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Philippine Initiatives on Gender-Responsive

Governance
In the Philippines, efforts to make governance gender responsive are promoted through
legislation, such as the Magna Carta of Women (MCW) which mandates non-discriminatory
and pro-gender equality and equity measures to enable womens participation in the
formulation, implementation, and evaluation of policies, plans, and programs for national,
regional, and local development.
Also, the Philippine Framework Plan for Women (FPW) indicated actions planned for gender
responsive governance to be undertaken by government agencies, LGUs and civil society as
follows:
On mainstreaming Gender and Development (GAD) in the bureaucracy
1. Enforce compliance to GAD mainstreaming policies
2. Enhance existing structural mechanisms to accelerate mainstreaming of GAD
3. Localize GAD mainstreaming efforts
4. Enhance capability of local and regional GAD practitioners/trainors to deliver GAD
programs
5. Strengthen linkages and partnerships among various partners
On enhancing womens leadership roles and participation in decision-making
1. Ensure equal representation of women in decision-making process at the local ,
national and international levels
2. Promote gender-responsive management and transformative leadership
On strengthening womens role in promoting gender-responsive governance
1. Enhance role of womens organizations in anti-corruption programs
2. Enhance womens role in peace building and conflict resolution
On strengthening partnership with media in covering various women issues

1. Enhance gender sensitivity of media practitioners


2. Set up enabling mechanism to facilitate exchange of data, information, tools, etc.
between media and government pertinent to GAD concerns
Significant progress has been achieved in terms of implementing said measures in the FPW.
The Country Gender Assessment (CGA, 2008) has noted that the Department of Budget and
Management (DBM) has issued annual budget circulars since 1997 that support the
implementation of GAD budgets at the local level. Currently, the local budget circular on
internal revenue allotment requires agencies to apply a minimum of 5 percent of the funds
for GAD. In 2001, the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (now PCW),
Department of Interior and Local Government, and DBM issued a joint memorandum
circular to all local government units (LGUs) containing guidelines for integrating GAD in the
local planning and budgeting system.
The CGA (2008) also cited the positive effects of GAD budgets and plans at the local level,
such as improved services for women and men, and even reduction in the incidence of
gender-based violence. It enumerated less tangible benefits that include increased
awareness and advocacy for gender issues and the development of local mechanisms for
planning and implementation that increase the involvement of civil society groups in
government processes.
Projects that have been implemented under the GAD budget include providing health
services, advocating and disseminating information on gender issues, building capacity and
providing technical assistance on GAD and other gender issues, establishing or improving
service facilities for women, issuing policies on gender, establishing databases and
mechanisms for reporting on gender issues, improving awareness of gender issues when
undertaking development planning at the national and local levels, and revising textbooks to
remove social and gender stereotypes.
Also a notable gain in gender responsive governance is the audit of GAD funds initiative of
the Commission on Audit (COA) which

Determines government agencies compliance with existing laws and regulations on


the utilization of GAD funds;

Sees to it that agencies plans, programs, projects and activities are aligned to the
Philippine Plan for Gender-Responsive Development 1995-2025;

Monitors the use of GAD funds for the purpose for which they have been
appropriated; and

Determines whether gender issues are addressed by GAD interventions in the


agencies.

Results of COAs audit initiative prompted government agencies at the national and local
levels to pursue GAD budgeting in the Philippines in a more proactive manner.
Assessing the outcomes of the implementation of GAD plans and budgets, the CGA (2008)
pointed out the significance of

Engaging civil society groups in local government planning and budgeting, where
the GAD budget can function as an entry point and tool for negotiation;

Integrating GAD in national and local planning and budgeting guidelines and
systems;

Initiating a gender budget audit by the Commission on Audit;

Promoting non-sexist language in government; and

Generating sex-disaggregated data for the formulation of gender-responsive policies


and programs.

However, several challenges still remain in the promotion of gender-responsive governance


in the country such as policy development and implementation, financing and financing
capacity and generation of data on GAD monitoring and implementation as well as for
gender analysis.The FPW stresses the importance an enabling environment for development
wherein the interaction between the Government, the private sector, and civil society is
fundamental to achieving social and economic development. The CGA (2008) also
underscored the vitality of care for national resources and absence of graft and corruption in
good and accountable gender-responsive governance.

National Implementation of Agenda 21

PHILIPPINES
COUNTRY PROFILE
IMPLEMENTATION OF AGENDA 21:
REVIEW OF PROGRESS MADE SINCE THE
UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON
ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT, 1992
Information Provided by the Government of Philippines to the
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
Fifth Session
7-25 April 1997
New York
United Nations Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development
Division for Sustainable Development
The Information contained in this Country Profile is also available on the World Wide Web, as
follows:
http://www.un.org/dpcsd/earthsummit
PHILIPPINES
This country profile has been provided by:
Name of Ministry/Office: Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD)
Date: March 1997
Submitted by: Mr. Cielito F. Habito, Secretary of Socio-Economic Planning and Chair,
Philippine Council for Sustainable Development
Mailing address: Office of the Director-General, NEDA sa Pasig Bldg., Amber Avenue, Pasig
City 1600 Philippines
Telephone: (632) 631-37-16
Telefax: (632) 631-3747
E-mail: cfh@nedamis.neda.gov.ph
Note from the Secretariat: An effort has been made to present all country profiles within a

common format, with an equal number of pages. However, where Governments have not
provided information for the tables appended to Chapters 4 and 17, those tables have been
omitted entirely in order to reduce the overall length of the profile and save paper.
Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different
country profiles.
All statistics are rendered as provided by the respective Governments.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACRONYMS
OVERVIEW
FACT SHEET
AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS
2.

International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries


and related domestic policies

3.

Combating poverty

4.

Changing consumption patterns

5.

Demographic dynamics and sustainability

6.

Protecting and promoting human health

7.

Promoting sustainable human settlement development

8.

Integrating environment and development in decision-making

9.

Protection of the atmosphere

10.

Integrated approach to the planning and management of land resources

11.

Combating deforestation

12.

Managing fragile ecosystems: combating desertification and drought

13.

Managing fragile ecosystems: sustainable mountain development

14.

Promoting sustainable agriculture and rural development

15.

Conservation of biological diversity

16.

Environmentally sound management of biotechnology

17.

Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas,
and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living
resources

18.

Protection of the quality and supply of freshwater resources: application of integrated

approaches to the development, management and use of water resources


19.

Environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal


international traffic in toxic and dangerous products

20.

Environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, including prevention of illegal


international traffic in hazardous wastes

21.

Environmentally sound management of solid wastes and sewage-related issues

22.

Safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive wastes

2332.

Major groups

33.

Financial resources and mechanisms

34.

Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacity-building

35.

Science for sustainable development

36.

Promoting education, public awareness and training

37.

National mechanisms and international cooperation for capacity-building in developing


countries

38.

International institutional arrangements

39.

International legal instruments and mechanisms

40.

Information for decision-making

ACRONYMS
APELL

Awareness and Preparedness for Emergencies at Local Level

CFC

chlorofluorocarbon

CGIAR

Consultative Group on International Agriculture Research

CILSS

Permanent Inter-State Committee on Drought Control in the Sahel

EEZ

exclusive economic zone

ECA

Economic Commission for Africa

ECE

Economic Commission for Europe

ECLAC

Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean

ELCI

Environmental Liaison Centre International

EMINWA

environmentally sound management of inland water

ESCAP

Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific

ESCWA

Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

GATT

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

GAW

Global Atmosphere Watch (WMO)

GEF

Global Environment Facility

GEMS

Global Environmental Monitoring System (UNEP)

GEMS/WATER Global Water Quality Monitoring Programme


GESAMP

Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution

GIPME

Global Investigation of Pollution in Marine Environment (UNESCO)

GIS

Geographical Information System

GLOBE

Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment

GOS

Global Observing System (WMO/WWW)

GRID

Global Resource Information Database

GSP

generalized system of preferences

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

IAEA

International Atomic Energy Agency

IAP-WASAD

International Action Programme on Water and Sustainable Agricultural


Development

IARC

International Agency for Research on Cancer

IBSRAM

International Board of Soil Resources and Management

ICCA

International Council of Chemical Associations

ICES

International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

ICPIC

International Cleaner Production Information Clearing House

ICSC

International Civil Service Commission

ICSU

International Council of Scientific Unions

IEEA

Integrated environmental and economic accounting

IFAD

International Fund for Agricultural Development

IGADD

Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development

IGBP

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (ICSU)

IGBP/START

International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme/Global Change System for


Analysis, Research and Training

ILO

International Labour Organisation

IMF

International Monetary Fund

IMO

International Maritime Organization

INFOTERRA

International Environment Information system (UNEP)

IOC

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

IPCC

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPCS

International Programme on Chemical Safety

IPM

integrated pest management

IRPTC

International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals

ITC

International Tin Council

ITTO

International Tropical Timber Organization

IUCN

International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

MARPOL

International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships

OECD

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

PGRFA

plant genetic resources for agriculture

PIC

prior informed consent procedure

SADCC

South African Development Co-ordination Conference

SARD

sustainable agriculture and rural development

UNCTAD

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNDRO

Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator

UNEP

United Nations Environment Programme

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNFPA

United Nations Population Fund

UNICEF

United Nations Children's Fund

UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

UNU

United Nations University

WCP

World Climate Programme (WMO/UNEP/ICSU/UNESCO)

WFC

World Food Council

WHO

World Health Organization

WMO

World Meteorological Organization

WWF

World Wide Fund for Nature (also called World Wildlife Fund)

WWW

World Weather Watch (WMO)

OVERVIEW
(You may wish to use pages v and vi to briefly present your national position five years after
UNCED)
The preservation of the environment and the pursuit of sustainable development remain as
primary guiding principles in the country's development agenda. Under the stewardship of the
Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD) which has been tasked the primary
responsibility of monitoring commitments to UNCED, the Philippines continue to undertake
more concrete steps in pursuit of the global vision for sustainable development. Foremost
among these is the formulation of Philippine Agenda 21 (PA 21 ) as the country's blueprint for
sustainable development. Its launching on September 26, 1996, on the occasion of the fourth
year anniversary of the Council, was highlighted by the signing of a Peoples' Covenant
Towards a Transition to Sustainable Development, by all stakeholders. PA 21 "envisions a
better quality of life for all Filipinos through the development of a just, moral, creative,
spiritual, economically vibrant, caring, diverse yet cohesive society characterized by
appropriate productivity, participatory and democratic processes, and living in harmony and
within the limits of the carrying capacity of nature and the integrity of creation.." On the same
date, the President issued Executive Order 370 which further strengthens the PCSD with fresh
mandates and an expanded membership which now includes business and labor sector
representatives.
The formulation of the PA 21 followed a distinct process characterized by multi-stakeholder
counterparting, participatory decision-making and consensus building between government and
civil society. Thus the PA 21 echoes the voice of the people -- in the depth of its substance, in
the comprehensives of its vision, and in the set of principles it advocates to guide the nation
towards a sustainable path in to the future.
The PA 21 lays out the priority activities intended to address sustainable development issues
and other emerging concerns. A comprehensive monitoring, evaluation and reporting system
will be developed to assess the level of integration of PA 21 elements and guide all stakeholders
to meaningfully participate in the process of operationalizing sustainable development. The
localization of the PA 21 is also vital in mainstreaming sustainable development concerns in
local planning and implementation of programs and projects. The translation of PA 21 into local
dialects, and the formulation and implementation of a communication plan and improved
information and communication systems and networking are also crucial in hastening the
people's acceptance and internalization of PA 21 principles. The identified activities all call for
the mobilization of ample resources to finance the implementation of the PA 21 and the
country's commitment to the Global Agenda 21. This requires political will to formulate and
implement innovative approaches to finance SD initiatives. As additional official development
assistance to the Philippines will be difficult to achieve in the future, as shown in the
decreasing level of ODA commitments, regional and international cooperation in resource
sharing and mobilization and technology transfer will be increasingly relied upon.

FACT SHEET

REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES


1. Name of Key NAtional Sustainable DEvelopment Coordination Council(s)/Mechanism(s).
Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD)
Contact Point (Name, Title, Office): Secretary Cielito F. Habito, Chair, PCSD or Director
Narcisa R. Umali, Head, PCSD Coordinating Secretariat NEDA sa Pasig, Amber Avenue, Pasig
City, Manila 1600 Philippines
Telephone: 631-3716 [chair] 631-3745 [secretariat]
Fax: (636) 631-3747 [chair] 633-3745 [secretariat]
E-mail: neda-agri@gaia.psdn.iphil.net
Mailing address: NEDA sa Pasig, Amber Avenue, Pasig City Manila 1600 Philippines
2. Membership/Composition/Chairperson: Secretary Cielito F. Habito, Secretary of SocioEconomic Planning and Chair, PCSD
2.a List of ministries and agencies involved:
National Economic and Development Authority
Departments of Agrarian Reform Agriculture
Budget and Management
Education, Culture and Sports
Energy
Environment and Natural Resources
Finance
Foreign Affairs
Health
Interior and Local Government
National Defense
Public Works and Highways
Science and Technology
Social Welfare and Development
Tourism
Trade and Industry
Transportation and Communication
2b. Names of para-statal bodies and institutions involved, as well as participating of
academic and private sector bodies:
Business and labor Groups

Management Association of the Philippines


Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry
Trade Union Congress of the Philippines
Labor Advisory and Consultative Congress
2c. Names of non-governmental organizations involved:
Aniban ng mga Manggagawa sa Agrikultura
Ayala Foundation
(Cont'd)
Cagayan Valley Partners in People Development
Camarines Sur NGO-PO Development Network
Caucus of Development NGO-Networks
Center for Alternative Development Initiatives
Center for Alternative Rural Technology
Center for Rural Enlightenment and Social Empowerment
Community Organization Training and Research Advocacy
Concerned Citizen Against Pollution
Convergence for Community-Centered Area Development
Cultural Communities Foundation
Earthsavers Movement
Earthsavers Youth
Ecological Society of the Philippines
Environment Broadcast Circle
Foundation for a Sustainable Society, Inc.
Foundation for Community Organization and Management Technology
Green Mindanao Association
Green Forum Philippines
Haribon Foundation
Kapisanan ng Maliliit na Mangingisda
Kilusan ng Kababaihang Pilipina
Legal Assistance Center for Indigenous Filipinos
Lingkod Tao Kalikasan
Mindanao Environment Forum
Minsupala Economic Development Foundation
National Confederation of Cooperatives
National Secretariat for Social Action
National Union of Tribal Democrats
Nationwide Coalition for Fisheries and Aquatic Reforms
NGOs for Integrated Protected Areas Inc.
Participatory Research, Organization of Communities and Education Towards Struggle for

Self-Reliance
Pederasyon ng mga Maliliit na Mangingisda
Pederasyon ng mga Maliliit na Mangingisda-San Miguel Bay
Philippine Business for Social Progress
Philippine Development for Human Resources in the Rural
Philippine Ecological Network
Philippine Institute of Chemical Engineers
Philippine Uplands Resource Center
Philippine Institute for Alternative Futures
Southeast Asian Regional Institute for Community Education
Tribal Communities Association of the Philippines
Urban Poor Coordinating Network
Visayas Cooperative Development Center
Women's Action Network for Development
Zamboanga del Norte Center for Social Concern and Development
(Cont'd)
3. Mandate role of above mechanism/council:
1. To review and ensure the implementation of the commitments made by the Philippines in the
light of the UNCED and PA 21;
2. To establish guidelines and mechanisms that will expand, concretize and operationalize the
sustainable DEvelopment principles, as embodied in the Rio Declaration, the UNCED, Agenda
21, the National Conservation Strategy and PA 21, and incorporate them in the preparation of
the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan both at the national and local levels with
active participation from the non-government sector and people's organization;
3. To provide directions in the form of policy reforms, programs and new legislations that
respond to the continuing and emerging issues and charting future actions in relation to
environment and DEvelopment;
4. To provide policy advise to appropriate bodies on environment and sustainable DEvelopment
issues of NAtional interest;
5. To institutionalize a mechanism that would ensure linkage among the legislative and
executive branches, local government units, non-governmental organizations, business and
other concerned entities/sectors, in the formulation of policies and decision-making on
sustainable DEvelopment concerns;
6. To act as the coordinating mechanism in cooperation with DFA-Office of the United Nations
and Other International Organizations (UNIO) with the United Nations Commission on
Sustainable Development and actively solicit assistance and cooperation towards the realization

of our commitments made at the UNCED;


7. To review and monitor plans, policies, programs and legislations on sustainable
DEvelopment and recommend mechanisms/strategies for promoting efficiency and timeliness
of their execution.
8. To establish a networking mechanism that will establish links with local and international
organizations involved in sustainable DEvelopment;
9. To call on any and all government agencies, resource persons and other groups, whenever
necessary, to assist the Council in the performance of its role and functions; and
10. To catalyze the formation and institutionalization of local councils for sustainable
DEvelopment, in close coordination with local authorities.
4. If available, attach a diagram (organization chart) showing national coordination
structure and linkages between ministries:
please see attached diagram

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 2: INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO


ACCELERATE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES AND RELATED DOMESTIC POLICIES
(with special emphasis on TRADE)
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Philippines hosted a series of APEC related meetings on
sustainable development in 1996. These meetings were aimed at advocating the wide-ranging
concerns and forging APEC-wide consensus on the need for increased economic and
technical cooperation on sustainable Development. These meetings include the following:
The APEC-Experts Meeting on Innovative Approaches Towards Environmentally Sustainable
Development (6-7 June 1996, Quezon City, Philippines) resulted in consensus on the
following areas: the need to promote innovative approaches for sustainable Development; the
need to collaborate on enhancing the capacity of the environment and natural resource issues
towards innovative approaches; the need for various APEC fora to consider the incorporation
of innovative approaches in the following areas: (I) introduction of Environment and Natural
Resources Accounting (ENRA) into the system of National Income Accounts; (ii) utilization
of MBIs; (iii) sourcing of information and expertises in promoting, adapting and adopting
innovative approaches to sustainable DEvelopment; and (iv) application of participatory
approaches in planning.
The major outputs of the APEC Senior Officials' (9-10 July 1996) and Ministerial Meetings

(11-12 July 1996) on Sustainable Development include the Ministerial declaration and Action
Program on Sustainable Development. The documents essentially embody the need to
advance cooperation on the following major sustainable DEvelopment- related themes of the
meeting: (a) sustainable cities/urban management; (b) clear production/clean technology; and
(c) sustainability of the marine environment.
The PCSD, in cooperation with the Earth Council, sponsored the Meeting of the National
Councils for Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific (APNCSD) on June 18-19,
1995. The conference, dubbed as "Weaving the Fabric of Asia's Future," was envisioned to
strengthen respective National councils for sustainable Development and establish creative
mechanisms for regional and bilateral cooperation among countries in the region. As an
offshoot of this meeting, a regional secretariat for the APNCSD was created to operationalize
the recommendations made during the meeting. It is also co-hosted, with Earth Council, the
Second Meeting of the APNCSD, with the theme "Beyond Boundaries: A Sustainable AsiaPacific," on December 12-14, 1996. This meeting primarily aimed to assess the resolutions
made during the first APNCSD and prepare for multistakeholder's participation in the Rio + 5
Forum in March 1997.
The PCSD co-hosted with the Government of Canada the International Experts Meeting on
Persistent Organic Pollutants in Vancouver, Canada on June 5-8, 1995. It also co-sponsored
with the same government and the National Round Table on the Environment and the
Economy (NRTEE) of Canada the hosting of the Meeting of Senior Environment and
Economic Officials from APEC Economies on March 25-29, 1996 and "The Workshop on
the Environment and the Economy in APEC: Realizing Convergence" on March 25, 1996,
respectively. These initiatives were aimed to continue the process of integrating
environmental considerations into economic development policies and programs.
The PCSD, together with the Economic Development Institute of the World Bank, conducted
a seminar-workshop for senior policy-makers in Asia entitled "Economy-Wide Policies and
the Environment" on June 3-7, 1996. This seeks to promote better understanding and
cooperation, especially among senior environmental and economic decision-makers, in
pursuing "win-win" initiatives; illustrating key economy-environment interactions from
actual cases; and to demonstrate practical approaches for implementing coordinated
environmental and economic planning.
The PCSD, being the country's focal point in sustainable DEvelopment efforts, was
instrumental in forging position papers for international gatherings and dialogues. Among its
commitments is the preparation and coordination of country papers for the annual sessions of
the UNCSD in New York. The Council also coordinated the preparation of the Philippine
positions in the various agenda items of the Brussels Conference on "Taking Nature Into
Account" held also in June 1995.
The Philippines is also involved in the formulation of ISO 14000. This wide-ranging set of
international standards is envisioned to direct companies how to manage, measure, improve

and communicate the environmental aspects of their operations in a systematic way.


Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 3: COMBATING POVERTY


NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:
Focus of National strategy
The Philippines launched the Social Reform Agenda (SRA) on June 4, 1995 to enable people
to have access to opportunities for undertaking sustainable livelihoods espoused under the
agenda for change. The SRA is an integrated set of major reforms to enable the citizens to: a)
meet their basic human needs and live decent lives; b) widen their share of resources from
which they can earn a living or increase the fruits of their labor; and c) enable them to
effectively participate in the decision-making process that affects their rights, interests and
their welfare. These reforms are perceived to enhance the democratic processes. The SRA is
composed of social reform packages providing programs and services for the marginalized
sectors of the society in the country's 20 poorest provinces.
Two years into implementation, the SRA was enhanced with an ecosystem perspective,

emphasizing four dimensions of poverty where reform can have the greatest impact:
On social equity, by providing the poorest of the poor with access to basic services for
survival.
On economic prosperity, by ensuring that the basic sectors have access to productive assets
that allow them to contribute to NAtional growth.
On ecological security, by incorporating the parameters of sustainable DEvelopment in the
management and utilization of natural resources.
On responsible and responsive governance, by democratizing structures and processes to
allow the meaningful participation of key stakeholders in policy- and decision-making.
The nine (9) flagship programs of the SRA include: (1) Agricultural Development for the
Farmers and Landless Rural Workers; (2) Fisheries Management and Development; (3)
Protection of Ancestral Domain for the Indigenous Peoples; (4) Workers Welfare and
Protection; (5) Expansion of Credit; (6) Livelihood Programs; (7) Socialized Housing
Delivery for the Poor; (8) Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services; and (9)
Institution Building and Effective Participation in Governance.
The enhancement of the SRA resulted in the sharper definition of the social equity, economic,
ecological, and democratizing components of the various flagship programs. It also led to the
integration of nine flagship programs having impact on all target sectors and ecosystems.
This placed the country's anti-poverty initiatives within the framework of PA 21. The
enhanced SRA was adopted in the National Anti-poverty summit in March 1996 as the
Integrated National Action Agenda on Anti-Poverty.
The National Anti-Poverty Summit drew-up poverty reduction targets at the regional level to
achieve a NAtional target of 30 percent by 1998. It also resolved to expand the coverage of
the SRA from an initial concentration on 20 priority provinces to an additional 57 provinces
and 65 cities.
As of June 1996, majority of the 20 priority provinces have localized the SRA at the
municipal and baranggay (village) levels. This means that: (a) the SRA has been adopted to
local needs and priorities and is being implemented with clear poverty reduction targets and
basic reform commitments; (b) the Minimum Basic Needs approach has been installed and its
data profiles form the basis for local situation analysis, planning, implementation, and
monitoring and evaluation of local poverty issues and response mechanisms; (c) the programs
and resources of the NAtional government agencies (NGAs) and the local government units
(LGUs) have been synchronized for specific target areas and sectors in line with the
convergence policy; (d) local structures have been set up and are functional with clearly
defined roles and accountabilities; and (e) the system and process for monitoring the delivery
of NAtional and local SRA commitments on the ground are in place.

Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
NB: Developed countries, where domestic poverty alleviation is not a major concern may
wish to briefly describe their position regarding global poverty alleviation.
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985

1990

1992

Latest 199_

Unemployment (%)
Population living in absolute poverty
Public spending on social sector %
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 4: CHANGING CONSUMPTION PATTERNS


NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:
National policy objectives/focus
National targets
No information
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985 1990 1992
GDP per capita (current US$)

562.2 720.7 824.4

Real GDP growth (%)

-7.3

3.0

Annual energy consumption per capita (Kg. of oil


equivalent per capita) *
Motor vehicles in use per 1000 inhabitants c/

Latest
1996
1,161.8

0.3

5.5

2.14
a/

2.27 b/

25.0

33.3 d/

Other data

* Barrels of fuel oil equivalent per capital


a/1994
b/1995
c/Motor vehicles include private and for hire only
d/Computed using 1994 data on motor vehicles and 1995 population estimate.
AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 5: DEMOGRAPHIC DYNAMICS AND
SUSTAINABILITY
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: To develop and disseminate knowledge between demographic trends
and factors for sustainable Development, the Philippine government prepared framework
papers for local and sectoral planning. The Commission on Population (POPCOM), The
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) and the United Nationals
Population fund (UNFPA) spearheaded a comprehensive population review to set into motion
activities that will provide an appropriate population policy climate for sustainable
Development. The Philippine Population Management Program (PPMP) was likewise
implemented in 1993 to serve as the government's program for maintaining a healthy balance
between and among population and resources.
Policy initiatives have been consistently supported by advocacy activities. In line with this, a

significant accomplishment of the PPMP is the Development of a heightened awareness


among Development planners, legislators and government executives on the need to integrate
the population perspective into the Development activities. Particularly instrumental in this
was the holding of the Gathering for Human and Ecological Security (GHES) in June 1995.
A number of studies on the state of poverty and inequity in the Philippines were also
undertaken. These include, among others, an overview of the state of poverty in the country
and a household survey of the lowest income groups in the Philippines. Software packages
for the application of improved methods for the analysis of poverty and income distribution
issues in the country were also developed.
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990
Population (Thousands) mid-year estimates *
Annual rate of increase (1990-1993)
Surface area (Km2)
Population density (people/Km2)

60,703
2.32

1993

1995
68,614
2.32

300,000
202.3

228.7

Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 6: PROTECTING AND PROMOTING HUMAN


HEALTH
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Physical and social empowerment were promoted in the inter-related
subsectors of health, nutrition, and population DEvelopment. Towards this end-goal, direct
and indirect interventions have been achieved through program expansion, greater outreach
to clientele, more emphasis on preventive measures, and advocacy.

HEALTH
Accomplishments in basic health services, disease prevention and health promotion consisted
in the quantitative gains of the principal programs and projects, most which have been started
in previous years. These include: Expanded Program on Immunization; Maternal Care and
Breast Feeding Program; Prevention of Blindness Program; Environmental Health Service;
National Rabies Control Program; National TB Control Program; National AIDS-STD
Prevention and Control Program; Malaria Control Service; Hospital Services; National
Dengue Prevention and Control Program; National Filariasis Control Program; and Leprosy
Elimination and Special Action Project.
The year 1996 saw the completion and approval of the National Health Plan, 1995-2000. This
plan is the country's perspective plan for health which provides the general directions and
broad strategies for an effective and efficient system.
Other notable accomplishments in the area of policy DEvelopment during the year are the
continued facilitation in the implementation of the Magna Carta for public health workers,
capability building for devolved LGU health personnel, and the publication of the 1995 Field
Health Information System statistics.
Moreover, the government has formulated the implementing rules and regulations for R.A.
8203 "Special Law on Counterfeit Drugs" and issued the 1996 edition of the Philippine
National Drug Policy. The latter aims to rationalize drug procurement, distribution and use.
NUTRITION
The hallmarks of the nutrition subsector accomplishments is more quantitative and
qualitative in terms of outreach and better program implementation in pursuit of the
Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition (PPAN). Accomplishment in this subsector counted on
the inputs of concerned agencies like the DOH and the NNC.
The government launched the Health Lifestyle and Health Diet Promotion (IWAS SAKIT
DIET) project as a vigorous health promotion and disease prevention endeavor.
A corollary effort at the national level which springs from PPAN implementation continued
to focus on addressing micronutrient (Vitamin A, iodine, and iron) deficiency and proteinenergy malnutrition. However, more activities were geared toward food fortification with the
private sector playing a lead role. The DOH, in coordination with Helen Keller International,
through its Child Growth Project focused on the establishment of weighing posts as a satellite
of the baranggay health stations. The weighing post also serves as a post for nutrition
counselling depending on the observed changed in the child's weight and weight status.
At the local level, PPAN implementation involved the delivery of a mix of services along
PPAN's impact program of Home and Community Food Production, Micronutrient
Supplementation and Food Fortification, Nutrition Education, Credit Assistance for

Livelihood, and Food Assistance. The mix of services delivered by local government units
(LGUs) was based on their assessment of the local nutrition situation as well as of the
prevailing socio-economic-political environment. The accomplishment of these programs,
among others, are as follows:
31,000 gardens established in the homes, community, and schools.
about 9,100 families with moderately and severely underweight children and 4,300 pregnant
and lactating women received small animals such as goats, swines and poultry.
19 million fingerlings were distributed to 353 LGUs serving 2,200 fishermen.
The distribution of Vitamin A Capsules, reaching about 7.6 M preschool children, 308,000
grade school entrants and about 100,000 lactating women in local health centers during
postnatal visits.
STATUS: (Cont'd)
conduct of Araw ng Sangkap Pinoy (ASAP) and Knock-out Polio (KOP) campaign which
resulted in 92% of the UFC having received Vitamin A, 62.3% of target women population
having received Iodized Oil capsule and 51.1% of women having received Iron tablets.
90,000 pre-school and school children, respectively received IOC through routine services of
the local health system.
pregnant and lactating women, 51,000 preschoolers, 20,000 infants, and 32,000 school
children received iron supplements from January-June 1996.
about 24,000 families, 205 women's and youth groups and 268 baranggays received either
seed capital or material assistance for income generating projects from LGUs, NAtional
agencies, and NGOs (DOLE, DSWD, DTI, NNC, BIDANI, CRS etc.)
decreased in the number of nutritionally vulnerable Filipinos receiving food supplements to
about 262,000. Of this number, 50 percent were underweight school children, 44 percent
preschool children, and 6 percent pregnant preschool children, lactating women.
more than 45,000 preschool and schoolchildren and about 35,000 mothers beneffited from
extensions of LKASS II.
succeeded in developing entrepreneurial skills for self-employment and greater productivity
through provision of small-scale IGPs seed capital and skills training to 81.5% of the targeted
120,000 PPAN households and 93% of the 1,640 LAKASS households.

Accomplishment on the major capability building activities consisted in the following:


BNSS and 600 District/City Nutrition Program coordinators (D/CNPCs) recruited, trained
and deployed by local government units in all regions of the country.
municipal and 69 baranggay level trainings were conducted for municipal and baranggay
local officials, project beneficiaries, government agency representatives as well as
representatives for non-government organizations, religious and civic organizations.
workshop sessions on nutrition program management held for provincial, city and municipal
interagency nutrition teams from 1 province, 5 cities and 7 municipalities. Regional level
capability building workshops were also conducted for 261 implementors/planners covering
15 provinces and 80 municipalities.
Finally, in the area of nutrition advocacy, the major accomplishment was the formulation of
implementing rules and regulations of RA 8172 or the Act 1995. As a result, more iodized
salt was produced and marketed as salt iodization plant increased from 26 in 1995 to 36 in
1996.
POPULATION DEVELOPMENT
The population Dvelopment sub-sector posted major gains in terms of the basic population
services, advocacy measures, capability building, and working towards policy environments
for the greater welfare of families, and more responsible parenthood of the Filipinos.
The Family Planning Program was able to reach out to three (3) million clients who are now
practicing the family planning methods. Around 3,972 community volunteer health workers
were trained on family planning and responsible parenthood. Moreover, 14,839 clinics
(private and public) nationwide were provided with contraceptives.
As regards institutional capability building, POPCOM, with the assistance of JICA,
conducted an in-country training program on Gender and Development Towards
Improvement of Women's Health and Family Welfare wherein individual action plans were
formulated on mainstreaming gender into the various organizations and projects. Other
capability building programs conducted in 1996 were: Training on Gender and Sensitivity
and Reproductive Health; Seminar on the program Awareness and Team building through
Staff Development; Workshop/Writeshop on Local Population Planning; IEC Prototype
Development Skills Training; Values Orientation Workshop for the RPO XI staff; Basic
Demography Training for Technical Staff of RPO I, II, and VII; Interpersonal
Communication Skills Training; and Monitoring and Evaluation Training.
STATUS: (Cont'd)
Various advocacy activities were undertaken in 1996 for the promotion of the population

Development program. Most notable of these is the 1996 LGU Award which gives National
recognition and prominence to outstanding province, city, municipality which have
contributed in a significant way in the promotion and implementation of local population
management program activities in their respective localities. Other advocacy activities were
conducted with the end-in-view of getting the support of various stakeholders such as the
Senators, Congressmen, Regional Directors of DAR, media, church leaders, foreign guests,
Sangguniang Kabataan (SKs), women leaders, volunteers, youth groups, other GOs/NGOs,
and local government officials (LGUs) at the provincial city, municipal and baranggay levels.
These include (1) orientation on the PPMP/PRE Balance; (2) the conferring of the annual
Salas Award: (3) advocacy programs through radio programs, such as "Pag-uugnay:" Tao at
Mundo" and "Kamalayan" and (4) commemoration of POPCOM's anniversary.
In terms of policy advocacy and planning, the work towards the early passage of Population
bills was done through the publication of information materials on the popbills, and conduct
of consultative meetings with legislators and other stakeholders. Meanwhile, the Philippine
Population Management Program Advocacy Plan, an inter-agency undertaking, was
formulated in 1996 to guide Commission on Population (POPCOM) in its role as the lead
advocacy agency for population and DEvelopment.
Furthermore, the POPCOM prepared the Regional Population Program Plan for CY 19961998. Planning Workshop with partner agencies and population structures in the LGUs were
conducted to formulate/discuss the plan. In the same vein, a convergence group was
convened by POPCOM and DILG to discuss possible efforts to integrate the
concepts/framework of Human Ecological Security (HES).
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
Life expectancy at birth
Male

59.8
63.4

1990
62.67
67.93

Latest 1995
64.9
70.2

Female
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births)
Maternal mortality rate (per 100000 live births)

59.0

57.0

48.93

213 a/

n.a.

209 b/

Access to safe drinking water (% of population)


Access to sanitation services (% of population)
Other data

a/ 1980-1986
b/ 1987-1993
AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 7: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE HUMAN
SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The Philippines promoted the Development of sustainable human
settlements primarily through the operationalization of the Global Strategy for Shelter, and
more specifically, through the following initiatives, inter alia: a) preparation of a revised
National plan of action for 1994-1995; b) enhancing the roles of government, private sector,
scientific community, (NGOs); c) focusing on shelter-related issues, including urban
management, energy, transport, poverty alleviation, health and the environment; d) expanding
the role of women in shelter policies; e) establishing a National database on shelter and
services; f) addressing constraints in shelter production; and g) improving overall
performance of the shelter.
In terms of planning, the National Urban Development and Housing Framework provided the
strategy for the Development of environmentally sound and sustainable human settlements.
For program implementation, the National Shelter Program adopted eight major housing
policies: catalyst for economic activity; people-centered and aided self-help approaches,
maximum multi-sectoral participation; easier land access for housing, Development of
regional growth poles, sustainability and matching of housing finance with beneficiaries'
affordability, maintenance of ecological balance and improvement of the housing delivery
system.
The key players of the shelter program were mobilized and their roles enhanced. The
scientific community assisted in testing new construction materials and technologies. The
NGOs have taken the lead in organizing and mobilizing communities for the Community
Mortgage Program. The private sector now dominates housing production and as well as
housing finance for economic housing. On the other hand, the government has shifted its role
from the major provider of socialized housing to being the major source of housing finance.

The improved overall performance of the shelter sector may be characterized by the
following, among others: a) increasing access by the poor to land, finance, infrastructures and
building materials; b) strengthening the capability of local authorities for improved
management; c) regularizing and upgrading existing slums and squatter settlements; d)
improving rural living conditions; and e) involving the private sector in shelter and service
production for the middle and lower income groups.
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1990

1995

Urban population in % of total population


Annual rate of growth of urban population (%)
Largest city population (in % of total population)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 8: INTEGRATING ENVIRONMENT AND


DEVELOPMENT IN DECISION-MAKING
(See pages vii and viii at the beginning of the profile)
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: Among the commitments to the UNCED in 1992 is the integration of
Agenda 21 principles into the Development plans, programs and budgets of the government
at the NAtional, regional and local levels. To address this concern, the PCSD coordinated the
integration of a number of priority actions into the country's MTPDP, 1993-1998. A
memorandum order was likewise issued by the President to ensure the integration of
sustainable DEvelopment concerns in local plans and programs of the government. A
resolution recognizing and advocating the participation of the NGOs/POs to assume lead
roles in the implementation of Development programs and projects was passed. The other
major groups of society, e.g. women, youth, indigenous peoples and communities, among

others, were likewise recognized as equal partners in shaping, crafting and implementing
Development programs and participants in all stages of DEvelopment.
A Development vision and framework for the 21st century was formulated under the LongTerm Philippine Development Plan (LTPDP), 2000-2025. The LTPDP framework recognizes
that the new millennium shall increasingly call for economic DEvelopment to become less
ecologically destructive.
A number of programs which aim to integrate environment and Development in the decisionmaking process were also implemented by the Philippine government, e.g. Integrated
Environmental Management for Sustainable Development and Capacity Building in Support
of the PCSD Project, among others.
In particular, the Integrated Environmental Management for Sustainable Development
(IEMSD) Programme was implemented to support efforts in the integration of the
environment in decision-making, proper pricing of natural resources and strengthening of
people's participation and constituency-building for environmental policy advocacy. The
IEMSD has six (6) subprogrammes, namely: a) Environment and Natural Resources
Accounting (ENRA); b) Integration of Environmental and Socio-Economic Development
Policies SEI); c) Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA); d) Sustainable Development
Models (SDM); e) ENR Database (DBAS); and f) Programme Management Support System
(PMSS). Under the Programme, the following major activities have been undertaken: a)
Development of a comprehensive operational framework for the Philippine System of
Economic and Environmental Accounts; b) formulation of sustainable DEvelopment
indicators; c) incorporation of environmental concerns in the project evaluation process; d)
Development of an action impact matrix which identifies priority areas of study on
environment-economy integration; e) strengthening of the EIA system; f) reformulation of
guidelines for the implementation of the Environmental Guarantee Fund; g) preparation of an
EIA Procedural Handbook; h) Development of environmental risk assessment software; and
i) documentation of sustainable Development projects, among others.
The Capacity Building in Support of the PCSD Project, meanwhile, has been instrumental in
the formulation of the Philippine Agenda 21 and in pursuing advocacy efforts on SD.
Environmental conservation and protection activities were listed among the priority activities
entitled to fiscal incentives under the 1995 and 1996 Investment Priorities Plans (IPPs).
These include the establishment of forest plantations and integrated waste management
facilities to service domestic industries. In addition, the Philippines implemented marketfriendly trade and investment reforms. A number of EOs were issued from July 1995 to
March 1996 providing for a phased reduction in the tariff rates of manufactures and
agricultural products. Quantitative import restrictions on agricultural products were likewise
lifted and replaced by tariffs.
As early as 1978, the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) was established in the
Philippines in order to facilitate and maintain a rational and orderly balance between
socioeconomic growth and environmental protection. In January 1996, President Fidel V.

Ramos signed the revised Executive Order No. 291 entitled "Improving the Environmental
Impact Statement System (EIS). The EO seeks to integrate EIS system early into the project
DEvelopment cycle to promote its ultimate function as a planning tool for sustainable
DEvelopment and environmental planning and conservation. An EO institutionalizing the
ENRA in the Philippine System of Accounts has also been drafted for the consideration and
approval of the President.
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure (please also refer to the fact sheet): No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 9: PROTECTION OF THE ATMOSPHERE


NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:
The Montreal Protocol and its Amendments
Montreal Protocol (1987) signed in 1988
London Amendment (1990) signed in 19-Copenhagen Amendment (1992) signed in 19-The latest report(s) to the Montreal Protocol Secretariat were prepared in 19-United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UNFCCC was signed in 199-.
The latest report to the UNFCCC Secretariat was submitted in 199-.
Additional comments relevant to this chapter

With regard to Philippine initiatives, measures to improve air quality was highlighted through
the promotion of lead -free gasoline. Passage of the Environment Code which incorporates
laws that will improve the quality of air and water resources was endorsed and adoption of
appropriate pollution management schemes is being pushed. Pending the passage of the
Environment Code, an Executive Order (EO) was issued mandating the production and use of
low lead and unleaded gasoline.
The establishment of Metropolitan Environmental Improvement Program (MEIP) in Asia was
pushed to help selected metropolitan regions in designing and implementing solutions to
rapidly growing environmental problems which include, among others, the need to address
deteriorating air and water quality, flooding and stagnation of water resources, pollution from
solid wastes and traffic congestion. Likewise, the "Clean Air 2000" which is an action plan to
improve the level of air quality by the year 2000 was formulated.
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980 1990 Latest 199CO2 emissions (eq. million tons)
SOx "
NOx "
CH4 "
Consumption of ozone depleting substances (Tons)
Expenditure on air pollution abatement in US$ equivalents (million)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 10: INTEGRATED APPROACH TO THE PLANNING


AND MANAGEMENT OF LAND RESOURCES

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:
The Lands Management Bureau (LMB) came up with a National Master Plan on Land
Resources Management which aims to provide an integrated approach to the planning and
management of the country's land resources that will best suit the demands of the present
times. Specifically, the plan proposes the following:
- establishment of a monolithic agency which will adopt key and related functions;
- in view of our limited land resources , a gradual shift from freehold to leasehold system of
land disposition shall be adopted;
- adoption of the computerized Survey Verification System (SVS) and Land Records
Management Information System (LMRIS);
- adoption of the Geographic Information System (GIS) Technology on a NAtional scale and
acquisition of modern surveying equipment ; and
- creation of Land Management Fund wherein the management of the proceeds from the
disposition of land shall be vested in the LMB;
- creation of Land Management Fund wherein the management of the proceeds from the
disposition of land shall be vested in the LMB. The Land Management Fund will be a growth
fund to be used in the purchase of lands for strategic inventories in land banking,
DEvelopment of A and D lands to improve land values, and investment in government
securities.
As of this date, the Master Plan is still pending approval at the Department of Environment
and Natural Resources (DENR). Once it is approved, it shall be translated into Regional
Master Plans.
A National Land Use Act was drafted in line with the goal of strengthening the existing
process of identifying, determining, and evaluating alternative land use patterns to guide and
enable appropriate land management and DEvelopment. The Act was certified as a priority
environmental legislation and is currently being discussed in both houses of Congress (A
Review of the Implementation of Philippine Commitments to the Global Agenda 21 19921996).
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information

3. Major Groups: No information


4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 11: COMBATING DEFORESTATION


NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:
The Master Plan for Forestry Development (MPFD) which provides the framework for
combating deforestation and which is intended to guide the long-term DEvelopment of the
forestry sector in the Philippines was adopted in 1990. It has a total of 15 programs
thematically clustered into: 1) Man and the Environment Programs; 2) Forest Management
and Products Development Programs; and 3) Institutional Development Programs. The Plan
targets the reforestation of 1.8 million hectares to meet the country's needs. Of the target, the
DENR has established and developed 276,834 hectares of forest lands to date.
In line with the country's policy to ensure equitable access to, and sustainable DEvelopment
of forest resources, the President signed EO 263 entitled "Adopting Community-Based Forest
Management (CBFM) as the National Strategy to Ensure the Sustainable Development of the
Country's Forestland Resources and Providing Mechanisms for its Implementation".
National programs and projects being implemented include the :
Integrated Social Forestry Program - This program aims to promote a strong partnership
between the forest occupants and the government in food production and forest rehabilitation;
and
Industrial Forest Management - The program is being initiated with the objective of
establishing industrial forest plantations as alternative resource base for forest-based export
industries.
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985 1990

Latest
199-

Forest Area (Km2)


Protected forest area
Roundwood production (solid volume of roundwood without bark in
mill m3)
Deforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Reforestation rate (Km2/annum)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 12: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS:


COMBATING DESERTIFICATION AND DROUGHT
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:
International Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Drought
and/or Desertification
Particularly in Africa
Each party shall file reports on implementation with the Conference of Parties, as often and
in the form to be determined. Parties are to report on DEvelopment of NAtional action
programmes. The Conference shall assist affected developing countries to make reports.
Convention
No information
The latest report to the Secretariat of the Convention was prepared in 19--.
Additional comments relevant to this chapter

No information
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980

1990

Latest 199_

Land affected by desertification (Km2)


Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 13: MANAGING FRAGILE ECOSYSTEMS:


SUSTAINABLE MOUNTAIN DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 14: PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE


AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: The country, through the Department of Agriculture, implements the
Key Production Area (KPA) Development approach to sustainable agriculture. The KPA
approach is premised on the need to optimize the use of limited land and water to provide for
the food requirements of the growing population and foster "export winners" within the
context of equitable and sustainable DEvelopment. It encourages farmers and fisherfolks to
produce specific products suitable to the land, water resources and climate of specific areas in
the country. The integration of environmental concerns is being implemented through
policies and programs harnessing appropriate, cost efficient and environment-friendly
strategies and technologies to satisfactorily meet both long-term economic and ecological
needs.
The country also adopts an ecological approach to crop cultivation through the following:
Integrated Pest Management (IPM which was introduced in 1993. The program, known as
"Kasaganaan ng Sakahan at Kalikasan" or 'KASAKALIKASAN" represents the
government's commitment to the Agenda 21 of the UNCED, towards promoting sustainable
agriculture and rural Development. The IPM is an effective tool for empowering farmers to
improve know-how and expertise in this field. Rice and vegetable farmers have benefited
from the training on IPM extended by specialists through the DA;
Soil conservation and management. Appropriate land use management systems and soil
conservation techniques have been developed to minimize land degradation, indiscriminate
conversion and consequent deterioration of land productivity. These farming techniques
include: Contour Farming and Alley Cropping;
Water resource management. Water conservation-related projects are being undertaken to
ensure effective DEvelopment and management of the country's water resources. The Small
Water Impounding Projects (SWIPs) have been developed as a water storage mechanism to
supplement water supply for subsistence farmers and as a deterrent to soil erosion.
A program of assistance to Local Government Units is also being implemented by the DA to
prevent further environmental degradation by: a) prohibiting further destruction of the
mangrove ecosystem and reconverting abandoned, foreclosed or unproductive fishponds into
mangrove farms; and b) establishing and maintaining fish sanctuaries and marine parks in
municipal waters; c) restoring productivity and ecological balance of exploited inland waters
by prohibiting the use of destructive fishing methods and gears and by dispersing fingerling;
and d) providing support for programs which promote community participation in
environmental conservation (i.e., Bantay Dagat Program which encourages local
communities to actively participate in the protection of their fishing grounds).

Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1985
Agricultural land (Km2)

1990

Latest 1996
101,921.8

Agricultural land as % of total land area


Agricultural land per capita
1989/90 1992/93 Latest 199_
Consumption of fertilizers per Km2 of agricultural land as of
1990
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 15: CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY


NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:
Convention on Biological Diversity
Convention signed in 1992. Ratified in 1993
Latest report submitted in 1996.
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora
Convention signed in 1973. Ratified in 1981
Latest report submitted in 1995.

Additional comments relevant to this chapter


No information
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure:
Consultations/Meetings/Discussions
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues:
Trainings; orientations; seminars; workshops
3. Major Groups:
Academe
Non-Government Organizations
Other Government Agencies/Local Government Units
People's Organizations
Indigenous Cultural Communities
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation:
1 .Establishment of the ASEAN Regional Center on Biodiversity Conservation
2. Joint Management of Turtle Island Heritage Protected Area
3. Shembird Reserve Network
4. Assignment of JICA Expert
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
Protected area as % of total land area

11.49*
1990

Latest 199_
62%**
Latest 1997_

Number of threatened species

169

239

Other data

* Data includes small portion of water areas covered by marine and coastal
protected areas.
** Data includes big portion of water areas covered by marine and coastal
protected areas.
AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 16: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT
OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 17: PROTECTION OF THE OCEANS, ALL KINDS


OF SEAS, INCLUDING ENCLOSED AND SEMI-ENCLOSED SEAS, AND
COASTAL AREAS AND THE PROTECTION, RATIONAL USE AND
DEVELOPMENT OF THEIR LIVING RESOURCES
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:
The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea
Signed in 1982
Ratified in 1984

See also the attached tables on the next pages.


The Philippines as a participant to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea,
signed the Convention on December 10, 1982 and was ratified in February 27, 1984.
Recognizing the need to ensure a comprehensive and pragmatic approach in addressing
marine and ocean related concerns within the context of the Philippines' commitment as it
implements the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the existing
Cabinet Committee on the Treaty of the Law of the Sea which was created on October 3,
1981 was reconstituted into the Cabinet Committee on Marine and Ocean Affairs. The
Committee was mandated to formulate practical and viable policies that will address the
various concerns of UNCLOS and other marine related matters. As an initial output of the
Committee, a National Marine Policy was formulated and consequently adopted to serve as
the umbrella framework for addressing ocean and marine concerns.
A comprehensive national marine program is currently being formulated to achieve the goals
of the National Marine Policy. The Philippines became a partner of the International Coral
Initiative (ICRI) which was established to implement Chapter 21 of Agenda 21. In 1995, the
Philippines hosted the ICRI workshop which resulted in the formulation of the ICRI Call for
Action and a Framework for Action. The Call of Action and Framework of Action serves as
guide in the formulation of the regional action plan. As an ICRI Partner, it has now
established the Philippine Reef Database (Philreef), and has formulated a national program
for the celebration of the International Year of the Reef. The Philippines participated in the
formulation of the Regional Action Plan for the East Asian Seas.
A national data center on coastal zone environment and resource management is currently
being established under the auspices of the ASEAN-Australia Environment and Economic
Program, Phase III. This project aims to create a metadatabase on coastal resource
management which will be implemented through a network approach, ie. network of
network, and the development of a decision support system.
Recognizing the impact of land-based resources of pollution in marine and coastal
productivity, the Philippines actively participated in the series of meetings that led to the
formulation and adoption of the Global Programme on Land-based Sources of Pollution. A
national program on land-based sources of pollution is currently being conceptualized to
integrate Philippine initiatives and commitments to both the ASEAN and COBSEA Regional
Programs and NGO initiatives under the auspices of the Advisory Committee on the
Protection of Seas (ACOPS).
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information

2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information


3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980

1990

Latest 199-

Catches of marine species (metric tons)


Population in coastal areas
Population served by waste water treatment (% of country's
total population)
Discharges of oil into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of phosphate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Releases of nitrate into coastal waters (metric tons)
Other data

Chapter 17 (Oceans) Continued:


Check the boxes in the column below left:

Check the boxes in the column below right:

For level of importance use:

For level of implementation use:

*** = very important

*** = fully covered

** = important

** = well covered- gaps being addressed

* = not important

* = poorly covered

N = not relevant

O = not covered; N = not relevant

TABLE I. THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED BY


THE APPROPRIATE COORDINATING MECHANISM FOR INTEGRATED
MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF COASTAL AND
MARINE AREAS AND THEIR RESOURCES.

LEVEL OF
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
IMPORTANCE

LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION

***

a. Preparation and implementation of land and


water use and siting policies.

**

***

b. Implementation of integrated coastal and marine


management and sustainable development plans
and programmes at appropriate levels.

**

***

c. Preparation of coastal profiles identifying critical


areas including eroded zones, physical processes,
development patterns, user conflicts and specific
priorities for management.

**

***

d. Prior environmental impact assessment,


systematic observation and follow-up of major
projects, including systematic incorporation of
results in decision-making.

**

**

e. Contingency plans for human induced and


natural disasters.

***

f. Improvement of coastal human settlements,


especially in housing, drinking water and treatment
and disposal of sewage, solid wastes and industrial
effluents.

**

***

g. Periodic assessment of the impacts of external


factors and phenomena to ensure that the objectives
of integrated management and sustainable
development of coastal areas and marine
environment are met.

***

***

h. Conservation and restoration of altered critical


habitats.

**

***

I. Integration of sectoral programmes on


sustainable development for settlements,
agriculture, tourism, fishing, ports and industries
affecting the coastal areas.

***

J. Infrastructure adaptation and alternative


employment.

**

***

K. Human resource development and training.

**

***

L. Public education, awareness and information


programmes.

**

***

M. Promoting environmentally sound technology


and sustainable practices.

**

***

N. Development and simultaneous implementation


of environmental quality criteria.

**

TABLE II. TECHNOLOGY (MARINE ENVIRONMENT)


LEVEL OF
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
IMPORTANCE

LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION

***

A. Apply preventive, precautionary and anticipatory


approaches so as to avoid degradation of the marine
environment, as well as to reduce the risk of longterm or irreversible adverse effects upon it.

***

B. Ensure prior assessment of activities that may


have significant adverse impacts upon the marine
environment.

**

***

C. Integrate protection of the marine environment


into relevant general environmental, social and
economic development policies.

**

***

D. Develop economic incentives, where


appropriate, to apply clean technologies and other
means consistent with the internalization of
environmental costs, such as the polluter pays
principle, so as to avoid degradation of the marine
environment.

**

***

E. Improve the living standards of coastal


populations, particularly in developing countries, so
as to contribute to reducing the degradation of the
coastal and marine environment.

**

**

F. Effective monitoring and surveillance within the


exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of fish harvesting
and transportation of toxic and other hazardous
materials.

TABLE III. SEWAGE RELATED ISSUES


LEVEL OF
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
IMPORTANCE

LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION

**

A. Sewage related problems are considered when


formulating or reviewing coastal development
plans, including human development plans.

B. Sewage treatment facilities are built in

accordance with national policies.


**

C. Coastal outfalls are located so as to maintain


acceptable level of environmental quality and to
avoid exposing shell fisheries, water intakes and
bathing areas to pathogens.

**

D. The Government promotes primary treatment of


municipal sewage discharged to rivers, estuaries
and the sea, or other solutions appropriate to
specific sites.

**

**

E. The Government supports the establishment and


improvement of local, national, subregional and
regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring
programmes to control effluent discharge.
Minimum sewage effluent guidelines and water
quality criteria are in use.

TABLE IV. OTHER SOURCES OF MARINE POLLUTION, THE


GOVERNMENT HAS:
LEVEL OF
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
IMPORTANCE

LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION

***

A. Established or improved upon, as necessary,


regulatory and monitoring programmes to control
emissions, including recycling technologies.

**

***

B. Promoted risk and environmental impact


assessments to help ensure an acceptable level of
environmental quality.

**

**

C. Promoted assessment and cooperation at the


regional level, where appropriate, with respect to
the input of point source pollutants from the marine
environment.

**

**

D. Taken steps to eliminate emissions or discharges


of organohalogen compounds from the marine
environment.

**

**

E. Taken steps to eliminate/reduce emissions or


discharges or other synthetic organic compounds
from the marine environment.

**

F. Promoted controls over anthropogenic inputs of


nitrogen and phosphorous that enter coastal waters
where such problems as eutrophication threaten the

marine environment or its resources.

***

G. Taken steps to develop and implement


environmentally sound land-use techniques and
practices to reduce run-off to water courses and
estuaries which would cause pollution or
degradation of the marine environment.

**

**

H. Promoted the use of environmentally less


harmful pesticides and fertilizers and alternative
methods for pest control, and considered the
prohibition of those found to be environmentally
unsound.

**

**

I. Adopted new initiatives at national, subregional


and regional levels for controlling the input of nonpoint source pollutants which require broad changes
in sewage and waste management, agricultural
practices, mining, construction and transportation.

**

***

J. Taken steps to control and prevent coastal erosion


and siltation due to anthropogenic factors related to,
inter alia, land-use and construction techniques and
practices.

**

TABLE V. ADDRESSING CRITICAL UNCERTAINTIES FOR THE


MANAGEMENT OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND CLIMATE
CHANGE. IN ORDER TO IMPLEMENT THIS PROGRAMME AREA THE
GOVERNMENT IS CARRYING OUT THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES:
LEVEL OF
ACTIVITY AS DESCRIBED IN AGENDA 21
IMPORTANCE

LEVEL OF
IMPLEMENTATION

***

A. Coordinating national and regional observation


programmes for coastal and near-shore phenomena
related to climate change and for research
parameters essential for marine and coastal
management in all regions.

**

**

B. Providing improved forecasts of marine


conditions for the safety of inhabitants of coastal
areas and for the efficiency of marine operations.

**

**

C. Adopting special measures to cope with and


adapt to potential climate change and sea-level rise.

**

***

D. Participating in coastal vulnerability assessment,


modelling and response strategies particularly for
priority areas, such as small islands and low-lying

**

and critical coastal areas.

**

E. Identifying ongoing and planned programmes of


systematic observation of the marine environment,
with a view to integrating activities and
establishing priorities to address critical
uncertainties for oceans and all seas.

**

**

F. Research to determine the marine biological


effects of increased levels of ultraviolet rays due to
the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer.

**

**

G. Carrying out analysis, assessments and


systematic observation of the role of oceans as a
carbon sink.

**

TABLE VI. RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME


TRANSPORT SECTORS IN THE SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPING STATES
(SIDS)
AIR TRANSPORT

RATING MARITIME TRANSPORT

1. Frequency (external flights)

1. Frequency (external shipping)

2. Frequency (in-country flights)

2. Frequency (in-country
shipping)

3. Cooperation at regional level in


air transport and civil aviation

3. Cooperation at regional level


in shipping

4. Cooperation at international level

4. Cooperation at international
level

5. Economic viability of national air


line

5. Economic viability of national


shipping line(s)

6. Economic viability of regional air


line

6. Economic viability of regional


shipping line (s)

7. national level training in skills for


air transport sector

7. National level training in skills


for maritime transport sector

8. Access to training in skills for air


transport sector within the region

8. Regional level training in skills


for maritime transport sector

9. Access to international training


for air transport sector

9. Access to international training


for maritime transport sector

10. Supportive of ICAO

RATING

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 18: PROTECTION OF THE QUALITY AND SUPPLY


OF FRESHWATER RESOURCES: APPLICATION OF INTEGRATED
APPROACHES TO THE DEVELOPMENT, MANAGEMENT AND USE OF
WATER RESOURCES
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980 1990 Latest 199Fresh water availability (total domestic/external in million m3)
Annual withdrawal of freshwater as % of available water
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 19: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT


OF TOXIC CHEMICALS, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL
INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN TOXIC AND DANGEROUS PRODUCTS
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information

4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 20: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT


OF HAZARDOUS WASTES, INCLUDING PREVENTION OF ILLEGAL
INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN HAZARDOUS WASTES
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:
The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous
Wastes and their Disposal
Basel Convention signed in 1989. Ratified in 1993
The latest information was provided to the Basel Convention Secretariat in 19--.
Additional comments relevant to this chapter
As signatory to the Basel Convention, the Philippines continues to monitor the
implementation of RA 6969 on Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control
Act of 1990. This law bans the importation, storage or transport of toxic or nuclear wastes
into or through the Philippines. On the need to regulate the movement of hazardous wastes,
the DENR issued Administrative Order No. 28 which bans the importation of Recyclable
Materials Containing Hazardous Substances. In addition, waste management practices are
underway to include the hospital waste management program of the government. Strict
monitoring of government-owned and private hospitals are being undertaken to ensure
adherence to the program. Rewards and recognition for outstanding sanitation performance
are also being instituted.
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information

5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information


STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980

1990

Latest 199-

Generation of hazardous waste (t)


Import of hazardous wastes (t)
Export of hazardous wastes (t)
Area of land contaminated by hazardous waste (km2)
Expenditure on hazardous waste treatment (US$)
Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 21: ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND MANAGEMENT


OF SOLID WASTES AND SEWAGE-RELATED ISSUES
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
Generation of industrial and municipal waste (t)
Waste disposed(Kg/capita)
Expenditure on waste collection and treatment (US$)
Waste recycling rates (%)
Municipal waste disposal (Kg/capita)

1990

Latest 199-

Waste reduction rates per unit of GDP (t/year)


Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 22: SAFE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND


MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information
Cross-Sectoral Issues
1. Decision-Making Structure: No information
2. Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: No information
3. Major Groups: No information
4. Finance: No information
5. Regional/International Cooperation: No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTERS 23-32: MAJOR GROUPS


The role of major groups are also covered under the various chapters of Agenda
21. The following is a summary of main objectives outlined in Agenda 21. Please
check the appropriate boxes and describe briefly any important steps or
obstacles.
STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 24: GLOBAL ACTION FOR WOMEN TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AND
EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT.
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women was
ratified in 1987
24.b Increasing the proportion of women decision makers.
Percentage of women:

in government %
in parliament % 16.7 (1992)
at local government level % 9.7 (1992)
24.2.e assessing, reviewing, revising and implementing curricula and other educational
material with a view to promoting dissemination of gender-relevant knowledge.
Curricula and educational material
already promote gender.
relevant knowledge.
24.2.f and 24.2.c formulating and implementing policies, guidelines, strategies and plans for
achievement of equality in all aspects of society including issuing a strategy by year 2000 to
eliminate obstacles to full participation of women in sustainable development.
Policies/strategies etc. have been
drawn up/completed.
24.2.d establishing mechanisms by 1995 to assess implementation and impact of
development and environment policies and programmes on women
Mechanisms are in place.
Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this
page): President Fidel V. Ramos issued a number of directives to further promote
empowerment of women and address their concerns during the 1993 Women's Day
Celebration in Malacaang Palace. These include among others, the following (i)
implementation of the government agencies of Republic Act (R.A)7192, also known as
Women in Development and Nation Building Act and its implementing rules and regulations;
(ii) the formulation of strategies to incorporate in the government budget R.A. 7192; and (iii)
identification of priority areas where Women's Desks in police stations may be established or
operationalized to enable law enforcement agencies provide greater protection to women and
at the same time making government program on women accessible to them.
In addition to these initiatives, the country participated in the Fourth World Conference on
Women in Beijing China from 4-15 September 1995. The conference, which was participated
in by 17,000 representatives from different countries, aimed to secure the commitments of
the participants to ensure that the equal rights of men and women in their respective countries
are realized.

STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE


NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 25: CHILDREN AND YOUTH IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.
25.4 establishing processes that promote dialogue between the youth and government at all
levels and mechanisms that permit youth access to information and opportunity to present
their views on implementing PA 21.
Name relevant youth fora (3-4 most important):
1. Youth Conference for Sustainable Development in the 21st century
2.
3.
4.
Describe their role in
the national process: Full participants
25.6 reducing youth unemployment
Youth unemployment1992:______________1996:________
25.5 ensuring that by year 2000 more than 50% of youth -- gender balanced -- have access to
appropriate secondary education or vocational training.
The goal set in Agenda 21: No information
Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this
page): A number of initiatives/efforts have been implemented to integrate the concerns of
children and youth in the government's planning and decision-making process. The Capacity
21 Project gathered several government agencies such as the Department of Education,
Culture an d Sports, Department of Social Welfare and Development, National Economic and
Development Authority, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, several youth
organizations from the PO and NGOs, in the preparation of Philippine Agenda 21. A
Committee was formed to plan and set directions to the conduct of Youth Conference for SD.
The conference aimed at involving and consulting youth representatives from the different
sectors and localities for the formulation of Philippine Agenda 21.
Other accomplishments of the youth sector include the creation of the National Youth
Commission (NYC), the Philippine Youth Environmental Network and the establishment of
'Sangguniang Kabataan" (Youth Council) in local communities to promote awareness,

participation, and environmental concerns in advocacy, environmental protection and


conservation initiatives.
STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 26: RECOGNIZING AND STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS
PEOPLE AND THEIR COMMUNITIES.
26.3.a establishing a process to empower indigenous people and their communities -- through
policies and legal instruments:
In place.
26.3.b strengthening arrangements for active participation in national policies
Indigenous people participate fully in appropriate national processes.
26.3.c involving indigenous people in resource management strategies and programmes at the
national and local level.
Indigenous people are fully involved.
Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this
page): Participation of the indigenous community in almost all levels of project cycle and in
almost all projects undertaken in their area of concern, are ensured in various directives and
promulgations issued by the government. Foremost among this is the recognition of their
right for self-determination through the creation of the Office of Southern Cultural
Communities and the Office of Northern Cultural Communities and their active participation
in various committees and sub-committees of the PCSD. Aside from these institutions,
several indigenous POs and NGOs are recognized and allowed to participate in various levels
of policy and planning process of government programs and projects as provided in the Local
Government Code of 1991. The National Integrated Protected Areas Act likewise enhanced
the role of indigenous community in the protection of identified protected areas in the
country; Executive Order Number 263 signed in July 19, 1995 institutionalized both
community based forest management as a resource management approach and the
indispensable role of the indigenous community in forest conservation, extraction and
protection. The issuance of Certificates of Ancestral Domain Claim has strengthened the
tenurial claim of the indigenous community to their land.

Ch.
27: STRENGTHENING
THE
ROLE
OF
NON-GOVERNMENTAL
ORGANIZATIONS: PARTNERS FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.

27.5 developing mechanisms that allow NGOs to play their partnership role responsibly and
effectively.
27.6 reviewing formal procedures and mechanisms to involve NGOs in decision making and
implementation.
27.8 promoting and allowing NGOs to participate in the conception, establishment and
evaluation of official mechanisms to review Agenda 21 implementation.
Mechanisms exist already.
NGOs are participating fully.
NGO inputs are important.
27.7 establishing a mutually productive dialogue by 1995 at the national level between NGOs
and governments.
Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):
There have already been a number of collaborative efforts between POs/NGOs on SD. To
ensure active participation from the civil society in the decison making process towards SD,
representatives from NGO/PO sit in as members of the Philippine Council for Sustainable
Development and in several foreign assisted projects on environment (i.e. Protected Areas
Projects).
STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 28: LOCAL AUTHORITIES' INITIATIVES IN SUPPORT OF AGENDA 21.
28.2.d encouraging local authorities to implement and monitor programmes that aim to
ensure participation of women and youth in local decision making.
There are at least five (5) local (provincial) agenda 21s. 100% involve representation of
women and/or youth
They involve ----% of population
Government support of local agenda 21 initiatives: supports
Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):
Devolution and localization of SD initiatives have placed the LGU in the forefront of
development process. A local Government Academy was established to train local

government officials and developing them into a core of competent and dedicated executives
to promote and support the government thrust towards poverty eradication, social reform and
sustainable development. Moreover, the DILG issued a memorandum circular which
primarily aims to designate a focal person in the local government offices to ensure that SD
concerns are integrated in the local planning process. The LGA has been instrumental in
providing LGUs the necessary assistance in developing their capability towards SD.
Ch. 29: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF WORKERS AND THEIR TRADE
UNIONS.
29.2 full participation of workers in implementation and evaluation of A21.
29.3 a to e (By year 2000, (a) promoting ratification of ILO conventions; (b) establishing
bipartite and tripartite mechanism on safety, health and sustainable development; (c)
increasing number of environmental collective agreements; (d) reducing occupational
accidents and injuries; (e) increasing workers' education and training efforts.
Workers take some part in National Agenda 21 discussions/implementation.
Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):
With the recent inclusion of the labor sector as a member of the PCSD, it is expected that its
involvement and participation in SD initiatives will be intensified. As member-representative
to the PCSD, the Trade Union Congress of the Philippines and the Labor Advisory and
Consultative Council are coordinating trade unions' activities related to sustainable
development. Several trade unions have already included the "Green Clause" in their
Collective Bargaining Agreements.
Among the sector's initiatives include the participation in a series of discussions related to the
formulation of the PA 21. The sector was, likewise, contributory to the conduct of the
"Gathering for Human and Ecological Security", a conference which served as a venue for
sharing of experiences and developing consensus on the new ethic for human and ecological
security.
STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
30: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY.
30.6 increasing the efficiency of resource use, including reuse, recycling, and reduction of
waste per unit of economic output.
There are governmental policies encouraging the above objective.

There are governmental policies requiring recycling etc.


30.18.a encouraging the concept of stewardship in management and use of natural resources
by entrepreneurs.
List any actions taken in this area: The involvement of the business sector in SD initiatives
ensued with the formulation of the "Philippine Business Charter" and the launching of the bimonthly news magazine "Business and Environment". The sector also participated in the
consultation program for the Major Groups Committee supported by the International Labor
Organization (ILO) in 1995 and provided inputs in the formulation of the PA 21. The sector
also engaged in the promotion of SD practices and other activities towards the advancement
of environmental awareness. The sector is likewise a signatory to the "People's Covenant
Towards a Transition to SD" which formalizes the commitment of all stakeholders in
implementing PA 21.
30.18.b increasing number of enterprises that subscribe to and implement sustainable
development policies.
No information
Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):
The role of business and the industry in the pursuit of sustainable development is expected to
be strengthened with its recent inclusion as a member of the PCSD. It should be noted,
however, that this sector engaged in several activities even before its membership in the
PCSD. These include, among others, the implementation of Environmental Information
Center for Business and Industry and the conduct of environment related campaigns (i.e.
Campaign on toxic and hazardous waste management, anti-smoke belching campaign).
STATUS REPORT ON PARTICIPATION BY MAJOR GROUPS AT THE
NATIONAL AND LOCAL LEVELS
Ch. 31: SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COMMUNITY.
31.3.b improving exchange of knowledge and concerns between s&t community and the
general public.
No information
31.9 developing, improving and promoting international acceptance of codes of practice and
guidelines related to science and technology and its role in reconciling environment and
development.
Brief comments on this chapter not already described in chapter 35 (maximum 100

words) (please, do not exceed this page): No information


Ch. 32: STRENGTHENING THE ROLE OF FARMERS.
32.5.c promoting and encouraging sustainable farming practices and technologies.
32.5.e developing a policy framework that provides incentives and motivation among farmers
for sustainable and efficient farming practices.
32.5.f enhancing participation of organizations of farmers in design and implementation of
sustainable development policies.
Brief comments on this chapter (maximum 100 words) (please, do not exceed this page):
In view of the inclusion of the farmers group in the PCSD as permanent representative from
PO, the sector is given equal chance in the decision-making process of the government on
sustainable development. The sector is involved in a series of consultations related to the
formulation of the PA 21 and has been actively participating in the activity of the PCSD.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 33: FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISMS


Financial resources and mechanisms are also covered under each sectoral
chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant. This summary highlights broader national
financial policies, domestic and external (including ODA)
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT: No information
CHANGES
IN
NATIONAL
DEVELOPMENT: No information

BUDGET

TO

ADDRESS

SUSTAINABLE

NEW ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS:


The PA 21 recommends the adoption of a mixture of market-based instruments and command
and control measures to provide the needed financial flows to support its implementation.
The strategy aims to influence the consumption and production behavior of the general public
including the business sector, in favor of sustainable development. The PA 21 adopts the
principle that the LGUs, national government and economic sectors should be further
developed to achieve the optimal conditions for the application of the financial resources
strategy.

ELIMINATION
information

OF

ENVIRONMENTALLY

UNFRIENDLY

SUBSIDIES: No

ODA policy issues


No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1992
ODA funding
US$million)

provided

or

received

1993

1994 1995 1996

(Total
Average for 92Average for 94-96
93

Net flow of external capital from all sources as % of


GDP
Other data
1996 ODA Commitments in the environment sector
Financing
Grant
=
Loan
Mixed Credit = 18.600 M
1997
Grant
=
Loan
Mixed Credit = 10.000 M

US

6.684

type:
M
M

14.374

Pipeline
M
M

58.510
ODA
US

$
20.476

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 34: TRANSFER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND


TECHNOLOGY, COOPERATION AND CAPACITY-BUILDING
Transfer of environmentally sound technology, cooperation and capacitybuilding is also covered under each sectoral chapter of Agenda 21 where relevant.
This summary highlights broader national policies and actions relating to
chapter 34.
The Philippines' support for information/knowledge sharing is manifested by its initiative to

establish the Asia Pacific Center for Technology Exchange and Training for Small and Medium
Enterprises (ACTETSME) databank on clean production (CP) and clean technologies (CT)
which can be accessed by all APEC-member economies. The country fully subscribes to the
mechanisms to stimulate cooperative activities among APEC member economies for the
dissemination, promotion, transfer and wider application of CP and CT practices. Moreover, it
rallies behind the use of ISO 14000 for wider dissemination and use of CP and CT in the APEC
region.
Also, providing an information center on clean production and clean technologies is the
Information Center for Clean Technology and Environmental Management (CTEM) managed
by the PBE. The CTEM derives funding support from the United States-Asia Environmental
Partnership (US-AEP), a project of the United States Agency for International Development
(USAID). Its objectives include: a) the promotion of clean technology and environmental
management to improve efficiency and reduce pollution; and b) provision of access to relevant
information on specific industrial technologies and management needs to enable businesses to
achieve a competitive environmental advantage, reduce costs and increase productivity. The
US-AEP has been an active partner of the private sector in facilitating the transfer of
environmental technology. The local US-AEP Technology Cooperation Office sends local
suppliers to environment trade exhibits abroad where the opportunity to forge distributorship
agreements with foreign counterparts are being explored. A number of distributorship
agreements have already been successfully negotiated through US-AEP (Business and
Environment: Jan-Feb 1996).
A survey of the country's top 1000 companies to benchmark existing environmental practices of
these companies and identify areas where businesses can collectively work in improving local
initiatives in environment has been initiated by several organizations. It was undertaken to
consolidate business sector's contributions to the Philippine Agenda (PA) 21. The findings of
the survey reveal that private firms are increasingly adopting voluntary environmental
guidelines such as the Philippine Business Charter for Sustainable Development (PBCSD),
Responsible Care or ISO 14000 and standards set by the DENR. There was also an observed
increase in both investments and savings on the environment over the past three years.
The local chemical industry, for instance, adopts the Responsible Care Program as a means of
facilitating the minimization of risks and potential adverse effects associated with their
operations. The recent adoption of the program by the Chemical Industries Association of the
Philippines, also known as the "Samahan sa Pilipinas ng mga Industriyang Kimika (SPIK), is a
commitment to continually improve their respective companies performance regarding
concerns on health, safety and environmental aspects of their operations.
Several other projects are being implemented by the Philippine Government through the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) aimed at assisting private firms to
be environmentally competitive. The Integrated Environmental Management Program (IEMP),
which is a joint undertaking of the EMB of the DENR and the United States Agency for
International Development (USAID), aims to encourage sustainable economic growth in the
Philippine Industrial sector while reducing pollution from industrial activities and improving
human health and the environment. It conducts pollution management appraisals (PMAs) to

periodically assess waste minimization opportunities and improve firms' production processes
and methods (PPM).
STATUS: (Cont'd)
Also, there are initiatives being coordinated by the Philippine Business for the Environment,
Inc. (PBE), a non-stock, non-profit organization formed to assist business firms in making
their operations supportive of the environmental thrusts. The PBE developed and promotes
the Philippine Business Charter for Sustainable Development (PBCSD), an instrument which
encourages business firms to adopt environmentally correct practices or cleaner production
strategies. Private firms are increasingly subscribing to the PBCSD. Some of the initiatives
include: a) implementation of a pollution control program by Hi-Cement (cement plant)
which includes the installation of a device that controls the release of dust and other
particulate matter into the atmosphere; b) the initiative by the Asian Institute of Management
(AIM) to introduce a three year Environment, Development and Management Program with
grant assistance from the MacArthur Foundation. The program aims to make sustainable
development a strategic concern in the training of Asian development and enterprising
managers. (Business and Environment: May-June 1995).
In support to the promotion of eco-efficiency, tax exemptions are likewise provided to firms
which import brand new equipment and utilize industrial waste treatment systems. Facilitated
by the Board of Investments (BOI) of the country's Department of Trade and Industry (DTI),
incentives are granted to the installation of pollution control equipment whether locally
manufactured or imported. The BOI of the DTI also coordinates with the Green Aide Plan of
the Ministry of International Trade and Industry of Japan to transfer technology on pollution
control and energy. Similarly, the Omnibus Investment Code under the supervision of the
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) provides for the granting of incentives to companies
using anti-pollution devices. DENR certification is needed prior to availment of incentives.

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 35: SCIENCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE, RESEARCH
NEEDS AND PRIORITIES: The implementation of the Science and Technology Agenda
for National Development (STAND) which operationalizes the broad objective of ensuring
global excellence and people empowerment is a primary initiative undertaken to reinforce the
role of S and T in sustainable development. Other activities include reinforcing the mutually
supportive goal of science and technology in ensuring success of sustainable development
efforts by assessing research needs and priorities and the development of tools for the
implementation of SD initiatives.
Research and development efforts were also directed towards the promotion of export

winners and environmentally acceptable products. Basic human needs like food, health,
housing, nutrition, disaster and hazard mitigation, energy and telecommunications received
priority in research and technology development.
STEPS TAKEN TO ENHANCE SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING, IMPROVE LONG
TERM SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT, BUILDING OF CAPACITY AND CAPABILITY:
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
Year
Number of scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in research and
# 19-experimental development
Total expenditure for research and experimental development (US$eq.)

$ 19--

Other data

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 36:


AWARENESS AND TRAINING

PROMOTING

EDUCATION,

PUBLIC

NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT:
The promotion of SD through information and education is one of the priority activities to
invoke a paradigm shift on the development outlooks of the nation. PCSD member agencies
as well as their civil society counterparts have all contributed to the promotion of sustainable
development in the country though the various programs, projects and other IEC activities
related to the promotion of awareness and advocacy activities for the environment and
sustainable development. The Philippine Agenda 21, which is currently undergoing printing
will be distributed to key agencies/organizations/institutions. Popular versions and primers
which will be printed in different dialects and designed for basic sectors will also be
distributed to provide the general public with a laymanized version of the Philippine Agenda
21. The PCSD Subcommittee on Information and Education is the primary arm that
coordinates with the different agencies and organizations in the efforts of communicating
sustainable development to the Filipino through the various IEC activities of said
organizations. Elements of PA 21 are incorporated in their IEC activities and materials. These
efforts are hoped to be strengthened with the inclusion of business and labor groups in the
PCSD.
a) Reorientation of education towards sustainable development
Efforts are being undertaken to integrate environmental education in all levels of education
(basic, secondary, tertiary, technical/vocational, teacher training and non-formal). Concerned
agencies are the Department of Education, Culture and Sports, the Department of

Environment and Natural Resources, Commission on Higher Education, and the Technical
Skills Development Authority, particularly with the soon to be concluded ADB-DECS-EMB
Project on Environmental Education.
b) Increasing public awareness
The general public was stratified into specific target audiences; of these, policy-makers
(national and local), educators and media were identified as priorities. Several seminars and
symposia are identified as venues for popularizing the Philippine Agenda 21 aside from the
dissemination of primers and posters for the general public.
c) Promoting training
Training of policy-makers (local government) on sustainable development, particularly the
Environmental Management Bureau (EMB ) - organizational seminars on solid-waste
management , Environmental Impact Assessment, Environmental Risk Assessment, and
waste minimization.
ROLE OF MAJOR GROUPS:
The Department of Environment and Natural Resources and its attached Bureaus have taken
the lead in promoting education on environment and sustainable development through its
various programs, projects and IEC activities. These activities included the participation of
various groups such as policy makers, local government authorities, youth and nongovernment organizations. Non-government organizations also conducted IEC activities on
environment and sustainable development for communities and other local sectoral groups
through their own efforts and initiatives.
FINANCING AND COST EVALUATION OF THE LABOR ACTIVITIES: No
information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
Adult literacy rate (%) Male
Adult literacy rate (%) Female
% of primary school children reaching grade 5 (1986-97)
Mean number of years of schooling
% of GNP spent on education
Females per 100 males in secondary school
Women per 100 men in the labor force

1990

Latest 199-

Other data
Basic literacy rate: 93.5% (1990), 95.0% (1995)
Functional literacy rate: 75.6% (1989), 83.8% (1995)

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 37: NATIONAL MECHANISMS AND


INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION FOR CAPACITY-BUILDING IN
DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
National capacity building is also covered under sectoral chapters.
Donors: You may wish to describe here how Agenda 21 has influenced your ODA
policies in this area.
Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms
for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.
NATIONAL PRIORITY:
STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: No
information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER
ARRANGEMENTS

38:

INTERNATIONAL

INSTITUTIONAL

Ch. 38: Brief summary of any particular UN System response affecting this
country/state:

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 39: INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS AND


MECHANISMS
Ch. 39: International Legal Instruments are covered under the relevant sectoral
chapters. This is a listing of major agreements/conventions (not already covered)
entered into and relevant to Agenda 21:
No information

AGENDA 21 CHAPTER 40: INFORMATION FOR DECISION-MAKING

This chapter is also covered under sectoral and other chapters of this profile. The
matrix below gives an overview of how national authorities rate the available
information for decision making.
Rating of available data and information suitable for decision-making
Very
good

Agenda 21 Chapters

Good

2.

International cooperation and trade

3.

Combating poverty

4.

Changing consumption patterns

5.

Demographic
sustainability

6.

Human health

7.

Human settlements

8.

Integrating E & D in decisionmaking

9.

Protection of the atmosphere

10.

Integrated
planning
and
management of land resources
Combating
drought

dynamics

X
and

and

13. Sustainable mountain development


14.

Sustainable agriculture and rural


development

15.

Conservation
diversity

biological

16. Biotechnology
17.

Oceans, seas, coastal areas and


their living resources

18. Freshwater resources

X
X

desertification

of

X
X

11. Combating deforestation


12.

Some good data


Poor Remarks
but many gaps

X
X

X
X
X
X

19. Toxic chemicals

20. Hazardous wastes

21. Solid wastes

22. Radioactive wastes

24. Women in sustainable development

25. Children and youth

26. Indigenous people

27. Non-governmental organizations

28. Local authorities

29. Workers and trade unions

30. Business and industry


31.

Scientific
community

and

X
technological

32. Farmers

33.

Financial
mechanisms

resources

and

34.

Technology,
cooperation
capacity-building

35.

Science
for
development

36.

Education, public awareness and


training

37.

International
cooperation
capacity-building

38.

International
arrangements

and

sustainable

X
X
X
X

for

institutional

X
X

39. International legal instruments


40. Information for decision-making

X
X

Additional Comments
No information
STATISTICAL DATA/INDICATORS
1980
Number of telephones in use per 100 inhabitants
Other data

1993

Latest 199-

F E AT U R E D N E W S
THREE-YEAR ROLLING INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM TO ENSURE
SUSTAINABILITY OF WELL-DEVELOPED PROGRAMS, PROJECTS

To meet investment targets for public infrastructure, the Infrastructure


Committee of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA)
approved the reinstitution of a three-year rolling infrastructure program in
the national budget process starting 2017. The Three-Year Rolling
Infrastructure Program or TRIP promotes the optimal use of public resources
for infrastructure development by assuring fund allocation
Read the full article here
MANUFACTURING SECTOR SUSTAINS GROWTH IN FEBRUARY 2016

The manufacturing sector continues to grow in February 2016 due to


increased production of furniture, food products, and rubber, according to the
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA). In the Philippine
Statistics Authoritys Monthly Integrated Survey of Selected Industries for
February 2016, the Volume of Production Index (VoPI) grew by 8.4 percent, a
turnaround from
Read the full article here
WEAK GLOBAL DEMAND PULLS DOWN EXPORTS ANEW IN FEBRUARY 2016

Global economic slowdown continued to strain Philippine merchandise


exports which declined by 4.5 percent in February 2016, according to the
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA). The Philippine
Statistics Authority reported today that total export earnings reached US$4.3
billion in February 2016, from US$ 4.5 billion in the same month last year,
due to decline
Read the full article here

STATEMENT OF SOCIOECONOMIC PLANNING SECRETARY EMMANUEL F.


ESGUERRA ON THE STATUS OF THE ROADMAP TO ADDRESS THE IMPACT OF
EL NIO (RAIN)

The Technical Working Group on the Roadmap to Address the Impact of El


Nino or RAIN has just had its 5th meeting this morning and we would like to
share with you highlights of the agencies reports on the implementation
status of the action plan of the governments El Nio Task Force. In
retrospect, the

T H R E E -Y E A R R O L L I N G I N F R A S T R U C T U R E P R O G R A M T O
THREE-YEAR ROLLING INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAM TO ENSURE
SUSTAINABILITY OF WELL-DEVELOPED PROGRAMS, PROJECTS

To meet investment targets for public infrastructure, the Infrastructure


Committee of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA)
approved the reinstitution of a three-year rolling infrastructure program in
the national budget process starting 2017. The Three-Year Rolling
Infrastructure Program or TRIP promotes the optimal use of public resources
for infrastructure development by assuring fund allocation for well-developed
and readily-implementable projects for three years, according to NEDA.
The TRIP is a modification of the Comprehensive and Integrated
Infrastructure Program (CIIP), which is a consolidated list of all infrastructure
programs of the government, only that the TRIP puts more emphasis on
immediate priorities to be undertaken in three-year periods.
The multi-year rolling program for infrastructure will assure us that once an
infrastructure program has been planned, and it is rolled out, it is going to
continue to receive funding from the government. This is one of our efforts to
synchronize and tighten the link between the programming and budgeting
functions of the government for infrastructure projects and programs, said
Socioeconomic Planning Secretary Emmanuel F. Esguerra.
In previous years, agencies have been submitting projects for inclusion in the
Public Investment Program (PIP) and the CIIP. In October 2014, the NEDA
Infrastructure Committee (INFRACOM) approved the TRIPs reinstitution in
the National Expenditure Plan (NEP) process. TRIP will be incorporated in the
budget process for the fiscal year of 2017.

The TRIP will also ensure that the hard budget ceilings of government
agencies are optimized and utilized in funding infrastructure programs that
are responsive to the priorities and strategies in the Philippine Development
Plan. More importantly, it will see to it that the governments target for
increased investment in public infrastructure is met, the Cabinet official
said.
Public infrastructure spending is targeted to reach 5 percent of GDP in 2016
from 2 percent in 2012.
Thus, through the TRIP, government will be able to address gaps in the
infrastructure sector including pending projects from previous years, some
which are 4,710 kilometers of national roads that need to be paved, 366,014
units of socialized housing that are up for construction, and 1.2 million
hectares for irrigation.
Once implemented, government agencies will submit their respective threeyear infrastructure programs for the review and compilation of NEDA. The
consolidated TRIP will be presented to the NEDA INFRACOM for confirmation
and/or approval.
The approved consolidated TRIP will then be submitted to the Department of
Budget and Management to determine program spending levels and
indicative budget ceilings. The TRIP, which will be updated annually, will be
the basis for the list of programs, activities, and projects under the NEP.

The manufacturing sector continues to grow in February 2016 due to


increased production of furniture, food products, and rubber, according to the
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA).
In the Philippine Statistics Authoritys Monthly Integrated Survey of Selected
Industries for February 2016, the Volume of Production Index (VoPI) grew by
8.4 percent, a turnaround from the 2.1 percent decline recorded in February
2015.

Similarly, the Value of Production Index (VaPI) recorded a modest growth of


2.8 percent, rebounding from the 7.6 decline recorded in the same period
last year.
The manufacturing sector is expected to sustain growth this year because
of our strong macroeconomic fundamentals, resilient domestic consumption,
and upcoming national elections. There is a positive business outlook due to
anticipated increases in gross revenues and net income of some of the
countrys largest corporations, said Socioeconomic Planning Secretary
Emmanuel F. Esguerra.
He adds that this scenario increases the availability of jobs while stable
prices of commodities, government assistance such as the Pantawid
Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps), and election-related spending will also
provide additional boost to domestic consumption.
For consumer goods, furniture and fixtures recorded strong growth on the
back of robust domestic demand, posting an increase in volume of 32.4
percent and value of 13.2 percent in February 2016.
Likewise, the food subsector sustained double-digit growth in February,
posting a 26-percent and 25.8-percent growth rate in volume and value of
production, respectively.
Driven by strong consumer spending and efficient distribution of goods, the
growth in food production is expected to continue in the coming months as El
Nio is anticipated to weaken and fade away during the second quarter of
2016, said Esguerra, who is also NEDA Director-General.
For intermediate goods, rubber and plastic products posted a double-digit
growth of 25.6 in volume and 1.5 percent growth in value of production. For
capital goods, electric machinery grew by 16.3 and 8.3 percent in volume
and value, respectively.
Esguerra also said that with low global oil prices, lower production costs will
encourage expansion of manufacturing production.
Thus, to maximize low oil prices, the government must ensure that stable
macroeconomic fundamentals are sustained and measures to further reduce
cost of doing business are continually pursued. Also, access to high-quality
raw materials and reliable energy, logistics and other manufacturing-related

services must be available to support robust growth of manufacturing


output, he said.
Esguerra also added that strategic investments in research and development
must be pursued. The development of new products and services and the
improvement of existing ones will enhance the competitiveness of local
players in the global market.
END
R E L AT E D L I N K S

WEAK GLOBAL DEMAND PULLS


D O W N E X P O RT S A N E W
WEAK GLOBAL DEMAND FALLS DOWN

Global economic slowdown continued to strain Philippine merchandise


exports which declined by 4.5 percent in February 2016, according to the
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA).
The Philippine Statistics Authority reported today that total export earnings
reached US$4.3 billion in February 2016, from US$ 4.5 billion in the same
month last year, due to decline in all commodity groups.
The export performance of most of the trade-oriented economies in East
and Southeast Asia continues to reel from weak global demand that is largely
influenced by the global economic slowdown. For the Philippines, we see this
continuing only within the near term but it remains important for us to set up
short-term measures that will support some of our export products, said
Socioeconomic Planning Secretary Emmanuel F. Esguerra.
Only Viet Nam and Thailand posted positive export gains while China
recorded the steepest decline at 25.3 percent during the period.
As softer external demand is expected over the near term, the Philippines
should at least aim for a 5.4 percent growth in merchandise exports, which is
the low-end projection of the Export Development Council. Short-term
measures may include providing government support to export products for
which demand is growing faster relative to other export segments and where
the Philippines has an increasing market share, he said.

Revenues from manufactured products slightly dropped by 2.0 percent to


reach US$3.7 billion from US$3.8 billion in February 2015.
The drop in exports of manufactured goods reflected the general slowdown
experienced by the manufacturing sector around the world. But it is worth
noting that overseas sales of our electronic products posted its ninth
consecutive month of positive growth, said Esguerra, who is also NEDA
Director-General.
Electronic products comprised 49.4 percent of total merchandise exports for
the period.
Meanwhile, total sales receipts from agro-based products also fell by 5.8
percent to US$307.9 million in February 2016, due to lower sales in coconut
products and other agro-based products.
Likewise, outbound sales of mineral products declined by 32.5 percent to
US$172.6 million in February 2016 due to lower exports of all segments
except for copper concentrates.
Outward shipments for petroleum products also declined by 60.5 percent to
US$6.1 million in February 2016 due to persistent low global oil prices.
While current global growth conditions remain tilted to the downside and
will continue to affect exports in the short term, the Philippines must take
advantage of the opportunity presented by an expected improvement in the
economic growth of the ASEAN region, he noted.
Esguerra added that GDP growth in India and the ASEAN region are expected
to pick up, which will help balance the slowdown of China. In particular, the
ramping-up of investments in Indonesia and the Philippines, Viet Nams
continued expansion, and Thailands recovery from a slump in 2014 will prop
up growth in ASEAN to 4.5 percent, higher than the 4.4 percent growth
estimated in 2015.
This provides an opportunity for the Philippines to expand its export market
in the region. And it is important to ensure that Philippine products conform
to export standards so as not to lose market share, he said.
END
R E L AT E D L I N K S

INFLATION
REMAINS
LOW
INCHES
AND
STABLE
UP 2016
BUT
IN
MARCH
PRICES
OF
RICE,
VEGETABLES
DESPITE
CONTINUE
EL
NIO
TO
DECLINE

STATEMENT OF SOCIOECONOMIC PLANNING SECRETARY EMMANUEL F.


ESGUERRA ON THE STATUS OF THE ROADMAP TO ADDRESS THE IMPACT OF
EL NIO (RAIN)

MANILA- Inflation inched up to 1.1 percent in March 2016 from 0.9 percent in
February due to slight increases in food and oil prices, according to the
National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA).
Inflation in food items went up slightly to 1.6 percent in March 2016 from 1.5
percent in the previous month. This is due to increases in the price of meat
(1.2% from 0.9%), fish (2.8% from 2.3%), milk, cheese, and eggs (1.2% from
1.1%).
On the other hand, Socioeconomic Planning Secretary Emmanuel F. Esguerra
noted that despite the El Nio phenomenon, rice prices remain lower than in
the previous year (-1.7% in March from -2.0% in February) and have been
declining consistently since October 2015. Likewise, the price of vegetables,
while remaining elevated since November 2015, has trended down after
peaking in January 2016, declining by 2.9 percent in March 2016 from the
previous month, for a total decline of 7.8 percent since the beginning of the
year.
We have been closely monitoring price movements and looking at factors
that influence commodity prices, especially food consumed by the poor,
said Esguerra, who is also NEDA Director-General. Aware of El Nio,
government has put in place a program to mitigate the impact of drought.
We need to ensure adequate supply of food and provide assistance to
affected farmers, he said.
Meanwhile, an increase in domestic oil prices was recorded particularly for
gasoline by 5.03 percent, liquefied petroleum gas by 0.58 percent, diesel by
8.6 percent and kerosene by 7.06 percent. According to NEDA, these
increases were the result of cutbacks in production and exploration of
international energy firms due to the continued soft oil prices.
Outlook for oil prices in the medium term remain modest given a backdrop
of strong world crude oil supply growth and weak global demand. Overall,
the continuing environment of low international oil prices remains a positive
development for the country considering that we are a net importer of oil,
said Esguerra.
The March 2016 inflation is slower than the 2.4 percent recorded in March
2015 and is in line with market expectations and within the Bangko Sentral
ng Pilipinas forecast of 0.6-1.4 percent for the period. The Development
Budget Coordination Committee targets inflation at 2.0 to 4.0 percent for
2016.

In the first three months of 2016, inflation remained relatively low and
stable in line with expectations over the policy horizon, which is likely to
support consumption growth, said Esguerra.
Nonetheless, he said government needs to remain vigilant. Although El Nino
has entered its weakening stage, the risk of higher food prices remains given
the onset of the summer season, said Esguerra. Thus, we must also
monitor our rice supply and importation to avoid supply disruptions which
could result in volatilities in the price of rice, he added.
Esguerra said that the Roadmap for Addressing the Impact of El Nio (RAIN)
needs to be accelerated and sustained, particularly in the areas that have
declared a state of calamity. The RAIN aims to ensure food security by
increasing the supply of food, keeping food prices stable, and implementing
measures to protect farmers incomes.
While implementing RAIN, Esguerra added that government will need to
prepare for La Nia, which, according to international weather forecast, may
likely bring in higher-than-normal volume of rainfall in the Philippines in the
latter half of the year.
-ENDR E L AT E D L I N K S

Country case studies: Philippines


19 Introducing participatory planning practices with local governments: A Philippines case study,
Demetrio Imperial Jr., Philippines
20 Decentralizing government in the Philippines, Roel Ravanera, Philippines

19 Introducing participatory planning practices with local


governments: A Philippines case study, Demetrio Imperial Jr.,
Philippines
For the past four decades, the impetus among development practitioners worldwide to search
for workable and appropriate strategies, methods and tools in development planning has grown
more pronounced and resolute.
In the Philippines, efforts to promote and institutionalize participatory planning have intensified
and offer many challenges to development planners from both the public and private sectors.
One such program that seeks to promote participatory development planning is the Philippine
Rural Institutional Strengthening Program (PRISP) of the Department of Agriculture (DA). This
program focuses mainly on strengthening of rural institutions, especially the local government
units (LGUs) at the municipal and village-level to undertake participatory planning and thus
expedite the efficient delivery of rural development programs, projects and services to the
areas. Participatory Planning (PP) constitutes the core of PRISP's activities.
The rationale for participatory planning in the Philippines
In many cases, development planning in the Philippines does not always reflect the needs of the
people and their communities planning itself is rarely used as an instrument for a systematic
development process. Contributing further to this state of planning are: 1) the lack of
complementation or integration of sectorial plans since planning, as often practiced, is more of
compiling and incorporating existing development plans of the different sectors to form the
Municipal Development Plan; 2) projects and proposals are merely intended for internal funding
stet, hence, the limited capacity to source outside funding; 3) politics continued to influence the
identification and prioritization of projects, thus, project proposals are based mainly on the
priorities and biases of local executives; and 4) very little exposure of planners in project
proposal generation/preparation especially those meant for external funding.

The PP project: training of facilitators in participatory planning (TFPP)


The training of facilitators in participatory planning for officials and staff of LGUs of the province
of Nueva Ecija, Philippines was undertaken by the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction
(IIRR) and the Central Luzon State University. The project started in August 1996 and
completed in June 1997 with the end goal of broadening the technical knowledge and facilitation
skills of municipal and village planners. Anchored on the dialogue-oriented, people-centered
planning approach, the project was pilot-tested in three municipalities and three villages in each
municipality. It was designed for the heads and junior staff of the different line agencies, the
municipal and village council members and other sectorial leaders based in the pilot village it
was expected that after the nine-month "action-training" program, said participants would then
be able to: 1) identify the value of a participatory planning process in their work; 2) demonstrate
skills in facilitating a participatory planning process; 3) facilitate the formulation of a village
development plan; and 4) replicate the planning process in the other villages of their respective
municipalities.
Setting-up appropriate structures/mechanisms for participatory planning
To facilitate the project process, workable and appropriate 'alternative' yet complimentary
mechanisms to the legal government authorities were established. These included: 1) the
Municipal Planning Task Force (MPTF) led by the Municipal Planning and Development
Coordinator who works closely with the heads and junior staff of other line agencies in the
municipality and 2) the Village Planning Team (VPT) led by the Village Captain and his Council
members, the Village Development Council and other sectors/organizational leaders in the
village. The legitimization of both the MPTF and VPT provided participants with authority and
the impetus to undertake village planning and budgeting with the agreement that their proposed
development plans and budget would then be submitted and approved by the village
government officials.
Participatory Planning Process at Work
Formal PP training and field application was conducted based on the intervention/facilitation
plans prepared by both the MPTFs and VPTs. Though there were differences in the techniques
and tactics employed, each group tried to adopt the PP process through the following set of
activities.
Planning/leveling up among MPTF members and preparation of all training materials/visual aids
and logistics.
Conducting groundwork to schedule village or sub-village meetings to get village leaders and
residents' involvement.
Facilitating Participatory Rural Analysis (PRA) to gather data for planning, monitoring and
evaluation of programs/projects.

Analysis of data resulting in the identification of priority problems and potential industries to be
undertaken in the villages.
Visits to concerned government officials and other institutions for additional data collection.
1. Facilitating strategic planning which included the formulation of the Village Strategic
Development Plan, Annual Investment Plan, and Monitoring and Evaluation Plan.
2. Conduct of team reflection to share and validate data and process the experience among
them.
3. Providing an update or back-to-station report to the municipal officials led by the Mayor and
Municipal Council members to ensure their continuing involvement and support e.g. logistics
and other funds.
Outcomes/effects of PP
The project's conceptual framework in introducing and facilitating PP among the LGU stafftrainers and their counterpart in the villagers proved to be relevant and practical. In particular,
the positive features of the TFPP were:
1. Broadening the number of people in the municipalities and village with knowledge and skills
in PP. The constituents saw the advantage of taking part in planning.
2. The promotion/internalization of PP process involving the people themselves and
accomplishment of more tangible output, viz: Strategic Development Plan, Annual Investment
Plan and Budget.
3. The partnership of the government and the private sector which provides for better
coordination and collabourative arrangements.
4. The flexible planning tools and strategies that made possible the introduction of necessary
changes mutually agreed upon by local government managers and participants.
5. The provision of technical assistance to the participants and the respective local government
unit/officials.
The development planning process was also confronted with several issues and problems some
extent these were addressed by the planners themselves with the support of most of the
municipal mayors and council members. These were:
1. Field application period coincided with the planting and harvesting season, hence the limited
attendance and participation of some VPTs and village residents.
2. Unsupportive barangay officials.

3. Low or minimal support of some of the Local Chief Executives (LCEs).


4. Limited, if not the absence, of transportation facilities and supplies for use by the MPTFs
5. The "wait and see" attitudes of village residents and rising expectations for projects after the
planning activities.
6. Apprehension on the part of the MPTFs vis--vis effects of local village election and other
political activities.
Pre-conditions for the successful understaking of PP
Notably, the field of development planning has been established through various forms of
technical assistance or training, intended for government functionaries in participatory planning.
These represent a substantive body of knowledge derived from theory and practice. Based on
the lessons and experiences of the planners themselves, the PP process could now be
replicated in other areas of similar situation if the following conditions are present:
1. Strong commitment and support of Local Chief Executive and other municipal officials and
staff.
2. Close coordination between the MDC, BDC and the MPTF and VPT.
3. Strong interest, commitment and support of village officials/leaders and their constituents.
4. Well-synchronized scheduling of MPTF and VPT activities considering the time availability of
village officials and residents and the regular tasks and responsibilities of the MPTF in their
mother agencies/department.
5. Further training of MPTF and VPT in the areas of resource mobilization or fund sourcing,
project/feasibility study preparation, linking and networking.
6. Sufficient municipal funding to cover necessary field expenses and logistical requirements of
PP
7. Full implementation/completion of the village projects identified by the people themselves.
Conclusion
The bottom-up, dialogue-oriented approach of PP has opened new possibilities and
perspectives for the very people and institutions involved in going through this development
process. This applies both to the MPTFs and the VPTs and other concerned residents who can
be considered as the 'insiders' (those who are the main actors and managers of local
government development) in their own respective barangays. They have started to produce
results but the more serious concern now is how to sustain their interest and commitment to the
work and make functional and beneficial to the barangays and the municipality the PP process.

Added to this the MPTF, whose staff were drawn from various LGU departments and line
agencies, have started to realize the value of teamwork and collaboration, which is often just
taken for granted as they become engrossed in their daily routine. As a new breed of planners,
they have learned to integrate with one another and the people in the villages. Remarkably, this
was done through a systematic yet flexible manner which is a pre-requisite in achieving
convergence of program interventions and resources that go with process all the above
elements are indispensable in the pursuit of participatory development planning.
To date, the PRISP-PP approach has been proven to work in the pilot municipalities and villages
of Nueva Ecija. There is a need to reiterate that the primary concern for those who were and will
still be involved is how to continuously invigorate their efforts. The challenge remains the same:
meaningful people's participation in development planning and its sustainability.

20 Decentralizing government in the Philippines, Roel Ravanera,


Philippines
From the period of Spanish and American colonization, to the Philippine Commonwealth and
Republic, up to the Marcos dictatorship in 1972, the Philippines was ruled from the national
capital, derisively referred to as "Imperialist Manila". Centralization has been exacerbated by a
culture of dependency and paradigms that look condescendingly upon local level institutions in
the belief that the centre knows best. There was an effort to decentralize administrative authority
(but not politicaldecentralization) during the Marcos dictatorship through a local government
Code enacted in 1983. But real power continued to be concentrated in Manila with local units
heavily dependent upon central government.
Following the overthrow of the Marcos dictatorship in 1986, the Aquino administration adopted
the Policy Agenda for People-Powered Development, which included decentralization of
government structures, minimum government intervention and greater involvement of people in
the decision-making, planning and implementation of programmes through community
organizations and non-government organizations or NGOs.
The general strategy was based on the emerging paradigm of "growth with equity", where
development efforts are focused on meeting minimum basic needs of the poor rather than on
simply achieving macro economic targets. Since then, "devolution and decentralization have
marked Philippine government policies in that while central government provides the broad
policy framework and social environment, it is the Local Government Units (LGUs), private
sector and civil society entities which act as the prime engines for growth, equity and
sustainability (Quizon, 1997). The decentralization processes are of three major types:
Shift from national to local aims to "bring the government closer to the people"
involving deconcentration and devolution. Deconcentration or
administrative
or
sectoral
decentralization involves central government transfers of power, authority and responsibility or
discretion to plan, decide, manage to lower or local levels that are within the central or national
government itself. Devolution, or political decentralization, involves the transfer of power and
authority from the national government to Local Government Units (LGUs), defined in the 1987

Constitution as the territorial and political subdivisions of the state. In this context, devolution is
inherently tied to the concept of local autonomy.
Shift from state to private (business) sector, where state assets, programmes and services
are contracted to private corporations.
Shift from state to civil society, by which civil society participates directly in government
programmes and systems of governance, characterized by 1) the focus on self-organized
sectors of civil-society (e.g. NGOs, POs, professional associations, academia, etc.) and 2)
instituting participatory mechanisms going beyond elections and similar traditional norms. The
intention here is to address issues of equity for disadvantaged sectors and to increase direct
participation in governance.
The Local Government Code of 1991 represents the most radical and comprehensive policy
instrument of the Aquino administration to further its "people power agenda." With its avowed
objective of reversing the centrist tendencies of Marcos and other previous administrations, the
Code incorporates all three forms of decentralization.
The Republic Act No. 7160, otherwise known as the Local Government Code (LGC), was
enacted by Congress and signed into law by former President Corazon Aquino in October 1991
taking effect in January 1992. The LGC is an attempt to more regularly involve people, through
their organizations, in governance. It aims to reverse centuries of centralism believed to cause
grass-roots underdevelopment and make up for the government's failure to deliver basic
services. The Code decentralizes governance by devolving powers and functions of LGUs and
by strengthening the mechanisms for people's participation in governance.
Through devolution, "the National Government confers power and authority upon the various
local government units to perform specific functions and responsibilities." However, the
autonomy of an LGU - autonomous region, province, city, municipality and barangay - as well as
its political and administrative powers, are derived powers,not inherent ones. Given its
empowerment perspective, the 1991 Code (and its implementation) is an instrument to promote
sustainable development and address related problems of poverty, inequity and security.
Under the Ramos administration, anti-poverty measures have been consolidated through the
adoption of the Social Reform Agenda (SRA) as the integrated national action agenda for
poverty alleviation. Among the companion laws to the LGC are the Cooperative Code of the
Philippines; the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law; the Magna Carta for Small Farmers (RA
7606) and the Magna Carta for Countryside Development (Kalakalan 20).
Participation of civil society in helping the government achieve genuine decentralization
Among the significant reforms on devolution mandated by the Local Government Code are:
1. Devolution of authority, assets and personnel of various national government agencies
(NGAs) to local government units (LGUs) to provide primary responsibility for basic services

and facilities. This involves the mandatory delivery of five basic front-line services - health,
social welfare, natural resources and environment, agricultural extension and public works.
Other services include education, tourism, telecommunications and housing programmes and
projects.
2. The transfer of various regulatory powers of NGAs to LGUs. This involves enforcement of
certain regulatory powers, implementation of environmental laws, inspection of food products for
public consumption, enforcement of quarantine regulations and the Sanitation Code,
enforcement of the National Building Code, franchising of tricycles, processing and approval of
subdivision plans, licensing of cockpits and regulation of tourism establishments.
The promotion of people's participation (NGO,
governance through the following statutory avenues:

POs and private sector)

in local

(a) Membership in Local Special Bodies (LSBs). NGOs and POs are represented in Local
Special Bodies, primarily but not limited to the Local Development Council, the Local School
Board, the Local Health Board, the Pre-qualification, Bids and Awards Committee and the Local
Peace and Order Council. Non-mandated but Code-inspired LSBs have included Agrarian
Reform Councils, Fisheries and Aquatic Reform Councils. Representation in the LDC is
preceded by the process of accreditation by local governments, while representation in other
LSBs is by appointment by the local Chief Executive. Although one-fourth of the membership of
the Local Development Councils must be comprised of NGOs and POs, the latter have minority
representation in LSBs. LDC proposals such as the Local Development Plan are merely
recommended to the sanggunians (consultative bodies).
(b) Mandatory Consultations and Public Hearings. NGOs and POs can actively participate in
mandatory consultations and public hearings where they help apprise national government
agencies and government-owned and controlled corporations of local sentiments to consider
before implementing projects that could significantly affect local host communities.
(c) System of Recall. NGOs and POs may participate in a system of recall where registered
voters are against local officials whose performance is unsatisfactory.
(d) Local Initiatives and Referenda. NGOs and POs may participate in local initiatives and
referenda where registered voters of an LGU may directly propose, enact, repeal or amend
ordinances, a process that NGOs and POs may likewise facilitate or participate in.
(e) Sectorial Representation to Local Sanggunians. NGOs and POs are expected to participate
in selecting and fielding of sectorial representatives to local sanggunians from labour (industrial
or agricultural), women and one representative from either the urban poor, indigenous peoples
or the disabled. Broadly, NGOs have participated directly in governance through local
government units, national policy and planning agencies, government line agencies, sectorial
representation in Congress, and follow-up activities of United Nations summits and international
covenants.

GO-NGO/PO mechanisms have been set-up mainly for joint consultations, policy dialogue or
implementation of projects, with varying degrees of success. NGO/PO representatives are
either appointed by government or selected by the sector itself - to represent either the NGO/PO
community, the private sector, basic sectors, or CSOs. Assessment studies identify some
success factors of GO-NGO mechanisms: (a) presence of strong local NGOs/POs linked to
local and national networks; (b) favourable attitudes and a common understanding on
the need to collaborate; and (c) presence of high-ranking, supportive GO officials.
Three modes of GO-NGO cooperation in the implementation of programmes
Generally, there are three modes/types of GO-NGO collaboration: GO-led programmes in which
NGOs are hired to undertake specific activities (usually community organizing or social
preparation) on a contractual basis; Alternative NGO-led programmes wherein NGOs retain
control over programme management and development; and Joint GO-NGO programme
development of a government project.
GO-led programmes. The government controls programme management and policy decisions.
NGOs are usually tapped by government agencies for: (1) social preparation of target
communities; (2) needs assessment, project design and monitoring; (3) provision of skills
training and non-formal education; and (4) field implementation of projects on poverty
alleviation, environmental protection and delivery of social services. NGO services are covered
by contractual arrangements, where both financial and technical assistance is provided.
Alternative NGO-led programmes. These take the form of tripartite arrangements, i.e. GO-NGOPOs. NGOs develop the programme, then seek the government's mandate, commitment and
involvement. Such efforts do not strategically differ from GO-led programmes and activities, but
rather in the degree of NGO participation and control over programme management and
development. A major distinction from GO-led programmes is the degree of resource control by
NGOs. Funding is often from bilateral or NGO sources, rather than from multilateral agencies.
Examples are the Tripartite Partnership for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development
(TRIPARRD) and the Tripartite Partnership for Upland Development (Tri PUD) of the Phil
DHRRA network.
Joint GO-NGO programme development. Sometimes, NGO participation takes place at the level
of programme development through joint GO-NGO task forces or working groups. The resulting
programme is either jointly managed, or provides for parallel/complementary efforts between
government and NGOs with certain points of convergence.
NGO roles and services. NGOs perform a broad range of functions summarized below:

Local service delivery: There are two areas of significant contribution: (a) actual delivery
of services such as providing medical services under the primary health care programme
(immunization, medical consultations) and (b) "institution-building" services such as
serving as conduits for loans under a credit programme or organizing agrarian reform
beneficiaries for land tenure improvement and for support services.

Programme development and management: NGOs undertake three types of functions:


(a) actual project management; (b) capacity building, such as conducting team-building
and skills training for LGUs; and (c) special consultancy engagements such as project
evaluations.

Policy formulation: NGOs have participated in policy work within/outside formally


constituted bodies, as either: (a) policy advocate/financier or (b) as formal policy
consultant.

A number of initiatives between government and civil society have been undertaken with the
improved socio-political environment since 1986. These collaborative efforts were all geared to
improve the local communities' stake in their future by making them players in political
processes. The activities may range from economic improvement to policy review and planning
down to project implementation, where the community members are empowered with their
proactive involvement.
1) Enterprise development was the focus of an experiment in Makilala, North Cotabato. An
advisory body called the People's Agricultural and Enterprise Development Advisory Board
(PAEDAB) was formed, composed of NGOs and POs. Consequently, a comprehensive
development plan promoting agricultural enterprises was made through initiatives of CDSMCKMCFI and the Makilala Municipal Government. This model mechanism has not only
encouraged people's participation in local governance, it has also de-bureaucratized the LGU
by transferring to PAEDAB some LGU functions, particularly the extension of agricultural and
enterprise development services to the community.
2) Empowerment of communities in poverty alleviation efforts
Taking Care of People and the Environment in Negros Oriental is an example of how
development and improving the quality of life of the people and meeting their basic needs is the
best approach to counterinsurgency. This involved the construction of a Community Primary
Hospital in the hinterlands of Negros Oriental that provided basic health services to the people
coupled with the Community Based Resource Management approach that empowered local
fisherfolk in the province to take the lead in environmental protection.
Eastern Samar. The effective management and utilization of Eastern Samar's aquatic
resources through the setting up of the multi-sectorial Advisory Committee on Marine Resource
Development and Conservation, an advisory body consisting of fisherfolk, NGOs and local
government officials. Through the involvement of the fisherfolk sector, the government was able
to conduct an extensive survey of marine resources and protect marine sanctuaries by lobbying
and helping prepare fishery ordinances. The fisherfolk have stood as witnesses against violators
of fishery laws.
Tripartite Partnership for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (TRIPARRD). A tripartite
NGO-led GO-NGO-PO collaboration, TRIPARRD was launched in 1989 by the NGO/PO
community to pilot and fast-track agrarian reform on a larger scale. TRIPARRD came at a time

when the government's agrarian reform programme under RA 6657 was far below its projected
targets. NGOs realized that the programme would require much more participation by local
communities if agrarian reform were to make major headway. PHILDHRRA (a national NGO
network) and PAKISAMA (a national peasant coalition) organized a series of consultations,
which led to the formulation of TRIPARRD. It took six months to obtain the full mandate and
support of the respective government line agencies.
TRIPARRD was initially launched in three provinces where NGOs had strongest presence:
Antique, Bukidnon and Camarines Sur baseline municipal-level data and environmental
assessments formed the basis for local-level GO/NGO/PO strategic planning. Today,
TRIPARRD assists 64 agrarian reform communities (ARCs) in four provinces: Camarines Sur,
Iloilo, Bukidnon and Davao. It has transferred over 6,000 hectares and delivered over P35
million worth of support services to some 4,000 farmers.[16] Its activities focus on: research,
documentation and advocacy, organizing of AR beneficiaries, capability building for NGOs/POs,
resource accessing, and estate development (agricultural support services).
It has three programme components: (a) land tenure improvement, (b) productivity systems
development, and (c) social infrastructure building and strengthening. Actual land transfers are
processed through DAR. TRIPARRD emphasizes the complementarity of GO/NGO/PO efforts.
There are tripartite GO/NGO/PO mechanisms forprogramme coordination at national and
provincial levels, while NGOs/POs retain control over internal management structures.
Recent evaluations of TRIPARRD have identified strengths and success factors: use of
participatory approaches (i.e., community organizing, participatory rural appraisal); tripartite
(GO/NGO/PO) problem-solving mechanisms from municipal to national levels; catalytic and
innovative funding partners; involvement of research and academic institutions for knowledge
and backstopping support; presence of an NGO network facilitating tripartite interaction.
Issues, gains and forging ahead
The implementation of the devolution process has a mixed record. There are recentralizing
trends as the centre, through the different branches of government, tries to reconcentrate power
and control, thereby diminishing local autonomy. At the same time there is some lack of human,
technical and financial capacity among LGUs.
Issues in NGO/PO participation
Despite the presence of the statutory avenues in the Code, popular participation in local
governance - particularly through local special bodies - has faced serious problems in
institutionalization. Few local development councils meet regularly and even fewer reflect the
LGU/NGO/PO partnership envisioned by the Code. As a result, for many (if not most) LGUs, the
development plans and programmes that Local Development Councils were supposed to
generate have not gone beyond the drawing board (Bolongaita, 1996).

Local special bodies are either inoperative (i.e. elections of local sectorial representatives still
need to be conducted, there are no genuine mandatory prior consultations of national projects
or monitoring of projects despite local resistance), nominal and recommendatory or difficult to
implement due to tedious requirements (e.g, local initiative and referendum and recall
proceedings).
Slow accreditation of POs and NGOs or of preferential accreditation to NGOs were also noted.
NGO and PO accreditation is a prerequisite for their membership in the special bodies, as
specified in the Local Government Code.
Local decision-makers have shown reluctance to open the doors wider for people's participation
by preventing the implementation of the provision on sectorial representation. Election of
sectorial representatives has been made inoperative by the passage of Republic Act No. 7887,
which requires an "enabling law" to effect sectorial representative elections.
Impact on anti-poverty programmes
1. Agricultural Extension. In some agencies, such as the Department of Agriculture, local
agricultural officers have become "political appointees" or else are being assigned to unrelated
tasks. The DA now operates only at the level of Regional Offices, now working directly through
each LGU at provincial and municipal levels. This resulted in ineffective coordination between
agricultural development plans at national and local levels.
2. Social Forestry. The actual management of ISF lands and support services for beneficiaries
have now been devolved to the respective LGUs. Here, the critical issue lies in the ability and
extent of support services given by LGUs to beneficiaries of operation land-transfer and ISF
programmes.
3. Land Re-Classification. One of the more controversial regulatory functions devolved to the
LGUs is the authority to reclassify land. Reclassification may be done: (i) when the land ceases
to be economically feasible and sound for agriculture as determined by the Department of
Agriculture; and (ii) when the land shall have substantially greater economic value for
residential, commercial or industrial purposes as determined by the Sanggunian concerned.
Before, the Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) had sole authority to approve land use
classification and reclassification. Now, the Code allows the LGU to share in this authority but
only to a limited extent. The Code limits the LGU authority to approve, by ordinance, land use
reclassification to definite ages of the total land area at the time of the passage of the ordinance.
The Code also allows the President, if required by the public interest and upon recommendation
of the NEDA, to authorize a city or municipality to reclassify lands beyond the above limits.
NGOs have expressed strong concern regarding the reclassification authority given to LGUs,
arguing that land use cannot be determined though political boundaries but within an
ecosystem-based framework of sustainable development. In the absence of a national land-use
policy framework and a comprehensive local land-use plan, the power of reclassification may

result in short-term speculative land ownership, abetted by some unscrupulous local officials
and shady land developers.
Triggering mechanisms for GO-NGO collaboration. Definitely it is the improved overall
political environment that has brought about increased GO-NGO collaboration, supported by
enabling policies on the side of government and emerging efforts toward "mainstreaming" by
NGOs.
Successful GO-NGO collaborations have actually started by an up-front clarification of each
other's roles, interests and expectations. Important factors that must be resolved are: (a) a
shared acceptance of the need for the project; (b) a decision to collaborate and (c)
a commitment to common indicators or outputs.
The tasks that lie ahead are also fairly clear. Three major concerns on decentralization raised by
civil society are the following:
1. The re-orientation of national government agencies (NGAs) and the legislative branch toward
local autonomy. This implies building on and promoting mechanisms that support local
governance and flexibility, rather than sustaining a bureaucracy oriented in centralized decisionmaking.
2. The enhancement of the absorptive capacity of local government units and other
stakeholders. This implies a coherent Human Resource Development (HRD) package for LGUs
and their counterparts in the NGAs, the civil society and the business community.
3. The strengthening of collaboration among government or state, the NGOs/POs or civil
society, and the private or business sector. This implies highlighting the mainstream models of
synergy among the three sectors towards local development.
Lastly, decentralization relates to devolving powers, resources, and authority of the national
government to local governments. Conversely, democratization implies empowering local
communities through building up civil society as it responds to the shortcomings or limitations of
government. Both, however, have the goal of total development of local communities. (Villarin,
1997)
Decentralization should therefore lead to the democratization of resources and powers from the
government to the people, from the traditional power-wielders to alternative structures of
democracy.
Seen from this perspective, devolution is not an end in itself but a means to the goal of people
empowerment. Finally, local governments will derive power from an empowered citizenry by
which they will be held effectively accountable.
References

Banzuela, S.1996. A rapid assessment of the NGO participation in agrarian reform communities
in A rapid assessment: the role of NGOs in rural development, 5(1996).
Gonzalez, R. 1997. The impact of decentralization on local-level development (draft), Manila,
Asian NGO Coalition for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (ANGOC).
Quizon, Antonio B. 1997. Asian Development Bank country study on NGOs in the
Philippines, Manila, ADB.

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