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You are on page 1of 49

CHAPTER

11

DYNAMICS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Kinematics of Particles

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

Eighth

Edition

Contents

Introduction

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity

& Acceleration

Determination of the Motion of a

Particle

Sample Problem 11.2

Sample Problem 11.3

Uniform Rectilinear-Motion

Uniformly Accelerated RectilinearMotion

Motion of Several Particles: Relative

Motion

Sample Problem 11.4

Motion of Several Particles: Dependent

Motion

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion

Problems

Other Graphical Methods

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity &

Acceleration

Derivatives of Vector Functions

Rectangular Components of Velocity and

Acceleration

Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation

Tangential and Normal Components

Radial and Transverse Components

Sample Problem 11.10

Sample Problem 11.12

11 - 2

Eighth

Edition

Introduction

Dynamics includes:

- Kinematics: study of the geometry of motion. Kinematics is used to relate

displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time without reference to the cause of

motion.

- Kinetics: study of the relations existing between the forces acting on a body,

the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is used to predict

the motion caused by given forces or to determine the forces required to

produce a given motion.

Rectilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it moves

along a straight line.

Curvilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it moves

along a curved line in two or three dimensions.

11 - 3

Eighth

Edition

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Particle moving along a straight line is said to

be in rectilinear motion.

Position coordinate of a particle is defined by

positive or negative distance of particle from a

fixed origin on the line.

The motion of a particle is known if the position

coordinate for particle is known for every value

of time t. Motion of the particle may be

expressed in the form of a function, e.g.,

x = 6t 2 t 3

or in the form of a graph x vs. t.

11 - 4

Eighth

Edition

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Consider particle which occupies position P at

time t and P at t+t,

x

Average velocity =

t

x

=

v

=

lim

Instantaneous velocity

t 0 t

Instantaneous velocity may be positive or

negative. Magnitude of velocity is referred to

as particle speed.

From the definition of a derivative,

x dx

v = lim

=

dt

t 0 t

e.g.,

x = 6t 2 t 3

v=

dx

= 12 t 3t 2

dt

11 - 5

Eighth

Edition

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Consider particle with velocity v at time t and v

at t+t,

v

Instantaneous acceleration = a = lim

t 0 t

Instantaneous acceleration may be:

- positive: increasing positive velocity

or decreasing negative velocity

- negative: decreasing positive velocity

or increasing negative velocity.

From the definition of a derivative,

v dv d 2 x

=

= 2

a = lim

dt

t 0 t

dt

e.g.

v = 12 t 3t 2

a=

dv

= 12 6t

dt

11 - 6

Eighth

Edition

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Consider particle with motion given by

x = 6t 2 t 3

dx

v=

= 12 t 3t 2

dt

dv d 2 x

a=

= 2 = 12 6t

dt

dt

at t = 0,

x = 0, v = 0, a = 12 m/s2

at t = 2 s,

x = 16 m, v = vmax = 12 m/s, a = 0

at t = 4 s,

at t = 6 s,

11 - 7

Eighth

Edition

Determination of the Motion of a Particle

Recall, motion of a particle is known if position is known for all time t.

Typically, conditions of motion are specified by the type of acceleration

experienced by the particle. Determination of velocity and position requires two

successive integrations.

Three classes of motion may be defined for:

- acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)

- acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)

- acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)

11 - 8

Eighth

Edition

Determination of the Motion of a Particle

Acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t):

v (t )

t

dv

= a = f (t )

dv = f (t ) dt

dv = f (t ) dt

dt

v

0

v (t ) v 0 = f (t ) dt

0

dx

= v (t )

dt

dx = v (t ) dt

x (t )

x0

dx = v (t ) dt

x (t ) x 0 = v (t ) dt

0

v=

dx

dx

or dt =

dt

v

v dv = f ( x )dx

a=

v(x )

dv

dv

or a = v

= f (x )

dx

dt

x

v dv = f ( x )dx

v0

x0

1 v(x )

2

1 v2

2 0

= f ( x )dx

x0

11 - 9

Eighth

Edition

Determination of the Motion of a Particle

Acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v):

dv

= a = f (v )

dt

dv

= dt

f (v )

v (t )

t

dv

f (v ) = dt

v

0

0

v (t )

dv

f (v ) = t

v

0

dv

v = a = f (v )

dx

v (t )

x(t ) x0 =

v0

v dv

dx =

f (v )

x (t )

v (t )

v dv

dx = f (v )

x

v

v dv

f (v )

11 - 10

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.2

SOLUTION:

Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).

Solve for t at which velocity equals zero

(time for maximum elevation) and

evaluate corresponding altitude.

Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity

from window 20 m above ground.

(time for ground impact) and evaluate

corresponding velocity.

Determine:

velocity and elevation above ground at time

t,

highest elevation reached by ball and

corresponding time, and

time when ball will hit the ground and

corresponding velocity.

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 11

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.2

SOLUTION:

Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).

dv

= a = 9 .81 m s 2

dt

v (t )

t

v (t ) v 0 = 9 .81t

dv = 9.81 dt

0

v0

m

m

v (t ) = 10 9.81 2 t

s

s

dy

= v = 10 9.81 t

dt

y (t )

t

dy = (10 9.81 t )dt

y0

y (t ) y 0 = 10 t 12 9 .81 t 2

m

m

y (t ) = 20 m + 10 t 4.905 2 t 2

s

s

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 12

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.2

Solve for t at which velocity equals zero and evaluate

corresponding altitude.

v (t ) = 10

m

m

9.81 2 t = 0

s

s

t = 1 .019 s

corresponding velocity.

m 2

m

y (t ) = 20 m + 10 t 4 .905 2 t

s

s

m

m

y = 20 m + 10 (1.019 s ) 4.905 2 (1.019 s )2

s

s

y = 25 .1 m

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 13

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.2

Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and evaluate

corresponding velocity.

m 2

m

y (t ) = 20 m + 10 t 4 .905 2 t = 0

s

s

t = 1.243 s (meaningles s )

t = 3 .28 s

v (t ) = 10

m

m

9.81 2 t

s

s

m

m

v (3 .28 s ) = 10 9 .81 2 (3 .28 s )

s

s

m

v = 22 .2

s

11 - 14

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.3

SOLUTION:

a = kv

Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).

Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).

consists of piston attached to barrel moving

in fixed cylinder filled with oil. As barrel

recoils with initial velocity v0, piston moves

and oil is forced through orifices in piston,

causing piston and cylinder to decelerate at

rate proportional to their velocity.

Determine v(t), x(t), and v(x).

11 - 15

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.3

SOLUTION:

Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find v(t).

v (t )

t

dv

dv

a=

= kv

= k dt

dt

v v

0

0

v (t )

ln

= kt

v0

v (t ) = v 0 e kt

dx

= v 0 e kt

v (t ) =

dt

t

x (t )

t

1

kt

x (t ) = v 0 e kt

dx = v 0 e dt

k

0

0

0

x (t ) =

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

v0

1 e kt

k

11 - 16

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.3

Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).

v

dv

a=v

= kv

dx

dv = k dx

dv = k dx

v0

v v 0 = kx

v = v 0 kx

Alternatively,

with

v0

1 e kt

x (t ) =

k

and

v (t ) = v 0 e kt or e kt =

then

v v (t )

x (t ) = 0 1

k

v0

v (t )

v0

v = v 0 kx

11 - 17

Eighth

Edition

Uniform Rectilinear Motion

For particle in uniform rectilinear motion, the acceleration is zero and the

velocity is constant.

dx

= v = constant

dt

x

dx = v dt

x0

x x0 = vt

x = x0 + vt

11 - 18

Eighth

Edition

Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion

For particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the acceleration of the

particle is constant.

v

dv

= a = constant

dt

dv = a dt

v v0 = at

v0

v = v0 + at

dx

= v0 + at

dt

x0

dx = (v0 + at )dt

x x0 = v0 t + 12 at 2

x = x0 + v0t + 12 at 2

dv

v = a = constant

dx

v dv = a dx

v0

x0

1

2

(v 2 v02 ) = a(x x0 )

v 2 = v02 + 2a( x x0 )

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 19

Eighth

Edition

Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion

For particles moving along the same line, time

should be recorded from the same starting instant

and displacements should be measured from the

same origin in the same direction.

respect to A

xB = x A + xB A

respect to A

vB = v A + vB A

a B A = a B a A = relative acceleration of B

with respect to A

aB = a A + aB A

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 20

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.4

SOLUTION:

Substitute initial position and velocity

and constant acceleration of ball into

general equations for uniformly

accelerated rectilinear motion.

Substitute initial position and constant

velocity of elevator into equation for

uniform rectilinear motion.

Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level in

elevator shaft with initial velocity of 18

m/s. At same instant, open-platform

elevator passes 5 m level moving upward

at 2 m/s.

Determine (a) when and where ball hits

elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball

and elevator at contact.

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

ball with respect to elevator and solve

for zero relative position, i.e., impact.

Substitute impact time into equation for

position of elevator and relative velocity

of ball with respect to elevator.

11 - 21

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.4

SOLUTION:

Substitute initial position and velocity and constant

acceleration of ball into general equations for uniformly

accelerated rectilinear motion.

m

m

v B = v 0 + at = 18 9.81 2 t

s

s

m

m

y B = y 0 + v 0 t + 12 at 2 = 12 m + 18 t 4 .905 2 t 2

s

s

Substitute initial position and constant velocity of

elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.

m

vE = 2

s

m

y E = y 0 + v E t = 5 m + 2 t

s

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 22

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.4

Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to

elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.

y B E = 12 + 18t 4.905 t 2 (5 + 2t ) = 0

t = 0 .39 s (meaningles s )

t = 3 .65 s

Substitute impact time into equations for position of elevator and

relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator.

y E = 5 + 2(3 .65 )

y E = 12 .3 m

vB

= (18 9.81t ) 2

= 16 9.81(3.65 )

vB

= 19 .81

m

s

11 - 23

Eighth

Edition

Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion

Position of a particle may depend on position of one or

more other particles.

Position of block B depends on position of block A. Since

rope is of constant length, it follows that sum of lengths of

segments must be constant.

Positions of three blocks are dependent.

For linearly related positions, similar relations hold

between velocities and accelerations.

dx

dx A

dx

+2 B + C =0

dt

dt

dt

dv

dv

dv

2 A +2 B + C =0

dt

dt

dt

or

2 v A + 2v B + vC = 0

or

2 a A + 2 a B + aC = 0

11 - 24

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.5

SOLUTION:

Define origin at upper horizontal surface with

positive displacement downward.

Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear

motion. Solve for acceleration and time t to

reach L.

Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.

Pulley D is attached to a collar which is

Calculate change of position at time t.

pulled down at 3 in./s. At t = 0, collar A

Block B motion is dependent on motions of

starts moving down from K with

collar A and pulley D. Write motion

constant acceleration and zero initial

relationship and solve for change of block B

velocity. Knowing that velocity of

position at time t.

collar A is 12 in./s as it passes L,

determine the change in elevation,

Differentiate motion relation twice to develop

velocity, and acceleration of block B

equations for velocity and acceleration of

when block A is at L.

block B.

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 25

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.5

SOLUTION:

Define origin at upper horizontal surface with positive

displacement downward.

Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.

Solve for acceleration and time t to reach L.

v 2A = (v A )02 + 2 a A [x A ( x A )0 ]

2

in.

12 = 2 a A (8 in. )

s

in.

aA = 9 2

s

v A = (v A )0 + a At

12

in.

in.

=9 2t

s

s

t = 1.333 s

11 - 26

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.5

Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion. Calculate

change of position at time t.

x D = ( x D )0 + v D t

in.

x D ( x D )0 = 3 (1 .333 s ) = 4 in.

s

Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar A

and pulley D. Write motion relationship and solve for

change of block B position at time t.

Total length of cable remains constant,

x A + 2 x D + x B = ( x A )0 + 2( x D )0 + ( x B )0

[x A ( x A )0 ] + 2[x D ( x D )0 ] + [x B ( x B )0 ] = 0

(8 in. ) + 2(4 in. ) + [x B ( x B )0 ] = 0

x B ( x B )0 = 16 in.

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 27

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.5

Differentiate motion relation twice to develop equations

for velocity and acceleration of block B.

x A + 2 x D + x B = constant

v A + 2v D + v B = 0

in.

in.

12 + 2 3 + v B = 0

s

v B = 18

in.

s

a A + 2a D + a B = 0

in.

9 2 + vB = 0

s

in.

a B = 9 2

s

11 - 28

Eighth

Edition

Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems

x-t curve slope.

Given the v-t curve, the a-t curve is equal to the

v-t curve slope.

11 - 29

Eighth

Edition

Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems

Given the a-t curve, the change in velocity between t1 and t2 is equal to

the area under the a-t curve between t1 and t2.

Given the v-t curve, the change in position between t1 and t2 is equal to

the area under the v-t curve between t1 and t2.

11 - 30

Eighth

Edition

Other Graphical Methods

Moment-area method to determine particle position at

time t directly from the a-t curve:

x1 x 0 = area under v t curve

v1

= v 0 t1 + (t1 t )dv

v0

using dv = a dt ,

v1

x1 x 0 = v 0 t1 + (t1 t ) a dt

v0

v1

v0

t = abscissa of centroid C

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 31

Eighth

Edition

Other Graphical Methods

v-x curve:

dv

a=v

dx

= AB tan

= BC = subnormal to v-x curve

11 - 32

Eighth

Edition

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Particle moving along a curve other than a straight line is in

curvilinear motion.

Position vector of a particle at time t is defined by a vector

between origin O of a fixed reference frame and the

position occupied by particle.

Consider particle which occupies position P defined by

at time

t

and

P

defined

by

at

t

+

r

t,

r

r dr

v = lim

=

dt

t 0 t

s ds

v = lim

=

dt

t 0 t

= instantaneous speed (scalar)

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 33

Eighth

Edition

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

Consider velocity

v at t + t,

v

=

a = lim

t 0 t

vof particle at time t and velocity

dv

dt

In general, acceleration vector is not tangent to

particle path and velocity vector.

11 - 34

Eighth

Edition

Derivatives of Vector Functions

Let P (u )be a vector function of scalar variable u,

dP

P

P (u + u ) P (u )

= lim

= lim

du u 0 u u 0

u

Derivative of vector sum,

d (P + Q ) dP dQ

=

+

du

du du

Derivative of product of scalar and vector functions,

d ( f P ) df

dP

=

P+ f

du

du

du

Derivative of scalar product and vector product,

d (P Q ) d P dQ

=

Q + P

du

du

du

d (P Q ) d P

dQ

=

Q + P

du

du

du

11 - 35

Eighth

Edition

Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration

When position vector of particle P is given by its

rectangular components,

r = x i + y j + zk

Velocity vector,

dx dy dz

v= i +

j + k = x i + y j + zk

dt

dt

dt

= vx i + v y j + vz k

Acceleration vector,

d 2x d 2 y d 2z

a = 2 i + 2 j + 2 k = xi + y j + zk

dt

dt

dt

= ax i + a y j + azk

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11 - 36

Eighth

Edition

Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration

Rectangular components particularly effective when

component accelerations can be integrated

independently, e.g., motion of a projectile,

a x = x = 0

a y = y = g

a z = z = 0

with initial conditions,

x0 = y 0 = z 0 = 0

(v x )0 , (v y )0 , (v z )0 = 0

v x = (v x )0

x = (v x )0 t

( )0 gt

y = (v y ) y 12 gt 2

0

vy = vy

vz = 0

z=0

Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.

Motion of projectile could be replaced by two

independent rectilinear motions.

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 37

Eighth

Edition

Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation

Designate one frame as the fixed frame of reference. All

other frames not rigidly attached to the fixed reference

frame are moving frames of reference.

Position vectors for particles A and B with respect to the

rA and rB .

fixed frame of reference Oxyz are

r

Vector B A joining A and B defines the position of B

with respect to the moving frame Axyz and

rB = rA + rB A

Differentiating twice,

v B = v A + v B A v B A = velocity of B relative to A.

a B = a A + a B A aB A = acceleration of B relative to

A.

Absolute motion of B can be obtained by combining

motion of A with relative motion of B with respect to

moving reference frame attached to A.

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 38

Eighth

Edition

Tangential and Normal Components

Velocity vector of particle is tangent to path of

particle. In general, acceleration vector is not.

Wish to express acceleration vector in terms of

tangential and normal components.

et and et are tangential unit vectors for the particle

path at P and P. When drawn with respect to the

same origin,

et = et eand

t

is the angle between them.

et = 2 sin ( 2 )

et

sin ( 2 )

lim

= lim

en = en

0

0 2

d

e

en = t

d

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 39

Eighth

Edition

Tangential and Normal Components

With the velocity vector expressed as v = vet

the particle acceleration may be written as

d

v

dv

d

e

dv

d

e

d ds

a=

=

et + v

=

et + v

dt dt

dt dt

d ds dt

but

d et

ds

= en

d = ds

=v

d

dt

After substituting,

dv

v2

dv v 2

a=

et +

en

at =

an =

dt

dt

change of speed and normal component reflects

change of direction.

Tangential component may be positive or

negative. Normal component always points

toward center of path curvature.

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 40

Eighth

Edition

Tangential and Normal Components

Relations for tangential and normal acceleration also

apply for particle moving along space curve.

dv v 2

a=

et +

en

dt

dv

at =

dt

an =

v2

is called the osculating plane.

Normal to the osculating plane is found from

eb = et e n

e n = principal normal

eb = binormal

Acceleration has no component along binormal.

11 - 41

Eighth

Edition

Radial and Transverse Components

When particle position is given in polar coordinates, it

is convenient to express velocity and acceleration with

components parallel and perpendicular to OP.

r = rer

der

= e

d

de r dr

dr

d

d

=

e

v = (re r ) =

er + r

er + r

dt

dt

dt

dt

dt

= r e r + r e

de

= er

d

der der d d

=

= e

dt

d dt

dt

de de d

d

=

= er

dt

d dt

dt

d

d dr

a = er + r

e

dt dt

dt

2

2

d

e

d r

dr de r dr d

d

d

= 2 er +

+

e + r 2 e + r

dt dt

dt dt

dt dt

dt

dt

= r r 2 e r + (r + 2 r )e

11 - 42

Eighth

Edition

Radial and Transverse Components

When particle position is given in cylindrical

coordinates, it is convenient to express the velocity

and acceleration vectors

using the unit vectors

e R , e , and k .

Position vector,

r = R e R+z k

Velocity vector,

dr

v=

= R e R + R e + z k

dt

Acceleration vector,

dv

2

a=

= R R e R + (R + 2 R )e + z k

dt

11 - 43

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.10

SOLUTION:

Calculate tangential and normal

components of acceleration.

Determine acceleration magnitude and

direction with respect to tangent to curve.

A motorist is traveling on curved

section of highway at 60 mph. The

motorist applies brakes causing a

constant deceleration rate.

Knowing that after 8 s the speed has

been reduced to 45 mph, determine the

acceleration of the automobile

immediately after the brakes are

applied.

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 44

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.10

SOLUTION:

Calculate tangential and normal components of

acceleration.

ft

v (66 88 ) ft s

at =

= 2 .75 2

=

t

8s

s

an =

60 mph = 88 ft/s

45 mph = 66 ft/s

v2

(88 ft s )2

ft

=

= 3.10 2

2500 ft

respect to tangent to curve.

ft

2

2

2

2

a

=

4

.

14

a = a t + a n = ( 2.75 ) + 3.10

s2

= tan

an

3.10

= tan 1

at

2 .75

= 48 .4

11 - 45

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.12

SOLUTION:

Evaluate time t for = 30o.

Evaluate radial and angular positions,

and first and second derivatives at time t.

Rotation of the arm about O is defined by

= 0.15t2 where is in radians and t in

seconds. Collar B slides along the arm

such that r = 0.9 - 0.12t2 where r is in

meters.

cylindrical coordinates.

Evaluate acceleration with respect to

arm.

determine (a) the total velocity of the

collar, (b) the total acceleration of the

collar, and (c) the relative acceleration of

the collar with respect to the arm.

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 46

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.12

SOLUTION:

Evaluate time t for = 30o.

= 0.15 t 2

= 30 = 0 .524 rad

t = 1 .869 s

second derivatives at time t.

r = 0 .24 t = 0 .449 m s

r = 0.24 m s 2

= 0 .30 t = 0 .561 rad s

= 0.30 rad s 2

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 47

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.12

Calculate velocity and acceleration.

vr = r = 0 .449 m s

v = r = (0.481 m )(0 .561 rad s ) = 0 .270 m s

v=

vr2

= tan

+ v

1 v

vr

v = 0.524 m s

= 31 .0

ar = r r 2

= 0 .240 m s 2 (0 .481 m )(0 .561 rad s )2

= 0 .391 m s 2

a = r + 2 r

= 0 .359 m s 2

a=

a r2 + a2

a

= tan 1

ar

a = 0 .531 m s

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

= 42 .6

11 - 48

Eighth

Edition

Sample Problem 11.12

Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm.

Motion of collar with respect to arm is rectilinear

and defined by coordinate r.

a B OA = r = 0.240 m s 2

11 - 49

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