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Eighth Edition

CHAPTER

11

VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

DYNAMICS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Kinematics of Particles

Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University

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Eighth
Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Contents
Introduction
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity
& Acceleration
Determination of the Motion of a
Particle
Sample Problem 11.2
Sample Problem 11.3
Uniform Rectilinear-Motion
Uniformly Accelerated RectilinearMotion
Motion of Several Particles: Relative
Motion
Sample Problem 11.4
Motion of Several Particles: Dependent
Motion
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Sample Problem 11.5


Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion
Problems
Other Graphical Methods
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity &
Acceleration
Derivatives of Vector Functions
Rectangular Components of Velocity and
Acceleration
Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation
Tangential and Normal Components
Radial and Transverse Components
Sample Problem 11.10
Sample Problem 11.12
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Introduction
Dynamics includes:
- Kinematics: study of the geometry of motion. Kinematics is used to relate
displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time without reference to the cause of
motion.
- Kinetics: study of the relations existing between the forces acting on a body,
the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is used to predict
the motion caused by given forces or to determine the forces required to
produce a given motion.
Rectilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it moves
along a straight line.
Curvilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it moves
along a curved line in two or three dimensions.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
Particle moving along a straight line is said to
be in rectilinear motion.
Position coordinate of a particle is defined by
positive or negative distance of particle from a
fixed origin on the line.
The motion of a particle is known if the position
coordinate for particle is known for every value
of time t. Motion of the particle may be
expressed in the form of a function, e.g.,
x = 6t 2 t 3
or in the form of a graph x vs. t.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
Consider particle which occupies position P at
time t and P at t+t,
x
Average velocity =
t
x
=
v
=
lim
Instantaneous velocity
t 0 t
Instantaneous velocity may be positive or
negative. Magnitude of velocity is referred to
as particle speed.
From the definition of a derivative,
x dx
v = lim
=
dt
t 0 t
e.g.,

x = 6t 2 t 3
v=

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dx
= 12 t 3t 2
dt
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
Consider particle with velocity v at time t and v
at t+t,
v
Instantaneous acceleration = a = lim
t 0 t
Instantaneous acceleration may be:
- positive: increasing positive velocity
or decreasing negative velocity
- negative: decreasing positive velocity
or increasing negative velocity.
From the definition of a derivative,
v dv d 2 x
=
= 2
a = lim
dt
t 0 t
dt

e.g.

v = 12 t 3t 2
a=

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dv
= 12 6t
dt
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
Consider particle with motion given by
x = 6t 2 t 3

dx
v=
= 12 t 3t 2
dt

dv d 2 x
a=
= 2 = 12 6t
dt
dt
at t = 0,

x = 0, v = 0, a = 12 m/s2

at t = 2 s,

x = 16 m, v = vmax = 12 m/s, a = 0

at t = 4 s,

x = xmax = 32 m, v = 0, a = -12 m/s2

at t = 6 s,

x = 0, v = -36 m/s, a = 24 m/s2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Determination of the Motion of a Particle
Recall, motion of a particle is known if position is known for all time t.
Typically, conditions of motion are specified by the type of acceleration
experienced by the particle. Determination of velocity and position requires two
successive integrations.
Three classes of motion may be defined for:
- acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)
- acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)
- acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Determination of the Motion of a Particle
Acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t):
v (t )
t
dv
= a = f (t )
dv = f (t ) dt
dv = f (t ) dt

dt
v
0

v (t ) v 0 = f (t ) dt
0

dx
= v (t )
dt

dx = v (t ) dt

x (t )

x0

dx = v (t ) dt

x (t ) x 0 = v (t ) dt
0

Acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x):

v=

dx
dx
or dt =
dt
v

v dv = f ( x )dx

a=
v(x )

dv
dv
or a = v
= f (x )
dx
dt
x

v dv = f ( x )dx

v0

x0

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1 v(x )
2

1 v2
2 0

= f ( x )dx
x0

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Determination of the Motion of a Particle
Acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v):

dv
= a = f (v )
dt

dv
= dt
f (v )

v (t )

t
dv
f (v ) = dt
v
0
0

v (t )

dv
f (v ) = t
v
0

dv
v = a = f (v )
dx
v (t )

x(t ) x0 =

v0

v dv
dx =
f (v )

x (t )

v (t )

v dv
dx = f (v )
x
v

v dv
f (v )

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.2
SOLUTION:
Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
Solve for t at which velocity equals zero
(time for maximum elevation) and
evaluate corresponding altitude.
Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity
from window 20 m above ground.

Solve for t at which altitude equals zero


(time for ground impact) and evaluate
corresponding velocity.

Determine:
velocity and elevation above ground at time
t,
highest elevation reached by ball and
corresponding time, and
time when ball will hit the ground and
corresponding velocity.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.2
SOLUTION:
Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).

dv
= a = 9 .81 m s 2
dt
v (t )
t
v (t ) v 0 = 9 .81t
dv = 9.81 dt
0

v0

m
m
v (t ) = 10 9.81 2 t
s
s
dy
= v = 10 9.81 t
dt
y (t )
t
dy = (10 9.81 t )dt
y0

y (t ) y 0 = 10 t 12 9 .81 t 2

m
m
y (t ) = 20 m + 10 t 4.905 2 t 2
s
s
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.2
Solve for t at which velocity equals zero and evaluate
corresponding altitude.

v (t ) = 10

m
m
9.81 2 t = 0
s
s

t = 1 .019 s

Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and evaluate


corresponding velocity.

m 2
m
y (t ) = 20 m + 10 t 4 .905 2 t
s
s
m

m
y = 20 m + 10 (1.019 s ) 4.905 2 (1.019 s )2
s

s
y = 25 .1 m
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.2
Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and evaluate
corresponding velocity.

m 2
m
y (t ) = 20 m + 10 t 4 .905 2 t = 0
s
s
t = 1.243 s (meaningles s )
t = 3 .28 s

v (t ) = 10

m
m
9.81 2 t
s
s

m
m
v (3 .28 s ) = 10 9 .81 2 (3 .28 s )
s
s
m
v = 22 .2
s

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.3
SOLUTION:
a = kv

Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find v(t).


Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).
Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).

Brake mechanism used to reduce gun recoil


consists of piston attached to barrel moving
in fixed cylinder filled with oil. As barrel
recoils with initial velocity v0, piston moves
and oil is forced through orifices in piston,
causing piston and cylinder to decelerate at
rate proportional to their velocity.
Determine v(t), x(t), and v(x).

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.3
SOLUTION:
Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find v(t).
v (t )
t
dv
dv
a=
= kv
= k dt

dt
v v
0
0

v (t )
ln
= kt
v0
v (t ) = v 0 e kt

Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).


dx
= v 0 e kt
v (t ) =
dt
t
x (t )
t
1

kt
x (t ) = v 0 e kt
dx = v 0 e dt
k
0
0
0

x (t ) =
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v0
1 e kt
k
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.3
Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).
v

dv
a=v
= kv
dx

dv = k dx

dv = k dx

v0

v v 0 = kx
v = v 0 kx
Alternatively,

with

v0
1 e kt
x (t ) =
k

and

v (t ) = v 0 e kt or e kt =

then

v v (t )

x (t ) = 0 1
k
v0

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v (t )
v0

v = v 0 kx
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Uniform Rectilinear Motion
For particle in uniform rectilinear motion, the acceleration is zero and the
velocity is constant.

dx
= v = constant
dt
x

dx = v dt
x0

x x0 = vt
x = x0 + vt

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion
For particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the acceleration of the
particle is constant.
v

dv
= a = constant
dt

dv = a dt

v v0 = at

v0

v = v0 + at
dx
= v0 + at
dt

x0

dx = (v0 + at )dt

x x0 = v0 t + 12 at 2

x = x0 + v0t + 12 at 2
dv
v = a = constant
dx

v dv = a dx
v0

x0

1
2

(v 2 v02 ) = a(x x0 )

v 2 = v02 + 2a( x x0 )
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion
For particles moving along the same line, time
should be recorded from the same starting instant
and displacements should be measured from the
same origin in the same direction.

x B A = x B x A = relative position of B with


respect to A
xB = x A + xB A

v B A = v B v A = relative velocity of B with


respect to A
vB = v A + vB A

a B A = a B a A = relative acceleration of B
with respect to A
aB = a A + aB A
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.4
SOLUTION:
Substitute initial position and velocity
and constant acceleration of ball into
general equations for uniformly
accelerated rectilinear motion.
Substitute initial position and constant
velocity of elevator into equation for
uniform rectilinear motion.
Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level in
elevator shaft with initial velocity of 18
m/s. At same instant, open-platform
elevator passes 5 m level moving upward
at 2 m/s.
Determine (a) when and where ball hits
elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball
and elevator at contact.
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Write equation for relative position of


ball with respect to elevator and solve
for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
Substitute impact time into equation for
position of elevator and relative velocity
of ball with respect to elevator.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.4
SOLUTION:
Substitute initial position and velocity and constant
acceleration of ball into general equations for uniformly
accelerated rectilinear motion.

m
m
v B = v 0 + at = 18 9.81 2 t
s
s
m
m
y B = y 0 + v 0 t + 12 at 2 = 12 m + 18 t 4 .905 2 t 2
s
s
Substitute initial position and constant velocity of
elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.

m
vE = 2
s
m
y E = y 0 + v E t = 5 m + 2 t
s
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.4
Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to
elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.

y B E = 12 + 18t 4.905 t 2 (5 + 2t ) = 0
t = 0 .39 s (meaningles s )
t = 3 .65 s
Substitute impact time into equations for position of elevator and
relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator.

y E = 5 + 2(3 .65 )
y E = 12 .3 m
vB

= (18 9.81t ) 2
= 16 9.81(3.65 )
vB

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= 19 .81

m
s
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion
Position of a particle may depend on position of one or
more other particles.
Position of block B depends on position of block A. Since
rope is of constant length, it follows that sum of lengths of
segments must be constant.

x A + 2 x B = constant (one degree of freedom)


Positions of three blocks are dependent.

2 x A + 2 x B + xC = constant (two degrees of freedom)


For linearly related positions, similar relations hold
between velocities and accelerations.

dx
dx A
dx
+2 B + C =0
dt
dt
dt
dv
dv
dv
2 A +2 B + C =0
dt
dt
dt

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or

2 v A + 2v B + vC = 0

or

2 a A + 2 a B + aC = 0
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.5
SOLUTION:
Define origin at upper horizontal surface with
positive displacement downward.
Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear
motion. Solve for acceleration and time t to
reach L.
Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.
Pulley D is attached to a collar which is
Calculate change of position at time t.
pulled down at 3 in./s. At t = 0, collar A
Block B motion is dependent on motions of
starts moving down from K with
collar A and pulley D. Write motion
constant acceleration and zero initial
relationship and solve for change of block B
velocity. Knowing that velocity of
position at time t.
collar A is 12 in./s as it passes L,
determine the change in elevation,
Differentiate motion relation twice to develop
velocity, and acceleration of block B
equations for velocity and acceleration of
when block A is at L.
block B.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.5
SOLUTION:
Define origin at upper horizontal surface with positive
displacement downward.
Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.
Solve for acceleration and time t to reach L.

v 2A = (v A )02 + 2 a A [x A ( x A )0 ]
2

in.
12 = 2 a A (8 in. )
s

in.
aA = 9 2
s

v A = (v A )0 + a At
12

in.
in.
=9 2t
s
s

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t = 1.333 s

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.5
Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion. Calculate
change of position at time t.

x D = ( x D )0 + v D t

in.
x D ( x D )0 = 3 (1 .333 s ) = 4 in.
s
Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar A
and pulley D. Write motion relationship and solve for
change of block B position at time t.
Total length of cable remains constant,
x A + 2 x D + x B = ( x A )0 + 2( x D )0 + ( x B )0

[x A ( x A )0 ] + 2[x D ( x D )0 ] + [x B ( x B )0 ] = 0
(8 in. ) + 2(4 in. ) + [x B ( x B )0 ] = 0
x B ( x B )0 = 16 in.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.5
Differentiate motion relation twice to develop equations
for velocity and acceleration of block B.

x A + 2 x D + x B = constant
v A + 2v D + v B = 0
in.
in.
12 + 2 3 + v B = 0
s

v B = 18

in.
s

a A + 2a D + a B = 0
in.
9 2 + vB = 0
s

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in.

a B = 9 2
s

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems

Given the x-t curve, the v-t curve is equal to the


x-t curve slope.
Given the v-t curve, the a-t curve is equal to the
v-t curve slope.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems

Given the a-t curve, the change in velocity between t1 and t2 is equal to
the area under the a-t curve between t1 and t2.
Given the v-t curve, the change in position between t1 and t2 is equal to
the area under the v-t curve between t1 and t2.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Other Graphical Methods
Moment-area method to determine particle position at
time t directly from the a-t curve:
x1 x 0 = area under v t curve
v1

= v 0 t1 + (t1 t )dv
v0

using dv = a dt ,
v1

x1 x 0 = v 0 t1 + (t1 t ) a dt
v0
v1

(t1 t ) a dt = first moment of area under a-t curve

v0

with respect to t = t1 line.

x1 = x 0 + v 0 t1 + (area under a-t curve )(t1 t )


t = abscissa of centroid C
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Other Graphical Methods

Method to determine particle acceleration from


v-x curve:

dv
a=v
dx
= AB tan
= BC = subnormal to v-x curve

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
Particle moving along a curve other than a straight line is in
curvilinear motion.
Position vector of a particle at time t is defined by a vector
between origin O of a fixed reference frame and the
position occupied by particle.
Consider particle which occupies position P defined by


at time
t
and
P
defined
by
at
t
+
r
t,
r


r dr

v = lim
=
dt
t 0 t

= instantaneous velocity (vector)


s ds
v = lim
=
dt
t 0 t
= instantaneous speed (scalar)
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
Consider velocity

v at t + t,

v

=
a = lim
t 0 t


vof particle at time t and velocity

dv
dt

= instantaneous acceleration (vector)


In general, acceleration vector is not tangent to
particle path and velocity vector.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Derivatives of Vector Functions


Let P (u )be a vector function of scalar variable u,




dP
P
P (u + u ) P (u )
= lim
= lim
du u 0 u u 0
u
Derivative of vector sum,

 

d (P + Q ) dP dQ
=
+
du
du du
Derivative of product of scalar and vector functions,



d ( f P ) df
dP
=
P+ f
du
du
du
Derivative of scalar product and vector product,

 

d (P Q ) d P   dQ
=
Q + P
du
du
du

 



d (P Q ) d P
dQ
=
Q + P
du
du
du

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
When position vector of particle P is given by its
rectangular components,




r = x i + y j + zk
Velocity vector,



 dx  dy  dz 
v= i +
j + k = x i + y j + zk
dt
dt
dt



= vx i + v y j + vz k
Acceleration vector,



 d 2x d 2 y  d 2z 
a = 2 i + 2 j + 2 k = xi + y j + zk
dt
dt
dt



= ax i + a y j + azk
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
Rectangular components particularly effective when
component accelerations can be integrated
independently, e.g., motion of a projectile,
a x = x = 0
a y = y = g
a z = z = 0
with initial conditions,
x0 = y 0 = z 0 = 0

(v x )0 , (v y )0 , (v z )0 = 0

Integrating twice yields

v x = (v x )0
x = (v x )0 t

( )0 gt
y = (v y ) y 12 gt 2
0

vy = vy

vz = 0
z=0

Motion in horizontal direction is uniform.


Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.
Motion of projectile could be replaced by two
independent rectilinear motions.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation
Designate one frame as the fixed frame of reference. All
other frames not rigidly attached to the fixed reference
frame are moving frames of reference.
Position vectors for particles A and B with respect to the


rA and rB .
fixed frame of reference Oxyz are

r
Vector B A joining A and B defines the position of B
with respect to the moving frame Axyz and



rB = rA + rB A
Differentiating twice,




v B = v A + v B A v B A = velocity of B relative to A.




a B = a A + a B A aB A = acceleration of B relative to
A.
Absolute motion of B can be obtained by combining
motion of A with relative motion of B with respect to
moving reference frame attached to A.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Tangential and Normal Components
Velocity vector of particle is tangent to path of
particle. In general, acceleration vector is not.
Wish to express acceleration vector in terms of
tangential and normal components.



et and et are tangential unit vectors for the particle
path at P and P. When drawn with respect to the

 
same origin,
et = et eand
t
is the angle between them.

et = 2 sin ( 2 )

et
sin ( 2 ) 

lim
= lim
en = en
0
0 2

d
e

en = t
d
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Tangential and Normal Components


With the velocity vector expressed as v = vet
the particle acceleration may be written as



d
v
dv
d
e
dv
d
e
d ds



a=
=
et + v
=
et + v
dt dt
dt dt
d ds dt
but 
d et 
ds
= en
d = ds
=v
d
dt
After substituting,
dv
v2
 dv  v 2 
a=
et +
en
at =
an =
dt

dt

Tangential component of acceleration reflects


change of speed and normal component reflects
change of direction.
Tangential component may be positive or
negative. Normal component always points
toward center of path curvature.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Tangential and Normal Components
Relations for tangential and normal acceleration also
apply for particle moving along space curve.

 dv  v 2 
a=
et +
en
dt

dv
at =
dt

an =

v2

Plane containing tangential and normal unit vectors


is called the osculating plane.
Normal to the osculating plane is found from

 
eb = et e n

e n = principal normal

eb = binormal
Acceleration has no component along binormal.

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 41

Eighth
Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Radial and Transverse Components
When particle position is given in polar coordinates, it
is convenient to express velocity and acceleration with
components parallel and perpendicular to OP.



r = rer

der 
= e
d

The particle velocity vector is



de r dr 
dr 
d 
 d 
=
e
v = (re r ) =
er + r
er + r
dt
dt
dt
dt
dt


= r e r + r  e


de

= er
d



der der d  d
=
= e
dt
d dt
dt


de de d
 d
=
= er
dt
d dt
dt

Similarly, the particle acceleration vector is


d 
 d dr 
a = er + r
e
dt dt
dt



2
2
d
e
d r
dr de r dr d 
d 
d
= 2 er +
+
e + r 2 e + r
dt dt
dt dt
dt dt
dt
dt


= r r 2 e r + (r + 2 r )e

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 42

Eighth
Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Radial and Transverse Components
When particle position is given in cylindrical
coordinates, it is convenient to express the velocity
and acceleration vectors
 using the unit vectors
 
e R , e , and k .
Position vector,



r = R e R+z k
Velocity vector,


 dr


v=
= R e R + R  e + z k
dt
Acceleration vector,


 dv

2 







a=
= R R e R + (R + 2 R )e + z k
dt

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 43

Eighth
Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.10
SOLUTION:
Calculate tangential and normal
components of acceleration.
Determine acceleration magnitude and
direction with respect to tangent to curve.
A motorist is traveling on curved
section of highway at 60 mph. The
motorist applies brakes causing a
constant deceleration rate.
Knowing that after 8 s the speed has
been reduced to 45 mph, determine the
acceleration of the automobile
immediately after the brakes are
applied.
2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 44

Eighth
Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.10
SOLUTION:
Calculate tangential and normal components of
acceleration.
ft
v (66 88 ) ft s
at =
= 2 .75 2
=
t
8s
s

an =

60 mph = 88 ft/s
45 mph = 66 ft/s

v2

(88 ft s )2
ft
=
= 3.10 2
2500 ft

Determine acceleration magnitude and direction with


respect to tangent to curve.
ft
2
2
2
2
a
=
4
.
14
a = a t + a n = ( 2.75 ) + 3.10
s2

= tan

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

an
3.10
= tan 1
at
2 .75

= 48 .4

11 - 45

Eighth
Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.12
SOLUTION:
Evaluate time t for = 30o.
Evaluate radial and angular positions,
and first and second derivatives at time t.
Rotation of the arm about O is defined by
= 0.15t2 where is in radians and t in
seconds. Collar B slides along the arm
such that r = 0.9 - 0.12t2 where r is in
meters.

Calculate velocity and acceleration in


cylindrical coordinates.
Evaluate acceleration with respect to
arm.

After the arm has rotated through 30o,


determine (a) the total velocity of the
collar, (b) the total acceleration of the
collar, and (c) the relative acceleration of
the collar with respect to the arm.
2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 46

Eighth
Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.12
SOLUTION:
Evaluate time t for = 30o.

= 0.15 t 2
= 30 = 0 .524 rad

t = 1 .869 s

Evaluate radial and angular positions, and first and


second derivatives at time t.

r = 0.9 0 .12 t 2 = 0.481 m


r = 0 .24 t = 0 .449 m s
r = 0.24 m s 2

= 0 .15 t 2 = 0.524 rad


 = 0 .30 t = 0 .561 rad s
 = 0.30 rad s 2
2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 47

Eighth
Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.12
Calculate velocity and acceleration.
vr = r = 0 .449 m s
v = r = (0.481 m )(0 .561 rad s ) = 0 .270 m s
v=

vr2

= tan

+ v

1 v

vr
v = 0.524 m s

= 31 .0

ar = r r 2
= 0 .240 m s 2 (0 .481 m )(0 .561 rad s )2
= 0 .391 m s 2
a = r + 2 r

= (0 .481 m ) 0 .3 rad s 2 + 2( 0.449 m s )(0 .561 rad s )


= 0 .359 m s 2
a=

a r2 + a2

a
= tan 1

ar

a = 0 .531 m s
2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

= 42 .6
11 - 48

Eighth
Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Dynamics


Sample Problem 11.12
Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm.
Motion of collar with respect to arm is rectilinear
and defined by coordinate r.

a B OA = r = 0.240 m s 2

2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

11 - 49