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Gas Turbine Protection

Systems
By
Arvind Patil
I & C Engineer-Maint.
Evonik Energy Services (I) Pvt Ltd,
Hazira Surat

Protection Systems
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Turbine protection system consists of number of subsystems

Few operate strictly during emergency and abnormal


operating conditions.

Protection systems are set up to

which operate during each normal start-up and shutdown

Detect and alarm the failure.


If the failure is of serious nature, protection system will trip
the turbine.

Protection system responds to:

Simple trip signals like

low lube oil pressure

high inter valve gas pressure etc.

Protection Systems

More Complex parameters like

Over speed

Over temperature

High Vibration,

Combustion monitor

Loss of flame etc..

To ensure the safety and safe operation of turbine


Speedtronic system is equipped with master control
and protection circuit

Protection Systems
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Turbine Protection systems includes:

Trip Oil

Over speed Protection

Primary Electronic Over speed trip


Secondary Electronic Over speed trip

Over Temperature Protection

Inlet orifice, Check Valves & Orifice network


Pressure switches
Dump valves

Over temperature alarm (L30TXA)


Over temperature Trip (L86TXT)

Flame Detection and Protection System

Protection Systems
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Vibration Protection

High Vibration Alarm & Trip


Vibration transducer fault
Alarm

Combustion monitoring

Spread calculations
Exhaust Thermocouple
Trouble Alarm
Combustion Trouble Alarm
High Exhaust Temperature
Spread Trip
Spread monitor enable

Primary
OS

Master
Prot.
Circuit
<RST>

Over
temp

GCV

Gas Fuel
Control
Valve

SRV

Gas Fuel
Speed Ratio/
Stop Valve

Vibra
tion
Comb
Monitor

Sec
OS
Loss
Of
Flame

Relay
Voting
Module

Master
Prot.
Circuit
<XYZ>

20
FG

Bypass
Valve
Servo
valve

Relay
Voting
Module

FUEL
PUMP

20
FL

Liquid
Fuel Stop
Valve

Trip Functions
Primary Over speed Detected
Emergency Over speed Detected
Loss Of Speed Signal
Vibration Trip
Exhaust Over temp Trip
High Lube Oil Temp Trip
Low Lube Oil Pressure Trip
Inlet/Exhaust duct pressure Trip
Compt. Fire Detection Trip
Loss of Flame Trip
Generator Differential Trip
Manual Trip
Customer Trip

OR

TRIP
TURBINE

Trip Oil protection


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It is a primary protection interface between the turbine control and


protection system and the components of the turbine which admit
or shut-off, fuel.
System devices are electrically operated by Speedtronic control
system as well as some totally mechanical devices.
Protective
Signals

Manual Trip
(When Provided)

Master
Protection
L4
Circuits

20
FG

Orifice And
Check Valve
Network

Gas Fuel
Speed Ratio/
Stop Value

Gas fuel
12HA

Liquid Fuel
Stop Valve

63HL

INLET ORIFICE
OVERSPEED
TRIP

20
FL

Liquid
Fuel

63HG
RESET
Manual
Trip

Gas Fuel
Dump Relay
Valve

OH

Over Speed Protection


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Electronic Over speed function is


performed in <RST> and <XYZ>.

TNH is compared with TNKHOS.


When TNH>TNKHOS, turbine is
tripped and latched till Reset.
ELECTRICAL OVERSPEED TRIP
is displayed on HMI.

TNH
TNKHOS

12HP
Manual
Reset

Test

LK3HOST

Test
Premissive

L86MR1

Master Reset

L12H To
Master
Set
Prot
And
And
Latch
Alarm
Msg

Mechanical Over speed system


Consists of

Manual
Trip

Overspeed Bolt

A>B

Reset

OD

Trip Setpoint

TNKHOST

OLT

<RST> <XYZ>
High Pressure Over Speed Trip
HP Speed
A

Over speed bolt assembly in


accessory gear box.
Over speed trip mechanism in the
accessory gear.
Position limit switch 12 HA.
Acts as a back-up control
Trip setting > Electronic Setting

Over Temperature Protection


Protects GT against
possible damages
against Over firing.

OVEROVER-TEMP. TRIP & ALARM.


TTXM
TTXOT3

ALARM

TTRXB

ISO TRIP

A
A>B
B

A
A>B
B

TTXOT2

1240 F

TTREF

40F

TTXOT1
L86MR1

TRIP

25F

TRIP
Isothermal

A
A>B
B

L30TXA
ALARM

O
R
Set
And
Latch

To Alarm
Message
And
Speed
Setpoint
Lower

To
Master
Prot.
And
Alarm
Msg

Reset

ALARM
CONTROL

CPD

It is a backup protection system,


operates only after the failure of
other control systems.

Flame Detection & Protection


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Speedtronic Mark-VI flame detectors perform two


functions

One in the Sequencing system

other in Protective system

Flame detected by UV radiation.

Speedtronic control furnish +350VDC to drive the UV


detector tube. In the presence of UV radiation, the gas
in the detector tube ionizes and conducts current.

Speedtronic counts the no.of current pulses/sec through


UV sensor.

Typically 300 pulses/sec when strong UV signal is


present.

Flame Detection & Protection


Speedtronic MK-VI Flame Detection

28FD
UV SCANNER

28FD
UV SCANNER

28FD
UV SCANNER

28FD
UV SCANNER

<P>

ANALOG
I/O
(Flame
Detection
Channels)

TURBINE
PROTECTION
LOGIC

FLAME
DETECTION
LOGIC

TURBINE
CONTROL
LOGIC

NOTE: Excitation for the sensor and signal processing is


performed by SPEEDTRONIC MK VI circuits

HMI
DISPLAY

Vibration Protection
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Gas Turbine unit comprises

Several independent vibration


channels
Each channel detects
excessive vibration by a
seismic pickup
Each channel includes one
vibration pickup (velocity type)
and a Speedtronic Mark-VI
amplifier circuit.
Vibration detectors generate a
relatively low voltage by the
relative motion of a permanent
magnet suspended in a coil
and therefore no excitation is
required.
Vibration protection system
trips the turbine when vibration
level exceeds predetermined
level.

<RST>

L30TEST

30V

OR
FAULT

ALARM

TRIP

A
VF
A<B
B
A
VA
A>B
B
A
VT
A>B
B

FAULT
L39VF

ALARM
L39VA
SET
AND
L39VT LATCH

AND TRIP

RESET

Auto Or Manual Reset

Speedtronic control generates


High Vibration Trip
Vibration Transducer Fault

Combustion Monitoring
<RST>

Primary function

to reduce the likelihood of


extensive damage to the gas
turbine if the combustion
system deteriorates.
Continuously examines the
exhaust temperature and
compressor discharge
temperature thermocouples.
Reliability of combustion
monitor depends on condition
of exhaust thermocouples.
Several software programs are
written to achieve this.

Combustion Monitor Algorithm

CTDA
TTKSPL1
TTKSPL2

TTXC

Median
Select

TTXSPL
Calculate
Allowable
Spread

Median
Select

TTKSPL5
TTKSPL7
Constants

TTXD2
Calculate
Actual
Spreads

A
A>B
B

L60SP1

A
A>B
B

L60SP2

A
A>B
B

L60SP3

A
A>B
B

L60SP4