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-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 7 -W-Ø˛ 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

B. Sujatha, Tirupathi He would have gone there - verb would A. Diaspora: The
Q. He ordered me to keep the have gone - Should have + PP - Åûª-úø-éπ\-úÕéÀ moving away of
shop open until his purchases ¢Á∞Ïx-¢√úË, é¬F ¢Á∞¡}-™‰ü¿’. the people of
are complete. are
Ñ ¢√éπuç™ É™« O’Í®-üÁjØ√ BÆæ’-èπ◊E, States of being one country to
complete are com-
≤ƒn†ç™ (Öçúøôç) ûÁLÊ° verb forms, be form + ing/ another.
pleted Öçú≈L éπü∆. ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ PP - actions (°æ†’-©†’) í∫’Jç* ûÁLÊ° actions äéπ ü˨»-EéÀ îÁçC†
N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. words form îËÆæ’-éÓ-´îª’a. v°æï©’, Ç ü˨¡ç
A. He ordered me to keep the shop open until NúÕ* ¢ÁRx ÉçéÓ-
V. Suryarao, Vizag
his purchases were complete. This is the îÓô Æœn®Ω-°æ-úøôç–
Q. 'No' he said The Indian diaspora in the US. Q. ÅûªúÕ é¬®Ω-ùçí¬ØË Ø√éà Ŵ-鬨¡ç/ ÖüÓuí∫ç
correct sentence. 'were completed' is cor-
DEo ´’®Ó Nüµ¿çí¬ á™« îÁ§ƒpL?
rect too, but 'complete' is equally correct. A. He said no/ He denied it. laureate: íÌ°æp Ææû√\®Ωç/ °æ¤®Ω-≤ƒ\®Ωç §ÒçüË
´*açC. ™‰ü∆ Ø√éà ƜnA ®√´-ú≈-EéÀ ÅûªúË é¬®Ω-èπ◊úø’.
Q It has been decided to issue identity cards íÌ°æp-¢√®Ω’ – A Nobel Laureate = Nobel °æ¤®Ω-≤ƒ\- A. I got this job opportunity only because of him.
'complete' is an adjective like 'open'. .
to all persons above 18 before the end of My present position owes to him.
The shop was opened = The shop keeper ®√Eo Åçü¿’-èπ◊-†o-¢√∞¡Ÿx.
November. vast talent = a large number of people in a Q.
opened the shop. ´’®Ó Nüµ¿çí¬ á™« îÁ§Òpa? -F-´¤ -á-ØÓo èπ◊-´÷®Ω’-úø-´¤?-
A All persons above 18 will be issued identity group/ a person having a lot of natural abil- A. D-EéÀ English ™‰-ü¿’.
The shop was open = The shop was not
.
cards before the end of November. ity to do something.
closed. S.Md. Ghouse Mohiuddin, Kadapa
äéπ v°æüË-¨¡ç™ î√™«-
similarly
´’ç-CéÀ/ äéπ ´uéÀhéÀ ¶«í¬ áèπ◊\-´í¬ Ö†o v°æA¶µº.
Vivek Satyanandam, Korukonda Q.
exaggerate = make too much of too little/ to
éÀçC ÉçTx≠ˇ ¢√é¬u-©†’ ņ’-´-Cç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
My work is complete = over Q. Was any body injured in the accident? The old man is too weak to walk.
make small things appear great. íÓ®Ωç-ûª©’
My work is completed = My work is in a com- Has anybody injured in the accident? The old man is so weak that he can not walk.
éÌçúøç-ûª©’ îËߪ’úøç/ ÅA-¨¡-ßÁ÷éÀh.
pleted state. Which is correct, what is the difference A. The old man is too weak to walk =
pursuit: 1) searching/ quest (ÅØËy-≠æù) for Ç Â°ü∆l-
Q. It must be complete in with all particulars - between them. something. e.g.: pursuit of happiness = ߪ’† †úø-´-™‰-†çûª •©-£‘«-†çí¬ ÖØ√oúø’ = The old
Ñ ¢√éπuç™complete man is so weak that he
completed cannot walk =

What do I call you?


≤ƒn†ç™ Ç Â°ü∆l-ߪ’†
Öçú≈L éπü∆. áçûª •©-£‘«-†çí¬ ÖØ√o-úøçõ‰,
A You are correct. The
. Çߪ’† †úø-´-™‰úø’.
correct expression is, Q. Very few kings of the
'complete with all par- world are as great as
ticulars' . Akbar (positive degree)
džç-ü∆-EéÀ ÅØËy-≠æù 2)Chasing the pursuit of Akbar is greater than most other kings of
S.Satyanarayana Murthy, Kakinada the world (comparative degree).
the deer by the tiger -
-Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 551
°æ¤L >çéπ†’ ¢Ëö«-úøôç.
Q. 'Be' forms áEo ®Ω鬩’? ¢√öÀE Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-Tç* 3) ¢√u°æéπçdo something as a hobby. Akbar is one of the greatest kings of the
éÌEo Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù©’ ûÁ©’-°æçúÕ. mitigate = to reduce/ lessen suffering Ö°æ- world (superlative). ´‚úø’ úÕvU-™xE ¢√é¬u-©†’
A. 'Be' forms: 3 sets: A. Was any body injured in the ¨¡-´’†ç (¶«üµ¿-™«çöÀ ¢√öÀ-†’ç*) éπL-Tç-îªúøç. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ ņ’-´-Cç-îª- í∫-©®Ω’.
1) Am, is, are accident?- Correct A. 1) Positive Degree - î√™« ûªèπ◊\´ ´’çC
deployment = 1) To move soldiers and
was, were Has any body injured in the ®√V©’ Åéπs®˝ Åçûª íÌ°æp-¢√∞¡Ÿx
M.SURESAN weapons to important places for ready
2) 'be' 3) 'been' accident - wrong. 2) Comparative - Åéπs®˝ î√™«-´’çC ®√V© éπçõ‰
*´®Ω ´îËaN *´®Ω ´îËaN action.
shall Has anybody injured means if anyone has íÌ°æp-¢√úø’.
have been 2) To use something correctly and effec-
should injured someone. Your idea is to find out if 3) Superlative - Åûªuçûª íÌ°æp ®√V™x Åéπs®˝ äéπúø’.
has tively.
will anybody has been injured = if because of Q. Exclamatory sentences éÌEo what ûÓ éÌEo
had intensity = severity =
would shall the accident anybody has got injured.
Bv´ûª How ûÓ v§ƒ®Ωç-¶µº-´’-´¤-û√®·. Ñ ûËú≈ áçü¿’èπ◊?
can perennial = Continuous/ happening again and Öü∆: How beautiful the rose is!
should Q. Please explain about the word 'Reference'
could be will again - perennial
áúø-ûÁ-J-°œ-™‰E. (†ü¿’© N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ What a beautify flower the rose is!
with example in telugu.
may would rivers = rivers which are never without water - How ûÓ ¢Á·ü¿-©-®·ûË ü∆E Å®Ωnç ᙫ Öçô’çC.
might can have been A. Reference = 1) The reference e.g.: the Krishna, the Ganga etc.) What
v°æ≤ƒh-Nç-îªúøç. ûÓ ¢Á·ü¿-©-®·ûË ü∆E Å®Ωnç ᙫ Öçô’çC.
must could here is to the Bharatham - indigenously = produced/ born/ growing with- A. Exclamatory ™ what éà how éà ûÁ©’-í∫’™
Ééπ\úø v°æ≤ƒh-´†/
have to may äéπ N≠æ-ߪ÷Eo í∫’Jç* ´÷ö«x-úøôç ¶µ«®Ω-û√Eo in the country, without being brought from other
might
Åçûª ûËú≈ ™‰ü¿’. Å®·Ø√ ûËú≈ Öçü¿-†’-èπ◊çõ‰ É™«
has to í∫’Jç*. countries. = Some brands of
must ÆæyüËP/ üËQ-ߪ’çí¬. ®√´îª’a.
had to 2) Ææ´÷-î√®Ωç §Òçü¿úøç/ Ææçv°æ-Cç-îªúøç Let us cars are indigenously produced in India = éÌEo How beautiful the rose is! = í∫’™«H áçûª
1) a) I am in this room (verb - am ('Be' form) have a list of phone numbers for refer- ®Ω鬩 cars ¶µ«®Ω-û˝-™ØË (NüË-¨»© †’ç* Cí∫’-´’A îËÆæ’- Åçü¿-¢Á’i† °æ¤¢Óy!
= ÖØ√o†’– É°æ¤púø’) ence. Telephone numbers Ææ’©-¶µºçí¬ éÓ-èπ◊çú≈) ûªßª÷-®Ω’-îË-≤ƒh®Ω’. What a beautiful flower the rose is! = à--N’
b) I am sitting in the room (verb - am sit-
convention= 1) A common practice(dž-¢√-®·B)
§ÒçüËç-ü¿’èπ◊, ¢√öÀ ñ«Gû√ Öç-èπ◊çü∆ç. Åçü¿-¢Á’i† °æ¤´¤y í∫’™«H!
ting - am + ing =
action)
؈’ èπÿ®Ω’aE ÖØ√o†’ – 3) Ææ©£æ… §Òçü¿úøç – He started doing it with- 2) Conference (Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ç) Q. Alas! Åçõ‰ Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? What a pity! Åçõ‰
out reference to his elders = Åûªúø’ °ü¿l-¢√-
èπÿ®Óa-´úøç –
consumption = A†úøç/ û√í∫úøç; NE-ßÁ÷í∫ç
àN’öÀ? ûÁ©’-í∫’™ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
2) a) She has been a teacher for the past
∞¡}†’ Ææçv°æ-Cç-îª-èπ◊ç-ú≈ØË ÅC îËߪ’úøç ¢Á·ü¿-©’- A. Alas = ÅßÁ÷u! (ü¿’”ë«Eo ûÁLÊ° Ǩ¡a-®√u-®Ωnéπç)
two years (verb - has been - be form = Q. Please specify some good books for phrasal
°-ö«dúø’. What a pity! = áçûª ü¿’®Ω-ü¿%≠ædç!
teacher
Ç¢Á’ È®çúË-∞¡Ÿxí¬ í¬ ÖçC) verbs, letter & essay writing.
Q. Is 'never' used only sentence form in pre-
b) She has worked/ has been working as A. Books for phrasal verbs: Cambridge guide Ch.Venkata Ramana Reddy, Kareemnagar
a teacher for the past two years sent perfect tense? Doesn't used in ques-
to phrasal verbs. (Phrasal verbs in use - by Q. This house belongs to me for a long time.
tion form? Please explain. My mother has
(verb- has worked (has + PP)/has been Michael McCarthy and Felicity O'Dell). This house has belonged to me for a long
working - has been (be form) + working never travelled by air
There are many good books on letter writing
(´÷ Å´’t á°æ¤púø÷ N´÷- time. Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u™x àC éπÈ®èπ◊d?
(ing form) = teacher Has my
on the market.
Ç¢Á’ È®çúË-∞¡Ÿxí¬ í¬ °æE †ç™ v°æߪ÷-ùÀç-îª-™‰ü¿’ ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ) A. This house belongs to me for a longtime -
- action) mother never travelled by air? (question
îËÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ω’
K. Konda Babu, Denduluru correct.
ÉC ûªÊ°p. Ñ éÀçC È®çúø÷
3) They should have been there yesterday form).
This house belongs to me =
Q.
Ñ É©’x Ø√C.
(verb - should have been - 'be' form A. It is better to avoid 'never' in the present per- éÀçC ûÁ©’í∫’ ¢√é¬u-©†’ ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
= É™« Ñ Å®ΩnçûÓ ÉC correct.
fect tense. 'Never' means, not at any time, in Ñ Ê°°æ®Ω’ Ñ ®ÓV-üËØ√? ™‰ü∆ á°æp-öÀC Ñ This house has belonged to me for a long-
¢√∞¡Ÿx E†o Ééπ\úø Öçú≈-LqçC, é¬E ™‰®Ω’)
4) They should have been studying yester- the past, present or future. Present perfect Ê°°æ®Ω’ (à ®ÓVC)? time = Ñ É©’x î√™«-é¬-©çí¬ Ø√C.
day (verb - should have been - be form + refers to the time till now. So 'My Mother has A. Is it today's paper?/ Is this today's paper?
Sentence (2) ™ for a long time = î√™«
studying (ing form) = ¢√∞¡Ÿx E†o îªü¿’-´¤-ûª÷ç- not travelled by air so far' is better than, 'My Q. Ø√èπ◊ ´·©’x í∫’a-èπ◊çC. ™‰ü∆ Bí∫/ Üîª UÆæ’-èπ◊E -é¬-©çí¬ Å†o-°æ¤púø’, éÌçûª-鬩ç véÀûªç †’ç* É°æp-öÀ-
- action) Mother has never travelled...' But people do
ú≈-LqçC, é¬E îªü¿-´-™‰ü¿’ í¬ßª’-¢Á’içC. ´-®Ωèπÿ/ Éçé¬ – Ñ Å®Ωnç ®√¢√-©çõ‰ English ™
É™« áØÁj oØ√ îÁ°æp-´îª’a. Å™«Íí, have /has/ use 'never' with the present perfect tense, A. A thorn has got/ is stuck in present perfect ´÷vûª¢Ë’ ¢√--úøû√ç. Åçü¿’-´©x
had/ shall have/ should have/ will have/ and we can't say it is totally wrong. Q. Ñ E•çüµ¿-†-©’ O’èπÿ ´Jh-≤ƒh®·. 'has belonged' correct.
would have, etc + past participle - action Q. A. These rules apply to you also
éÀçC °æü∆-©èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®√n©’ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. Q. When I reached the meeting hall the presi-
Å®Ωnç ´Ææ’hçC. Diaspora, Laureate, vast talent, exaggerat- Q. à´’E °œ©-¢√L/ ᙫ °œ©-¢√L E†’o? dent already had started his lecture. Ñ
He would have been there - verb - would A. What do I call you?
ed, pursuit, mitigate, deployment, Intensity, ¢√éπuç éπÈ®-ÍédØ√?
have been - be form =
Q. A. When I reached the meeting the president
Åûª-úø-éπ\úø ÖçúË-¢√úË. perennial, Indigenously, convention, O®Ωç-ü¿®Ω÷ Çߪ’-†èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†-¢√∞¡Ÿx.
had already started his lecture - correct.
é¬F ™‰úø’. consumption. A. All these (people) are connected with him

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 14 -W-Ø˛ 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

T. Gangasingh, Adilabad b) Before he


b) On a day like this which is hot (áçúøí¬ Ö†o
Q. I have excellent command over joined this
- no complete meaning for
English. Company, he
É™«çöÀ ®ÓV†)
this clause, so it is a subordinate clause.
I have excellent command of was a student -
English. This sentence, therefore is a complex Complex
Which sentence is correct? sentence. c) He was a stu-
A. I have (an) excellent command of English - A sentence with 2 or more clauses is a com- dent and then
correct. pound sentence. he joined this
Q. O’®Ì-éπ-îÓô elder
ûª®√yûª than é¬F to é¬F ¢√úøç The day is hot and how can I walk on such a company -
day?- Compound
ÅØ√o®Ω’. é¬F ØËØÌ-éπ-îÓô Elder is used to refer Drop = (He dropped her
Here again there are two clauses-
´C-™‰-ߪ’úøç /Ç°æúøç.
to relations with in the family and it is fol- 4) a) After coming here, he earned a lot of name from the list. He dropped (discontinued)
a) The day is hot- This clause has complete money - Simple
lowed by to Engineering course.
meaning, so it is a main clause.
ÅE îªC-¢√†’. N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
A. 'Elder' is not followed by to. 'Elder' is used b) After he came here he earned a lot of Eliminate =
b) And how can I walk on such a day?- this ûÌ©-Tç-îªúøç (éÌEo-≤ƒ®Ω’x îªç°æúøç
only to refer to the members of the same money - Complex
is another main clause, as it has complete ü∆y®√)/ (§ÚöÃ-™xç*) ûÌ©-Tç-îªúøç
family, and is used as follows: c) He came here and (then) earned a lot of
meaning too. Terminate = to put an end to = Åçûªç îËߪ’úøç
a) He is the elder of the two sons of my money - Compound.
So the sentence, 'The day is hot and how 3) Meeting= Æ涵º/ Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ç
friend/ of the two he is the elder. can I walk on such a day?' has two main 5) a) She was too weak to walk - Simple
b) My brother is my elder and my sister is his b) She was so weak that she could not walk Discussion = Ωa; Summit - ÅÆæ-©®Ωnç °æ®Ωy-ûª-P-ê®Ωç;
clauses, so it is a compound sentence. This
elder. is the difference between the simple, the - Complex Å®·ûË summit meeting èπ◊ short form í¬ ¢√úø’-ûª’-
complex and the compound sentence. c) She was very weak and so she could not Ø√o®Ω’. Summit = Åûªuçûª Ö†o-ûª-≤ƒn-®·™/ NNüµ¿
G. Shankar, Kesavapatnam
How to change one kind of sentence to walk - Compound. ü˨»©/ ÆæçÆæn© Ø√ߪ’-èπ◊©/ ´·êu ÅCµ-é¬-®Ω’©
Q. I saw the following line on a reputed pub-
another? This is not so difficult. The most ÉO simple, compound and complex èπ◊ Ææç•ç- Ææ´÷¢Ë¨»©’/ Ωa©’.
lisher's book. Parishad - ÉC English ´÷ô-é¬ü¿’. ûÁ©’Íí – ÆæçÆæn/
important thing is, when we change one kind Cµç-*† ¢Á’∞¡-èπ◊-´©’.
Professor N.Krishnaswamy is one of India's of sentence into another, the meaning and èπÿôN’, etc.
leading experts on language and linguistics. ´·êuçí¬ àC verb, àC é¬ü¿’, ÅE ûÁ©’-Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç,
the tense should not change. There are how- Conference = äéπ Å稻Eo îªJaç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊, Ç Å稻-
Here when one of follows 'the' so that why ever some standard patterns.
Å®Ωnç, tense ´÷®Ω-èπ◊çú≈ îª÷Ææ’-éÓ-´úøç important.
did not use here 'the'? EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç-*† ´uèπ◊h©’

She has a musical voice


A. Prof Krishnaswamy is ´÷vûª¢Ë’ §ƒ™Ô_ØË Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ç.
one of India's leading convention = 1) äéπ ´%AhéÀ
experts on ... Ææç•ç-Cµç-*-†-¢√J Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ç
Here, leading has 2) dž-¢√-®·B.
'India's' before is, so we Interview = äéπ ŶµºuJn ¨¡éÀh
don't use 'the' before 'India's' or 'leading'. ≤ƒ´’-®√n u-©†’, ´uéÀhû√yEo
Look at this: Prof K is one of the leading G.Suresh, Varshakonda
experts ... Here 'the' is used before 'leading'
ÅçîªØ√ ¢ËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ E®Ωy-£œ«çîË ´’¯"éπ (face to face/
Q. What is the difference among the fol- oral) °æKéπ~.
because 'leading' is not qualified by any -Ççí∫x-¶µ«-≠æ-ù 552 lowing.
Seminar = íÓ≠œe. äéπ Å稡ç°j, äéπJ °æJ-¨ -üµ¿†Â°j
other word. 1) Tempest, Tornado, Cyclone, Blizzard,
Q. Please give me detail explanation of simple, (research) Åüµ¿u-ߪ’†ç îËÊÆ-¢√J íÓ≠œe. (Ñ ´’üµ¿u
Look at the following: Typhoon, Whirlpool, Thunderstorm,
compound, complex some what difficult to me. a) Inspite of the high price of Hurricane. DEE äéπ ÆæçÆæn, ¢√öÀ Öûªp-ûª’h© ÊÆ´© v°æî√-®√-EéÃ,
A. We have explained these more than once in it he bought it - simple 2) Delete, Cancel, Dismiss, Remove, Å´’t-鬩 ÅGµ-´%-Cl¥éÀ à®√pô’ îËÊÆ Æ涵ºí¬ ûª°æ¤pí¬ ¢√úø’-
these columns. Just the same, we are sentence. Suspend, Debar, Drop, Eliminate, ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.
M.SURESAN
explaining once again. b) Though the price of the Terminate. Congress: NCµ, Nüµ∆-Ø√©’ E®Ωg-®·ç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊, B®√t-
A clause is a group of words with a verb. eg: car was high, he bought it. - Complex 3) Meeting, Discussion, Summit, Parishad, Ø√©’ îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ äéπ Ææ´÷-êuèπ◊ îÁçC† NNüµ¿ ´®√_©
If she asks for me ('asks' is a verb, so 'If she c) The price of the car is high, yet/ still/ but Convention, Conference, Interview, v°æA-E-üµ¿’© Ææ´÷-¢Ë¨¡ç, èπÿôN’.
asks for me' is a clause). So are, groups of he bought it - compound. Seminar, Congress. Centre = Íéçvü¿ç– ¢√u§ƒ-®√-EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cµç*, ´Ææ’h-´¤©’,
words each with a verb (underlined) Observe that all the sentences above has 4) Centre, Bunk, Store, Market, Garage, Point,
a) When the exams begin; b) He helps me a the same meaning, and of course, the verbs Company, Mill, Junction, Station, Cell,
ÊÆ´©’ ©GµçîË îÓô’ (ü∆ü∆°æ¤ shop)
Bunk = •úŒf– *†o *†o Eû√u-´-Ææ-®√-©†’ Ţ˒t *†o
lot, etc. are in the same tense. Depot, Emporium, Booth, Enterprise.
A main clause has complete meaning. table You find standard pat-
éÀçC îª÷úøçúÕ. A. 1) Blizzard = £œ«´’-§ƒ-ûªçûÓ èπÿúÕ† ûª’§ƒ†’– îªL- ü¿’é¬ùç
eg: a) He is recovering fast b) He knows etc. Store = ´Ææ’h´¤©†’ °ü¿l ¢Á·ûªhç™ E©y îËÆ œ Ţ˒t
terns of transformation. üË-¨»-©™ èπ◊®Ω’-Ææ’hçC.
A clause without complete meaning is a eg: If a simple sentence has 'Inspite of/ Cyclone = ûÁ®Ω©’ ûÁ®Ω-©’í¬ Â°†’-í¬-©’-©ûÓ OîË Â°ü¿l ü¿’é¬ùç/ ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç
SUBORDINATE CLAUSE despite' phrase, the complex sentence has, Market = N°æùÀ– NNüµ¿ ®Ω鬩/ äÍé-®Ωéπç ´Ææ’h-´¤-©¢Ë’t
ûª’§ƒ†’ – Ææ´’-Q-ûÓ≠æg ´’çúø-™«™x áèπ◊\´/ Ö°p†.
a) Wherever you are (verb)- meaning not 'though/ although/ even though' clause (sub- ü¿’é¬-ù«© v°æü˨¡ç
Hurricane = °†’-í¬-©’-©ûÓ Ææ´·vü¿ç O’ü¿ †’ç* B®Ω-
complete- so a subordinate clause. So are ordinate) and the compound sentence has Garage = Car ™«çöÀ ¢√£æ«-Ø√-©†’ Öç-éÌØË/ ´’®Ω-
clauses like, 'because they are here,' but/ yet/ still/ nevertheless clauses.
v°æ-üË-¨»©èπ◊ áTÊÆ ûª’§ƒ†’ – ´·êuçí¬ °æPa´’ Åö«xç-
´’tûª’ îËÊÆ v°æü˨¡ç
'though India is progressing', etc. COMPLEX COMPOUND
öÀé˙ B®Ω-v§ƒç-û√™x.
SIMPLE Point = Shop (¢√u§ƒ®Ω N≠æ-ߪ’ç™)
The number of clauses in a sentence = the Tempest = Bv´-¢Ë-í∫çûÓ í¬©’-©ûÓ
1. Inspite of Though/ although/ But, yet, Company = ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç/ ü¿’é¬ùç.
number of verbs in the sentence. noun/ ...ing form eventhough nevertheless
Ææ´·vü¿ç O’ü¿ †’ç* B®Ω-v§ƒç-û√©
Imp: The infinitive (to go, to sing, to go - to + Mill = üµ∆Ø√uEo °œçúÕ-îËÊÆ, §Òô’d BÊÆ, ´Ææ’h-´¤-©†’
2. Because of/ Because/ as/ so/ and so/
O’ü¿’í¬ éπ™x-™«Eo Ææ%≠œdçîË ûª’§ƒ†’ –
1st RDW), the '...ing' form (going, coming, (Paper, Cotton ™«çöÀN) ûªßª÷-®Ω’-îËÊÆ ßª’çvû√-í¬®Ωç.
in view of/ since + verb and therefore
°æPa-´’-üË-¨»-©™ áèπ◊\´.
singing, etc.) and the Past Participle (given, Tornado - N°æK-ûª-¢Á’i† ¨¡éÀhûÓ, î√™« Junction = È®çúø’ ´‚úø’ ´÷®√_©’ éπLÊÆ èπÿúøL.
on account of/
sung, gone, talked, etc) are not verbs. owing to/ NØ√¨¡ ç éπL-Tç-îª-í∫© Ææ’úÕ-í¬-©’-©ûÓ Shop ÅØË Å®ΩnçûÓ Å®Ω’-ü¿’í¬ ¢√úø-û√®Ω’.
A simple sentence has only one main clause, Being + noun/ èπÿúÕ† ïúÕ-¢√† – Öûªh®Ω Å¢Á’-J-鬙 Cell = 1) *†o É®Ω’èπ◊ í∫C/ Jail í∫C.
that is, only one verb. eg: She has a musical ...ing form. ≤ƒüµ∆-®Ωùç. 2) äéπ ÖüËl-¨¡çûÓ °æE-îËÊÆ ®Ω£æ«Ææu •%çü¿ç– °j† îÁ°œp†
voice- Has is the only verb here, and so the 3. Before/ After + shop Ææç•ç-Cµ-ûª ´÷ô-©èπÿ, DEéÀ àç Ææç•ç-üµ¿ç-™‰ü¿’.
Before/ after + and then Typhoon - Ææ´’-Q-ûÓ≠æg ´’çúø-™«™x ÅA-
sentence has only one clause- the sentence noun/ ...ing form verb Depot = 1) Å´-Ææ®Ωç ´îËa-´-®Ωèπ◊ Ææ®Ω-èπ◊-©†’ E©y ÖçîË
itself- and as the meaning is complete, it is a
¢Ë-í∫çûÓ èπÿúÕ† í¬©’-©ûÓ OîË ûª’§ƒ†’.
4. too... to so that... not very and so
main clause. So the sentence is a simple Whirlpool = Ææ’úÕ-í∫’çúøç îÓô’.
sentence. So is the following: OöÀûÓ éÌEo Öü∆-£æ«-®Ω-ù©’: Thunderstorm - Ö®Ω’´·©’ ¢Á’®Ω’-°æ¤-©ûÓ èπÿúÕ† ñ®Ω’ 2) Bus © ™«çöÀ ¢√öÀE ´’®Ω-´’tûª’ îËÊÆç-ü¿’èπ◊ ¢√úË-
How can I walk on a hot day like this? 1 a) Inspite of/ despite his bad health, he used ¢√†. îÓô’– Bus Depot.
Only one verb, 'can walk' in the sentence- so to work hard- Simple 2) Delete = äéπ ñ«G-û√-™ ç*/ ®Ωîª-†-™ ç* / com- Emporium = §ƒûª-•-úÕ† ´÷ô– °ü¿l ü¿’é¬ùç/ äÍé
only one clause- 'How can I walk' in the sen- b) Though/ Although/ Even though his puter ™ç* ûÌ©-Tç-îªúøç = remove ®Ωéπ-¢Á’i† ´Ææ’h-´¤©†’ Ţ˒t ü¿’é¬ùç
tence, its meaning is complete, so it is a health was bad, he used to work hard - cancel = ®Ωü¿’l îËߪ’úøç Booth = *†o-éÌô’d– ´Ææ’h-´¤-©-¢Ë’tç-ü¿’èπ◊, ÊÆ´-©ç-Cç-îËç-
main clause. So, 'How can I walk on a hot Complex Dismiss = 1) °æü¿-N-™ ç* ÖüÓu-í∫’-©†’, Nü∆u-©-ߪ÷- ü¿’èπ◊– ÉC •L-≠d-¢æ Á’i† éπôdúøç é¬èπ◊çú≈, û√û√\-Léπ ´ÆæA
day like this?' is a simple sentence. c) His health was bad, but/ and yet he
worked hard - Compound.
™xç* Nü∆u-®Ω’n©†’ ûÌ©-Tç-îªúøç; ´÷vûª¢Ë’. Exhibitions ™ stalls †’ èπÿú≈ booths
A complex sentence has one main clause,
and one or more subordinate clauses. 2) a) Because of his bad health, he resigned -
2) ¢√ü¿-†©’/ Æœü∆l¥ç-û√-™«xç-öÀN ÆæJ-é¬-ü¿E éÌöÀd- Åçö«®Ω’.
Simple Enterprise = °ü¿l °ô’d-•-úÕûÓ E®Ωy-£œ«çîË Â°ü¿l
eg: How can I walk on a day like this which
§ƒ-Í®-ߪ’úøç.
is hot? b) Because his health was bad, he resigned Remove = ûÌ©-Tç-îªúøç, äéπ v°æü˨¡ç †’ç* ´uèπ◊h-©†’, ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç.
Two verbs in the sentence: 1) Can walk, and - Complex ´Ææ’h-´¤-©†’. äéπ\ cell ûª°æp °j´÷-ô-©Fo, ´’† ü˨¡ç™ shop/
2) is. c) His health was bad so he resigned/ and Suspend = û√û√\-L-éπçí¬ EL-°œ-¢Ë-ߪ’úøç ¢√u§ƒ®Ωç ÅE loose í¬ ¢√úø’-ûª’ç-ö«®Ω’, ¢√öÀ ûËú≈-©ûÓ
So there are two clauses- therefore he resigned - Compound Debar = ÅCµ-é¬-J-éπçí¬ Åúø’f-éÓ-´úøç/ ņ’-´’-Aç-îª-éπ EN’ûªhç ™‰èπ◊çú≈.
a) How can I walk?- This clause has com- 3) a) Before his joining this company, he was -§Ú-´úøç
plete meaning, so it is a main clause. a student - Simple

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 21 -W-Ø˛ 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

Arshiya Begum, Anantapur  The tourists


e) Possession = äéπJ ÇDμ-†ç™ Ö†o/ äéπJéÀ
Q. 6 crores which were in the pro- would like to
îÁçC† ´Ææ’h´¤/ ÇÆœh. have seen the
cession of Suryanarayana.
This building is my possession = Ñ éπôdúøç
Åçúø-
®˝-™„jØ˛ îËÆœ† ¶μ«í¬-EéÀ Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? ruins.
A.
Ø√èπ◊ îÁçCçC/ Ø√ ÇÆœh.
A. In the possession of = äéπJ ÅDμ- °æ®Ωu-ô-èπ◊©’ Ç PC∑-™«-
Q. äéπ ¢√éπuç *´®Óx the earliest ÅE Éî√a®Ω’.
†ç™/ äéπJ ü¿í∫_®Ω. (In the procession Ééπ\úø üΔE Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ?
©†’ îª÷Æœ Öçõ‰
é¬ü¿’. procession = ÜÍ®-Tç°æ¤) A. The earliest = ÅEo-öÀ-éπçõ‰ ´·çü¿’ At the earli-
(í∫ûªç™) ¶«í∫’ç-úË-
Rs.6 Cr which was (were ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’ – úø•’s
ü¿E ņ’-èπ◊ç-ô’-Ø√o®Ω’.
est = O©-®·-†çûª ûªy®Ω™ .  The mechanic was
áçûª ¢Á·ûªh-¢Á’iØ√ singular) in the possession a) He was the earliest to come = Åçü¿J éπçõ‰ Ch. Narasimha Rao, Gogannamatham (E.G.Dt.)
of Suryanarayana = Ææ÷®Ωu-Ø√-®√-ߪ’ù ü¿í∫_-®Ω’†o/ to repair the car today.
Q. éÀçC Phrasal verbs
A. The mechanic was to repair the car today -
´·çü¿’ Åûªúø’ ´î√aúø’. †’ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ
≤ƒyDμ-†ç™ Ö†o 6 éÓôx ®Ω÷§ƒ-ߪ’©’. b) I will meet you at the earliest = E†’o ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’.
Q. á´J °œ©x©’ ¢√J ü¿í∫_®Ω Öçõ‰ ´’ç*C. DEo
ÉC ûª°æ¤p.
O™„j-†çûª ûªy®Ωí¬ éπ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊ç-ö«†’. The mechanic is to repair the car today = see off, see out, see in , see of, pass out,
pass down, pass as.
ÉçTx-≠ˇ™ ᙫ îÁ§ƒpL? Q. Get í∫’Jç* N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
A. It is better children are with their parents /
¢Á’é¬-Eé˙ é¬®Ω’†’ Ñ®ÓV JÊ°®˝ îËߪ÷L.
A. Get = §Òçü¿úøç, ûË´úøç, ≤ƒCμç-îªúøç É™« Éçé¬  The mechanic was to have repaired the car A. See off = send off = OúÓ\©’/ OúÓ\©’ îÁ°æpúøç/
(It's) better for a child to be with its parents.
î√™« Å®√n-©’-Ø√o®·. today. ≤ƒí∫-†ç-°æúøç.
Q. 'Be + of'
I saw her off at the station =
í∫’Jç* Å®Ωnç 鬴úøç ™‰ü¿’. ü¿ßª’-îËÆœ
A. The mechanic was to have repaired the
J. Veerraju, Jonnalapadu
N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. ÊÆd≠æ-Ø˛èπ◊ ¢ÁRx
car today = Ç¢Á’èπ◊ OúÓ\©’ îÁ§ƒp†’.
A. Be of (Ééπ\úø 'be' •ü¿’©’, à be form Å®·Ø√ – Q. question tags
éÀçC ™ ÆæÈ®j-†N ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. ¢Á’é¬-Eé˙ Ñ ®ÓV é¬®Ω’èπ◊ ´’®Ω-
See in = see (something) in (something)
am/ is/ are, was, were, etc.) ¢√úø-´îª’a – 'be  Open the door, will you?
´’tûª’ îËÆœ Öçú≈-LqçC.
 To have explained matters to him before he some body =
of' combination î√™« word combinations ûÓ Open the door, won't you?
üËØÓx-ØÁjØ√/ á´-J-™-ØÁjØ√ àüÁjØ√ íÌ°æp
died was my duty.
A. Open the door, will you? - correct.
´Ææ’hçC. í∫’ùç îª÷úøôç.
A. a) Her father doesn't know what she sees in
1) She is of the opinion (Ç¢Á’ ÅGμ-v§ƒßª’ç) Please open the door, won't you?- correct.
Çߪ’† îªE-§Ú-éπ-´·çüË Çߪ’†éà N≠æߪ’ç N´-Jç-î√-
Lq† ¶«üμ¿uûª Ø√O’ü¿ ÖçúÕçC (Çߪ’† îªE- her lover to fall in love with him =
2) ... the property is of the school = the proper-  Don't play the chess, will you? éπÈ®-ÍédØ√? Ç¢Á’ vÊ°N’-Ææ’h†o
ty is the school's =
§Ú-ߪ÷úø’).
A. Don't' play chess, will you? - correct.
Åûª-úÕ™ àç íÌ°æp-ûª†ç îª÷ÆœçüÓ ¢√∞¡x Ø√†oèπ◊ Å®Ωnç

ÅC Ææ÷\™¸ ÇÆœh. To have been able to bless the couple
3) They are of the same
鬴úøç ™‰ü¿’.
age = see in (somebody) =

Kalidasa is the Shakespeare of India


äÍé ´ßª’-Ææ’-†o-¢√∞¡Ÿx.
É™« á†o-®·Ø√ îÁ°æ¤p-éÓ-´îª’a. äéπJE ™°æ-LéÀ BÆæ’Èé∞¡xúøç
Ææçü¿-®√s¥Eo •öÀd Å®Ωnç As soon as the car
Ü£œ«ç-éÓ-´îª’a. arrived with the new offi-
Q. It has all fallen in the cer in it, the staff saw him
place. ûÁ©’-í∫’™ DE Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? would have given him great satisfaction. in =éÌûªhÇ°∂‘-Ææ®˝ Ö†o é¬®Ω’ ®√í¬ØË, Æœ•sç-ü¿çû√
A. Fall in place - DEéÀ v°æûËu-éπ-¢Á’i† Å®Ωn¢Ë’ç ™‰ü¿’. A. Ç Â°∞¡x-®·† ïçô†’ ÇQ-®Ωy-Cç* Öçõ‰ •ßª’ôèπ◊ ´*a Çߪ’††’ ™°æ-LéÀ ûÓúø’-B-Ææ’-Èé-∞«x®Ω’.
Fall into place = 1) äéπ N≠æߪ’ç ´’†-éπ®Ωnç -Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 553 Çߪ’-†èπ◊ ûª%°œhí¬ ÖçúËC. See out = a) äéπ-JE íı®Ω-´çí¬ ≤ƒí∫-†ç-°æúøç
é¬èπ◊çú≈ ÖçúÕ, Ö†o-ô’dçúÕ Å®Ωnç 鬴úøç ¢Á·ü¿©’  Mr. Swamy is to be meet at the airport. I saw my guest out and went back to my
Please open the door, will
°ôdúøç. A. ≤ƒyN’E ´’†ç N´÷-Ø√-v¨¡-ߪ’ç™ éπ©’-Ææ’-éÓ- computer = Ø√ ÅA-C∑E ≤ƒí∫-†ç°œ Ø√ éπç°æ‹u-ô®˝
you?
a) First I was a bit confused, but soon things (Is to be met, passive -
¢√L. ûÁ©’-í∫-†’- ü¿í∫_®Ωèπ◊ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-ߪ÷†’.
Please open the door, could
were beginning to fall into place = ¢Á·ü¿ô passive form
¢√ü¿ç Åçûª-ÆæJí¬_ Öçúøü¿’) b) äéπ-°æE °æ‹®Ωh-ßË’u-´-®Ωèπ◊ ™‰üΔ Ç °æE-èπ◊†o
you? àC éπÈ®èπ◊d?
Ø√èπ◊ í∫çü¿-®Ω-íÓ-∞¡çí¬ Ö†o N≠æ-ߪ÷©’, Ö†o-ô’dçúÕ M.SURESAN K.S.R., Martur
A. Please open the door, won't Æ洒ߪ’ç í∫úÕîË ´®Ωèπ◊ é̆-≤ƒ-í∫úøç.
I want to see this assignment out and leave
äéÌ\-éπ\öà ŮΩnç 鬴úøç v§ƒ®Ωç-¶μº-¢Á’içC. you? correct,
ØË Â°j† îÁ°œp-†ô’d. Q. éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®Ωnç N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
È®çúÓ Å®Ωnç: °æü∑¿-鬩’, ´‹u£æ…© ™«çöÀN ´’†ç Q. Pronoun ™E ®Ωé¬-©†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.  This meant a lot to me. for the U.S. = Ñ °æE °æ‹®ΩhßË’u ´®Ωèπ◊ é̆-≤ƒ-
ņ’-èπ◊†o Nüμ¿çí¬ ï®Ω-í∫úøç/ Å´’-J-§Ú-´úøç.
A. Nominative Objective Possessive A. Tç* Å¢Á’-Jé¬ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-û√†’.
b) As the writer began to write, words began
ÅC Ø√èπ◊ î√™« ´·êu-¢Á’i† N≠æߪ’ç, í∫ûªç™.
pronoun pronoun pronoun  It was unlikely that she was lying about her He saw out his last years of service in Delhi
to fall into place, without much effort =
=
Ç
I me mine not going to Guntur. ûª† ÖüÓu-í∫ç-™E *´J Ææç´ûªq®√©’ úμÕMx™
®Ωîª-®·ûª ®Ω*ç-îªúøç ¢Á·ü¿-©’-°-ôd-í¬ØË, Åv°æ-ߪ’-
We us ours A. Ç¢Á’ í∫’çô÷®Ω’èπ◊ ¢Á∞¡xE N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ Å•-ü¿l¥-´÷úÕ °æ‹Jh î˨»úø’.
ûªoçí¬ ®Ωîª-†™ ´÷ô©’ Å´’-J-§Ú-≤ƒ-í¬®·/
Öçú≈-Lq-†-îÓô °æúÕ§Ú-ߪ÷®·. You you yours
Öçúø-éπ-§Ú-´îª’a/ Eï¢Ë’ Åߪ·uç-úÌa. Sea of - DEéÀ v°æûËuéπ Å®Ωnç àO’-™‰ü¿’.
 Is there no such thing as a gentleman? Pass out - 1) become unconscious = Ææp %£æ«
O’ ¢√éπuç, 'It has fallen into place' í¬ BÆæ’- He him his
A.
She her hers
èπ◊çõ‰, Å°æ¤púø’ üΔE Å®Ωnç, Ç N≠æߪ’ç éπÈ®-èπ◊dí¬ Â°ü¿l ´’E≠œ ÅØË-¢√∞Ïx ™‰®√ Ñ ™éπç™? (v°æA- ™‰éπ-§Ú-´úøç.
ņ’-èπ◊-†o-ô’d-í¬ØË ïJ-TçC. It it its
¢√∞¡⁄x ü¿’®√t-®Ω’_-™‰Ø√?) a) She nearly passed out when she saw the
 In order to have a well-rounded and com- boy knocked down by a lorry = lorry
Q. The agency on the charge apart from negli- They them theirs
úμŒéÌ-ôd-
plete the case.
gence. Åçúø-®˝-™„jØ˛ îËÆœ† °æüΔ© Å®Ωnç àN’öÀ? Q.
úøçûÓ éÀçü¿-°æúÕ Ö†o Ç °œ™«x-úÕE îª÷Æœ Ç¢Á’èπ◊
éÀçC ¢√é¬u™x àC éπÈ®èπ◊d? A. sentence Well rounded =
A. Apart from =
Ñ °æ‹Jhé¬-™‰ü¿’.
1. Kalidasa is a Indian Shakespeare.
ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈/ ÅüË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈ üΔüΔ°æ¤ Ææp %£æ« ûª°œp-†çûª °æØÁjçC.
b) Britain ™ ÂÆjE-èπ◊©’/ §ÚM-Ææ’©’ Péπ~ù °æ‹Jh îËÆæ’-
a) Apart from giving me some money, he
ÅEo Ææ’í∫’-ù«©’/ ØÁj°æ¤-ù«u©’ Ö†o.
2. Kalidasa is the Shakespeare of India.  How he pulled himself together in the face
helped me in other ways too = èπ◊E, Péπ~ù« ÆæçÆæn© †’ç* •ßª’-öÀ-Èé-∞¡xúøç.
3. Kalidasa is a Shakespeare of India.
Ø√éπûªúø’ of what must have been a shock, when he
úøGs-´y-úø¢Ë’ é¬èπ◊çú≈ N’í∫û√ N≠æ-ߪ÷™x èπÿú≈ Pass down = Çî√®Ω ´u´-£æ…-®√©’, îªü¿’´¤ ™«çöÀN
4. Kalidasa is the India Shakespeare. found the wrong man dead!
≤ƒßª’ç î˨»úø’. A.
ûªLx-ü¿ç-vúø’©’ °œ©x-©èπ◊ ØË®Ωpúøç/ °œ©x©’ §Òçü¿úøç
A. Kalidasa is the Shakespeare of India - the §Ò®Ω-§ƒ-ô’† ÅÆæ©’ ´uéÀh é¬èπ◊çú≈ ÉçÈé-´®Ó îªE-
Apart from negligence, he has laziness too a) The tradition is passed down in their family
only correct form. §Ú®· Öçúøôç éπL-Tç*-† Cví∫s¥´’ †’ç* Åûªúø’
= Åûª-úÕéÀ N≠æ-ߪ÷-©-O’ü¿ v¨¡ü¿l¥ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ §Ú´-úø¢Ë’ from the father to = Ç Ææçv°æ-üΔߪ’ç ¢√Rxçöx äéπ
ᙫ éÓ©’-èπ◊-Ø√oúÓ?
K.R.Reddy, Hyderabad
 Excuse the admiration of a Connoisseur.
é¬èπ◊çú≈ (ÖüΔ-Æ‘-†ûË é¬èπ◊çú≈), •ü¿léπç èπÿú≈. ûª®Ωç †’ç* ÉçéÓ ûª®√-EéÀ ´Ææ÷hçô’çC.
Q. éÀçC °æüΔ© Å®√n-©†’ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. Q. Pass as = Pass for = äéπ®Ω’/ äéπ ´Ææ’h´¤ ÉçéÌ-
éÀçC ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®√n©’ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. A. ®ΩÆœ-èπ◊© ¢Á’°æ¤p†’ éπ~N’ç-îªçúÕ (®ΩÆœ-èπ◊úø’ 鬕öÀd
a) Focus on b) war-footing c) respectively  I would like to act in that play. ¢Á’a-èπ◊-Ø√oúø’. Å®Ωnç îËÆæ’éÓçúÕ). éπ®Ω’/ ÉçéÓ ´Ææ’h-´¤í¬ °æJ-í∫-ùÀç-îªúøç.
d) prior e) possession A. I would like to act in that play =Ç Ø√ô-éπç™  I did not know about the projected divorce Though a Tamilian, his telugu is so good
A. a) Focus on = ü¿%≠œd/ v¨¡ü¿l¥ ÍéçvD-éπ-Jç-îªúøç, †öÀç-î√-©E ÖçC Ø√èπ◊ – É°æpöÀéà Éçü¿’-éπ-´-鬨¡ç between her and her husband. that be can pass as an Andhra = Åûªúø’
v§ƒ´·êuç É´yúøç. ÖçC. A. ¢√Rx-ü¿l®Ω÷ – ¶μ«®√u-¶μº-®Ωh©’ Nú≈-èπ◊©’ BÆæ’-éÓ-¶-ûª’-Ø√o- ûªN’-∞¡Ÿ-úÁj-†-°æp-öÀéÃ, ÅûªúÕE Ççvüμ¿’-úø-†’èπ◊ØËçûª ¶«í¬
b) On a war footing = ߪ·ü¿l¥-v§ƒ-A-°æ-Céπ† – à  I should like to have acted in that play.. ®ΩØË N≠æߪ’ç Ø√èπ◊ ûÁL-ߪ’ü¿’. Projected ûÁ©’í∫’ ´÷ö«x-úø-û√úø’.
N≠æ-ߪ÷EÈéjØ√ Åûªu-Cμéπ v§ƒ´·êuç É*a, üΔEéÀ A. I should like to have acted in that play = Ç divorce = Planned divorce (divorce BÆæ’-éÓ-¢√-
Ææç•ç-Cμç-*† °æ†’©’ Åûªuçûª ¢Ëí∫çí¬ îËߪ’úøç. Ø√ô-éπç™ ؈’ †öÀç* Öçõ‰.. (Ø√ôéπç Å®·-§Ú- ©ØË ÖüËl¨¡ç). V. Srinivas, Narasapuram
The construction of the dam is taken on a ®·çC – ؈’ †öÀç-îª-™‰ü¿’).  I know from his voice that the man of iron Q. éÀç-C -¢√é¬u-©-†’ -Éç-Tx-≠ˇ-™ -ûÁ-©’°æí∫-©®Ω’.
war footing = Ç ú≈u¢˛’ E®√tùç ߪ·ü¿l¥ v§ƒA-°æ-C-  To help him would be a pleasure. was shaken to the soul. a) ؈’ §∂Òö CÍíç-ü¿’èπ◊ Ææ÷dúÕ-ßÁ÷èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x†’.-
éπ† îË°æ-ö«d®Ω’. A. Åûª-úÕéÀ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËߪ÷-©E Ø√ éÓJéπ. A. Åçûª ´’ØÓ-üμÁj®Ωuç Ö†o ´uéÀh èπÿú≈ °æ‹Jhí¬ îªLç- b) §∂Òö -B®·ç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ -´÷ -Å-´’t-†’ Ææ÷dúÕ-ßÁ÷èπ◊ -
c) respectively = Ç ´®Ω-Ææ™.  To have helped him would have been a *-§Ú-ߪ÷-úøØË N≠æߪ’ç Ø√èπ◊ Çߪ’† éπç®∏√Eo BÆæ’Èé-∞«x-†’.
A, B and C are respectively the sons of D, E pleasure. •öÀd ûÁL-Æœ-§Ú-®·çC. A. a) I went to the studio to have my photo
and F = A, B, C D, E, F A.  One word now as to how I myself stood at taken.
©’ ´®Ω’-Ææí¬ © èπ◊´÷- Åûª-úÕéÀ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç îËÆœ Öçõ‰ (í∫ûªç™ Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç
(D A E B, F C). îËÊÆ Å´-鬨¡ç ´îª’açõ‰) ÆæçûÓ-≠æ-°æ-úË¢√úÕE. that time. b) I took my mother to the studio to have her
®Ω’©’ éÌúø’èπ◊ , éÌúø’èπ◊ éÌúø’èπ◊
d) Prior =  The tourists would like to see the ruins. A.
photo taken.
´·çü¿J. ؈’ Ç éπ~ùç™ à °æJ-Æœn-A™ ÖØ√o-†-†o-üΔEo
Prior to joining IAS, she was a lecturer = A. °æ®Ωu-ô-èπ◊©’ Ç P-Cμ™«-©†’ îª÷úøö«-EéÀ í∫’Jç* äéπ\-´÷ô (îÁ•’-û√†’).
â.á.-áÆˇ.™ îËÍ®-´·çü¿’ Ç¢Á’ ™„éπa-®Ω-®˝í¬ ÖçúËC. É≠æd°æúø’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’.

Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm


-Ç-C-¢√®Ωç 28 -W-Ø˛ 2009 Ñ-Ø√-úø’ £j«-ü¿®√-¶«-ü˛ 2

M. Rakesh, Hyderabad At present I am jobless/ unemployed. (job-


less English
Å°æ¤púø’ O’®Ω’
Q. Éçô-®Ω÷yu-©èπ◊ ¢ÁRx-†-°æ¤púø’ tell me ÅØË °æü¿ç ™ éÀçîª-°æ-JîË °æü¿ç é¬ØË- career prospects
about yourself Åçô’ç-ö«®Ω’. Å™«ç- I come from an agricultural/ business/
apart (career
é¬ü¿’).
ô-°æ¤púø’ à Nüμ¿çí¬ îÁGûË ¢√∞¡Ÿx satis- Govt employees'/ job holders family.
prospects ´÷vûª¢Ë’
fy Å´¤-û√®Ó ü¿ßª’-îËÆ œ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. My father is ______; my mother is
I am spe-
______; I have an elder/ a younger brother/
é¬èπ◊çú≈)
A. O’´Fo Interview skills èπ◊ Ææç•ç-Cμç-*† î√™« cially interested in
sister. He/ She is ______, I want to be ------
Ææçü¿-®Ós¥-*ûª v°æ¨¡o©’. O’®Ω’ îÁÊ°p Ææ´÷-üμΔ-Ø√©’ (your ambition/ goal in life). I spend my Electronics ÅE îÁ°æp-
´’ç* body language ûÓ, Çûªt-N-¨»y-ÆæçûÓ, EüΔ- leisure time ------ (your hobbies). ´îª’a. Åçü¿’èπ◊ Eü¿-®Ωz-
†çí¬ Öçú≈L. v°æA-´÷ö« Interviewer èπ◊ N†-°æ- My strength is my interest in Engineering/ †çí¬, you tell the Q. What to speak of standing first, he can't
úËçûª Ææp≠ædçí¬, ´’®√u-ü¿í¬ îÁ§ƒpL. éπçí¬®Ω’ áéπ\ú≈ interviewer of your marks in Physics in even pass the exams.
my self confidence/ my ability to mix freely
éπE-°œç-îª-èπÿ-úøü¿’. ´’†ç ûª°æ¤p îÁ§ƒh-¢Ë’¢Á÷ ÅØË Intermediate exam. You can also talk of any A. What to speak of - expression
with others/ to make friends easily, etc. (Ñ Ñ ÆæÈ®j†
ÆæçüË£æ«ç áéπ\ú≈ ®√E-´y-èπÿ-úøü¿’. piece of electronic equipment you have English é¬ü¿’.
Q. Éçô-®Ω÷yu™ ûª®Ω-îª’í¬ ÅúÕÍí v°æ¨¡o-©èπ◊ ᙫ Ææ´÷-
N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ O’®Ì-éπ-≤ƒJ O’ í∫’Jç* Ç™-*ç--èπ◊E
developed. Q. I can do the sums (maths ™)
O’™ Ö†o •™«©’ àN’ö Ææp≠ædçí¬ ûÁ©’-Ææ’-èπ◊E,
üμΔ†ç îÁ§ƒp™ ûÁ©’-°æ-í∫-©®Ω’. üΔØËo O’ strength í¬ îÁ°æpçúÕ. ÅçûË-í¬F àüÓ Srinivas, Nizamabad I can have done the sums. Ñ È®çúø’ ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊
A. Interview ™ ûª®Ωîª÷ ÅúÕÍí v°æ¨¡o© Ææ´÷-üμΔ-Ø√©’: Q. He runs very fast ™ very, fast È®çúø÷
îÁ§ƒp-L-í¬-•öÀd îÁGûË interviewer ™ Åü¿çûª Å®√nEo N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
Tell me about your self = O’í∫’-Jç* ´÷èπ◊ †´’téπç éπL-Tç-îËC (convincing) í¬ Öçúøü¿’. adverbs Å´¤-û√ߪ÷? ™‰üΔ very - adverb, fast A. I can do the sums = Ç ™„éπ\©’ ؈’ îËߪ’-í∫-©†’.
îÁ°æpçúÕ. Éçü¿’èπ◊ O’®Ω’ îËߪ÷-Lq† °æE– Åçûª-®√-ߪ÷©’ (dis- - adjective Å´¤-û√ߪ÷? I can have done the sums - sentenceÑ
ÉC O’ Ê°®Ω’ûÓ, My name is/ I am so and so; turbances) àO’ ™‰èπ◊çú≈ èπÿ®Ω’aE, àé¬-ví∫-ûªûÓ Ç™- A. Very, fast Ñ È®çúø’ èπÿú≈ adverbs. Adverbs 1) wrong. Can have done verbs™«çöÀ ≤ƒüμΔ-®Ω-
ûª®√yûª, O’ age and qualification, O’Í®ü¿Ø√o job *ç*, O’®Ω-†’-èπ◊-†o-ô’dí¬ O’ •™«-©-†-Eoç-öÀE é¬Tûªç adjectives †÷ 2) verbs †÷ 3) Éûª®Ω adverbs ùçí¬ ¢√úø®Ω’.
™ Öçõ‰ Ç job ™ O’ experience îÁ°æpçúÕ. ÉC O’ü¿ ®√Ææ’-éÓçúÕ. Ç points ÅEoç-öÀE ´’®Ó-≤ƒJ °æJ- †÷ èπÿú≈ modify îË≤ƒh®·. -Åç-õ‰ ¢√öÀ -Å®√n-Eo I could have done the sums = ØËØ√ ™„éπ\©’
O’ ¢Á·ü¿öÀ interview Å®·ûË, O’ qualifications Q-Lç*, O’ father/ mother/ sister/ brother ûÓ áèπ◊\-´ -îË≤ƒh®·/ -¢√-öÀ í∫’-Jç-* -îÁ-§ƒh®·. -Å®·-Ø√ îËߪ’-í∫-L-Íí¢√úÕØË (é¬F îËߪ’-™‰ü¿’)
ûª®√yûª á°æ¤púø’ O’ degree BÆæ’-èπ◊çD îÁ°æpçúÕ. DE îªJaç-îªçúÕ. Å™«Íí O’ •©-£‘«-†-ûª© N≠æߪ’ç èπÿú≈. ÉN correct forms ÅE ûÁL-Æœ-†-°æ¤púø’ Spoken Q. I could not help laughing.
ûª®√yûª O’ family background - O’ ûªLx, ûªçvúÕ Eïçí¬ interview †’ O’®Ω’ serious í¬ BÆæ’èπ◊çõ‰ English N≠æ-ߪ÷-EéÀ Ææç•ç-Cμç* ÅN à parts of
O’ siblings (ņo-ûª-´·t∞¡⁄x, Åéπ\-îÁ-™„x∞¡Ÿx) í∫’Jç* She could not help scolding.
speech ÅØË îª®Ωa ņ-´-Ææ®Ωç éπüΔ?
îÁ°æpçúÕ– ¢√∞Ïxç îªü¿’-´¤- -Ñ ¢√é¬u-©èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™

How lovely the gar den is!


ûª’çD, àç îËÆæ’hçD ´Èíj®√ Å®Ωnç ûÁ©’-°æçúÕ.
N´-®√©’. A. ؈’ †´y-èπ◊çú≈ Öçúø-™‰-éπ-
Q. Hobbies and strengths §Ú-ߪ÷†’.
and weaknesses Ç¢Á’ Aôd-èπ◊çú≈ Öçúø-™‰-éπ-
í∫’Jç* Éçô-®Ω÷yu™ Åúø’- §Ú-®·çC.
í∫’-ûª’-Ø√o®Ω’. OöÀ í∫’Jç* ᙫ îÁGûË ¶«í∫’ç- Q. È®çúø’ adverbs ¢Áçô-¢Áç-ôØË ´≤ƒhߪ÷? Q. Before hand I wish you a happy married life.
ô’çC? A. È®çúø’ adverbs äéπ-üΔ-E-¢Áçô äéπöÀ ´≤ƒh®·. Before hand
-Ççí∫x-¶μ«-≠æ-ù 554
- Ñ -¢√éπuç-™ -Åç-õ‰ -à-N’-öÀ?
A. O’ hobbies (BJ-éπ-¢Ë-∞¡™ x O’®Ω’ ÇÆæ-éÀhí¬ îËÊÆ N≠æ- A. Beforehand =
P.Johnson, Chinarikatla ´·çü¿-Ææ’h-í¬ØË
A week beforehand =
ߪ÷©’) îÁ°æpçúÕ. ÉN îÁÊ°pô°æ¤púø’ é¬Ææh ñ«ví∫-ûªhí¬
Q. ¢√®Ωç ´·çü¿’-í¬ØË
îÁ°æpçúÕ. O’®Ω’ My hobby is film music ÅØ√o-®Ω- O’®Ω’ E†o ûªy®Ωí¬ áçü¿’èπ◊ ¢Á∞«x-®Ω-†-ú≈-EéÀ
Å®·ûË Beforehand I wish you a happy mar-
†’-éÓçúÕ, Ç ûª®√yûª ´îËa supplementary ques-
àüÓ Å°æp-öÀéπ°æ¤púø’ ņ’-èπ◊†o what is the reason for your earlier
N≠æߪ’ç ÅØËÊÆh Åçü¿’-´©x going earlier went ried life ™«çöÀ- sentences ¢√úøç. É™«çöÀîÓôx,
tions èπ◊ O’®Ω’ Æœü¿l¥çí¬ Öçú≈L. O’ favourite Åçö«ç. ÅE áçü¿’èπ◊
¢Ë’©’í¬èπ◊çú≈ éÃúË ï®Ω’-í∫’ûª’çC.) tenses In advance Åçö«ç.
singer, ¢√∞¡xèπ◊ ´*a† °æ¤®Ω-≤ƒ\®√© í∫’Jç* ûª°æ¤p-™‰x- M.SURESAN
ņ-èπÿ-úøü¿’. DEo ´‚úø’ ©™
Ç ûª®√yûª O’ strengths O’È陫 N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. Q. As of now èπ◊ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®√nEo ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ùûÓ
èπ◊çú≈ îÁ°æp-í∫-©-í¬L.
A What is the reason for your going earlier
Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æ-úÕçD îÁ°æp-í∫-©-í¬L.
Ç ûª®√yûª O’ ambitions/ goals (O’®Ω’ @N- e.g.: Suppose your strength is your ability to
. N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
(than usual) Åçö«ç. Earlier going Å-†ç. A. As of now = É°æpöÀ °æJ-Æ œn-A™/ Éçûª´®Ωèπÿ/
make friends. Explain then how in times of
ûªç™ à´’-¢√y-©-†’-èπ◊ç-ô’çD) îÁ§ƒpL. Ç ûª®√yûª
O’ strengths and weaknesses (O’ •™«©’, Earlier went ņç éπüΔ? Question went ™ É°æ¤púø’.
need your friends have helped you on many
•ü¿’©’did go Åçö«ç – Why did you go As of now the balance in your account is
occasions- You can mention a specific
•©-£‘«-†-ûª©’) í∫’Jç* îÁ§ƒpL. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ ñ«ví∫ûªh
Å´-Ææ®Ωç. Ø√ strengths °∂晫Ø√N ÅE îÁ°œp-†- earlier? ņúøç correct. Rs. 12000.
example- when your brother needed medi-
a) Why do you go early? (Present) balance
cine in an emergency about one o'clock in
°æ¤púø’, üΔEéÀ ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù©’, ÅN O’èπ◊ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í∫-°æúøf É°æ¤púø’ O’ ë«û√™ ®Ω÷.12000.
Ææçü¿-®√s¥©÷ Åúø’-í∫’-û√®Ω’. O’ weaknesses •©-£‘«- the morning, your friend, a medical shop
b) Why did you go early/ earlier? (Past) Q. I want to buy a car.
†-ûª©’ îÁ°œp-†-°æ¤púø’, Ç •©-£‘«-†-ûª©’ §ÚíÌ-ô’d-èπ◊-ØËç- owner open the shop, and got medicine for c) Why will you go early/ earlier? (Future). I have to buy a car.
convert these A.V. sentences into P.V.
ü¿’èπ◊ O’®Ω’ BÆæ’èπ◊†o Ωu-™‰-N’ö îÁ°æp-´’ç-ö«®Ω’. him- real personal experiences-
ÅçûË-é¬-èπ◊çú≈ O’ •©-£‘«-†-ûª-©-´©x O’Í® Ææçü¿-®√s¥™x É™«çöÀ M.V.Subrahmanyam, Chillakur
îÁ°æpúøç ¶«í∫’ç-ô’çC. Å™« îÁ°æp-úøç-´©x O’èπ◊ ´’ç* Q. éÀçC-¢√-öÀéÀ ûÁ©’-í∫’™ Å®√nEo N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’. A. I want to buy a car - DEéÀ PV ™‰ü¿’.
ᙫ †≠æd-§Ú-®·çD îÁ°æp´’†-´îª’a. marks °æúË Å´-鬨¡ç ÖçC. Å™«Íí O’ weak-
Å®·ûË hobbies, strengths and weakness- What though we happen to be late? I have to buy a car - PV: A car had to be
nesses N≠æ-ߪ’ç™ èπÿú≈. Suppose O’ •©- bought (by me).
es O’ü¿ ´îËa v°æ¨¡o©’, O’®Ω’ O’ talking/ telling A. ´’†ç Ç©-Ææu-¢Á’iûË ´÷vûªç àç?
the interviewers about yourself ûª®√yûË ¢Ë≤ƒh®Ω’.
£‘«†ûª Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ Ææ’©-¶μºçí¬ †¢Ë’t-ߪ’úøç ÅE îÁ§ƒh-
Q. What a lovely garden it is! Q. But, as ©†’ relative pronouns í¬ á™«
Åçü¿’-éπE Tell us about yourself O’®Ω’ ¢√Rx-*a† ®Ω-†’-éÓçúÕ, Åçü¿’-´©x O’èπ◊ ïJ-T† †≠ædç îÁ°æpçúÕ–
specific and concrete instance- DEéÀ ÖüΔ-£æ«- A. ÅC áçûª Åçü¿-¢Á’i† ûÓô! (î√™« Åçü¿-¢Á’i-çC) Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-T-≤ƒh®Ó ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ω-ù-©ûÓ N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
time (two to three minutes)™ ´·Tç-îË-ߪ÷L. Q. How lovely the garden is! A. But, as †’ relative pronouns í¬ spoken
Two to three minutes °j N´-®√©Fo Ææ÷n©çí¬ English ™ ¢√úøç – ¢√úÕûË î√™« ví¬çC∑-éπçí¬,
®Ωù– N’´’tLo †N’tç* O’´©x Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç §ÒçC,
A. ûÓô áçûª Åçü¿çí¬ ÖçüÓ! (î√™« Åçü¿ç)
îÁ°æp-ú≈-EéÀ ÆæJ-§Ú-û√®·. ÆæJí¬_ O’èπ◊ Å´-Ææ-®Ω-¢Á’i† Ææ´’-ߪ’ç™ îËߪ’-í∫-L-T†
Q.
§ƒçúÕûªuçí¬ Öçô’çC. Written, formal English
Hold a I class Bachelor's/ Master's degree Ææ£æ…ߪ’ç èπÿú≈ îËߪ’-èπ◊çú≈ US èπ◊ ¢ÁRx-§Ú-®·† O’ éÀçC-¢√-öÀ™ Åçúø-®˝-™„jØ˛ îËÆœ† °æüΔ-EéÀ ûÁ©’í∫’™ ™ èπÿú≈ ÉC î√™« bookish í¬ Öçô’çC.
in --- subject. I took my degree in the year so called friend Ææçí∫A îÁ°æpçúÕ. É™« O’ real Å®√nEo N´-Jç-îª-í∫-©®Ω’.
______. I am/ come from an agricultural/ life experience îÁGûË O’èπ◊ marks °æúø-û√®·. Shankar is timid student. That is, Shankar is V. Srinivas, Narasapuram
business/ employee's/ rural family. My father Å®·ûË DEéÀ ÉçéÓ supplementary question Åúø- shy. Q. If we practice idioms, it is good upto an
is ______, and my mother is ______. I have í∫-´îª’a. O’ weakness †’ ÅCμ-í∫-N’ç-îËç-ü¿’èπ◊ (to A. That is = Åçõ‰. extent. practise
Ñ ¢√éπuç™ verb
ÅØË èπ◊
a sister and/ a brother. I am the youngest/ overcome your weakness) O’Í®ç v°æߪ’ûªoç practice noun
Q. The Professor spoke grimly to the student. •ü¿’©’ ÅØË ¢√úÕØ√ °∂æ®Ω-¢√-™‰üΔ?
younger/ eldest/ elder of the brother(s) and îËÆæ’h-Ø√o®Ω’? ÅE. Å°æ¤púø’ ÅC-èπÿú≈ O’ personal That is, the professor spoke angrily. A. Å™«¢√úøôç ÆæJ-é¬ü¿’. Å®·ûË American English
sister(s). My brother/ sister is a ______.
experience †’ç* îÁ°æpçúÕ. ûÌçü¿-®Ω-°æúÕ Éûª-®Ω’-©†’ A. ™ practice †’ noun í¬, verb í¬ èπÿú≈
I had all my education in ____ city/ town. Ééπ\úø èπÿú≈ ÅüË Å®Ωnç.
My hobbies are ______. My aim is to be/
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become a _______. ®√†E. Å®·ûË É´Fo English ™ O’®Ω’ îÁ°æp-í∫-©- A. î√™« Ææ’©¶μºç.
English ™ ™‰ü¿’.
í¬L– ÅD ÆæçéÀ~°æhç (brief) í¬. G. Shankar, Kesavapatnam
N’´’tLo í∫’Jç* O’®Ω’ éÀçC Nüμ¿çí¬ îÁ°æp-´îª’a. Q. He is kind to his subjects. Ñ ¢√é¬u-EéÀ Å®Ωnç
Q. Why did you take ECE? ÅE ÅúÕ-TûË á™«?
(ÉC ÖüΔ-£æ«-®Ωù ´÷vûª¢Ë’.) àN’öÀ? Q. Please clarify this in telugu.
I am Rajesh/ My name is Rajesh. (I am A. Tell me/ us about yourself ÅØË question èπ◊
A. Åûªúø’ (Ç ®√V) ûª† v°æï© °æôx ü¿ßª’í¬ Öçö«úø’. "Material up to this point is for the use of the
Rajesh My name is .... better). I answer ÉîËa-ô-°æ¤púø’, why did you choose/ why
Q. Make the most of now Ñ ¢√é¬u-EéÀ Å®Ωnç teacher. Please do not make students read
ņúøç, éπçõ‰
was born and brought up in _____ do you think you are fit for ECE? ÅØË ques-
the material, or use it for any other pur-
(O’®Ω’
I had my schooling tions ≤ƒüμΔ-®Ω-ùçí¬ Åúø-í∫®Ω’. ÅC ûª®√yûª àN’öÀ?
pose."
°æ¤öÀd†, °J-T† Ü®Ω’). (ÉC A. É°æ¤púø’†o Ææ´’-ߪ÷Eo/ Å´-é¬-¨»Eo ÆæCy-E-ßÁ÷í∫ç
I studied up to X class better
ņúøç éπçõ‰ Åúø’-í∫’-û√®Ω’.
ECE branch has better job/ career A.
spoken English form) and Intermediate edu-
îËÆæ’éÓ. Éçûª-´-®Ωèπÿ/ Ñ°j† îÁ°œp† Å稻©’/ N≠æߪ’ç
cation (in Medium) at Kothagudem. I hold a prospects than any other branch. É™« ï¢√•’ Q. No less a person than the C.M. hoisted the öÃ˝ Ö°æ-ßÁ÷-í¬-EéÀ ´÷vûª¢Ë’. NüΔu-®Ω’n©ûÓ üΔEo
B.Tech Degree in ECE from JNTU, having îÁGûË ¢ÁçôØË Å®·ûË What about your suitabil- flag. îªC-Nç-îª-éπçúÕ, ÉçÍé Nüμ¿çí¬†÷ üΔEo ¢√úø-éπçúÕ.
taken the exam in 2006. ity for the branch? ÅØË v°æ¨¡o Åúø-í∫-´îª’a. A. Æœ.áç. ÅçûªöÀ ´uéÀh °æû√-é¬Eo áí∫-®Ω-¢Ë-¨»úø’.
Spoken English -§ƒ-ûª -¢√u≤ƒ-©éÓÆæç -éÀxé˙ -îË-ߪ’ç-úÕ.. URL: http://www.eenadu.net/spoken/spoken.htm