™ E•ç-üμ¿-†©’ Ééπ\úø shall be + pp
help him. I didn't know he was the bad ¢Ë’ØË-ï®˝†’ ûÌ©-Tç-î√-
expected it. Well, that's an experi- •ü¿’©’ shall have to be + pp ņ-´-Ææ®Ωç.
sort. = -Å-ûª-úÕéÀ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îË≤ƒh††úøç ؈’ ©E éπç°F E®Ωg-®·ç-*çC.
ence too. Perhaps I can hope for a 4) To get ahead = îËÆæ’h†o ÖüÓu-í∫ç™ °jéÀ-®√-´úøç, C, D ©™ - Simple Future.
better thing.
´’A -ûª°œp ņo ´÷ôí¬ ÖçC. -Å-ûª-úø’ ü¿’®√t-®Ω’_-
úøE Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’. ûªy®Ω-ûªy-®Ωí¬ promotion §Òçü¿úøç. JV Jayaprakash, Proddatur
(Å´¤†’. ؈-†’-éÓ-†-°æ¤púø’ ÖüÓuí∫ç 2) Laze about/ laze around = °æF-§ƒö« ™‰èπ◊çú≈ a) Unless you work very hard and put in Q. Please clarify the following doubts.
§Ú®·çC. §ÚF™‰. Éçûª-éπçõ‰ ´’ç* extra work, you cannot get ahead in the
≤Ú´’-J-ûª†çí¬ Nv¨»ç-Aí¬ Ææ´’-ߪ÷Eo í∫úø-°æúøç.
company
äéπ ÉEy->-™‰-ô®˝ 'papers are given' ÅE
a) We lazed about/ around the first few holi-
ÖüÓuí∫ç ´Ææ’hç-üË¢Á÷.) †’´¤y ¶«í¬ v¨¡N’ç* Åü¿-†çí¬ °æE- ÅØ√o®Ω’. é¬F Ééπ\úø papers have given ÅØ√L
Satphala: That's exactly the way to take it. But days picknicking and watching the TV = îËÊÆh ûª°æp Ñ éπç°-F™ °jéÀ ®√™‰´¤. éπüΔ. am/ is / are + V3 üËEéÀ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ó
I must say I did not expect you to get ¢Á·ü¿öÀ È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ ÂÆ©´¤ ®ÓV©÷ b) The deserving certainly get ahead in the N´-®Ωçí¬ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
the pink slip. company. It encourages merit and industry=
Nv¨»çAí¬, °æF-§ƒö« ™‰èπ◊çú≈ ≤Ú´’-J-ûª†çí¬ A. Am/ is/ are + pp - regular actions - passive.
(ÅD †’´¤y ņ’-éÓ-¢√-Lq† B®Ω’. é¬F ؈’ í∫úÕ-Ê°¨»ç. Å®Ω|ûª Ö†o-¢√∞¡Ÿx Ñ éπç°-F™ ûª°æpéπ °jéÌ-≤ƒh®Ω’. 1) Stars are seen at night. (îª÷úø-•-úø-û√®·)
b) He does nothing. He lazes around living Ñ ÆæçÆæn v°æA-¶μº†’, éπ%≠œE v§Úûªq-£œ«-Ææ’hçC.
2) I am examined by the doctor once every
îÁ§ƒpL, E†’o ûÌ©-T-≤ƒh-®ΩE ؈-†’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’.)
Suchitra: No. It's got to do with the Chairman's off his father's property = To deserve = Å®Ω|ûª Öçúøôç
month.
-Å-ûª-úË°æF îËߪ’úø’. (°æKéπ~ îËߪ’-•-úø-û√†’)
laying down that 10% of the employ- ¢√∞¡x Ø√†o ÇÆœh-O’ü¿ •A-Íé-Ææ’h-Ø√oúø’, Nv¨»ç-Aí¬ To come as a bolt from the blue = °œúø’-í∫’-§ƒô’
3) He is paid Rs. 2000/- every month.
ees should go, following the eco- é¬©ç ¢Á∞¡x-•’-aûª÷. ™«çöÀ ¢√®Ωh/ °∂æ’-ô†. (îÁLxç-îª-•-úø-û√úø’)
nomic slow down, and that starting c) Don't laze around. Do something = ≤Ú´’-J- The news of his death came as a bolt from
Papers have given =
the blue=
Ê°°æ®Ω’x ÉîËa¨»®· – Åçõ‰
from the junior most. ûª†çûÓ Æ洒ߪ’ç í∫úÕ-Ê°-ߪ’èπ◊. àüÁjØ√ îË®·. ÅûªúÕ ´’®Ωù¢√®Ωh °œúø’-í∫’-§ƒô’™« û√éÀçC. Papers have been given =
Å®Ωnç ™‰ü¿’ éπüΔ?
3) To lay off = ÆæçÆæn †≥ƒd© °∂æLûªçí¬ ÖüÓu-í∫’-©†’, Bolt = Thunder bolt = °œúø’í∫’
economic slow down = ÇJnéπ ´÷çü¿uç É´y-•-ú≈f®· (É´yúøç Å®·-§Ú-®·çC).
é¬Jt-èπ◊-©†÷ ûÌ©-Tç-îªúøç. Blue = sky = Ç鬨¡ç

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 15 -´÷-Ja 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Nipun: What a relief! The officer has given the


(Å´¤†’. †’´¤y î√™« éπÈ®-èπ◊dí¬ Ææ´’Ææu†’ Å®Ωnç Å™«Íí Thumbs
thumbs up for the proposals we sent for
îËÆæ’-èπ◊-Ø√o´¤. ´îËa ´÷JaÈéjØ√ Ø√ Nüμ¿’©’ down
approval two weeks ago.
Åçõ‰,
(Å•s! °ü¿l •®Ω’´¤ ØÁAh -†’ç* Cç°œ†ôx- ´÷®√a-©E Åúø’í∫’û√†’. Ñ °æE Ø√ v§ƒù«©’ Ç¢Á÷ü¿ç §Òçü¿-éπ
®·çC. ´’†ç È®çúø’ ¢√®√© éÀçü¿ Ç°∂‘-Ææ®˝ ûÓúË-≤ÚhçC.) -§Ú-´úøç, ûÓÆœ-°æ¤-îªaúøç,
Nishanth: You had better. OK. I must be leav- v°æü¿-®Ωz† v°æï© ¢Á’°æ¤p
Ç¢Á÷ü¿ç éÓÆæç °æç°œ†/ Ææ´’-Jpç-*† v°æA-§ƒ-ü¿-
ing. I have a tennis match coming and §Òçü¿-™‰-éπ-§Ú-´úøç.
†-©†’ Ç¢Á÷-Cç-î√®Ω’.)
need some practice. I haven't had any a) The project was
Nishanth: Why have you to wait so long for
for a week now. given the thumbs
something that's for the public good? b) I've had enough of partnership business. I
Why don't they give you a free hand in (Ç °æE îÁ®·u. ÆæÍ®. ØË ¢Á∞«x-Léπ. Ø√èπ◊ down because it costs too much = ´’K want to wash my hands of it and have a
such matters? (-ûªy®Ω-™-ØË) õ„EoÆˇ ´÷uî˝ -ÖçC. éÌç-ûª prac- ê®Ωa-®·ç-ü¿-´úøç ´©x Ç v§ƒñ„èπ◊d Ç¢Á÷ü¿ç §Òçü¿- business of my own = ¶μ«í∫-≤ƒy´’u ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç
(v°æñ« v¨Ïߪ’Ææ’q (public good) éÓÆæç ÖüËl-Pç- tice Å-´Ææ®Ωç. äéπ ¢√®Ωçí¬ practice Ø√éÌü¿’l. Éçéπ (NÆæ’-ÈíAh §Úߪ÷†’). üΔEo
™‰ü¿’.
™‰ü¿-Ææ©’.)
b) His action in the movie got the thumbs
*† ¢√öÀéÀ èπÿú≈ Åçûª-鬩ç áü¿’-®Ω’-îª÷-ú≈™«? ´C-Lç--èπ◊E, Ø√ ≤Òçûª ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç °ô’d-éÓ-¢√-©-†’-
Nipun: How I wish I played Tennis too!
down =
É™«çöÀ N≠æ-ߪ÷™x Fèπ◊ ÊÆyîªa ¥ É¢Ìya Ç *vûªç™ ÅûªúÕ †ô† ¢Á’°æ¤p èπ◊ç-ô’Ø√o.
éπüΔ?) (؈÷ õ„EoÆˇ ÇúÕûË áçûª ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC.) c) Don't tell me any more. I want to wash my
§Òçü¿-™‰ü¿’. hands of you =
Nipun: That's red tape. Very common in all Nishanth: Who's stopping you? Have a go at it ÉçÍéç ´÷ö«x-úøèπ◊. Ééπ FûÓ
government offices. Some private Thumb = îËA ¶Ôô-†-¢Ë©’ éπüΔ. ¶Ôô-†-¢Ë©’
sometime next week. You're going to Ææç•ç--üμ¿ç °ô’d-éÓ-ü¿-©--éÓ-™‰ü¿’ ؈’.
organizations are no exception. be free then.
•ßª’öÀèπ◊çúË™« °œúÕ-éÀL ´‚ߪ’úøç, ¶Ôô-†-¢Ë©’ 6) Get out of hand = Åü¿’°æ¤ ûª°æpúøç/ Åü¿’-°æ¤™ 
(ÅüË red tape. v°æ¶μº’ûªy 鬮√u-©-ߪ÷™x ÅA (E†’o á´-®√-°æ¤-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’? ´îËa-¢√®Ωç á°æ¤p-úÁjØ√ °jÈéAh îª÷°æúøç– Thumbs up = Åçû√ Ææ´uçí¬ Â°ôd-™‰-éπ-§Ú-´úøç.
≤ƒüμΔ-®Ωùç. éÌEo w°j¢Ëô’ ÆæçÆæn©÷ N’†-£æ…- v°æߪ’-Aoç. Å°æ¤púø’ Fèπ◊ éÌçûª ë«S ÖçC/ Ç¢Á÷-Cç--î√ç/ -Å-E, ÅüË ¶Ôô† ¢ËLE a) Following recession, unemployment is
®·ç°æ¤™‰ç 鬴¤.) Öçô’çC éπüΔ?) éÀçü¿èπ◊çúËô’x îª÷°œûË thumbs down àO’/ àüÓ getting out of hand= ÇJnéπ´÷çü¿uç ´©x, E®Ω’-
Nishanth: But that only delays things unnec- Nipun: Sure. I'll.
ÆæJí¬ ™‰ü¿’ ÅE Å®Ωnç. üÓuí∫ Ææ´’-Ææu†’ Åü¿’-°æ¤™ °ôd-™‰-èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√oç.
essarily. The file you put up today takes 2) Give a free hand = ÊÆyîªa ¥ É´yúøç. b) As the crowd got out of hand the police
(ûª°æp-èπ◊çú≈.)
two days to go to started a lathi charge =
the top official. It

It's thumbs up for Rehman's music


Å©xJ ´‚éπ©’ Åü¿’°æ¤ ûª°æp-
takes another úøçûÓ §ÚM-Ææ’©’ ™«K∏©’
two days to v°æßÁ÷-Tç-î√Lq ´*açC.
return to you. c) Prices are getting out of
hand =
Then there's the
üμ¿®Ω©’ Åü¿’°æ¤
usual time taken to put it into action. a) The Government doesn't always give ûª°æ¤p-ûª’-Ø√o®·/ Eߪ’ç-vAç-îª-
a free hand to the police in dealing ™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’Ø√oç.
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 541
(é¬F Åçü¿’-´©x ņ-´-Ææ®Ω Ç©Ææuç ûª°æp àç 7) To bite off more than one can chew =
with law and order problems = îªôdç
™‰ü¿’ éπüΔ? †’Oy®ÓV Æœü¿l¥ç îËÆœ °jéÀ °æçÊ° Å©-N-é¬E °æE îËߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ °æ‹†’-éÓ-´úøç. ´’†ç
°∂j©’ °j Å-Cμ-é¬JéÀ îËÍ®-Ææ-JéÀ È®çvúÓ-V©’. ´’Sx E®Ωy-£æ«ù Å´’™x §ÚM-Ææ’-©èπ◊ v°æ¶μº’ûªyç
Phrasal Verbs/ Idioms prac- °æ‹Jh ÊÆyîªa ¥ É´yü¿’. îËߪ’-í∫-L-Tç-üΔ-Eéπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ¶«üμ¿uûª ØÁAh†
Ç ÅCμ-é¬J Ææçûªéπç Å®·u Fèπ◊ AJT ´îËaç-
tice b) I will join your company if you give me
™ ¶μ«í∫çí¬ Ñ ¢√®Ωç ´’J- ¢ËÆæ’-éÓ-´úøç.
a) Mom is quite busy at home. Now she has
ü¿’èπ◊ ÉçéÓ È®çvúÓ-V©’ °æúø’-ûª’çC. Ç ûª®√yûª
éÌ-Eoç-öÀE îª÷üΔlç. é¬Ææh v¨¡ü¿l¥ a free hand in financial matters = ÇJnéπ
taken up this job which is tiring. She has
üΔEo Çîª-®Ωù™ °õ‰dç-ü¿’èπ◊ ´÷´‚©’
îª÷°œÊÆh Ææ’©-¶μºçí¬ Å©¢√ô’°æúÕ M.SURESAN N≠æ-ߪ÷™x Ø√èπ◊ ÊÆyîªa ¥-E-ÊÆhØË Øˆ’ O’
bitten off more than she can chew =
Æ洒ߪ’ç ᙫ†÷ Å´¤-ûª’çC.)
Nipun: OK. I have my hands full now. (I have) ´’† conversation ™ ´’†èπ◊ ûÁL- éπç°-F™ îË®Ω-û√†’. Å´’tèπ◊
ÉçöÀ-°æØË ÆæJ-§Ú-ûª’çC. É°æ¤p-úË¢Á÷ ÖüÓu-í∫ç™
very little hope of being free even for
ߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ØË éπÈ®-èπ◊dí¬ ¢√úË-Ææ’hçö«ç. ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈ ÉN 3) Red tape = Ç°∂‘-Ææ’™x °æ†’©’ E®Ωy-£œ«ç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊
îËJçC. ¶«í¬ ÅL-Æœ-§Ú-ûÓçC. ûª†èπ◊ ´©x-é¬E°æ-E
this weekend. Even if it means my
Éûª-®Ω’-©èπ◊ î√™« Ææ’©-¶μºçí¬ Å®Ωn-´’-ßË’uN èπÿú≈. Åçü¿’- ´’K áèπ◊\´í¬ -î√ü¿-Ææhçí¬ ®Ω÷©’q, °æü¿l¥-ûª’© v°æ鬮Ωç
working on Sunday, I will do it. I will
éπE ¶«í¬ practice îËüΔlç. ØÁAh-ØË-Ææ’-èπ◊çC (îËߪ’-™‰-üΔ-¢Á’).
§Ú´úøç, Åçü¿’-´©x éπLÍí ņ-´-Ææ®Ω ñ«°æuç. b) If you try to root out corruption in India,
wash my hands of it and be free the Look at the following expressions from the
a) Because of red tape getting a ration card you will be biting off more than you can
whole of the next week. conversation above.
or a certificate in government offices takes chew = ¶μ«®Ω-û˝™ ÅN-F-AE E®Ω÷t-Lç-îªúøç
(ÆæÍ®. É°æ¤púø’ Ø√ îËûª’-©-Eçú≈ °æE ÖçC. Ñ 1. The officer has given the thumbs up for the a lot of time = Å´’™x ÖçúË E•ç-üμ¿-†-©†’ ´’K ´©x-é¬E/ ≤ƒüμ¿uç-é¬E °æE ØÁAh-ØË-≤Ú\-´-úø¢Ë’
¢√®√ç-û√EÈéjØ√ BJí¬_ Öçö«-†ØË Ç¨¡ ™‰ü¿’ proposal. (îËߪ’úøç).
-î√ü¿-Ææhçí¬ Å†’-Ææ-Jç-îªúøç ´©x Í®≠æØ˛ é¬®Ω’f-©’-é¬F,
Ø√èπ◊. ÇC-¢√®Ωç °æE îËߪ÷Lq ´*aØ√ îË≤ƒh†’. 2. Why don't they give you a free hand in such v°æ¶μº’ûªy 鬮√u-©-ߪ÷™x àüÁjØ√ ÆæJd-°∂œ-Èéö¸ 8) Be tied up with = 4) Have one's hands full
Ñ °æE ´ü¿’-©’a-èπ◊E ´îËa ¢√®Ω´’çû√ BJ-éπí¬ matters? §ÒçüËç-ü¿’-èπ◊-é¬F î√™« é¬©ç °æúø’-ûª’çC. = BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ Öçúøôç
3. That's red tape. a) All officers are tied up with the elections
b) The old man died before he got his pen-
Öçö«.)
Nishanth: Yea. That's better. Finish off the 4. I have my hands full now. now and are unable to attend to their usual
sion. The reason - the red tape in Govt.
work before it goes out of hand. I'm 5. I'll wash my hands of it and be free. duties = ÅCμ-é¬-®Ωxç-ü¿®Ω÷ áEoéπ-©-ûÓ ûª©-´·-†-
Offices = Ç ´%ü¿’l¥úø’ °†{Ø˛ ®√éπ-´·çüË
afraid you've taken on more than you 6. Finish off the work before it gets out of hand
éπ-©’í¬ ÖØ√o®Ω’. ´÷´‚©’ Nüμ¿’©’ °æöÀdç--èπ◊ØË
can do. In future don't bite off more than
îªE-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. 鬮Ωùç – v°æ¶μº’ûªy 鬮√u-©-ߪ÷™x ÆœnA™ ™‰®Ω’.
7. In future don't bite off more than you can
b) I am tied up with my regular job and have
you can chew.
ņ-´-Ææ®Ω -î√ü¿-Ææh°æ¤ E•ç-üμ¿-†© ´©x Ç©-Ææu¢Ë’.
chew. 4) Have one's hands full now = BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ no time for earning on the side = Ø√èπ◊†o
8. I am so tied up with the work here...
(Å´¤†’. ÅüË ´’ç*C. à °æØÁjØ√ ´’†ç
îËߪ’™‰†ç-ûªí¬ Ê°®Ω’èπ◊§ÚßË’ ´·çüË îËÊÆ-ߪ’úøç Öçúøôç. ÖüÓu-í∫ç-ûÓØË BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ ÖØ√o. ¢ËÍ® Nüμ¿çí¬
9. The trouble is that you can't put on hold any a) I have my hands too full to help you now úø•’s Ææ秃-CçîË Æ洒ߪ’ç ™‰ü¿’.
´’ç*C. Ééπ´·çü¿’ †’´¤y îËߪ’-í∫-L-T† part of the work.
üΔE-éπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ ØÁAh-ØË-Ææ’-éÓèπ◊.) = Fèπ◊ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËߪ’-™‰-†çûª BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ 9) Put on hold = ¢√®·üΔ ¢Ëߪ’úøç. °æE Ç°œ
10. You've put your finger on the problem.
Nipun: I'll certainly keep that in mind. Infact ÖØ√o†’ ؈’. Öçîªúøç (Åúøfç-èπ◊© ´©x)
I've been so tied up with the work here 1) Thumbs up = a) The government has put on hold some of
b) With the elections announced, every
Ç¢Á÷ü¿ç, ņ’-´’A
a) A good number of Railway projects from its projects for want of funds =
that it's months since I have been to a politician has his hands full now = áEo-éπ©’ Eüμ¿’© éÌ®Ωûª
movie. our state did not get the centre's thumbs v°æéπ-öÀç-îª-ôçûÓ v°æA ®√ï-éÃ-ߪ’-¢Ëû√h BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ ´©x v°æ¶μº’ûªyç éÌEo v§ƒñ„-èπ◊d-©†’ v°æÆæ’h-û√-EéÀ
(ÅC í∫’®Ω’hç--èπ◊ç-ö«†’. ÅÆæ©’ Ééπ\úÕ °æEûÓ up = ´’† ®√≠æZç v°æA-§ƒ-Cç-*† î√™« È®j™‰y ÖØ√oúø’.
Ç°œ Öç*çC.
v§ƒñ„-èπ◊d©’ Íéçvü¿ç Ç¢Á÷ü¿ç §Òçü¿-™‰ü¿’. b) His appointment has been put on hold for
BJé𠙉éπ-§Ú-´úøçûÓ ÆœE´÷ îª÷Æœ ØÁ© c) She has her hands already full with her want of some information =
b) It looks like his parents' thumbs up for his
àüÓ éÌçûª
Å®·uçC.) own children. I don't want my child to be
marrying the girl he loves =
Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç ™‰éπ-§Ú-´-úøçûÓ, ÅûªúÕ Eߪ÷-´’-é¬Eo
Nishanth: I understand that. The trouble is that Åûªúø’ an additional burden= É°æp-öÀÍé Ç¢Á’èπ◊†o ¢√®·üΔ ¢Ë¨»®Ω’.
you can't put on hold any part of the vÊ°N’ç-*† Å´÷t-®·E °Rx îËÆæ’-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ÅûªúÕ ´·í∫’_®Ω’ °œ©x™h Ç¢Á’ Ææûª-´’ûª´’´¤ûª÷ ÖçC. 10) Put a finger on the problem = Ææ´’-Ææu†’,
work. Whatever you deal with is to be ûªLxü¿çvúø’©’ ä°æ¤p-èπ◊-ØË™« ÖØ√o®Ω’. Ø√ Gúøf†’ èπÿú≈ Ç¢Á’ Ææç®Ω-éπ~ùèπ◊ ´CL Ç¢Á’ ï•’s†’ éπ*aûªçí¬ í∫’Jhç-îªúøç.
done promptly. Thumbs up Åçõ‰ ÉçéÓ Å®Ωnç ÆœE-´÷©’, °æ¤Ææh-é¬-
•®Ω’´¤ °çîª-™‰†’. a) I know he has some problem but I am
not able to put my finger on it =
™«xçöÀ à ®Ωéπ-¢Á’i† v°æü¿-®Ωz-ØÁjØ√ v°æñ«--ü¿-®Ωù/ v°æñ«-
5) Wash hands of = Ææç•çüμ¿ç ´ü¿’-©’-éÓ-´úøç/
(؈’ Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’-éÓ-í∫-©†’. Ææ´’-ÊÆuç-ôçõ‰ F ¢√úÕ-ÍéüÓ
°æE™ àD èπÿú≈ Ç°æ-™‰´¤. †’´¤y îËÊÆ ¢Á÷ü¿ç §Òçü¿úøç. Åçü¿J ¢Á’°æ¤p §Òçü¿úøç. Ææ´’Ææu Öçü¿E ûÁ-©’Ææ’, é¬F ÅC éπ*aûªçí¬ ÉD
a) Really grand. It's thumbs up for
îËûª’©’ ü¿’©’-°æ¤-éÓ-´úøç/ ´ü¿’-©’a-éÓ-´úøç
°æ†çû√ Å°æpöÀéπ°æ¤púø’ îËߪ÷-LqçüË.) ÅE îÁ°æp-™‰-éπ-§Ú-ûª’Ø√o.
A.R.Rehman's music in 'Slumdog a) I am no longer interested in this old car. I
Nipun: That's right. You've put your finger on b) The doctor put the finger on the problem
Millionaire' = want to wash my hands of it =
the problem. At least next March, I'll when he said Kumar was over eating =
íÌ°æp N≠æ-ߪ’¢Ë’. Ææx¢˛’-ú≈í˚ Ñ §ƒûª é¬®Ω’
ask for a change of duty. This work is N’L-ߪ’-F®˝™  È®£æ…tØ˛ ÆæçUûªç Åçü¿J O’ü¿ Ø√Íéç ÇÆæéÀh ™‰ü¿’. DEo ´ü¿’-©’a-éÓ-¢√-©-†’- ÅAí¬ A†úø¢Ë’ èπ◊´÷®˝ Ææ´’-ÆæuE, ú≈éπd®˝ ÅûªúÕ
taking the life out of me. ¢Á’°æ‹p §ÒçCçC. èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o†’. Ææ´’Ææu†’ éπ*aûªçí¬ îÁ§ƒpúø’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 22 -´÷-Ja 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

K. Sambasiva Rao, Tanuku M. Bharat Kumar, Hyderabad


Q. Might ¢√úø’-éπ†’
Q. Future plans †’ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’-ú≈-EéÀ Q. Which of the following is correct?
1. Suresh went to Hemanth's house (should
ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
simple present, present contin-
A. Might - Past form
uous I indicate time)
of 'may'
¢√úøû√ç. Ç È®çúÕçöÀ ´’üμ¿u
2. Suresh went to Hemanth's house yester-
ûËú≈ àN’öÀ? (í∫ûªç™
A. Future plans †’ ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ é¬ü¿’- day/ day before yesterday. ïJ-Íí-üË¢Á÷ – ÅØË
é¬F, future †’ ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ simple A. Usually when you use the past simple tense Å®ΩnçûÓ)
for a past action at a definite time, unless it I thought that he
present, present continuous ¢√úøû√ç. Å®·ûË
is indicated by the context. might come =
future ™ °æE á°æ¤púø’ éπ*aûªçí¬ ï®Ω’-í∫’-ûª’çüÓ îÁ°æp- ii) If I had been there, I wouldn't have
I went to Hemanth's home Yesterday/ the
í∫-L-T-†-°æ¤púø’ Åçõ‰ time of future action ûÁL-Æœ-†-°æ¤púø’ day before yesterday - correct.
Åûªúø’ ´≤ƒh-úË¢Á÷ ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√o†’. allowed it = ؈-éπ\úø ÖçúÕ Öçõ‰, ؈C
future actions èπ◊, present simple, present con- Might - É°æ¤púø’ (Present ™) ¶«í¬ ÆæçüË-
I have been to Hemanth's home (no time ï®Ω-í∫-E-îËa¢√úÕE 鬆’. (؈’ ™‰†’, ÅC ïJ-T-§Ú-
tinuous ¢√úøû√ç. Will be/ shall be, will/ shall + £æ«çí¬ ÖçúË N≠æߪ’ç.
mentioned) - correct. ®·çC). Ééπ\úø ´’†ç ¢√úø-í∫-L-T† Éûª®Ω
1st RDW •ü¿’©’. They might help you. Try = ¢√∞¡Ÿx Fèπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç Verbs.
Usually 'have gone' is not used with, I, we or
I will go there soon/ next week. (Åçûª If Clause Main Clause
you. Instead 'have been' is used.
îË≤ƒh-Í®¢Á÷ (î√™« ÆæçüË£æ«ç). v°æߪ’-Aoç.
éπ*aûªçí¬ é¬ü¿’) 'Have gone' with I/ we/ you suggests that Ch. Spandana, Bonala (Conditional Clause)Would have been
I am going there tomorrow. (éπ*aûªç)
(Present continuous)
I meet him, next week. (éπ*aûªç)
I am, we/ you are on the way to a place or
at that place. Being there, it is impossible for
me, us or you to tell people back at the
Q. Conditional sentences Type-I, Type-II, Type-
III OöÀE N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
Had been/ Had +
PP (Past Participle)
Should or
Could have + PP
Might
}
A. I. Condition:
Q. I wish I had a car. simple present, sim- place you've started from, that I/We/ you
Q. Simple, compound, complex sentences
É™«
a) Probable present If he comes here his
ple past éπLÆœ ´≤ƒhߪ÷? have gone. So we use 'have been to (a
†’
place)' in such circumstances. mother will be happy =
í∫’Jç* ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
A. I wish I had a car - I had a car -Å-ûªúÕ-éπ\-úÕéÀ ´ÊÆh
A. Simple, Compound and Complex sen-
Ééπ\úø ņo-
car Car Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u™x àC éπÈ®éÓd ûÁ©’-°æçúÕ. ¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ-≠œ-Ææ’hçC (-Å-ûªúø’ ´îËa Å´-é¬-¨¡´‚ tences.
°æ¤púø’, Ø√éÀ-°æ¤púø’ ™‰ü¿’. Öçõ‰ áçûª ¶«´¤ç-
ô’çC ÅE ņ’-éÓ-´úøç – É°æp-öÀ-´-®Ωèπÿ B®ΩE éÓJéπ. 1. Suresh came to my home. ÖçC, ¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ-≠œçîË Å´-é¬-¨¡´‚ ÖçC)–
2. Suresh came to my house. a) CLAUSE - a group of words with a verb.
É™«çöÀ B®ΩE éÓJéπ-©’ eg. If he comes here - ÉC
ûÁL-Ê°-ô-°æ¤púø’ I/ we/

She wishes she wer e rich


comes verb
ÅØË group Ö†o
they wish, He/ she
of words, 鬕öÀd ÉC
wishes ÅE v§ƒ®Ωç-Gμç* Clause.
ûª®√yûª Past Doing
b) Main Clause -
Word (Past simple)
°æ‹Jh Å®Ωnç
clause - He knows
Ö†o
¢√úøû√ç. English.
I wish I attended the function. (Ç Functionèπ◊ Probable present -
c) Subordinate Clause-
ÉC É°æ¤púø’í¬F, Å®Ωnç °æ‹Jh-é¬E
future
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 542
؈’ ¢ÁRûË áçûª ¶«í∫’ç-úËC) – ¢Á∞¡x-™‰ü¿’. ™í¬F ïJÍí Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC. clause- When he meets you next.
She wishes she were rich = ûª†’ üμ¿E-èπ◊-®√™„j
í∫´’-Eç-î√-Lq† N≠æߪ’ç: d) No of clauses in a sentence = No. of
Öçõ‰ áçûª ¶«í∫’ç-úËC. ÅE ņ’-èπ◊ç-öçC. 'If' clause/ conditional clause (If he comes verbs in the sentence.
3. Suresh was at my home.
Q. Do forms ÅØËN is/ was/ are / were/ am ©ûÓ-
4. Suresh spent whole of here) Verb, 'comes', present tense, He knows that she is here =
§ƒ-ô’í¬ ´≤ƒhߪ÷? What we did was not, his holidays at my home.
™ Åûª-úÕéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’
perhaps, entirely sporting Ñ ¢√éπuç™ É™« Main Clause (His mother will feel happy) Ç¢Á’ Ééπ\-úø’ç-ü¿E.
A. Suresh came to my home/ Ñ sentence ™ È®çúø’ verbs ÖØ√o®· éπüΔ?
M.SURESAN ™ Verb - will feel- future tense. Éçü¿’™
my place - correct, and so
¢√úøôç éπÈ®-ÍédØ√?
A. What we did was ... Ééπ\úø do form (did)ûÓ verb forms. 1) knows 2) Is Åçü¿’-éπE Ñ sentence ™ È®çúø’
is
´’†ç ¢√úøí∫LÍí Éûª®Ω
was (be form) ®√´úøç ™‰ü¿’. What we did was If Clause Main Clause clauses - 1) He knows 2) That she is here.
Suresh was at my home (correct).
not, perhaps, entirely sporting – Ééπ\úø did He knows =
(Conditional Clause (
4) Correct. °æ‹Jh Å®Ωnç ÖçúË Åûª-úÕéÀ ûÁ©’Ææ’ – DEéÀ °æ‹Jh Å®Ωnç
èπ◊, was èπ◊ àO’ Ææç•çüμ¿ç ™‰ü¿’. Did äéπ verb, ÖçC - Main Clause.
Q. What is the meaning of below sentence? ≠æ®Ω-ûª’†’ ûÁLÊ° clause) clause)
was ÉçéÌéπ verb. that she is here = - mean-
Ç¢Á’ Ééπ\úø Öçü¿E
My home is at Abids half a km off Grand Am/ is/ are/ I RDW/ Shall/ will/
What we did = ¢Ë’ç îËÆ œçC. ing not complete - subordinate clause.
trunk road. II RDW (go/ goes, take/ can/ may.
Was perhaps not entirely sporting = Åçûª 1) main clause sentence - sim-
Is the above sentence indicate Grand trunk
äÍé äéπ Ö†o
takes) ple sentence verb sentence-
°æ‹Jhí¬ sporting é¬üË¢Á÷. (Sporting = Åçûªí¬ road is half a km from Abids or My home is Åçõ‰ äÍé Ö†o
b) Improbable Present Conditional- simple sentence.
°æöÀdç--éÓ-èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúË ûªûªyç – üËEo í∫’Jç-îª-®·Ø√ half a km from Grand trunk road.
Ææ’©-¶μºçí¬ éÓ°æç ûÁa-éÓ-èπ◊çú≈) A. My home is at Abids, half a Km distant from
v°æÆæ’hûªç ï®Ω-í∫-EC. eg: He has a beautiful car - has
Éçü¿’™ äÍé
Q. Neither E ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púø’ Inversion form ´Ææ’hçüΔ the Ground Trunk Road. i) If he come here, his mother would be verb 鬕öÀd äÍé clause- main clause -
ÅüË
®√üΔ? éÀçC ¢√éπuç™ DE Å®Ωn-¢Ë’-N’öÀ? Q. If we are having visitors, the house will need happy = Åûª-E-°æ¤púø’ ®√úø’/ ´îËa Å´-鬨¡ç ™‰ü¿’, 鬕öÀd ÉC simple sentence.
Neither were we. Ñ ¢√éπuç™ Neither †’ a good cleaning. Is it correct? ®√´úøç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË, ¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ-≠œ-Ææ’hçC He has a car which is beautiful. sentence Ñ
subject í¬ treat îËÊÆh we place ™ üΔE objec- A. If we are having visitors, the house will need (¢√úø’ ®√†÷-®√úø’, ¢√∞¡x´’t ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úø-ô´‚ ™ È®çúø’ verbs ÖØ√o®·.
tive form us Öçú≈L éπüΔ? a good cleaning - correct. ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’) -1) has, 2) is clauses-
Åçõ‰ È®çúø’
A. Neither- †’ sentence or clause beginning ™ (House-any building where people can live. ii) If I were a Minister, you would be my P.A. 1) He has = Main Clause
Åûª-úÕéÀ ÖçC –
¢√úÕûË Inversion ´Ææ’hçC. Home - a place/ house where we live with = ؈’ ´’çvAí¬ Öçúøôç Åçô÷ ïJ-TûË 2) a car which is beautiful - car à Åçü¿çí¬
He is not here, neither is his wife (inversion) our family. However, house may sometimes car
PA
(É°æ¤púø’), †’´¤y Ø√ í¬ Öçö«´¤/ E†’o Ø√ Öçô’çüÓ ÅC (Åçü¿-¢Á’i-† )
They were not told, neither were we. Å®·ûË mean the place we live in with our family - subordinate clause-
PA í¬ îËÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ö«†’ (ÅD ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’, ÉD ï®Ω-í∫ü¿’ – DEéÀ Å®Ωnç °æ‹®Ωh-´-™‰ü¿’
Neither of Inversion when we refer to it in a General way.
complex sentence- subordi-
Å-E ´*a-†-°æ¤púø’ ´÷vûªç 鬕öÀd ÉC Åçõ‰,
Neither were we neither subject e.g: We don't find a thing in the house just
– É°æ¤púø’.)
nate clause sentence complex
®√ü¿’. ™,
we
é¬ü¿’, éπüΔ. when we need it. í∫´’-Eç-îªçúÕ: If clause ™, 'I' singular Å®·Ø√, Ö†o ņo-
Q. Primary purposes Post verb - were (plural). É™«çöÀ Ææçü¿-®Ωs¥ç™ ´’†ç ´÷ô.
†’ Ææ÷*ç-îË-ô-°æ¤púø’ Suresh, Devarapalli 3) He has a car and it is beautiful -
office, Bed, Bustand, Railway station, ¢√úø-í∫-L-T† Éûª®Ω verbs. Åûª-úÕéÀ
Q. As soon as †’ àßË’ Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x ¢√úø-´îÓa car verbs
Hospital, School, Church etc. If Clause Main Clause
™«çöÀ °æüΔ© ÖçC. ÅC Åçü¿-¢Á’içC. È®çúø’ Ñ
sentence 1) has, 2) is.
the
´·çü¿’ ¢√úøç. é¬F éÀçC ¢√é¬u™x ¢√ú≈®Ω’. N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. (Conditional) Would/ should/
™– ÅN, Åçõ‰ È®çúø’
A. As soon as = ¢ÁçôØË. clauses.
É™« ¢√úøôç éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? were/ PDW Could/ might be
1. Why do we go to the Hospital? As soon as he saw the police he ran away a) He has a car = car
Åûª-úÕéÀ ÖçC. Å®Ωnç
(Past doing word- or Would/ should/ - main clause.
(for medical checkup). = §ÚMÆæ’†’ îª÷Æœ† ¢ÁçôØË Åûªúø’ §ƒJ-§Ú-ߪ÷úø’. °æ‹®Ωh-®·çC
took, went, sang, etc- could/ might + b) and it is beautiful =
2. Why do we go to the post office? Q. Would, could †’ á°æ¤púø’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-îª-´îª’a? ÅC Åçü¿-¢Á’içC. DEéÀ
Past tense forms) 1st RDW main clause.
(We go to the post office to buy stamps A. Would- í∫ûªç (Past) †’ç* future †’ Å®Ωnç °æ‹®Ωh-®·çC – ÉD
and covers). (take, go, sing etc) Ñ sentence main clauses
™ È®çúø’ È®çúø’
îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç.
A. Primary purpose c) Impossible past - clauses com-
He said he would help her = Ç¢Á’èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç
Ééπ\úø ÅØËC é¬ü¿’ v°æ¨¡o. O’J- ÉC Å®·-§Ú-®·† N≠æߪ’ç. Åçûªéπçõ‰ áèπ◊\´ Öçõ‰ ÅC
*a† v°æ¨¡o™xwe Åçõ‰ patients
ÅE ´÷vûª¢Ë’ Å®·-§Ú-èπ◊çú≈ Öçõ‰ áçûª ¶«í∫’ç-úËC, ï®Ω-í∫E pound sentence. îª÷úøçúÕ:
îË≤ƒh-†E ÅØ√oúø’ (í∫ûªç™)
sentences N≠æߪ’ç, ïJ-í∫’çõ‰ áçûª ¶«í∫’ç-úËC – ÅØË °æJ-Æœn- äÍé Main Clause - Simple sentence.
Could - Past Ability í∫ûªç™ ≤ƒ´’-®√n uEo ûÁLÊ°
é¬ü¿’ éπüΔ? Å®·ûË O’®Ω’ ®√Æœ†
´‚úø÷ èπÿú≈ ÆæÈ®j†N 鬴¤. Grammatical í¬ A™ ¢√úøû√ç. One main Clause + 1 or more subordinate
ÅN Öçú≈-Lq† Nüμ¿ç: Nüμ¿ç. i) If she had started earlier, he would have clauses - Complex sentence.
He could be a CM because he had been an seen her =
1) Why do we go to a hospital? (a = any) Ç¢Á’ é¬Ææh ´·ç-ü¿’í¬ •ßª’-™‰lJ 2 or more main clauses - Compound
actor =
a) For a medical check up. sentence.
Åûªúø’ †ô’-úÕí¬ ÖçúË-¢√úø’. Åçü¿’-´©x Öçõ‰, Åûª-ú≈-¢Á’†’ îª÷ÊÆ-¢√úË. (Ç¢Á’ Ç©-Ææuçí¬
2) Why do we go to a post office (a = any)
´·êu-´’çvA Å´-í∫-L-í¬úø’ (í∫ûªç – ≤ƒ´’®Ωn uç) •ßª’-™‰l-JçC – Åûª-ú≈-¢Á’†’ îª÷úø-™‰ü¿’)
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm
-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 29 -´÷-Ja 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Suyodh: Hi you appear to be very busy. really surprised. 9) I never find myself
(î√™« BJé𠙉èπ◊çú≈ Ö†o-ô’d-Ø√o´¤?) (Eï¢Ë’. áçûª BJ-éπ-™‰-èπ◊Ø√o, Åéπ\ Ç °æEéÀ up to it.
Sukeerthi: You can say that. I've been working ´÷vûªç ᙫíÓ äéπ™« éÌçûª Æ洒ߪ’ç É°æ¤púø’ °j†
at this problem tidying up since ÉÆæ’hçC.) underline îËÆ œ†
yesterday and still have a lot more Sukeerthi: That only shows 'where there is a Phrasal verbs/
to do. will, there is a way.' idioms Å®Ωnç, ¢√öÀ Ö°æ-
(Å´¤†’ Eï¢Ë’. Ñ Ææ´’Ææu í∫’Jç* (Åçü¿’-´©x ûÁL-ÊÆC àN’-ôçõ‰.. ´’†- ßÁ÷í∫ç îª÷ü∆lç:
E†oöÀ †’ç* Ææûª-´’-ûª-´’-´¤-ûª’Ø√o. Éçé¬ Ææ’çõ‰ ´÷®Ω_ç Öçô’ç-ü¿E.) O’®Ω’ í∫´’-EçîË
îËߪ÷-LqçC î√™« ÖçC.) Suyodh: She asks me to help her, but never Öçö«®Ω’. °j expres- a) Politicians think nothing of swallowing public
Suyodh: Certainly you are going all out to find myself upto it. Just to please her, sions ÅFo èπÿú≈ °æEéÀ, v¨¡´’èπ◊, ÉçöÀ ¨¡Ÿv¶µº-ûªèπÿ funds =v°æñ«-üµ¿-Ø√Eo N’çí∫úøç î√™« Ææ’©-¶µº-¢Á’iç-
make the house look attractive, but I put on an act of tidying up. She is Ææç•ç-Cµç-*†´E. É°æ¤púø’ îª÷ü∆lç. Cí¬/ Åçûª Å≤ƒ-üµ∆-®Ω-ù-¢Á’i† N≠æ-ߪ’çí¬ Å†’-éÓ®Ω’.
you know, an old house is an old too smart to be taken in and tells me 1) Go all out to = àüÁjØ√ ≤ƒCµç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ áçûª v¨¡´’- b) I find it difficult to travel long distances,
house. off, and to get out. ÈéjØ√ Æœü¿l¥-°æ-úøôç. whereas my sister thinks nothing of it =
(Ñ ÉçöÀE Åçü¿çí¬ îËߪ÷-©E ÅEo (ûª†èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’-°æ-úø-´’E ††o-úø’-í∫’-ûª’çC, é¬F a) Gandhi would go all out to make peace Ø√Íé¢Á÷ ü¿÷®Ω v°æߪ÷-ù«-©çõ‰ éπ≠dçæ ÅE-°œ-Ææ’hçC, ´÷
v°æߪ’-û√o©÷ îËÆæ’h-Ø√o´¤. é¬F §ƒûª É©’x Ç°æE ´÷vûªç îËÊÆ ã°œéπ Ø√èπ◊ ™‰ü¿’. Åçü¿’- even with the worst enemy = •ü¿l¥ ¨¡vûª’-´¤ûÓ Åéπ\ߪ’u ÅC Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬ BÆæ’-èπ◊ç-ô’çC.
6) spick and span = Åûªuçûª °æJ-¨¡Ÿ-v¶µº-¢Á ’i†,
§ƒûª É™‰x éπü∆?) éπE àüÓ îËÆœ-†ô’x †öÀ≤ƒh. Åçûª ¢Á÷Ææ-§Ú- ¨»çA èπ◊ü¿’-®Ω’a-èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ í¬çDµ áçûª v¨¡´’-ÈéjØ√
Sukeerthi: The house is old, true, but it is spa- ßË’çûª ûÁL-N-™‰-EC é¬ü¿’ Ç¢Á’. ü∆çûÓ ††’o ¢Á†’-é¬-úË¢√®Ω’ é¬ü¿’. ´·êuçí¬ É∞¡Ÿx, GLfç-í∫’©’ ™«çöÀN. ÉC î√™« Ö°æ-
cious and airy. No new building AöÀd ¢ÁRx-§Ò-´’tç-ô’çC.) He went all out to get his party ticket to
can match it in comfort and conve- Sukeerthi: That's really bad of you. You ought
ßÁ÷-í∫-éπ-®Ω-¢Á’i† ´÷ô (O’ Ææ綵«-≠æ-ù™ ¢√úøçúÕ).
stand for the election = áEo-éπ™x §Úöà îËÊÆç- a) What if their house is small? They keep it
nience. to help her. party ticket
ü¿’èπ◊ ûª† §ÒçüËç-ü¿’èπ◊ áçûÓ v¨¡´’-
°æ-ú≈fúø’. spick and span = ¢√∞¡x É©’x *†o-üÁj-ûË-ØËçöÀ? î√™«
(É©’x §ƒûªüË. Å®·ûË î√™« N¨»-©-¢Á’içD, (ÅC ûª°æ¤p. †’¢√y-¢Á’èπ◊ ≤ƒßª’-°æ-ú≈L.)
Suyodh: Oh, No. That's not my cup of tea, 2) Think a world of =
í¬M ¢Á©’ûª’®Ω’ ¶«í¬ ´îËa-D†’. ≤˘êuç, äéπJE í∫’Jç*, äéπ-ü∆Eo îªéπ\í¬ Åü¿l癫 °æJ-¨¡Ÿ-v¶µºçí¬ Öç-èπ◊ç-ö«®Ω’.
≤˘éπ-®√u™x éÌûªh éπôd-ú≈-™‰O DEéÀ whatever you say. í∫’Jç* ´’†èπ◊ î√™« íÌ°æp ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç Öçúøôç. b) Everything about the studio is spick and
≤ƒöÀ®√´¤.) span; not even a speek of
Suyodh: You seem to dust anywhere =

Think nothing of something


Ç
be thinking a Ææ÷dúÕßÁ÷ î√™« °æJ-¨¡Ÿ-v¶µºçí¬
world of your Öçô’çC. áéπ\ú≈ ü¿’´·t
place. You éπùç ÅØËC éπE-°œç-îªü¿’.
don't mind speek = î√™« *†o ´·éπ\.
going to any a) He thinks a world of his son who isn't all A speek in the ocean = ´’£æ…-
length to keep it neat and tidy. that great = ûª† éÌúø’-èπ◊†’ í∫’Jç* Çߪ’† Ææ-´·-vü¿ç™ î√™« *†o ´Ææ’h´¤.
(O’ É©xçõ‰ FÈéçûÓ íÌ°æp ÅGµ-v§ƒßª’ç
Ö†o-ô’dçC. ü∆Eo ¨¡Ÿv¶µºçí¬, Å´’-J-éπí¬ -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 543 áçûÓ íÌ°æpí¬ Å†’-èπ◊ç-ö«úø’. ÅûªØËç Åçûª 7) Do up = É©’x ™«çöÀN °æJ-¨¡Ÿ-v¶µºçí¬ ÖçîËç-ü¿’èπ◊
íÌ°æp¢√úø’ é¬ü¿’. Ææ®Ωlúøç.
ÖçîËç-ü¿’èπ◊ áçûª v¨¡¢Á’iØ√ °æúËç-ü¿’èπ◊ b) She thinks a world of her ability to
a) I cannot start now. I have to do up the home
dance =
Féπ-¶µºuç-ûª®Ωç ™‰ü¿’.) (Ç. Ø√´-©x-é¬ü¿’. †’¢Ëy-
before I leave =
ûª† Ø√ôu v°æA-¶µº†’ í∫’Jç* Ç¢Á’èπ◊
Sukeerthi: I find real pleasure in it. It's a labour ´’Ø√o ņ’. Ø√éÀ≠dçæ ™‰E- î√™« íÌ°æp ÅGµ-v§ƒ-ߪ’¢Ë’ ÖçC.
É°æ¤púË •ßª’-™‰l-®Ω-™‰†’. •ßª’-™‰l-Í®-
of love for me. ´·çü¿’ É©xçû√ ¨¡Ÿv¶µºç îËߪ÷L.
M.SURESAN
°æE ÅC.) DE-èπ◊†o Å®Ωnç-ûÓØË ÉçéÓ expression 'think no
Sukeerthi: Suit yourself. b) The house hasn't been done up = É©’x ÆæJl-†-
(Å´¤†’. Eï¢Ë’. É©’x Ææ®Ωlúøç Ø√éÀ-≠d-¢æ Á’i† end of' (î√™« íÌ°æpí¬ Å†’-éÓ-´-úøç).
v¨¡´’.) (ÆæÍ®. F É≠ædç) ô’xí¬ éπ†-°æ-úø-ôç-™‰ü¿’. ´Ææ’h-´¤-©çû√ *çü¿®Ω ´çü¿-
She thinks no end of her talent as a singer.
Suyodh: How different we are, though so   
®Ωí¬ °æúÕ ÖØ√o®·.
close! You think nothing of it whereas
í¬ßª’-Eí¬ ûª† v°æA-¶µº†’ í∫’Jç* Ç¢Á’ áçûÓ íÌ°æpí¬ Do up the bed = °æéπ\ Ææ®Ωlúøç. Do up hair = Æ‘Y©’
I just can't even think of doing it.
´’† Eûªu-@-N-ûªç™ î√™«-´’ç-CéÀ Å®Ωn-´’ßË’u Phrasal ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’çC/ í∫®Ωyçí¬ Å†’-èπ◊ç-ô’çC.
Vô’d Ææ´-Jç* neat í¬ ïúø-¢Ë-Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç / Å©ç-éπ-Jç--
verbs/ idioms -†’ í∫’-Jç-* É°æ¤púø’ -ûÁ-©’Ææ’èπ◊ç-ü∆ç. 3) Go to any lengths/ go to great lengths =
(Åçûª ÆæEo-£œ«-ûª’-©-¢Á’i† ´’†™ áçûª ûËú≈! OöÀûÓ Spoken English î√™« Ææ£æ«-ïçí¬, Åv°æ-ߪ’- ´’†ç ≤ƒCµç-î√-©-†’-èπ◊-†o-ü∆Eo ≤ƒCµç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ áçûª éÓ-´úøç.
É©’x Ææ®Ωlúøç †’´¤y *öÀ-éπ™ îËÊÆ-°æ-Eí¬ Å†’- ûªoçí¬ ´÷ö«x-úø’-ûª’-†oô’d ÅE-°œ-Ææ’hçC. v¨¡´’-ÈéjØ√ Æœü¿l¥-°æ-úøôç. a) Find oneself upto something = äéπ °æE îËÊÆç-
èπ◊ç-ö«´¤. Ø√Íé¢Á÷ -Ç- Ç™-îª-ØË-®√ü¿’.) Look at the following expressions from the a) Now a days parents go to any length/ great
ü¿’èπ◊ ÆæçÆœ-ü¿l¥ûª/ ´’†Ææ’ Öçúøôç.
Sukeerthi: It all depends on how you look at it. b) I don't feel up to telling the parents that their
conversation above: lengths to educate their children =
Your place looks spick and span as
ûª´’ °œ©xLo
1) You certainly go all out to .... child's condition is serious = Ç ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’-©èπ◊
well. Your sister is there to do it up,
îªC-Nç--èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊ ØËöÀ ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’©’ áçûª v¨¡´’-
2) You seem to be thinking a world of your ûª´’ Gúøf °æJ-ÆœnA î√™« Bv´çí¬ Öçü¿E îÁÊ°pç-ü¿’èπ◊
even if you don't.
ÈéjØ√ ¢Á†’-é¬-úøôç ™‰ü¿’.
place. b) He did go to great lengths to make a mark as ´’†-Ææ \-Jç-îª-úøç-™‰ü¿’.
(àüÁjØ√ ´’†ç ü∆Eo í∫’Jç* ņ’-èπ◊ØË c) I don't feel upto standing in the long queue
3) You don't mind going to any length .... a film actor but could not succeed = (cin-
*vûª
ü∆Eo-•öÀd Öçô’çC. (éπ≠dçæ ņ’-èπ◊çõ‰
éπ≠dçæ , Ææ’©¶µºç ņ’-èπ◊çõ‰ Ææ’©¶µºç.) O’ 4) It's a labour of love for me ema) éπ∞¡™ Ê°®Ω’ §ÒçüËç-ü¿’èπ◊ áçûÓ v¨¡´’-°æ-ú≈fúø’ for a movie ticket = ÆœE´÷ öÀÈéö¸ éÓÆæç Åçûª
É©’x èπÿú≈ Åü¿l癫 ¨¡Ÿv¶µºçí¬ Öçô’çC. 5) You think nothing of it. é¬F Nïߪ’ç §Òçü¿-™‰ü¿’. §Òúø-¢Áj† èπÿu™ E©•úøôç Ø√´-©x-é¬ü¿’.
†’´¤y îËߪ’-éπ-§Ú-®·Ø√ O’ Åéπ\ ÖçC éπü∆ 6) Your place looks spick and span. 4) Think nothing of something = To find Ñ feel up to áèπ◊\-´í¬ not ûÓØË ¢√úøû√ç – Æœü¿l¥çí¬
É©’x ¨¡Ÿv¶µºçí¬ ÖçîËç-ü¿’èπ◊.) 7) Your sister is there to do it up. something very easy = à °æE-ØÁjØ√ î√™« ™‰éπ-§Ú-´úøç/ É≠æd癉ü¿ØË Å®ΩnçûÓ.
Suyodh: You are right there. Sister some how 8) Sister somehow squeezes it into her tight Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬ Å†’-éÓ-´úøç.
squeezes it into her tight work. I am work.
Suresh, Devarapalli  We will meet again tomorrow.
-A. Neither... nor = ÅD-™‰ü¿’/ ÉD-™‰ü¿’. Å-™«Íí ¢√é¬u-©’ ÆæÈ®j-†-¢Ó, é¬--¢Ó -N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. .
Q. Talk, said Neither my friends nor I am interested in it =
É-C éπÈ®Íéd
 I will be happy to see him.
© ´’üµ¿u ûËú≈ àN’öÀ?
 It will not be sir.
A. Talk = ´÷ö«x-úø-ôç ü∆E™ ÇÆæéÀh Ø√èπÿ ™‰ü¿’, Ø√ ÊÆo£œ«-ûª’-©èπÿ ™‰ü¿’. A. Åûª-úÕ-E éπ©’-Ææ’èπ◊-ØËç-ü¿’èπ◊/ îª÷-ú≈f-EéÀ Ø√èπ◊ (Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd) correct.
Say = îÁ°æpúøç M.Chandrashekar, Srikalahasti ÆæçûÓ≠æç (éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-™‰ü¿’ Éçé¬). éπÈ®Íéd.  She will have my help.
Q. While †’ á°æ¤púø’ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç-î √L? Q. Will ûÓ äéπ ¢√éπuç Ö†o-°æ¤púø’ ÅC E®Ωg-ߪ’¢Á÷,  He shall be here tomorrow. Correct.
A. While - 1) È®çúø’ °æ†’-©†’ v°æ≤ƒh- ÖüËl-¨¡¢Á÷ ᙫ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-¢√L? ûËú≈†’ ûÁL-ߪ’-ñ‰-ߪ’- .
- Å-ûªúø’ Í®°æ¤ -É-éπ\úø éπ*a-ûªçí¬ Öçö«úø’. éπÈ®Íéd Shall and will í∫’Jç* lessons 1-20 ™ -
NÆæ÷h äéπöÀ ïJ-T-†-°æ¤púø’ ÉçéÌ-éπöÀ í∫-©®Ω’.  When shall you come next week. N-´-Jç-î√ç, -îª÷-úøç-úÕ.
ï®Ω-í∫-ú≈Eo ûÁL-Ê°ç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úøû√ç. A. I/ we ™ will ¢√úÕ-†-°æ¤púË E®Ωgߪ’ç/ ÖüËl-¨»Eo you/ he/ she/ it and
ÉC ûª°æ¤p. ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬ K.L.N.Rao, Tenalai
a) While his parents toiled, he enjoyed him- they shall questions
Q. Did you think su-do-ku easy?
ûÁ©’-°æ¤-ûª’çC. ûÓ ™ ¢√úøç.
self= ¢√∞¡x ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’©’ éπ≠d-° eg: I will buy the car whatever the price = üµ¿®Ω  She shall help you.
Did
æ æ-úø’-ûª’-†o-°æ¤púø’/ -Ñ -¢√éπuç-™ -¢√-úø-ôç éπÈ®Íéd-Ø√?
éπ≠d-°æ æ-úø’-ûª’çõ‰, Åûª-úË¢Á÷ q îËÆæ’-èπ◊-ØË-¢√úø’. áçûÁjØ√ Ç car †’ ؈’ éÌçö«†’/ éÌE- B-®Ω-û√†’ Ç¢Á’ Fèπ◊ ≤ƒßª’ç îËߪ÷L (Åç-ûª ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’). A. .
éπÈ®Íéd ≤ƒ´÷-†uçí¬, Å™« ņ’-èπ◊-Ø√o¢√? ÉC Fèπ◊
(Toil = éπ≠d-° æ æúÕ °æE-îË-ߪ’úøç/ v¨¡N’ç-îªúøç) (E®Ωgߪ’ç).  When shall you be free? ûÁ©’≤ƒ? ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ. Did you think it was
b) While they are putting themselves to We will meet him (ÅûªúÕE ¢Ë’ç éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊çö«ç.) When will you be free? correct
Åçõ‰ easy? Did you know.......? past form,
ÅE
such trouble, you are laughing at them = - Intention (ÖüËl¨¡ç) – ´÷èπ◊ ÅûªúÕE éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ØË  I will come next week. 'did' usage,
¢√-úø-û√ç. ÉC grammar rule
DEéÀ
Åçûª v°æߪ÷-Ææ- ¢√∞¡Ÿx °æúø’-ûª’çõ‰/ °æúø’ûª’-†o-°æ¤púø’ ÖüË l¨¡ç ÖçC. Correct apply é¬ü¿’.
†’´¤y †´¤y-ûª’-Ø√o´¤. B. Venkatesh, Kovvur  I shall try it. 'Did you know it?' - ÉC Fèπ◊ ûÁ©’≤ƒ?
Q. Neither (or) nor -Å®√n-Eo -Ö-ü∆£æ«®Ω-ù-ûÓ N-´-Jç-îªí∫-©®Ω’. I shall try it - correct. ÅE challenge í¬ Åúø-í∫ôç.
Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u©†’ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. -

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm