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Part One: Structure 2009 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Globalsecurity and Official site
Motto of Pakistan Army Tariq's Prayer Iman To have faith and trust in Allah and consider oneself:- A follower of none but Allah. And a follower of none but his messenger The concept of “no deity excep t Allah” is always alive in the Muslim’s heart. A Muslim recognizes that Allah alone is the Creator; their He alone is the Provider and Sustainer that He is the tru e Reality, the source of all things of all benefits and harms. This requires tha t He alone be worshiped and obeyed. “No deity except Allah” also includes the questi on of authority as the right to govern belongs to the One Who created him. Belie f in Allah’s messenger means accepting Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as the last messeng er sent by Him. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the spokesman for God by His authorit y. The duty of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was not only to deliver the message which Allah revealed but also to explain it and put it into practice as an example to be followed by mankind. Taqwa Taqwa signifies:- The fear of Allah. Guarding one s tongue, hands and heart from evil. Righteous, piety and good conduct. Taqwa co nnotes the sense of protecting oneself from moral peril, preserving one’s virtue, and guarding oneself against the displeasure of Almighty. It is, thus, a kind of awareness or consciousness by means of which one protects oneself from sliding into evil Jihad-fi-Sabilillah The real objective of Islam is to shift the lordsh ip of man over man to the lordship of Allah on the earth and to stake one s life and everything else to achieve this sacred purpose. The Arabic word “Jihad” means t o struggle “or” to strive. In as much as “Jihad” is a struggle, it is a struggle against all that is perceived as evil in the cause of that which is perceived good, a c osmic and epic struggle spanning time and all dimensions of human thought and ac tion, and transcending the physical universe. The Islamic Law regulates declarat ion of Jihad as also the limitations are imposed on its conduct. In Chapter II v erse 190 of The Holy Quran the reference to the duty of the Muslims to “fight in t he cause of God those who fight you and be not aggressors. God loveth not those who are aggressors”. The Muslims when they are engaged in fighting are not to tran sgress the limits within which war is allowed to be waged and, in principle, the y are not to be cruel or become revengeful. The general command to be just and f air is discernible from Chapter V. Verse 8: Oh, ye who believe stand out firmly for God as witness To fair dealings, And let not the hatred of other people to y ou make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just, that is next to pi ety. And fear God, Surely, Allah is aware of what you do
ishan-i-Haider Captain Mohammad Sarwar, Punjab Regiment Date of Shahadat : 27th July 1948 Naik Saif Ali Janjua, Azad Kashmir Regiment (Was awarded Hilal-e-Kashmir - an equival ent to Nishan-i-Haider) Date of Shahadat : 26th April 1948 Major Tufail Mohammad , Punjab Regiment Date of Shahadat : 7th August 1958 Major Raja Aziz Bhatti, Pun jab Regiment Date of Shahadat : 12th September 1965 Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas, Pakistan Air Force Date of Shahadat : 20th August 1971 Major Shabbir Sharif Fro ntier Force Regiment Date of Shahadat : 7th December 1971 Sowar Mohammad Hussain , Armoured Corps Date of Shahadat : 10th December 1971 Major Mohammad Akram, Fro ntier Force Regiment Date of Shahadat : 15th December 1971 Lance Naik Mohammad M ahfuz, Punjab Regiment Date of Shahadat : 17th December 1971 Captain Karnal Sher Khan, Sind Regiment Date of Shahadat : 7th July 1999 Havildar Lalak Jan, Northe rn Light Infantry Date of Shahadat : 7th July 1999
Pakistan Army The Pakistan Army is the best organized group in the country, and a political fo rce unto itself with the gradual destruction or diminution of institutions: the judiciary, the constitution, the bureaucracy, and the legislature, and the trans mogrification of a parliamentary system of government into a highly personalized presidential system. Successive army chiefs promised to keep the army out of po litics, but some of them brought the army to power to fill what they considered to be a political vacuum. Since the founding of Pakistan, the army has been key in holding the state together, promoting a feeling of nationhood among disparate peoples and providing a bastion of selfless service in the midst of a venal gov ernment system. All too frequently, the Pakistan Army has felt the need to take over the government, cleanse it of corruption and try to reform its bureaucracy before returning it to civilian control. Army control of the government has all too often led to a corrupt military regime that eventually collapsed. Pakistan i s a poor country riven with ethnic and religious tensions. Pakistan enjoys close ties with China and shares an antipathy and distrust of India. Half of Pakistan disappeared following its disastrous 1971 war with India. The Army gradually ga ined control of Pakistan s political, social, and economic resources. This power has transformed Pakistani society, where the armed forces have become an indepe ndent class. The military is entrenched in the corporate sector and controls the country s largest companies and large tracts of real estate. The Army has not a lways had a close alliance with Islamic parties. It was only during the regime o f General Zia ul Haq that the military-mullah nexus was formed, first for the Af ghan Jihad against the Soviet Union and then to help the Kashmiris against the I ndian Army. Later, an electoral deal under General Pervez Musharraf allowed the mullahs to gain political traction for the first time ever, in return for their support for an amendment to the constitution that allowed him to be concurrently army chief and president. The Pakistan Army is the largest branch of the Pakist an Armed Forces, and is mainly responsible for protection of the state borders, the security of administered territories and defending the national interests of Pakistan within the framework of its international obligations. The Pakistan Ar my a total strength of 520,000, about the size of of the Army of the United Stat es, with a reserve element of 500,000 who have a reserve obligation up to the ag e of 45 years. Reserve status lasted for eight years after leaving active servic e or until age forty-five for enlisted men and age fifty for officers. The Pakis tan Army structure in many ways has a close resemblance to the British Indian Ar my structure at the end of the nineteenth century. During that period, recruitme nt into individual, homogeneous regiments depended on class and caste, rather th an on territory. Over time, these regiments became sources of immense pride to t he men who served in them and to the ethnic group from which they were frequentl y recruited. Service in a specific regiment passed from father to son; the event ual shift from British to Pakistani rule went with hardly a ripple in the struct ure except for the change in nationality of the senior officer corps. The Britis h experimented with various forms of recruitment and of elevation to officer ran k. During the period between the two world wars (1919-39), the British trained I ndian officers to command at least Indian troops, and training establishments we re set up to produce an indigenous officer corps. A small number of officer cand idates were sent to Britain to the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst; after 19 32 the majority of candidates were trained at the Indian Military Academy at Deh ra Dun. A rank that predated that of the native officer was the viceroy s commis sioned officer--an Indian who had risen from the ranks and performed officer fun ctions (except for commanding officer), especially at the company level. The vic eroy s commissioned officer came from the same social background as did the troo ps in his unit and performed a dual function: for the troops, he was a role mode l and figure of respect to whom they could turn for advice; he was also an inval uable intermediary between the troops and the British officer who commanded them . The Pakistani military upon independence immediately became a central part of the national consciousness. Unlike their Indian counterparts, Pakistani soldiers did not bear the stigma of being antinational. The main base of army recruitmen
t, Punjab, was at the heart of Pakistan, and the army was immediately called upo n to defend the interests of the nation against a perceived security threat from "Hindu India." The Pakistani army was fortunate in its political position, but less so in regard to the experience and technical expertise required to field an effective military force. Muslims had been significantly underrepresented in th e Indian officer corps, and when partition occurred, there was a severe shortage of personnel. To lead the planned army of 150,000 men, 4,000 officers were need ed, but there were only 2,500, and many of those, especially in the technical se rvices, were underqualified. Only one major general, two brigadiers, and six col onels were available, and in the middle officer ranks the situation was equally bad. The first two commanders in chief of the army were British. The first Pakis tani commander in chief--General Mohammad Ayub Khan--did not become commander in chief of the army until 1951. Traditionally, the army was a predominantly Punja bi force. In British India, three districts: Campbellpur (now Attock), Rawalpind i, and Jhelum dominated the recruitment flows. By 1990 the percentage representa tion in the Pakistan Army as a whole (officers and Other Ranks or soldiers) was as follows: Punjabis 65 percent; Pushtuns 14 percent; Sindhis and Baluchis 15 pe rcent; Kashmiris 6 percent; and Minorities 0.3 per cent. Since then, with the pr ovision of waivers for both physical and educational qualifications, recruitment has been increased from the formerly less well represented areas. Punjab showed an overall decline in recruitment of soldiers from 63.86 per cent in 1991 to 43 .33 in 2005. Zia was extremely skillful in protecting his base in the military. To ensure control, he was concurrently chief of the army staff, chief martial la w administrator, and president, and he carefully juggled senior military appoint ments. The satisfaction of the military was also enhanced by arrangements under which Pakistani service personnel were seconded to the armed forces of Persian G ulf countries, where emoluments were much more generous than in Pakistan. Retiri ng officers received generous benefits, sometimes including land allocations, an d often found lucrative positions in government service or in parastatal economi c enterprises. The assignment of serving officers to approximately 10 percent of the senior posts in the civilian administration also provided opportunities for economic gain, sometimes in ways that were ultimately
harmful to the army s image of itself. For example, some military personnel repo rtedly participated in the rapidly growing narcotics business. Several army orga nizations performed functions that were important to the civilian sector across the country. For example, the National Logistics Cell was responsible for trucki ng food and other goods across the country, the Frontier Works Organization buil t the Karakoram Highway to China, the Makran Coastal Highway, flood relief opera tions etcetera and the Special Communication Organization maintained communicati ons networks in remote parts of Pakistan. Pakistan Army is involved in relief ac tivities not only in Pakistan but also in many other countries of the world, lik e they went for relief activities after Bangladesh was recently hit by floods. P ak Army also went to Indonesia, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka after they were hit by tsunami. Pakistan army and Navy sent ships and helicopters to the friendly natio ns for tsunami relief operation. The army also engaged in extensive economic act ivities. Most of these enterprises, such as stud and dairy farms, were for the a rmy s own use, but others performed functions beneficial to the local civilian e conomy. Army factories produced such goods as sugar, fertilizer, and brass casti ngs and sold them to civilian consumers. The Pakistani Army is a volunteer force and has been involved in many conflicts with India. Combined with this rich com bat experience, the Army is also actively involved in contributing to United Nat ions peacekeeping efforts. Other foreign deployments have consisted of Pakistani Army personnel as advisers in many African, South Asian and Arab countries. Sin ce the September 11th terrorist attacks, Pakistani military forces have been ext ensively engaged in the War on Terrorism against Taliban and Al Qaeda extremists . Over 90,000 troops along with various paramilitary forces are involved in a pr otracted fight against extremists in the tribal areas of Pakistan. It is more im portant than ever for the army to build bridges with civilians, as success in fi ghting extremism and terrorism is dependent on this. Army also provides opportun ity to women to serve in the Pakistan Army. Currently, there are a sizable numbe r of Women serving in the army. The army sees itself as a national institution a nd thus many non-Muslim officers (including Qadiyanis) have achieved high ranks within the army. The army in Pakistan is most organized and powerful institution of a state, like all capitalist states, has the fundamental role of preserving and protecting the assets, social status, privileges and economic exploitation o f the local ruling and imperialism. In times of natural disaster army engineers, medical and logistics personnel, and the armed forces played a major role in br inging relief and supplies. The army also engaged in extensive economic activiti es. Most of these enterprises, such as stud and dairy farms, were for the army s own use, but others performed functions beneficial to the local civilian econom y. Army factories produced such goods as sugar, fertilizer, and brass castings a nd sold them to civilian consumers. The Pakistan military also assists in natura l disasters in Pakistan such as the great floods of 1992, the floods in Balochis tan in 2008 and the October 2005-devastating Kashmir earthquake; army engineers, medical and logistics personnel, and the armed forces played a major role in br inging relief and supplies. In natural disasters there was no significant second wave of deaths from injury, cold, food shortages, or disease. And much credit f or that probably goes to Pakistan Army. Perhaps more than anything else, the qua ke relief effort demonstrated the growing importance of military forces in respo nding to disasters. The entire fleet of Army Aviation flew innumerable sorties r ound the clock to take relief goods to the affected areas and brought back sick and injured back to base hospitals. Where helicopters could not reach, men carri ed relief goods on their back and reached the needy. The undertaking of relief o peration of this magnitude could only be taken by the men and machines of the Ar med Forces of Pakistan. There are reports that the United Nations recommended th e Pakistan military form a standby team to respond in disasters. Integrated mili tary-civilian responses are most likely to be successful in natural disasters. T he role of the military becomes more contentious as the immediate life-saving ph ase of an aid operation ends and the reconstruction phase takes over. It is ther efore important for military actors to not only develop their capacity to respon d to disasters, but also to develop their capacity to exit from disaster respons es.
Pakistan Army From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Chief of Army Staff - Structure of the Pakistan Army - Frontier Corps - Special Service Group - Rawalpindi - Pakistan Military Academy - Command and Staff Colle ge - National Defence University - Military history of Pakistan - UN Peacekeepin g Missions Awards and Decorations - Nishan-e-Haider The Pakistan Army (Urdu: ) a branch of the Pakistan military that protects the state borders and territorie s. The Pakistan Army came into existence after independence in 1947 and is led b y General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. It has an active force of 700,000 personnel and 528,000 men in reserve. The Pakistan Army is a volunteer force and soldiers cont inue to serve until the age of 45. The Pakistan Army has had conflicts with I ndia, and has been involved in United Nations peacekeeping efforts. It maintaine d division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during t he past Arab-Israeli Wars, and aided the Coalition in the first Gulf War. Combat doctrine Pakistan Army has a doctrine of limited "offensive-defense" which i t has tried to refine consistently ever since 1989 since its inception during "E xercise Zarb-e-Momin." Under this strategy the Army does not wait for the enemy s offensive, but rather launches an offensive of its own. Two things are accompl ished under this strategy: first, the enemy is kept off-balance; second, enemy t erritory of strategic importance may be seized, which can then be used as a barg aining chip to consolidate the Army s gains. Similarly, in protecting state bord ers, the Pakistan Army will attempt to keep the enemy off of the border rather t han giving ground on the Pakistani side. In the 1990s, the Army created a strong centralized corps of reserves for its formations in the critical semidesert and desert sectors in southern Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new formations wer e rapidly equipped with assets needed for mechanized capability. These reserve f ormations are dual-capable, meaning they can be used for offensive as well as de fensive (holding) purposes. Organization Main articles: Structure of the Pakista n Army and List of serving generals of the Pakistan Army The Chief of the Army S taff (COAS), formerly called the Commander in Chief (C in C), is charged with th e responsibility of commanding the Pakistan Army. The COAS operates from army he adquarters in Rawalpindi, near Islamabad. The Principal Staff Officers (PSO s) a ssisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant General level include a Chief of Ge neral Staff (CGS), under whom the Military Operations and Intelligence Directora tes function; the Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS); the Adjutant General (AG); the Quarter-Master General (QMG); the Inspector General of Training and Evaluation (IGT&E); and the Military Secretary (MS). A major
reorganization in GHQ was done in September 2008 under General Ashfaq Parvez Kay ani, when two new PSO positions were introduced: the Inspector General Arms and the Inspector General Communications and IT, thus raising the number of PSO s to eight.. The headquarters function also includes the Judge Advocate General ( JAG), and the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Chief of the Corps of Engin eers (E-in-C) who is also head of Military Engineering Service (MES), all of the m also report to the Chief of the Army Staff. The current Principal Staff Office rs (PSO s) helping the COAS in his duties at the Lieutenant General level includ e: • Chief of General Staff (CGS) — Lt Gen Mohammad Mustafa Khan • Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS) — Lt Gen Muhammad Alam Khattak • Inspector General Arms — Lt Gen Jamil Hai der • Adjutant General (AG) — Lt Gen Javed Zia • Quarter-Master General (QMG) — Lt Gen Z ahid Hussain • Inspector General Training and Evaluation (IGT&E) — Lt Gen Ahsan Azha r Hayat • Military Secretary (MS) — Lt Gen Mohsin Kamal • Inspector General Communicat ions and IT — Lt Gen Tanvir Tahir Structure of Army units The Pakistan Army is div ided into two main branches, which are Arms and Services. Arms include: • Armoured Corps • Infantry • Artillery • Air Defence • Engineers • Signals • Army Aviation And Servi es include: • Army Medical Corps • Ordnance • Electrical & Mechanical Engineering (EME ) • Army Supply & Transport (ASC) Regiments • Infantry: Frontier Force (FF) Punjab Sindh Baloch Azad Kashmir (AK) Northern Lig ht Infantry (NLI) The President s Bodyguard Armour o 4th Cavalry o 5th Horse o 6 th Lancers o 7th Lancers o 8th Cavalry o 9th Horse o 10th Cavalry (Guides Cavalr y) o 11th Cavalry o 12th Cavalry o 13th Lancers o 14th Lancers o 15th Lancers o 16th Horse o 17th Lancer o 18th Horse o 19th Lancers o 20th Lancers o 21st Horse o 22nd Cavalry o 23rd Cavalry o The Charging 24th Cavalry o 25th Cavalry o 26th Cavalry o 27th Cavalry o 28th Cavalry "CHAMMB HUNTERS" o 29th Cavalry o 30th Ca valry o 31st Cavalry o o o o o o • •
32nd Cavalry(al aadiyat) 33rd Cavalry 34th Lancers 37th Cavalry(newest regt of a c) 38th Cavalry 40th Horse 41st Horse 42nd Lancers 51st Lancers 52nd Cavalry 53r d Cavalry 52nd Cavalry 53rd Cavalry 54th Cavalry 55th Cavalry 56th Cavalry 57th Cavalry 58th Cavalry *The President s Bodyguard formed at independence from memb ers of the Governor General s Bodyguard, itself successor to the Governor s Troo p of Moghals raised in 1773 *5th Horse is the successor to the 1st Sikh Irregula r Cavalry (Wales s Horse), and the 2nd Sikh Irregular Cavalry, both raised in 18 57 *6th Lancers is the successor to The Rohilkhand Horse raised in 1857, and the 4th Sikh Irregular Cavalry raised in 1858 *Guides Cavalry (Frontier Force) is t he successor to the Corps of Guides raised in 1846 *11th Cavalry (Frontier Force ) is the successor to 1st Regiment of Punjab Cavalry and 3rd Regiment of Punjab Cavalry, both raised in 1849 *13th Lancers is the successor to the 1st Native Tr oop raised in 1804, and the 2nd Native Troop raised in 1816. It is also the seni or most armour regiment of the Indian Sub-Continent. *15th Lancers is the succes sor to the Multani Regiment Of Cavalry raised in 14 January 1858. *19th Lancers is the successor to the 2nd Mahratta Horse (Tiwana Horse) raised in 1858, and Fa ne s Horse raised in 1860 *25th Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the famous unit whic h stopped Indian armour thrust in Chawinda in 1965 *The Punjab Regiment formed i n 1956 from the 1st, 14th, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments; can be traced back to the 3rd Battalion of Coast Sepoys raised in 1759 *The Baloch Regiment formed in 1956 from the 8th Punjab Regiment, The Baloch Regiment, and The Bahawalpur Regi ment; can be traced back to the 3rd Extra Madras Battalion raised in 1798 *The F rontier Force Regiment is the successor to the Frontier Brigade raised in 1846 * The Azad Kashmir Regiment was raised in 1947, became part of the army in 1971 *T he Sindh Regiment was raised in 1980 from battalions of the Punjab Regiment and Baloch Regiment *The Northern Light Infantry was formed in 1977 from various par amilitary units of scouts, became part of the army in 1999 after the Kargil War *The Special Service Group was formed in 1959 around a cadre from the Baloch Reg iment Corps There are 11 Corps including the newly formed Army Strategic Forces Command (2004) and Army Air Defence Command located at various garrisons all ove r Pakistan. Corps HQ Location Major Formations under Corps Commander 6th Armo ured Division (Kharian), 17th Infantry Division Lt Gen Nadeem I Corps Mangla, Pu njab (Kharian), 37th Infantry Division (Gujranwala) Ahmad 1st Armoured Division (Multan), 40th Infantry Division Lt Gen Sikandar II Corps Multan, Punjab (Okara) Afzal 10th Infantry Division (Lahore), 11th Infantry Division Lt Gen Ijaz Ahmed IV Corps Lahore, Punjab (Lahore) Bakhshi 16th Infantry Division (Pano Aqil), 18 th Infantry Division V Corps Karachi, Sindh Lt Gen Shahid Iqbal (Hyderabad), 25t h Mechanized Division (Malir) Force Command Northern Areas (Gilgit), 12th Infant ry Lt Gen Tahir X Corps Rawalpindi, Punjab Division (Murree), 19th Infantry Divi sion (Mangla), 23rd Mahmood Infantry Division (Jhelum) Peshawar, North West 7th Infantry Division (Peshawar), 9th Infantry Division Lt Gen Muhammad XI Corps Fro ntier Province (Kohat) Masood Aslam 33rd Infantry Division (Quetta), 41st Infant ry Division Lt Gen Khalid XII Corps Quetta, Balochistan (Quetta) Shameem Wynne 2 nd Artillery Division (Gujranwala), 8th Infantry Division XXX Corps Gujranwala, Punjab Lt Gen Nadeem Taj (Sialkot), 15th Infantry Division (Sialkot) 14th Infant ry Division (Okara), 26th Mechanized Division Lt Gen Naeem XXXI Corps Bahawalpur , Punjab (Bahawalpur), 35th Infantry Division (Bahawalpur) Khalid Lodhi Lt Gen S yed Absar Strategic Corps Rawalpindi, Punjab 2 divisions, 47th Artillery Brigade (Sargodha) Hussain Army Air 3rd Air Defence Division (Sargodha), 4th Air Defenc e Lt Gen Muhammad Defence Rawalpindi, Punjab Division (Malir) Ashraf Saleem Comm and o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o
History of the Pakistan Army See also: Military history of Pakistan 1947–1958 The Pakistan Army was created on 30 June 1947 with the division of the British India n Army. Pakistan received six armoured, eight artillery and eight infantry regim ents compared to the forty armoured, forty artillery and twenty one infantry reg iments that went to India.[verification needed] Fearing that India would take over the state of Kashmir, irregulars, scouts and tribal groups joined the Kash miris opposing the maharaja in 1947. This lead to the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 .[verification needed] Regular army units joined the invasion later on but were stopped after the refusal of the Pakisatan army C-in-C to obey Pakistani leader Jinnah s orders to move the army into Kashmir. Ceasefire followed on UN interven tion with Pakistan occupying the northwestern part of Kashmir and India the rest . Later, during the 1950s, the Pakistan Army received large amounts of economic and military aid from United States and Great Britain after signing two Mutual D efense Treaties, Central Treaty Organization, (Cento) also known as the Baghdad Pact and SEATO, (South East Asian Treaty Organization) in 1954. This aid greatly expanded the Army from its modest beginnings. The sole division HQ that went to Pakistan was the 7th. 8th and 9th Divisions were raised in 1947; 10, 12 and 14 Divs were raised in 1948. 15 Div was raised in 1950. At some point before 1954, 6 Div was raised and 9 Div disbanded. 6 Div was disbanded at some point after 19 54 as US assistance was available only for 1 armd and 6 inf divs. 1st Armoured D iv was raised in 1956. 1958–1969 The Army seized control of Pakistan for the first time when General Ayub Khan came to power through a bloodless coup in 1958. Ten sions with India continued in the 1960s and a brief border skirmish was fought n ear the Rann of Kutch area during April 1965. The Pakistan Army commanders seeme d emboldened and carried out Operation Gibraltar, an attempt to take Kashmir tha t was launched later in the year and resulted in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. After the Pakistani infiltrators were discovered, India counter-attacked and th e 3-week war ended in a U.N. mandated ceasefire culminating in the Tashkent Decl aration. The 1965 IndoPakistani War is widely regarded as ending in a stalemate as both countries had similar amounts of their opposition s territory in their p ossession, although the Indian Army may have had an upper hand because its captu red territory was hospitable areas of the Punjab whereas that captured by the PA was composed of the deserts and swamps of Rann. Both countries claimed victory, Pakistan s reason being it had forced a stalemate against a military which was vastly superior in numbers and equipment. It is also believed that India s bette r resources would have given it a decisive advantage had the war continued. An u prising against General Ayub Khan during 1968 and 1969 resulted in Ayub Khan rel inquishing his office as President and Chief of Army Staff in favour of General Yahya Khan, who assumed power in 1969. 16 Divison, 18 Division and 23 Division w ere raised at some point between 1966 and 1969 and 9 Division was re-raised duri ng this period. 1969–1977 During the rule of General Yahya Khan, the Bengalis of E ast Pakistan protested against various political and economic conditions that ha d been imposed on them by West Pakistan and massive civil unrest broke out in Ea st Pakistan. While the Pakistan Army attempted to quell the uprisings, which inc luded killings of non-Bengalis by Bengali rebels, incidents of human rights abus es were carried out by certain sections of the Pakistan Army in East Pakistan. I ndia assisted Bangladeshi rebels for months before beginning an invasion of East Pakistan in November 1971. The Pakistani military in East Pakistan was very hea vily out-numbered following a policy that "East Pakistan s defence lay in West P akistan" and by 16 December 1971, around 90,000 West Pakistanis were surrendered and taken Prisoner of War by the Indian Army. They included around 55,000 milit ary personnel and around 35,000 government and civil employees. East Pakistan wa s made independent from West Pakistan, becoming the People s Republic of Banglad esh. Consequently, the Pakistan Army was modernised at a faster pace than ever b efore. According to Maj (Retd) Agha Humayun Amin, no PA commanders had seriously considered an Indian invasion of East Pakistan until December 1971 because it w as thought that the Indian military would not risk Chinese or U.S. intervention. It was not realised that the Chinese were unable to intervene during the Novemb er to December 1971 period due to snowbound Himalayan passes and the U.S. had no t made any real effort to persuade India against attacking East Pakistan. 197
7–1999 In 1977 the Pakistan Army took over the government of Pakistan after a coup by General Zia ul-Haq, which saw the end of another democratically elected gove rnment leading to the hanging of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, after he was tried and fou nd guilty of conspiracy of murdering a politician named Kasuri. General Zia ul-H aq ruled as a military dictator until his death in an air crash in 1988. At that time General Mohammad Iqbal Khan was a powerful general of Pakistan. He served as a joint chief from 1980 to 1984 and was the Chief Martial Law Officer at that time. If Zia ul-Haq would have resigned at that time he would be the next COAS. Pakistan Army also helped the Saudi Arabian Government in regaining the control of the Kaaba with the help of French Commandos. Pakistani and French security f orces retook Kaaba in a battle which left approximately 250 dead, and 600 wounde d. The Pakistanis and French were called in after poor results from assaults by the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG). 127 were reported to have been killed. In the mid-1970s the Pakistan Army was involved in fighting an uprising in Baloc histan. Various Balochi factions, some with the oblique support of the USSR, wan ted independence or at least greater provincial rights. The rebellion was put do wn but the Army suffered heavy casualties. 1999–present In October 1999 the Pakist an Army for the fourth time, overthrew a democratically elected government which resulted in additional sanctions being placed against Pakistan, resulting in Ge neral Pervez Musharraf coming to power in a bloodless coup. Musharraf stepped do wn as President in August 2008. On July 30, 2009, the Pakistan Supreme Court rul ed that General Musharraf s imposition of the Emergency Rule in 2007 was unconst itutional. Since the 9/11 incident, Pakistan unrecognized the Taliban and has become a key ally of the United States in the fight against terrorism. As part of the U.S. s War on Terrorism, the army has moved over 100,000 troops to the Pa kistan-Afghan border to patrol against extreme elements cross border infiltratio n. The Pakistan Army commenced operations in Balochistan during 2006, resulting in the killing of the leader of the Balochis, Nawab Akbar Bugti and has resulted in the crushing of a rebellion by the Balochistan Liberation Army. Ironically, Bugti never demanded separation of Baluchistan from Pakistan. In an interview wi th journalist Hamid Mir, he said "Read Mir Gul Khan Nasir s book on the history of Balochistan. The Baloch have always resisted unconstitutional measures.I m no t a traitor, the people who go against the Article 6 and take control of Pakista n are the real traitors. I, like Mir Gul Khan Nasir, only put forward the demand for Balochistan s rights. But in General Musharraf s view this is a crime punis hable by death. (Bugti Laughs then continues) Your commando general will rest on ly after he martyrs me but after my martyrdom he will be held responsible. So no w it s up to you people to either choose Musharraf or Pakistan. The choice is yo urs." Another of his demands that put him into direct conflict with the mi litary cabal was the trial of an army captain accused of raping a lady doctor po sted at Sui. On February 21, 2009, the Pakistani governm ent and armed forces decided to implement a truce with the Taliban rather than e ngage in on-off guerrilla warfare to the dismay of many of Pakistan s Western al lies including the United States. As a result of this truce, Shariah or Islamic law was to be implemented in the Malakand division – a region in North-West Pakist an that includes the one time tourist haven, Swat Valley. However, when Taliban
did not lay down their weapons as part of the deal which would result in the imp lementation of Islamic law, the Pakistan army supported by the country s parliam ent embarked on a full-scale military operation in order to eliminate militant s that challenge the writ of the state. Recent press releases by military spokes persons claim to have already killed over 1,000 militants. The militants, on the other hand, claim to have taken less losses than the military. However, due to the intensity of the conflict and the curfew imposed by the government in the ar ea, it is difficult to verify this independently. Most observers believe that th e military is regaining territory that was in control of the militants, although the speed of this progress is considerably slow. Notable defence analysts belie ve that if the Pakistan army is serious about tackling the threat of militancy, it will be successful in quelling this insurgency. pakistan has been successful in crushing the swat based taliban . the army has also started an operation to q uash taliban in south waziristan and it has been highly successful in it as well Pakistan Army role in peacekeeping See also UN peacekeeping missions involving Pakistan In the wake of the new world power equilibrium a more complex security environment has emerged. It is characterized by growing national power politics and state implosions which have necessitated involvement of the United Nations p eace keeping forces for conflict resolution. The United Nations has been underta king peace keeping operations since its inception, but the need for employment o f peace keeping forces has increased manifold since the Gulf War. In 1992 there were 11000 Blue Berets deployed around the world, by the end of the year the fig ure rose to 52000. Presently it exceeds a staggering figure of 80,000 troops. Pa kistan contribution in U peace keeping missions • UN Operation in Congo (ONUC) 196 0–1964 • UN Security Force in New Guinea, West Irian (UNSF) 1962–1963 • UN Yemen Observe r Mission Yemen (UNYOM) 1963–1964 • UN Transition Assistance Group in Namibia (UNTAG ) 1989–1990 • UN Iraq–Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM) 1991–2003 • UN Mission in Haiti (UN MIH) 1993–1996 • UN Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC) 1992–1993 • UN Operations in Somalia (UNOSOM) 1992–1995 • UN Protection Forces in Bosnia (UNPROFOR) 1992–1995 • U N Observer Mission for Rawanda (UNAMIR) 1993–1996 • UN Verification Mission in Angol a (UNAVEM III) 1995–1997 • UN Transitional Administration for Eastern Slavonia (UNTA ES) 1996–1997 • UN Mission of Observers in Prevlaka (UNMOP) 1996–2002 • UN Assistance Mi ssion in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL) 2001–2005 • UN Transitional Administration in East T imor (UNTAET) 1999-to-date • UN Mission in Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC ) 2003-to-date • UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) 2003-to-date • UN Mission in Ivory Co ast (ONUCI) 2004-to-date • UN Mission in Burundi (ONUB) 2004-to-date • UN Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) 2005-to-date • UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) 1999-to-date Currently, Pakistan has the most operational army in UN peace keeping missions. Notable ar e its achievements in DRC and Somalia Political and corporate i nterests of the Army The Pakistan Army has always played an integral part of the Pakistan government since its inception mainly on the pretext of lack of good c ivilian leadership. It has virtually acted as a third party that has repeatedly seized power in the name of stabilizing Pakistan and ending corruption. However political instability, lawlessness and corruption are seen as direct consequence s of army rule. with the last military dictator, Gen. Musharraf making o ff with state gifts worth millions instead of depositing them with the state tre asury as per law besides other reported instances of corruption . Earlier si milar precedent was also setup by general Zia ul-Haq who retained expensive vehi cles and state gifts. The tradition of insubordination of the army towards the l egitimate leadership of can be traced back to Frank Messervy who had resisted th e orders of Pakistan’s founding father Muhammad Ali Jinnah. This was described as the main reason for his early retirement. However it did not prevent him being h onored and promoted to general. Later Douglas Gracey, the C in C of the Pakistan Army did not send troops to the Kashmir front and refused to obey the order to do so given by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Governor-General of Pakistan. Gracey argued that Jinnah as Governor-General represented the British Crown of which he himsel f was an appointee. The same tradition was continued by their successors, Ayub K han, Zia and Musharraf, all of whom received honours instead of being tried for indiscipline and insubordination. General Ayub Khan came to power in 1958 due to political wrangling engineered by the bureaucracy and the military after the as
sassination of prime minister Liaqat Ali Khan. The situation was so dire that th e speaker of the National Assembly was beaten to death right in front of the ass embly hall. Later on, owing to public pressure, Ayub Khan transferred power to G eneral Yahya Khan rather than the speaker of the national assembly as stipulated in the constitution. The prolonged military rule finally resulted in the dismem berment of Pakistan with the independence of Bangladesh. After the 1971 war, dem ocracy was restored only to be cut short in 1977 after a coup which saw the hang ing of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Pakistani Premier. General Zia ul-Haq ruled as a dictator virtually unopposed until his death in 1988. His rule resulted in lawl essness, bomb blasts and influx of weapons and refugees. Despite the exit of the army from mainstream politics, the political muscle of the military is everpres ent. The former President, General (ret) Pervez Musharraf, came to power in a bl oodless coup in October 1999 overthrowing the last democratically elected govern ment led by Nawaz Sharif. Repeated army coups have served to strengthen and buil d-up the military s corporate interests in real estate, security-related busines ses, hotels, shopping malls, insurance companies, banks, farms and airline secto rs. Pakistan has been ruled by the Army for about half of the period of its exis tence. During this period of its dictatorial rule the army has authorized some u nbelievable perks and privileges for itself. Expansion of these interests occurr ed most prominently via welfare foundations, under the guise of providing for th e needs of the troops and their families, whether with bakeries, real estate or beauty
parlors. A civilian government, as and when formed, could hardly change or chall enge these perks. Once Prime Minister Mohammad Khan Junejo attempted to cut defe nce expenditure and tried to put generals and admirals in small cars in place of more luxurious vehicles, General Zia promptly sacked him. Besides handsome pay package and fringe benefits, army officers in Pakistan are given many colonial p rivileges. The biggest perk is land. In addition to land grants, pensions five t imes the civilian level and postretirement jobs were designed to make military s ervice lucrative. In fact its is said that every general retiring from the army is transformed into a feudal lord, thanks to the prime agrarian lands allotted t o them.In the Pakistan Army a Major General on promotion to the rank of Lieutena nt General gets fifty acres of land. On the contrary out of the 46 housing s chemes directly built by the armed forces, none is for ordinary soldiers or civi lian officers and personnel employed by the army. Personnel Personnel traini ng File:Pak-army-commandos.jpg Pakistan s SSG Commandos during an exercise Enlis ted ranks Most enlisted personnel used to come from rural families, and many hav e only rudimentary literacy skills, but with the increase in the litracy level t he requirements have been raised to Matriculate level (10th Grade). Recruits are processed gradually through a paternalistically run regimental training center, taught the official language, Urdu, if necessary, and given a period of element ary education before their military training actually starts. In the thirty-sixweek training period, they develop an attachment to the regiment they will remai n with through much of their careers and begin to develop a sense of being a Pak istani rather than primarily a member of a tribe or a village. Enlisted men usua lly serve for eighteen years, during which they participate in regular training cycles and have the opportunity to take academic courses to help them advance. O fficer ranks Following are the Officer ranks in Pakistan Army: • Field Marshal • General • Lt-General • Major-General • Brigadier • Colonel • Lt-Colonel • Major • Captai utenant • 2nd lieutenant About 320 men enter the army bi-annually through the Paki stan Military Academy at Kakul in Abbottabad in the North West Frontier Province ; a small number—especially physicians and technical specialists—are directly recrui ted, and these persons are part of the heart of the officer corps. The product o f a highly competitive selection process, members of the officer corps have comp leted twelve years of education and spend two years at the Pakistan Military Aca demy, with their time divided about equally between military training and academ ic work to bring them up to a baccalaureate education level, which includes Engl ish-language skills. The army has twelve other training establishments, includin g schools concentrating on specific skills such as infantry, artillery, intellig ence, or mountain warfare. A National University of Science and Technology (NUST ) has been established which has absorbed the existing colleges of engineering, signals, electrical engineering and medicine. At the apex of the army training s ystem is the Command and Staff College at Quetta, one of the few institutions in herited from the colonial period. The college offers a tenmonth course in tactic s, staff duties, administration, and command functions through the division leve l. Students from foreign countries, including the United States, have attended t he school but reportedly have been critical of its narrow focus and failure to e ncourage speculative thinking or to give adequate attention to less glamorous su bjects, such as logistics. The senior training institution for all service branc hes is the National Defence University. Originally established in 1971 at Rawalp indi, to provide training in higher military strategy for senior officers, the s chool house was relocated to Islamabad in 1995. It also offers courses that allo w civilians to explore the broader aspects of national security. In a program be gun in the 1980s to upgrade the intellectual standards of the officer corps and increase awareness of the wider world, a small group of officers, has been detai led to academic training, achieving master s degrees and even doctorates at univ ersities in Pakistan and abroad. Pakistani officers were sent abroad during the 1950s and into the 1960s for training in Britain and other Commonwealth countrie s, and especially to the United States, where trainees numbering well in the hun dreds attended a full range of institutions ranging from armored and infantry sc hools to the higher staff and command institutions. After 1961 this training was coordinated under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) prog
ram, but numbers varied along with vicissitudes in the United States-Pakistan mi litary relationship. Of some 200 officers being sent abroad annually in the 1980 s, over two-thirds went to the United States, but the cessation of United States aid in 1990 entailed suspension of the IMET program. In 1994 virtually all fore ign training was in Commonwealth countries. However, after the 9/11 attacks, Pak istan again has begun sending officers to US Army schools. Today there are more than 400 officers serving in foreign countries. Officers retire between the ages of fifty-two and sixty, depending on their rank. Uniforms Pakistan Army uniform s closely resemble those of the British armed services. The principal color is g reenish brown. Dress uniforms were worn mostly on formal occasions. The service uniform was worn for daily duty. The service uniform for the ground forces was k haki (sand/tan) cotton. Officers purchased their uniforms, but enlisted personne l received a standard uniform issue, which consisted of service and field unifor ms, fatigues, and in some cases, dress uniforms. The uniforms consisted of shirt , trousers, sweater, jacket or blouse, and boots. There is also a white dress un iform. The fatigues were the same for winter and summer. Heavy winter gear was i ssued as needed. Headgear included a service cap for dress and semi-dress and a field cap worn with fatigues. Army personnel also wear berets, usually worn in l ieu of the service cap. Brown and black and more recently US BDU style camouflag e fatigues are worn by army troop units. Rank structure and uniform insignia
Pakistani Officer Ranks Field COAS General Marshal (5(4-Star) (4-Star) Star) Major Lieutenant General General (3-Star) Star) (2Brigadier (1-Star) Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant 2nd Lieutenant
The rank structure is patterned on the British Army model. Following the British Indian Army traditions, there are three junior commissioned officer (JCO) grade s between enlisted and officer rank, for those who rise by promotion from among enlisted recruits. The Junior Commissioned Officer is a continuation of the form er Viceroy s Commissioned Officer rank. During the early days of the Pakistan Ar my, there was a large cultural gap between officers and enlisted personnel. In t he early 1990s, JCOs had wide responsibilities in the day-to-day supervision of lower grades, but they were a group that may have outlived its usefulness becaus e officers have become "more Pakistani" and less dependent on British models and because the education level of enlisted men has risen. Promotion to JCO rank, h owever, remains a powerful incentive for enlisted personnel; thus, if JCO ranks are ever phased out, it will likely be a slow process. Awards for valor The Nish an-e-Haider (Urdu: ( ) Sign of the Lion), is the highest military award given by P . Recipients Nishan-e-Haider recipients receive an honorary title as a sign of r espect: Shaheed meaning martyr for deceased recipients. 1. Captain Muhammad Sarw ar Shaheed (1910–27 July 1948) 2. Major Tufail Muhammad Shaheed (1914–7 August 1958) 3. Major Raja Aziz Bhatti Shaheed (1928–10 September 1965) 4. Major Muhammad Akra m Shaheed (1938–1971) 5. Major Shabbir Sharif Shaheed (1943–6 December 1971) 6. Jawa n Sawar Muhammad Hussain Shaheed (1949–10 December 1971) 7. Lance Naik Muhammad Ma hfuz Shaheed (1944–17 December 1971) 8. Captain Karnal Sher Khan Shaheed (1970–5 Jul y 1999) 9. Lalak Jan Shaheed (1967–7 July 1999) 10. Pilot Officer Rashid Minhas Sh aheed (Day of martyrdom : 21 August 1971) 11. Naik Saif Ali Khan Shaheed (Kashmi r) Two Pakistani pilots belonging to the army aviation branch of Pakistan army w ho carried out a daring rescue of a mountaineer are to be given Slovenia s top a ward for bravery. Slovenian, Tomaz Humar got stranded on the western end of the 8,125m Nanga Parbat mountain were he remained for around a week on top of the wo rld s ninth-highest peak. The helicopter pilots plucked the 38-year-old from an icy ledge 6,000m up the peak known as "killer mountain". The Slovenian president has presented Lt Col Rashid Ullah Beg and Lt Col Khalid Amir Rana with the Gold en Order for Services in the country s capital, Ljubljana, "for risking their li ves during the rescue mission", a Pakistan army statement said. Special forc es and alliances See also Pakistan-China military relations. Main article: Speci al Service Group Special Service Group (SSG) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Army. It is an elite special operations force similar to the Un ited States Army Special Forces (Green Berets) and the British Army s SAS. Offic ial numbers are put at 2,100 men, in 3 Battalions; however the actual strength i s classified. It is estimated to have been increased to 4 Battalions, with t he eventual formation of 2 Brigades of Special Forces (6 Battalions). Women and minorities in the Army Women have served in the Pakistan Army since its foundati on. Currently, there is a sizable number of Women serving in the army. Most wome n are recruited in the regular Army to perform medical and educational work. The re is also a Women s Guard section of Pakistan s National Guard where women are
trained in nursing, welfare and clerical work and there are also women recruited in very limited numbers for the Janbaz Force. Only recently has Pakistan began to recruit women for combat positions and the Elite Anti-Terrorist Force In 2007 , several female graduates were nominated to be Sky Marshalls for Pakistan based airlines. In addition recently eight of the 41 cadets from the Pakistan Mil itary Academy at Kakul became the first women guards of honour. Pakistan is the only country in the Islamic world to have female Major Generals in the Army.  Recruitment is nationwide and the army attempts to maintain an ethnic balan ce but most enlisted recruits, as in British times, come from a few districts in northern Punjab Province and the adjacent Azad Jammu and Kashmir and the North West Frontier Province. Pakistan s Officer Corps are also mostly from Punjab and the North West Frontier Province and of middle-class, rural backgrounds.[citati on needed] Minorities in Pakistan are allowed to sit in all examinations, includ ing the one conducted by Inter Services Selection Board however the proportion o f religious minorities in the Pakistan army is still considerably very less. As per day only one sixth is in the Pakistan Army. The army sees itself as a nation al institution although not many minorities have seen high ranks. Relief ope rations and economic development In times of natural disaster, such as the great floods of 1992 or the October 2005 devastating earthquake, army engineers, medi cal and logistics personnel, and the armed forces played a major role in bringin g relief and supplies. The army also engaged in extensive economic activities. M ost of these enterprises, such as stud and dairy farms, were for the army s own use, but others performed functions beneficial to the local civilian economy. Ar my factories produced such goods as sugar, fertilizer, and brass castings and so ld them to civilian consumers. Several army organizations performed function s that were important to the civilian sector across the country. For example, th e National Logistics Cell was responsible for trucking food and other goods acro ss the country; the Frontier Works Organization built the Karakoram Highway to C hina; and the Special Communication Organization maintained communications netwo rks in remote parts of Pakistan. Pakistan Army is involved in relief activities not only in Pakistan but also in many other countries of the world, like they we nt for relief activities after Bangladesh was recently hit by floods. The Pak Ar my also went to Indonesia, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka after they were hit by tsuna mi. Pakistan Army and Navy sent ships and helicopters to the friendly nations fo r the tsunami relief operation. 2009 Refugee crisis Main article: 2009 refugee c risis in Pakistan Weapons and equipment Small arms The Heckler & Koch G3 is the Pakistan Army s standard assault rifle, shown here is the G3A3 model.
Weapon Comments Handguns Tokarev pistol HK P7 Glock 17 Glock 26 Steyr M9A1 Recen tly acquired by the SSW. Sub-machine guns (SMG) and carbines: Heckler & Koch MP5 SMG Manufactured by POF. Heckler & Koch MP5K Also in use by Airport Security Fo rce and personal security detail of VIPs, manufactured by POF. SMG FN P90 SMG As sault rifles AK-101 AK-103 FN F2000 M4A1 carbine M16 Steyr AUG Battle rifles Hec kler & Koch G3 The PA s service rifle. G3A3, G3P4 variants in service. Type 56 C hinese-manufactured AK-47. Type 81 Improved version of Type 56. Grenades M67 grenade Sniper rifles M82 Barret  Steyr SSG 69  HK PSG1 Machine guns MG 3 Manufactured under license by Pakistan Ordnance Factories FN MAG FN Minimi Para RPD Grenade launchers RPG-7 Manufactured under license by Pakistan Ordnanc e Factories Type 69 RPG RPG-29 Mk 19 grenade launcher Carl Gustav recoilless rif le Armour inventory Firm umber in Vehicle/System/Aircraft Status Service Al Khal id Main Battle Tank ~220 In Service. 320 Delivered by Ukraine between 1997 and T -80UD Main Battle Tank 320 early 2002. Type 85IIAP Main Battle Tank 300 In S ervice. Being phased out Al-Zarar Tank Main Battle Tank 350 Currently under prod uction Type 79IIAP 250 Being phased out by Al Khalid Type 69 150 Being phased ou t by Al Khalid Type 63 ??? Amphibious tank Type 59 500 Being phased out by Al Za rrar & Al Khalid II Hamza Infantry Fighting Vehicle ??? Being procured Al-Fahd I nfantry fighting vehicle 140 In Service Talha Armoured Personnel Carrier 400+ Fi nal number to be around 2,000 Sa ad Armoured Personnel Carrier ??? Currently in production M113 Armoured Personnel Carrier 1100+ In Service BTR-70 Armoured Pers onnel Carrier 160 In Service  Mohafiz Light Armoured Personnel Carrier ??? I n Service & Additional APCs being procured Otokar Akrep Light Jeep 1260 In Servi ce
Al Qaswa Logistical Vehicle ?? Being procured M88 ARV Armoured Recovery Vehicle ??? In Service M60A1 AVLB Armoured Vehicle Launched Bridge ??? In Service M48 Ar moured Vehicle Launched Bridge Armoured Vehicle ??? In Service Launched Bridge A rtillery inventory Vehicle/System/Aircraft Firm umber in Service Status M109A5 1 55 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 265 115 Ordered along with 150 A5 upgrade kits M11 0A2 203 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer 60 In Service Type 56 85 mm Towed Artille ry 200 In Service M-56 105 mm Towed Artillery 80 In Service M101 105 mm Towed Ar tillery 300 In Service T-60 122 mm Towed Artillery 200 In Service Type 54 122 mm Towed Artillery 400 In Service Type 59I 130 mm Towed Artillery 200 In Service M -59 155 mm Towed Artillery 30 In Service M114 155 mm Towed Artillery 60 In Servi ce M-198 155 mm Towed Artillery 120 In Service M-115 203 mm Towed Artillery 40 I n Service Panter Howitzer Towed Artillery 12 Produced by Turkey Aircraft invento ry Vehicle/System/Aircraft Role Quantity Comments AH-1S Cobra Attack helicopter ~18  AH-1F Cobra Attack helicopter ~20  Aérospatiale Puma Transport helico pter 30 Mil Mi-17 Transport helicopter 30 30 in service as of November 2004.  Bell 206 Jet Ranger Utility helicopter 15 Bell 407 Utility helicopter 45 [ 38] Bell 412 Utility helicopter 25 Bell UH-1 Huey Utility helicopter 10 Eurocopt er AS-550 Utility helicopter 50 Aérospatiale Alouette III Utility helicopter 40 Be ing phased out. Aérospatiale SA-315B Lama Utility helicopter 40 Being phased out. Anti-tank missiles Anti-tank • Bakter-Shikan ATGM • BGM-71 TOW • BGM-71 TOW 2  • MIL AN  Air defence systems Man-portable air defence systems • Anza Mk I, Anza Mk II, Anza Mk III (MANPAD) • SA-7 Grail • General Dynamics FIM-92 Stinger • General Dyna mics FIM-43 Redeye • Bofors RBS-70 Medium range air defence systems Bofors RBS-23 BAMSE High altitude air defence systems HQ-2B Anti-aircraft guns • Oerlikon 35 mm twin-barrel cannon • Bofors 40 mm cannon Shaheen-III* Surf Missiles in Service of Pakistan Intermediate Range Ghauri-III* ace-to-Surface Ballistic Missiles Medium Range Ghauri-I Ghauri-II Shaheen-II
Short Range Land Attack Babur Cruise Missiles Anti-Ship Anti-Tank Missiles Torpe does Land Attack Cruise Missiles Anti-Ship
Anti-Radiation AGM-88 HARM AGM-45 Shrike MAR-1 Air-to-Surface Anti-Tank Missiles Baktar-Shikan BGM-71 TOW Glide Bombs H-2 H-4 Mk-46 A244-S ET-52C Torpedoes Medium Range Area Defence SAMs Surface-to-Air Shor t Range Point Defence SAMs Man Portable SAMs Beyond Visual Range AAMs Air-to-Air Within Visual Range AAMs
Future plans Throughout the International Defence Exhibition & Seminar (IDEAS) a t Karachi in November 2006, Pakistani firms have signed joint development, produ ction and marketing agreements with defence firms from South Korea, France and U kraine. These agreements include new reactive armour bricks, 155 mm artillery sh ells, and other developments in armour and land weaponry. These agreements all r elate to the Pakistan Army s AFFDP-2019 modernization program of its armour, art illery and infantry. A few months prior to IDEAS 2006, the Paki stan Army and Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) announced the development of the Al Khalid II Main Battle Tank (MBT). The Al Khalid II is poised to become the Pakis tan Army s backbone main battle tank from 2012; thus replacing 1200 obsolete Chi nese T-59 and 300 T-85IIAP. Not much is known about this tank, but it is reporte d that the Al Khalid II is a very extensive upgrade of the current Al Khalid. Ot her reports suggest that it will be an entirely new tank based on Western design s. Turkish press reported that a Pakistani armour firm will participate in the T urkey s new generation tank project. Turkey and Pakistan have signed many memora ndums of understanding in various defence-related fields. Given that many Pakist ani firms have signed joint agreements with Western firms, it is possible that a considerable part of the Al Khalid II s design will be influenced from the Turk ish tank design. Nonetheless, the new generation tank is expected to form the ba ckbone of the Pakistan Army s tank force; in the long-term. The Pakistan Army will standardize its artillery capability to 155 mm by 2019. This can be seen by the acquisition of 115 M109A5 self-propelled howitzers from the United States, and joint production deals of 155 mm shells with French and South Korean firms. It is expected that the army will procure a range of light, mediu m and heavy towed and self-propelled howitzer artillery from China, Europe and t he United States. These will replace all non155 mm and older systems. The Army r eportedly ordered and procured an undisclosed number of WS-1B Multiple Launch Ro cket Systems (MLRS). As part of the artillery modernization program, the Army wi ll likely procure a fair number of new MLRS systems of various ranges and shell sizes. Modernization of the Army Aviation is underway with the procurement of new transport and attack helicopters from the United States, Russ ia and Europe. Finalized acquisitions include 26 Bell 412EP and at least a dozen Mi-17 medium-lift transport helicopters from the U.S and Russia, respectively. Forty Bell 407 and an unknown number of Fennec light helicopters from the U.S. a nd Eurocopter have also been ordered, respectively. Plans are underway to begin
PL-5 PL-9 AIM-9 Sidewinder AIM-7 Sparrow Matra R550 Magic 530 * = Under Development References available on template page
RIM-66 SM-1MR Crotale
MBDA Spada 2000
AIM-120 AMRAAM Matra R530
Baktar-Shikan BGM-71 TOW MILAN Cobra 2000 Mk-46 SUT Mod 2 ECAN L5 Mod 3 ASROC VL-ASROC Babur C-803 Exocet AGM-84 Harpoon
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M-11 C-201 C-801
ET-52C F17P Mod 2 Tp 43X2 A24 Ra ad AS-30L AGM-65 Maverick C-
replacing the IAR 330 Puma, older Mil Mi-8/17, Bell Jet Rangers and older Huey h elicopters; options include the Eurocopter NH-90 Tactical Transport Helicopter a nd UH-60M Blackhawk. The Pakistan Army has procured dozens of excess AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters since 2002; at least 20 have been brought into service to sup plement the serving 18. These gunships are expected to add muscle to current cou nterterrorist support operations in NWFP.The army reportedly has upgraded its en tire fleet with AH-1Z King Cobra avionics and new weapon systems such as the TOW -2 and Hellfire missiles. Up to 30 new-generation attack helicopters will be pro cured to further enhance the Army s attack aviation arm; options include the Eur ocopter Tiger, South African AH-2 Rooivalk and Boeing AH-64D Apache Longbow.
See also Military of Pakistan Pakistan Air Force Pakistan Navy Pakistan and weap ons of mass destruction Related lists List of serving generals of the Pakistan A rmy otes 1. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/may/31/books.pakistan 2. ^ Ge neral Mirza Aslam Beg. 50 Years of Pakistan Army: A Journey into Professionalism , Pakistan Observer, 21 August, 1997. 3. ^ Iftikhar A. Khan. "Kayani shakes up a rmy command" Dawn, 30 September, 2008 4. ^ http://www.defence.pk/forums/land-for ces/21550-pakistan-army.html Talbot, Ian. "Pakistan: A Modern History". http://w ww.amazon.com/gp/product/1403964599/sr=15. ^ 1/qid=1145365021/ref=pd_bbs_1/104-6 819605-8875151?%5Fencoding=UTF8&s=books. Retrieved 2006-04-10. 6. ^ http://www.d efencejournal.com/2000/nov/pak-army.htm 7. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2009/08/01/w orld/asia/01pstan.html?ref=world 8. ^ http://ejang.jang.com.pk/7-30-2009/page5.a sp 9. ^ http://www.jang.com.pk/jang/jul2009-daily/30-07-2009/col5.htm 10. ^ LAND , GOLD & WOMEN 11. ^ Pakistan, land, gold, women 12. ^ Khalid, Shazia; Zainab Ma hmood and Maryam Maruf (26 September, 2005). "Shazia Khalid and the fight for ju stice in Pakistan" (PDF). www.opendemocracy.net. openDemocracy. http://www.opend emocracy.net/node/2868/pdf. Retrieved 26 September 2009. 13. ^ Raped doctor: I m still terrified, BBC, June 29, 2005. 14. ^ I’m still terrified: Dr Shazia 15. ^ M usharraf’s Rape Cover-Up 16. ^ http://www.defencejournal.com/2001/september/arena. htm 17. ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/2003/sep/16pak3.htm 18. ^ http://www.thenew s.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=23103 19. ^ http://www.paklinks.com/gs/military -strategic-issues/249384-who-ruling-poor-nation-pakistan-army-genrals.html 20. ^ Siddiqa, Ayesha. "Military Inc. Inside Pakistan s Military Economy" Karachi: Ox ford University Press(2007). 21. ^ Pakistan Defence Forum 22. ^ BBC: Pakistan pi lots get bravery award 23. ^ "Special Service Group (Army)". PakDef. http://www. pakdef.info/pakmilitary/army/regiments/ssg.html. 24. ^ "" Pakistan Female Sky Ma rshalls"". http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/2144140.stm. Retrieved 20 07-01-21. 25. ^ "" Pakistan Female honour guards"". http://www.ibnlive.com/news/ pak-army-soon-have-women-officers/29471-2.html. Retrieved 2007-01-21. 26. ^ "" P akistan is the only country in the Islamic world to have women Major Generals "" . http://zahranaqvi.wordpress.com/2007/03/08/international-women%E2%80%99s-day-a nd-pakistan/. Retrieved 2007-0416. 27. ^ ""Ahmadis in Pakistan army"". http://ww w.dawn.com/2006/04/22/nat8.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-21. 28. ^ http://www.globalsec urity.org/military/world/pakistan/army.htm 29. ^ a b c http://www.pakdef.info/pa kmilitary/army/regiments/ssg.html 30. ^ http://www.pof.gov.pk/products/mg3.htm 3 1. ^  32. ^ http://www.pakdef.info/pakmilitary/army/tanks/btr70.html 33. ^ ht tp://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/pakistan/army-equipment.htm 34. ^ htt p://www.paktribune.com/news/index.shtml?167823 35. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.o rg/military/world/pakistan/army-aviation-aircraft.htm 36. ^ http://www.flightglo bal.com/pdfarchive/view/2004/2004-09%20-%202372.html 37. ^ http://www.globalsecu rity.org/military/world/pakistan/army-aviation-aircraft.htm 38. ^ http://www.dai lytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2007\10\23\story_23-10-2007_pg1_8 39. ^ http://w ww.spacewar.com/reports/Foreign_Military_Sale_Pakistan___TOW_2A_Anti_Armor_Guide d_Missiles_999.html 40. ^ http://www.pakdef.info/pakmilitary/army/atgm/milan.htm l References • Cloughley, Brian. A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrec tions, 3rd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0195473346. Further reading • Ayub, Muhammad. An Army, Its Role and Rule: A History of the Pak istan Army from Independence to Kargil, 1947–1999. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: Rosed og Books. ISBN 0-8059-9594-3. • Cloughley, Brian. "War, Coups and Terror - Pakista n s Army in Years of Turmoil" (from 1972 to 2008). UK, Pen & Sword Books. ISBN 1 84415795-4. • Siddiqa, Ayesha. "Military Inc. Inside Pakistan s Military Economy" Karachi: Oxford University Press(2007). ISBN 978-019-547495-4 External links Off icial websites • • • •
Official website of Pakistan Army launched on 6 April 2009 Official website of I nter Services Public Relations (ISPR) Official website of International Defence Exhibition and Seminar (IDEAS) Web resources • PakDef.info - Pakistan Military Con sortium • GlobalSecurity.org • defence.pk - Pakistan Defence • xAirForces.net • • • Pakistani Soldiers carry tents away from a U.S. CH-47 Chinook helicopter October 19, 2005 Al Khalid MBT T-155 FIRTINA SP ARTY M109 SP Howitzer Panther Towed Howitzer - The M115 Howitzer - A M60AVLB The M4A1 with SOPMOD package, including Rail Interface System (RIS) and Trijicon ACOG 4x.
M109A6 "Paladin" firing at night. Two Pakistan Army AH-1S Cobras at AVN Base,Mul tan A Pakistan Army soldier deployed during an exercise and armed with the Heckler & Koch G3, the PA s standard assault rifle. A PA Mi-17 at Skardu Pakistan Army tr oops wearing the standard sand fatigue uniform lead the Joint Services Parade in 2005. Rahimuddin Khan (pictured here as Lieutenant-General in 1983) was PMA s premier commissioned officer following Partition in 1947 Pakistan Military Academy Passi ng out Parade
Army Equipment - Introduction The lack of equipment at the time of independence presented great problems. Most of the depots and virtually all of the military production facilities were loca ted in areas that became India, which was less than forthcoming in handing over the share of military matériel that was due Pakistan under the partition agreement . Pakistan received little or nothing in the way of ships and only two of the te n squadrons of the former Royal Indian Air Force. Pakistani military historian F azl Muqeem Khan records: "It is no exaggeration to say that for its first few mo nths the infant state of Pakistan was without an organized army." In the spring of 1965, Pakistani tanks (received from the United States as part of its militar y as-sistance program) intruded into Indian territory in the Rann of Kutch. The memoirs of senior Pakistani officers reveal that the deploymentof American-suppl ied armour inKutch had two objectives. The first was to entice Indian armour awa y from northern India, wherean attack on Kashmir wasplanned for later in the yea r, and the second was to see how strongly the UnitedStates would protest Pakista n’s use of tanks it had provided, in clear violation of Pakistan’s commitment. The U nited States did protest, but it was ignored. The Pakistani Army itself crossed the international border into Kashmir on 1 September 1965. The Indian AirForce h alted the Pakistani tank columns despite fierce battles overhead between the two air forces. Pursuant to India’s clear warning to Pakistan, given yearsearlier and often repeated thereafter, that “crossing the international border would invite s trong retaliation,”the Indian Army launched a counterattack on 6 September and adv anced toward Lahore, in the Punjab. In response, the Pakistani land forces withd rew from Kashmir and headed for the Punjab. Land and air battles continued until a cease-fire was declared on 23 September 1965. The 23-day war in September 196 5, a short but bloody affair, resulted in one of the largest tank battles since World War II. The fighting was not contained in Jammu and Kashmir, scene of the 1947-48 strife, but also reached Punjab, which was farther south. The Indian art illery defended the northern sector and also supported the advance of the Indian Army into Pakistani territory. At the Ichhogil Canal near Kasur, the Indian art illery had a devastating effect on the Pakistanis. Indian troops destroyed count less Pakistani tanks and inflicted heavy casualties at Usal Uttar. The Indian Ar my used antitank weapons, armor, and artillery with uncanny accuracy and isolate d the enemy infantry from their M48 tanks, which allowed the M48 tanks to be pic ked off at will. The Pakistani counteroffensive was stopped in its tracks, and t he fighting soon ceased. India emerged from the war with smaller losses of milit ary equipment and personnel than Pakistan. Exact loss figures have never been ma de public, but both countries probnbly lost a third of their tanks. Although Pak istan was perceived by India as a threat, a decade of poor economic performance and the US arms embargo degraded the army and air force. While the army had expa nded by five infantry divisions, manpower increased by only 40,000. Most of the 2,300+ tanks were obsolescent, with the exception of 300 modern T-80UDs manufact ured by Ukraine, and mechanized forces had older M-113 armored personnel carrier s. Heavy forces appeared incapable of sustained offensive action. The army lacke d adequate medium altitude air defense systems and helicopters and had experienc ed difficulty in acquiring equipment from any source. In the new century, Pakist an s tank inventory, while somewhat smaller than India s, had been much better m aintained and upgraded over the years. The Taxila facility, built with Chinese a id, can undertake any level of modernization and retrofit of existing tanks as w ell as the assembly and manufacture of new production tanks and components. Paki stan s Type 59 (licensed T-54) represents the country s largest single tank type , and has been the focus of a major and comprehensive modernization and retrofit effort. On 26 Feb 2004, the Pakistan Army received the first consignment of eig hty Al-Zarar tanks upgraded from the old T-59 Chinese origin tank. The upgrade w as completed at Heavy Industries Taxila. The Al-Zarar features a 125mm smooth bo re main gun and is capable of all-weather day and night operations. Similar upgr ades for the Type 69-IIMP have made these tanks fully battleworthy. The Type 85IIAP, one of two tanks being manufactured, is a modern design that is well maint ained and ready for combat. The equipment holdings of the Pakistan Army are poor ly characterized in the open literature. In 1994 major weapons were reported to
include nearly 2,000 tanks (mainly Chinese but also 120 M-47s and 280 M-48A5s of United States origin), 820 M-113 armored personnel carriers, 1,566 towed artill ery pieces, 240 self-propelled artillery pieces, 45 multiple rocket launchers, 7 25 mortars, 800 Cobra, TOW, and Green Arrow antitank guided weapons, eighteen Ha tf surface-to-surface missiles, 2,000 air defense guns, and 350 Stinger and Rede ye missiles and 500 Anza surface-to-air missiles. The army s combat aircraft inv entory consisted of twenty AH-1F airplanes equipped with TOW missiles. As of ear ly 2002 Pakistan was estimated to have between 2,300 and 2,800 tanks. In the abs ence of signficant changes in force structure over the intervening period, the l ower estimate of somewhat more than 2,000 tanks seems rather more plausible than the higher estimate. Since the turn of the century IISS had been rather consist ently estimating about 2,450 tanks, of which over 250 were known from other sour ces to be in storage. Wikipedia claimed as of 14 February 2009 that Pakistan had a total of some 3250 tanks. But these estimates are clearly far to high, since they evidently count has currently on hand the full production run of all 600 Al -Khalid MBTs, when only a fraction of this number are known to have been produce d. Other such defects could be enumerated. And one 2009 account claims that "Pak istan’s tank armory comprises: five hundred Al-Khalid MBT’s; 320 Al-Zarrar type 85 I I MBT’s, 500 Al-Zarrar MBT’s; 450 79II AP (Chinese type 81 upgrade, and 570 T-80 UD MBT of Ukranian make. In addition, Pakistan has 880 Type 59, which were procured from China in 1970. This makes a total of three thousand six hundred and twenty tanks." But the "authoritative" Military Balance published early each year by t he London-based International Institute for Strategic Studies seems equally unhe lpful. Since the turn of the century, year after year the same numbers are repub lished. This cannot be the case. It is evident that over this period the Navy an d Air Force of Pakistan have embarked on quite substantial arms buildup efforts, and it begars the imagination to believe that the Pakistan Army, surely the sin gle most powerful institution in the entire country, has not followed suit. Ande cdotal accounts by apparently well informed sources speak of the Al-Khalid MBT h aving entered serial production around 2004, and yet the Military Balance teache s that no more than the initial batch delivered that year have entered service. On 13 February 2009 Internews reported that the Standing Committee on Defence Pr oduction of Pakistan’s National Assembly had been informed that the Heavy Industri es Taxila (HIT) had so far handed over 570 state-of-the-art tanks to the army. B riefing the committee members headed by Sheikh Aftab Ahmed during their visit to the HIT, Chairman Lt General Ayyaz Rana said the HIT will hand over 30 more tan ks to the army by middle of this year. The HIT chairman said with the handing ov er of the 30 tanks, the project of manufacturing 600 Al-Khalid and Al-Zarrar bat tle tanks for the army will be completed. It was speculated that the breakdown b etween the two was 50 % - 50 % ( 300 - 300 ). But this report conflicts with pre vious reports that Pakistan planned to build a total of 400 Al-Zarrar and 600 Al -Khalid tanks for its armed forces.
WikiMedia Al-Khalid MBT-2000 600 riazhaq 500 defence.pk 220 IISS 45 Global Security .org 220 otes 2004 = 90 on hand 2004 = 50 / year 2005-06 = 45 2008 = ~300 upper limit IIS S clearly understates total defence.pk seems about right others clearly way too high 320 Delivered 1997-2002. 250 more ordered in 2002. riazhaq assumes these we re delivered, but they were not. WikiMedia way too high IISS estimate of 400 spl its the differences between other sources 1990 = 1300 total by IISS estimate 80 Al-Zarar delivered 2004 44 Al-Zarar upgrades 2005-06 400 Al-Zarar planned WikiMe dia & riazhaq claim that all remain in service, with 500 upgraded to Al-Zarar II SS makes no report on AlZarrar defence.pk claims 600 total includes Al-Zarar IIS S number is impossibly precise, and this old warhorse has surely been put out to pasture by now Most sources ignore this elderly "stored" equipment riazhaq text provides two different totals, and the listing adds up to a third, intermediate , total WikiMedia total is roughly equal to the riazhaq intermediate total, sinc e their numbers are the same except for transposing the T-80UD and Type 85-IIAP numbers. defence.pk is clearly too low, and would seem to reflect undercounting the Type 59 AlZarar conversions IISS total seems correct, and would be consisten t with defence.pk undercounting the Type 59 Al-Zarar conversions T-80UD 320 570 320 320 320 Type 85-IIAP Type 69-II Type 59 Al-Zarar Type 59 500 450 500 880 320 450 500 880 300 350 ? 600 275+ 400 1100 300 400 500 500 T-54/-55 51
0 M48A5* TOTAL 3250 3620 3220 2295 1790  2191 +  Army Equipment SYSTEM ARMOR 1990 1850 1995 2050 2000 2285 2002 2450 Army Equipment Introduction Inventory 2005 2008 2270 2220 2010 2220 2015 2220 2020 2220
Al-Khalid MBT-2000 T-80UD Type 85-IIAP Type 69-II Type 59 Al-Zarar Type 59 T-54/ -55 M48A5* M47 M47/M48 (All Types) APC M113 Mohafiz BTR-70 / BTR-80** UR-416 TOW ED ARTY 85mm Type 56 / D-44*** 100mm Type 59*** 105mm M101 M-56 122mm D-30**** T ype 54 Type 60 130mm Type-59-I M-46 140mm BL 5.5in 155mm M59 M114 M198 203mm M11 5 SP ARTY 105mm M7 155mm M109 / M109A2 [USA] 203mm M110 / M110A2 [USA] MRL 122mm MOR 81mm 82mm 107mm 120mm SSM Hatf-1 Hatf-2 Hatf-3 Hatf-4 / Shaheen 1 Hatf-5 / Ghauri ATGW***** Cobra BGM-71 TOW Green Arrow / Baktar BM-11 Azar (Type 83) U/I Type/s U/I Type/s M30 AM-50 M-61 + ~1300 50 500 1000 1000 +1185 + 250 50 400 200 + + 85 100 100 215 50 125 40 + + + + + + ?? ?? 800 + + + 200 200 1200 50 280 120 1319 1150 169 1566 200 300 50 400 200 200 30 60 100 26 2 15 50 150 40 45 45 +725 500 + + 18 18 800 + + + 320 200 250 1200 50 250 15 1150 1150 1467 200 300 50 250 200 227 30 60 124 26 24 0 50 150 40 45 45 +725 500 + + +122 80 30 + 12 800 + 200 + 20 320 200 250 1100 50 250 15 1150 1150 1467 200 300 50 250 200 227 30 60 124 26 240 50 150 40 45 45 ~1200 + + + +122 80 30 + 12 + + 200 + 150 320 275 400 80 1000 50  1266 1100 120 46 1869 200 216 113 80 490 410 14 4 148 28 260 200 60 52 52 ~2350 + + + +166 95 50 6 15-20 10,500 + + 300 320 300 400 300 600 1266 1100 120 46 1869 200 216 113 80 490 410 144 148 28 260 200 60 52 52 +2350 + + + +166 95 50 6 15-20 +10,500 + + 400 320 300 400 400 400 1266 1100 ? 120 46 1869 200 216 113 80 490 410 144 148 2 8 260 200 60 52 52 +2350 + + + +166 95 50 6 15-20 +10,500 + + 600 320 300 400 400 200 1266 1100 ? 120 46 1869 200 216 113 80 490 410 144 148 2 8 375 315 60 52 52 +2350 + + + +166 95 50 6 15-20 +10,500 + + 600 320 300 400 400 200 1266 1100 ? 120 46 1869 200 216 113 80 490 410 144 148 2 8 376 315 60 52 52 +2350 + + + +166 95 50 6 15-20 +10,500 + +
Shikan (HJ-8) SP ATGW M901 ITV RL 73mm 89mm RCL 75mm 106mm Knout (RPG-7) M20 Typ e 52 M40A1 + + + + + + + + + + + + + +744 100 + 144 500 + 24 24 + + + + + +2000 + 200 + + + + +850 350 + + 500 + + + 24 24 + + + + + +2000 + 200 + + + + ~1400 3 50 + + 500 + + + 24 24 + + 3700 + + +2000 + 200 + + + + ~1400 350 + 500 + + + + + + + + + + 3700 + + 1900 + 215 310 50 144 +2990 60 200 2500 + 230 + + + + + + + + + + + 3700 + + 1900 981 215 310 50 144 +2990 60 200 2500 + 230 + + + + + + + + + + + 3700 + + 1900 981 215 310 50 144 +2990 60 200 2500 + 230 + + + + + + + + + + + 3700 + + 1900 981 215 310 50 144 +2990 60 200 2500 + 230 + + + + + + + + + + + 3700 + + 1900 981 215 310 50 144 +2990 60 200 2500 + 230 + + + + + + AD GU S 14.5mm U/I Type/s 35mm GDF-002 / GDF-005 37mm Type 55 / Type 65 40mm M1 L/60 57mm S-60 Type 59 SAM FIM-92A Redeye RBS-70 Anza Mk 1/Mk 2 HN-5A Mistral SU RV RASIT (veh. arty) AN/TPQ-36 (arty, mor) UAV Bravo Jasoos Vector otes * - Totals for M48A5s after 2002 indicate vehicles in storage and not in ac tive service. ** - 1995 total indicates 169 BTR-70 vehicles assigned to Pakistan i forces as part of UNPROFOR according to IISS Military Balance. *** - These wea pons were designed as anti-tank guns, but can also be used in the indirect fire role. **** - The IISS Military Balance lists these as of People s Republic of Ch ina origin. ***** - The difference in IISS Military Balance totals for ATGWs is likely based on a shift after 2002 from reporting numbers of individual launcher s to reporting total missiles in inventory. Sources: IISS The Military Balance
UN PEACE KEEPING MISSIONS • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • United ations Operation in Congo (MO UC) United ations Security Force in ew Guin ea , West Irian (U SF) United ations Yemen Observer Mission (U YOM) United ation s Transition Assistance Group in amibia (U TAG) United ations Iraq-Kuwait Observ er Mission (U IKOM) United ations Mission for Referendum in Western Sahara (MI U RSO) United ations Transitional Authority on Cambodia (U TAC) United ations Oper ations in Somalia (U OSOM, U ITAF, U OSOM II) United ations Protection Force in Bosnia (U OROFOR) United ations Mission in Haiti (U MIH) United ations Observer Mission in Georgia (U OMIG) United ations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (U AMIR) United ations Angola Verification Mission (U AVEM) United ations Transitional A dministration for Eastern Slovenia (U TAES) United ations Transitional Administr ation in East Timor (U TAET) United ations Assistance Mission in Sierra Leone (U AMSIL) United ation Mission in Liberia (U MIL) United ations Mission in Kosovo United ation Observer Mission in Liberia (U OMIL) United ations Observer Mission in Burundi (O UB) Tribute to Pakistani Peace Keepers Roll of Honours United ations Operation in Congo (MO UC) Background United Nation forces compris ing contingents of 29 countries were sent to Congo in 1960 to restore legitimate government, which had been overthrown through a coup d’etat. Pakistan provided lo gistic support during movement of troops to and from Congo and inland movement t o the United Nation troops. Pakistan Army Supply Corps (ASC) organized the whole operation in a meticulous manner. It continued uninterrupted from 1960 to 1964 with four Independent Army Supply Corps companies, each consisting of about 100 personnel. The movement control entailed move through sea, air, rail, riverian a nd road transport.A systematic organization was created to ensure foolproof admi nistrative arrangements for transportation of troops, weapons, equipment, stores and rations throughout Congo in unfriendly environments. Pakistani troops thus performed the assigned task with professional skill and devotion which earned th em applause across the world. First Mission Duration 31 August 1960 to May 1964. Contribution Ordnance and Transport units, Staff Personnel. Second Mission Loca tion Democratic Republic of Congo Headquarters Kinshasa. DurationAugust 2003 - t o date. Participation Pakistan provided a Battalion Group comprising one infantr y battalion and supporting elements
Force in ew Guinea, West Irian (U SF) 3 October 1962 – 30 April 1963 1500 Infantry troops comprising 2x Infantry Battalions It was agreed between comity of nation s that Holland will hand over control of West Irian to the United Nation by 1 Oc tober 1962 , prior to its take over by Indonesia for subsequent plebiscite. It w as a matter of great honour that Pakistan was asked to undertake the exclusive r esponsibility of establishing United Nation Temporary Executive Authority in mai ntaining law and order in this part of the world, until it was handed over to In donesia in the following year. This being a challenging task, not only envisaged stalling an impending war between Holland and Indonesia , but also sought proje ction of the United Nation as a peace broker. In the circumstances, when the wor ld was focusing its eyes on the UNSF, the Pakistani composite force comprising 1 4 Punjab Regiment, two companies of 18 Punjab Regiment and supporting elements, disembarked on the coast of Sorong after completing 6000 miles sea voyage on 8 O ctober 1962 . The responsibility of this contingent stretched over hundreds of m iles. In order to accomplish the assigned mission the companies were deployed at Merauke, Fak Fak, Sorong and Kaimana. The Battalion Headquarters were positione d at Biak . Pakistani troops effectively prevented skirmishes between Papuans an d Indonesian troops. On one such occasion our troops rushed swiftly to Kaimana a rea on 14 January 1963 , to avoid a bloody conflict and brought the situation un der control. In another incident, Pakistani troops (a company strength) were mov ed to Monokwari by air in response to a distress signal to restore law and order situation threatened by Papuan volunteer Corps. On reaching the spot, it reveal ed that 350 PVK troops were in a mutinous mood at the Arfak Camp. Pakistani peac e keepers restored the situation very tactfully without spilling a single drop o f blood. The Pakistani contingent ensured smooth withdrawal of Dutch troops with out any ensuing battles with the Indonesian Army. It also helped Indonesian troo ps in taking over the control swiftly in a conducive atmosphere. The performance of Pakistani troops was admired by President Soekarno who said, “ It was because of Pakistani troops that Indonesia and Pakistan came so close together, they wer e Pakistan s best ambassadors” . In a rare acknowledgement of good job done, Chin ese Premier Chou-En-Lai remarked, “The only example in United Nation s history, wh en a United Nation military force had gone in, performed its role honestly and c ame out, was Pakistan s military contingent to Indonesia” . The control of West Ir ian was handed over to Indonesia on 1 May 1963 and Pakistani contingent started their return journey the same day amidst enthusiastic slogans and cheers of Ind onesian people United ations Yemen Observer Mission (U YOM) January 1964 – Septemb er 1964 In 1972, the governments of the PDRY and the YAR declared that they appr oved a future union. Little progress was made toward unification, and relations were often strained. In 1979, simmering tensions led to fighting, which was only resolved after Arab League mediation. The goal of unity was reaffirmed by the n orthern and southern heads of state during a summit meeting in Kuwait in March 1 979. that same year the PDRY began sponsoring an insurgency against the YAR. In April 1980, PDRY President Abdul Fattah Ismail resigned and went into exile. His successor, Ali Nasir Muhammad, took a less interventionist stance toward both t he YAR and neighboring Oman . On January 13, 1986 , a violent fight began in Ade n between Ali Nasir Muhammad and the returned Abdul Fattah Ismail and their supp orters. Fighting lasted for more than a month and resulted in thousands of casua lties, Ali Nasir s ouster, and Ismail s death. Some 60,000 persons, including Al i Nasir and his supporters, fled to the YAR In November 1989, the leaders of the YAR (Ali Abdallah Saleh) and the PDRY (Ali Salim Al-Bidh) agreed on a draft uni ty constitution originally drawn up in 1981. The Republic of Yemen (ROY) was dec lared on May 22, 1990 . Ali Abdallah Saleh became President, and Ali Salim Al-Bi dh became Vice President. In 1994, amendments to the unity constitution eliminat ed the presidential council. President Ali Abdallah Saleh was elected by Parliam ent on October 1, 1994 to a 5-year term. The constitution provides that hencefor th the President will be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates se lected by the legislature. Yemen held its first direct presidential elections in September 1999, electing President Ali Abdallah Saleh to a 5-year term in what were generally considered free and fair elections. Yemen held its second multipa rty parliamentary elections in April 1997. In April 2003, the third multiparty p
arliamentary elections were held with improvements in voter registration for bot h men and women and in a generally free and fair atmosphere. Two women were elec ted. Constitutional amendments adopted in the summer of 2000 extended the presid ential term by 2 years, thus moving the next presidential elections to 2006. The amendments also extended the parliamentary term of office to a 6-year term, thu s moving elections for these seats to 2003. On February 20, 2001 , a new constit utional amendment created a bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and a House of Representatives ( 301 seats; members elected by popular vote).June 2000 treaty delimited the bound ary with Saudi Arabia , but final demarcation requires adjustments based on trib al considerations. United ations Transition Assistance Group in amibia (U TAG) 1 April 1989 – 21 March 1990 20x Military Observer U TAG was established to assist the Special Representative of the Secretary-General to ensure the early independ ence of Namibia through free and fair elections under the supervision and contro l of the United Nations, and to carry out a number of other duties. United ation s Iraq-Kuwait Observer Mission (U IKOM) April 1991 to 2003In the aftermath of th e 1991 Gulf war Kuwait found itself confronted with colossal post-war problems. They included the reclamation of the entire land of Kuwait which had been turned into a battlefield by Iraq and the Allied Forces. Almost the whole territory wa s infested with lethal mines, huge stockpiles of ammunition and explosives and v ast dugouts, which made the normal use of land impossible. Pakistan , with its l ong tradition and considerable experience of assisting friendly nations in need of international help, offered its services for the reclamation of the devastate d land. Finally the job was separately entrusted to Pakistan and six other count ries. Pakistan was assigned the most difficult area in the north of Kuwait city. It was spread over 3000 square kilometers. Subsequently reclamation of Bubiyan Island also was entrusted to Pakistan . The operation was carried out by a task force of Pakistan Army Engineers belonging to Frontier Works Organization. The p rofessionalism and dedication displayed by this force elicited praise at interna tional level. Not Pakistan , with its long tradition and considerable experience of assisting friendly nations in need of international help, offered its servic es for the reclamation of the devastated land. Finally the job was separately en trusted to Pakistan and six other countries. Pakistan was assigned the most diff icult area in the north of Kuwait city. It was spread over 3000 square kilometer s. Subsequently reclamation of Bubiyan Island also was entrusted to PakistanThe operation was carried out by a task force of Pakistan Army Engineers belonging t o Frontier Works only did experts from different countries who visited Kuwait du ring the reclamation process appreciate the quality of work of the dedicated Pak istanis but professionals of other countries carrying out similar task in adjoin ing sectors also expressed admiration for the high standards of thoroughness and safety that they maintained Task Force Kuwait 9 December 1991 28 October 1993 E ngineering battalions for mine-clearing operations in Kuwait Officers 38
Junior Commissioned Officers Other Ranks Civilians Total 37 985 76 1136 Thanks to their zeal and enthusiasm the Pakistanis, despite inclement weather an d submergence of Bubiyan Island in water, completed the job in record time to th e satisfaction of the Kuwait government. In this way they, in keeping with a wel l-established Pakistani tradition, played a vital role in the process of speedy recovery of a friendly country from the ravages of war United ations Operations in Somalia(U OSOM,U ITAF,U OSOM II) UNOSOM I April 1992 – March 1993. One Infantry Battalion (750 all ranks) - 7 Frontier Force. UNOSOM II March 1993 – March 1995 I nfantry Brigade Group comprising Brigade Headquarter, 1x armour unit, 9x Infantr y units. 7200 all Ranks Staff Members - 90 Fatalities - 39 UNOSOM I was establis hed to monitor the ceasefire in Mogadishu and escort deliveries of humanitarian supplies to distribution centres in the city. The mission s mandate and strength were later enlarged to enable it to protect humanitarian convoys and distributi on centres throughout Somalia. It later worked with the Unified Task Force in th e effort to establish a safe environment for the delivery of humanitarian assist ance. Established to monitor the cease-fire in Mogadishu, the capital of Somalia , and to provide protection and security for United Nations personnel, equipment and supplies at the seaports and airports in Mogadishu and escort deliveries of humanitarian supplies from there to distribution centres in the city and its im mediate environs. In August 1992, UNOSOM I s mandate and strength were enlarged to enable it to protect humanitarian convoys and distribution centres throughout Somalia. In December 1992, after the situation in Somalia further deteriorated, the Security Council authorized Member States to form the Unified Task Force (U NITAF) to establish a safe environment for the delivery of humanitarian assistan ce. UNITAF worked in coordination with UNOSOM I to secure major population centr es and ensure that humanitarian assistance was delivered and distributed. UNOSOM II was established in March 1993 to take appropriate action, including enforcem ent measures, to establish throughout Somalia a secure environment for humanitar ian assistance. To that end, UNOSOM II was to complete, through disarmament and reconciliation, the task begun by the Unified Task Force for the restoration of peace, stability, law and order. UNOSOM II was withdrawn in early March 1995. In 1992 Somali Democratic Republic, ravaged by a tragic civil war, lay in ruins. W ith armed bandits left free to loot, kill and create terror in the absence of an y governmental authority, bullet-riddled walls and bombed roofs of buildings tes tifying to the horrors of civil war, communication infrastructure destroyed, civ ic amenities missing - there were hardly any signs of civilized life. Three hund red thousand people had died of starvation since November 1991. There were 4.5 m illion malnutrition cases out of which one million were on the verge of death. A picture of disaster, the country was in desperate need of international humanit arian aid. Moved by the agony and suffering of innocent Somalians, the United Na tions went into action. As a result, United Nations Operation in Somalia (UNOSOM -1) came into being. Law and order being the pre-requisite for any humanitarian effort, the Security Council directed the Secretary General to deploy a security force before the operation was launched. Pakistan was the first country to resp ond to the call of the United Nations. On 14th September 1992 five hundred Pakis tani troops arrived in Mogadishu to launch the United Nation humanitarian campai gn. Deployment of the security force was preceded by the arrival of an advance p arty of 50 United Nation observers, drawn from different countries, led by a Pak istani Brigadier. At this time, attacks by armed gangs on incoming and docked sh ips as well as air strips were common. They also looted food supplies arriving u nder international humanitarian aid before they could reach delivery and distrib ution points. The Pakistani security personnel (ex 7 Frontier Force Regiment) we re therefore assigned the task of securing the sea and airports, escorting food convoys and ensuring smooth distribution of relief supplies. The Pakistani Conti ngent was also instructed to recover unauthorized arms to further enhance the sa fety of peace-keeping and humanitarian efforts. Provision of medical aid, rehabi litation of people and reconstruction of infrastructure in the war—ravaged areas w
ere also part of the programme. Pakistani troops secured the Mogadishu airport t o make it safe for relief flights. They also cleared the nearby port of armed ba ndits who could pose a threat to the anchoring and off-loading of ships carrying grain and other edibles for the faminished people. Escorting of relief convoys and effective and tactful handling of the security situation soon won the Pakist anis the trust and respect of the local population. Their selfless services prov ided the Somalians both relief and hope after a dark period of terror and hunger . The goodwill that their humane behaviors generated was reflected in the “Pakista ni-Somali Walal Walal” (Pakistanis and Somalis are brothers ) slogans that one hea rd from an appreciative people. In order to enlarge the scope and scale of peace -keeping and humanitarian work over thirty-seven thousand troops, drawn from mor e than two dozen countries including US, Italy, France and Germany, were inducte d by March 1993 and UNOSOM -1 converted into UNITAF (United Nations Internationa l Task Force). Pakistan , whose strength in later months rose to over 7000 troop s, became the main operative contingent in the most war-ravaged part of Mogadish u controlled by the Farah Aideed faction. The other part was under control of Al i Mahdi. Both factions had been authorized a limited number of arms to be kept i n their respective Authorized Weapons Storage Sites (AWSS). But individual bandi ts and gangs were to be disarmed. Also necessary was inspection of AWSS so that accumulation of excessive arms, a potential cause of violence, could be checked. Though these measures were designed to reduce incidents of violence and loot an d were to be carried out in the interest of peace with an understanding already reached with the major factions, those who were to be disarmed were not happy to give up their weapons and their feelings were exploited by the vested interests . This was the cause of the 5 June 93 tragedy. The Pakistani troops were asked b y the United Nation Force Headquarters to carry out an inspection of the weapon storage sites of Farah Aideed, to whom the date and time of inspection had been communicated in advance. Nobody at the United Nation Force Headquarters was able to foresee his reaction and his power to arouse the feelings of his followers a gainst those who were carrying out the inspection. Even as their colleagues were engaged in distributing food at one of the feeding points, the Pakistani inspec tors were ambushed by Aideeds followers. The ambushers were using children and w omen as human shields to prevent being fired back while the road-blocks they had set up made Pakistanis withdrawal difficult. Though taken by surprise and total ly exposed, the courageous blue beret Pakistanis fought their way back taking fu ll care that the children and women protecting the attackers remained unharmed. In the process twenty-three Pakistanis embraced ‘Shahadat fifty-six sustained inj uries while eleven were disabled. As recovery of arms was a vital part of the pe acekeeping mission, the 5th of June incident only accelerated the process of sea rch operations in the Pakistani area of responsibility. More than ninety per cen t of the searches were carried out by Pakistanis.
Some of the operations were carried out by the US Quick Reaction Force, Rangers and the Italian troops. The Olympic Hotel Incident of 3rd October 1993 took plac e during one of these operations when 75 US Rangers got stranded and had to be r escued by a joint force of US, Pakistani and Malaysian troops. The grim battle l asted eight hours. The US Rangers suffered 17 dead and 77 injured while one was captured by Aideed forces. The wounded were admitted to the Pakistani hospital a t Soccer Stadium. Had it not been for the courage, valour and steadfastness of t he Pakistani soldiers, the rescue operation could not have succeeded and the tra pped US soldiers might have perished. The Special Representative of the United N ations Secretary General, Admiral Jonathan Howe and UNOSOM Force Commander, Lieu tenant General Cevik Bir expressed special appreciation for Pakistani troops de termination and professionalism and thanked them for helping the US troops Major General Thomas M. Montgomery, Deputy Commander of the United Nations Forces in Somalia in a television interview said: “Many of the soldiers are alive today beca use of the willingness and skill of the Pakistani soldiers who worked jointly in a rescue operation with Malaysian and American soldiers in most difficult and d angerous combat circumstances”. He thanked the people and Pakistan Army for sendin g “such splendid soldiers to Somalia who we feel proud to serve with. Pakistani so ldiers have been completely dependable even in the most difficult circumstances. They have shouldered a huge and dangerous load for UNOSOM and the Somali people”. On the health front, Pakistani doctors and paramedical staff provided free medi cal services to the suffering humanity in the Pakistan Field Hospital in Mogadis hu , established in April 93. In addition to free medical and surgical outpatien t services, which included laboratory and X-ray facilities, the hospital pursued an expanded immunization programme (FF1) for the benefit of Somalians in collab oration with UNICEF. A Dental Centre provided the much-needed dental care while anti-TB cover was made available under an anti- tuberculosis programme. Over 100 ,000 Somali men, women and children benefited from the services provided by Paki stan s 8 specialist doctors, 12 general duty medical officers and 180 paramedic s In addition, the Pakistan UNOSOM Hospital also provided indoor treatment to th e Somalians, a facility which was restored by Pakistani contingent after it had ceased due to withdrawal of US and Swedish troops. This Pakistani hospital had 2 6 doctors and 6 ICU trained nurses and was fully equipped to undertake advanced treatment in surgical, neuro; ophthalmic, ENT, gynecology, skin, child specializ ation and dental ailments. UNITAF contingents belonging to the United States and European countries left Somalia leading to the reorganization of the United Nat ions force as UNOSOM-2 and a revision of its charter of duties. The countries co ntributing to the 19000-men UNOSOM-2 were besides others, Pakistan , India , Ban gladesh , Egypt and Nigeria . Pakistan had the largest number of troops - more t han 7000. UNOSOM-2, of which the Pakistani contingent was a part, remained dedic ated to providing relief and undertaking a variety of rehabilitation tasks in an international effort to mitigate the suffering of the Somali people. The withdr awal of UNOSOM-2 Contingents was undertaken under a phased programme in early 19 95. Pakistani troops were selected to cover this withdrawal - a befitting tribut e indeed to their professionalism. The Pakistani contingent finally returned hom e on 5 March 1995 . United ations Protection Force in Bosnia (U OROFOR) 1992 to February 1996 Two Infantry Battalion Groups. 4x Infantry units served in the mis sion. 30x Military Observer Recognizing the commendable performance of the Pakis tan Army Contingents as United Nations Peace Keepers in Somalia and Campuchia, t he United Nations requested the Government of Pakistan to contribute troops to t he United Nations Protection Force (UNF ROFOR) in Bosnia-Herzegovina. A 3000 str ong contingent consisting of two Battalion Groups and a National Support (NS) He adquarters left for Bosnia and Croatia in May 1994. The two battalion groups PAK BAT 1 and PAKBAT 2 were deployed in the towns of ‘dares and Durdevik (near the cit y of Tuzla ) in Bosnia while the National Support Headquarters remained based at Split , Croatia . They were tasked to stabilize the military situation with a v iew to encouraging return of normalcy, improving freedom of movement by maintain ing existing routes, providing protection and supporting various United Nations agencies and NGOs engaged in their relief activities and coordinate humanitarian assistance. The Pakistani troops (PAKBATs) established conditions favourable to
cessation of hostilities through maintenance of local ceasefire agreements, lia ison with warring factions, implementation of Troops Exclusive Zone (TEZ), manni ng of observation posts, and monitoring activity on confrontation line. Pakistan i troops helped in restoring confidence of people through frequent meetings with leaders of warring factions/local agencies, by establishing liaison with milita ry/civil authorities and through utility repairs. The PAKBATs performed their mi litary duties with total commitment. Two officers, one junior commissioned offic er and three non commissioned officers laid down their lives for the noble cause of bringing peace to a war ravaged territory. Their sacrifices were duly acknow ledged by United Nations Force Commander and the local population The Pakistani contingent did exceptionally well in identifying, monitoring and protecting all ethnic and minority groups, refugees and displaced persons. They coordinated the relief work of a number of United Nations agencies, international and Pakistani NGOs on their own. Besides this PAKBATs themselves provided immense humanitaria n assistance by providing food stuff, medical care, clothing, and helped in the maintenance of infrastructure/community services, orphanages and provision of fi nancial aid. It was once again the Pakistani Peace Keepers who were the first to respond and assist over 50,000 refugees who came over after the Serbs had overrun the United Nations declared Safe Heavens of Srebrenica and Zepa in July 95. As it was an event which had not been foreseen by the Bosnian government and the United Nations authorities, it was Pakistani Peace Keepers who bore the brunt o f the crisis for 36 hours single handedly. Food, clothing, medical treatment and shelter to these war-ravaged people was provided by the PAKBAT from their own r esources before help arrived. Even after the arrival of assistance, it were the Pakistani troops who managed and coordinated the relief activities. It was duly acknowledged in an impressive ceremony organized by Tuzia Red Cross to award cer tificates of merit to all those who contributed in relief operations. Specialist doctors complimented with some of the latest medical equipment and medicines se t about the task of treating the innocent civilians victimized by unfortunate et hnic cleansing with zeal and enthusiasm. In order to facilitate the patients, mo bile teams were regularly dispatched to far flung areas to treat the civilians. Notably Pakistani Government and the NGOs contributed generously and over 1.7 to nes of medicines were donated and handed over to the Mayor of Tuzla by Pakistan s Ambassador. After completion of its duties, the first Pakistani Contingent wa s replaced by the second, bringing our contribution of forces in this United Nat ions Peace Keeping effort to over 6000 troops in two phases. With the downsizing of UNPROFOR in mid 1995, the Pak Contingent became the third largest force afte r France and England . The Pakistani peace-keepers were also retained by the Uni ted Nations in the highly sensitive period during the change over from UNPROFOR to the NATO led implementation Force (IFOR) and finally returned home in Februar y 1996. Pakistani troops have been worthy ambassadors of their country. The Bosn ians as well as the international community once again praised the professionali sm, devotion to duty and above all the impartiality of the Pakistan Army conting ent. They were trusted and respected by all the warring factions, i.e. Bosnians, Croats, and the Serbs for their strict neutrality in their dealings. This perha ps, is the reason that Pakistan was once again requested by the United Nations t o contribute a Battalion group supported by a squadron of Armour to the Untied N ations Transitional Administrative set up in Eastern
Slavonia (UNTAES). United ations Assistance Mission for Rawanda (U AMIR) 30 Octo ber 95 – 29 January 96 6x Military Observers United ations Assistance Mission in S ierra Leone (U AMSIL) June 2001- todate Pakistan provided a composite force of t hree infantry battalion groups, one engineer battalion with a host of supporting elements following withdrawal of Indian contingent from the mission. Presently Pakistan is the largest contributor to the mission. Casualties 6 x shaheeds On 2 2 October 1999, the Security Council established UNAMSIL to cooperate with the G overnment and the other parties in implementing the Lome Peace Agreement and to assist in the implementation of the disarmament, demobilization and reintegratio n plan. On 7 February 2000, the Council revised UNAMSIL s mandate. It also expan ded its size, as it did once again on 19 May 2000 and on 30 March 2001. UNAMSIL successfully completed its mandate in December 2005. It was succeeded by a new m ission—the United Nations Integrated Office for Sierra Leone The conflict in Sierr a Leone dates from March 1991 when fighters of the Revolutionary United Front (R UF) launched a war from the east of the country near the border with Liberia to overthrow the government. With the support of the Military Observer Group (ECOMO G) of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Sierra Leone s army tried at first to defend the government but, the following year, the army itsel f overthrew the government. Despite the change of power, the RUF continued its a ttacks. In February 1995, the United Nations Secretary-General appointed a Speci al Envoy, Mr. Berhanu Dinka (Ethiopia). He worked in collaboration with the Orga nization of African Unity (OAU) and ECOWAS to try to negotiate a settlement to t he conflict and return the country to civilian rule. Parliamentary and president ial elections were held in February 1996, and the army relinquished power to the winner, Alhaji Dr. Ahmed Tejan Kabbah. The RUF, however, did not participate in the elections and would not recognise the results. The conflict continued. Spec ial Envoy Dinka assisted in negotiating a peace agreement, in November 1996, bet ween the Government and RUF known as the Abidjan Accord. The agreement was derai led by another military coup d état in May 1997. This time the army joined forces with the RUF and formed a ruling junta. President Kabbah and his government went into exile in neighbouring Guinea. A new Special Envoy, Mr. Francis G. Okelo (U ganda) and other representatives of the international community tried, but faile d, to persuade the junta to step down. The Security Council imposed an oil and a rms embargo on 8 October 1997 and authorized ECOWAS to ensure its implementation using ECOMOG troops. On 23 October, the ECOWAS Committee of Five on Sierra Leon e and a delegation representing the chairman of the junta held talks at Conakry and signed a peace plan which, among other things, called for a ceasefire to be monitored by ECOMOG and -- if approved by the UN Security Council - assisted by UN military observers. On 5 November, President Kabbah issued a statement indica ting his acceptance of the agreement, and stated his Government s willingness to cooperate with ECOWAS, ECOMOG, the United Nations and UNHCR in the implementati on of their respective roles. Although the junta publicly committed itself to im plementing the agreement, it subsequently criticized key provisions and raised a number of issues, with the result that the agreement was never implemented. In February 1998, ECOMOG, responding to an attack by rebel/army junta forces, launc hed a military attack that led to the collapse of the junta and its expulsion fr om Freetown. On 10 March, President Kabbah was returned to office. The Security Council terminated the oil and arms embargo and strengthened the office of the S pecial Envoy to include UN military liaison officers and security advisory perso nnel. On June 1998, the Security Council established the United Nations Observer Mission in Sierra Leone (UNOMSIL) for an initial period of six months. The Secr etary-General named Special Envoy Okelo as his Special Representative and Chief of Mission. The mission monitored and advised efforts to disarm combatants and r estructure the nation s security forces. Unarmed UNOMSIL teams, under the protec tion of ECOMOG, documented reports of on-going atrocities and human rights abuse s committed against civilians. Fighting continued with the rebel alliance gainin g control of more than half the country. In December 1998 the alliance began an offensive to retake Freetown and in January overran most of the city. All UNOMSI L personnel were evacuated. The Special Representative and the Chief Military Ob server continued performing their duties, maintaining close contact with all par
ties to the conflict and monitoring the situation. Later the same month, ECOMOG troops retook the capital and again installed the civilian government, although thousands of rebels were still reportedly hiding out in the surrounding countrys ide. In the aftermath of the rebel attack, Special Representative Okelo, in cons ultation with West African states, initiated a series of diplomatic efforts aime d at opening up dialogue with the rebels. Negotiations between the Government an d the rebels began in May 1999 and on 7 July all parties to the conflict signed an agreement in Lome to end hostilities and form a government of national unity. The parties to the conflict also requested an expanded role for UNOMSIL. On 20 August the UN Security Council authorized an increase in the number of military observers to 210. On 22 October 1999, the Security Council authorized the establ ishment of UNAMSIL, a new and much larger mission with a maximum of 6,000 milita ry personnel, including 260 military observers, to assist the Government and the parties in carrying out provisions of the Lome peace agreement. At the same tim e, the Council decided to terminate UNOMSIL. On 7 February 2000, the Security Co uncil, by its resolution 1289, decided to revise the mandate of UNAMSIL to inclu de a number of additional tasks. It decided to expand the military component to a maximum of 11,100 military personnel, including the 260 military observers alr eady deployed. The Council also authorized increases in the civil affairs, civil ian police, administrative and technical components of UNAMSIL, as proposed by t he Secretary-General. The Security Council again increased the authorized streng th of UNAMSIL, to 13,000 military personnel, including the 260 military observer s by its resolution 1299 of 19 May 2000. On 30 March 2001, a further increase wa s authorized to 17,500 military personnel, including the 260 military observers. The Council took this decision by its resolution 1346, and, by the same resolut ion, approved a revised concept of operations. UNAMSIL: A success story in peace keeping UNAMSIL may serve as a model for successful peacekeeping, as well as a p rototype for the UN s new emphasis on peacebuilding. Over the course of its mand ate, the Mission disarmed tens of thousands of ex-fighters, assisted in holding national elections, helped to rebuild the country s police force, and contribute d towards rehabilitating the infrastructure and bringing government services to local communities. The United Nations also helped the Government stop illicit tr ading in diamonds and regulate the industry. During the war, rebels had used mon ey from “blood” or “conflict” diamonds to buy weapons which had fuelled the conflict. UN AMSIL was not always foreseen to succeed: at one point, in May 2000, the mission nearly collapsed when the rebel Revolutionary United Front (RUF) kidnapped hund reds of peacekeepers and renounced the ceasefire in a move that endangered the c redibility of UN peacekeeping. Outraged by the chaos that followed, the internat ional community put pressure on the rebels to obey the ceasefire and slapped san ctions against RUF sponsors. Subsequently, UNAMSIL launched new mediation effort s and brought the two adversaries back to the negotiation table. It brought in m ore troops to monitor the ceasefire and began disarming fighters from both sides . The United Kingdom , which had sent a force to restore peace following RUF s b reach of the ceasefire, later started restructuring the army while UNAMSIL and o ther international partners concentrated on training the local
police force. By early 2002, UNAMSIL had disarmed and demobilized more than 75,0 00 ex-fighters, including child soldiers. The Government declared the war offici ally ended. With the political situation stable, the Mission helped organize Sie rra Leone s first ever free and fair presidential and parliamentary elections b y providing logistics and public information support. Two years later, the missi on gave similar support for the local government elections. UNAMSIL completed mo st of the tasks assigned it by the Security Council: It assisted the voluntary r eturn of more than half a million refugees and internally displaced persons. It helped the Government restore its authority and social services in areas previou sly controlled by rebels, trained thousands of police personnel, and constructed or reconstructed dozens of police stations. NAMSIL monitored and trained Sierra Leoneans in human rights and was instrumental in setting up the Special Court f or Sierra Leone to try those most responsible for war crimes. The Mission also a ssisted the Government in setting up a Truth and Reconciliation Commission, task ed with healing the wounds of war by bringing together perpetrators and victims of atrocities. Working together with UN agencies, the Mission launched quick-imp act and incomegenerating projects to provide jobs to thousands of unemployed you ths and ex-fighters and basic services to local communities. UNAMSIL troops reco nstructed schools and clinics, launched and funded agricultural projects, and sp onsored free medical clinics in far-flung areas. While UNAMSIL had done much, Si erra Leone still faced many challenges: the country remained fragile and needed to take concrete steps to address the root causes of the conflict and cultivate a culture of human rights. The economy was heavily dependent on donor funds. A d isproportionate share of income from diamond mining still found its way into pri vate hands, rather than Government coffers. Despite reintegration programmes, th ousands of ex-combatants and youths—many of whom never went to school—were unemploye d. In short, the peace had yet to produce tangible economic dividends and social benefits for the majority of the population. To help meet these challenges, the Security Council established a new mission—the United Nations Integrated Office f or Sierra Leone (UNIOSIL)—to help consolidate peace in the country. Its mandate wa s to cement UNAMSIL s gains and to help the Government strengthen human rights, realize the Millennium Development Goals, improve transparency and hold free and fair elections in 2007. United ations Mission in Liberia (U MIL) November 2003to date Pakistan is providing a Sector HQ along with Signal Company, two infant ry battalions, two Multi Role Engineer coys, one Road & Air Field Maintenance Co mpany, one Level-II hospital. The United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) was established by Security Council resolution 1509 (2003) of 19 September 2003 to s upport the implementation of the ceasefire agreement and the peace process; prot ect United Nations staff, facilities and civilians; support humanitarian and hum an rights activities; as well as assist in national security reform, including n ational police training and formation of a new restruvctured military. The Unite d Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) took over peacekeeping operations from the ECOWAS vanguard force, ECOWAS Mission in Liberia (ECOMIL), on 1 October 2003. Ap proximately 3,600 ECOMIL troops, comprising contingents from Nigeria, Benin, Gam bia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal and Togo were reassigned to UN MIL as United Nations peacekeepers. As of 31 December 2005, UNMIL troop’s strength stood at 14,824 personnel from 49 troop contributing countries. UNMIL started a draw down plan in August 2007 and as of 18 September 2008, UNMIL troop strength stood at 11,649 personnel UNMIL troops are deployed throughout Liberia in four sectors. Each Sector was composed of a brigade size force with full combat, engi neering and medical support elements. The second phase of the drawdown will see the reorganization of the four Sectors into two Sectors with four battalions in each sector. Force HQ The UNMIL Force is currently commanded by Maj.-Gen. C S Mo dey, who is the substantive Deputy Force Commander. Brig.-Gen. E C Quist is the Chief of Staff. The Force Troops consist of one Mechanized battalion (Pakistan), which is UNMIL s Quick Reaction Force (FQRF), a Guard Company (Philippines), tw o Engineering Companies (Bangladesh, Pakistan), one Transport Company (China), o ne Military Police Company (Nepal), Level 3 Hospital (Jordan), and an Aviation U nit (Ukraine). Sector 1 area of responsibility covers Montserrado, Margibi, Gran d Bassa and River Cess counties. The Sector Headquarters is located at the James
Spriggs Payne Airfield, Monrovia. Within this Sector, the two Nigerian battalio ns are based in Sinkor and Virginia with the Ghanaian battalion in Buchanan and a supporting Pakistani Engineering Unit in Careysburg Sector 2 covers the counti es of Bomi, Grand Cape Mount, Gbarpolu and Lofa. Its headquarters is based in Tu bmanburg, Bomi County. Military units within this Sector include two Pakistani b attalions located at Tubmanburg and Voinjama with a Pakistani Level 2 Hospital a nd Engineering Company based in Tubmanburg. Sector 3 consists of the counties of Nimba and Bong with its headquarters in Gbarnga. Two Bangladeshi battalions, a Bangladeshi Engineering Company and a Level 2 Hospital are located in this Secto r. Sector 4 covers most of south-eastern Liberia with its Headquarters in Zwedru . It consists of the counties of Sinoe, Grand Gedeh, River Gee, Grand Kru and Ma ryland. Military units in this Sector are two Ethiopian Infantry battalions, a C hinese Engineering Company and Level 2 Hospital. The most important role of the troops is to create a credible deterrence to anti-peace elements by ensuring vis ible presence all over Liberia. Presently, the force is engaged in different sec urity operations in collaboration with the Liberian National Police and other se curity agencies to assist the Liberian security institutions in maintaining peac e and stability and also to establish the rule of law. UNMOs are deployed to spe cific area of operations to act as unarmed neutral and impartial representatives of the international community under the auspices of the UN. They act as the “Eye s and Ears “of the UNMIL Force and are tasked to closely monitor and identify any negative impact on security and stability. UNMOs conduct routine mobile patrols visiting preselected locations on a regular basis, aerial patrols to some areas not accessible by road, and special patrols to monitor special events or situati ons. The UNMOs in effect operate side by side with the formed troops. UNMIL engi neers are presently engaged in rehabilitation of various roads in the country as well as maintenance of all main and secondary supply routes, installation and m aintenance of the Bailey Bridges on different roads, and maintenance of runways at the Roberts International Airport, Spriggs Payne airfield and Greenville airf ield. UNMIL engineers also engage in the disposal of Unexploded Ordnances and va rious Civilian-Military Coordination (CIMIC) activities. UNMIL has well establis hed field hospitals and medical units at battalion, sector and force headquarter s levels. These hospitals regularly conduct medical outreaches to provide basic health care to the local people. In a week, UNMIL medical establishments provide medical treatment to an average of 1000 to 1100 locals throughout Liberia. Pres ently, their efforts are directed towards the capacity building of Liberian heal th care and medical institutions.
Soldiers who Laid Down Their Lives in the Service of World Peace TFK a. b. c. d. e. f. g. UNOSOM-II a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. w. x. y. z. aa. bb. cc. dd. ee. ff. gg. hh. jj. kk. ll. Capt R iaz Manzoor, Baloch Sub Saleh Khan, FF Nk Muhammad Ghalib, FF Nk Imtiaz Ahmed, F F Lnk Muhammad Iltaf, Baloch Lnk Muhammad Yousaf, Baloch Sep Saeed Ahmed, Baloch Sep Mulazim Hussain, Baloch Sep Habib Ahmed, Baloch Sep Iftikhar Nazir, Baloch Sep Ali Haider, Baloch Sep Mehmood Ali, Baloch Sep Mehrban Khan, Baloch Sep Muha mmad Ishaq, Baloch Sep Shamim Gul, Baloch Sep Allah Bakhsh, Baloch Sep Khan Baha dar, Baloch Sep Abdul Rehman, Baloch Sep Jehan Sultan, Baloch Sep Liaqat Ali, Ba loch Sep Munawar Khan, Baloch Sep Ghulam Shabbir, Baloch Sep Muhammad Aslam, Bal och Sep Sajid Mahmood, Baloch Sep Itbar Khan, Punjab Sep Nisar Ahmed, Punjab Sep Ali Sher, Baloch Sep Nasir Javed, Baloch Sep Azhar Khan, Baloch Hav Muhammad Fa zal, Sind Maj Muhammad Ejaz Hussain, AMC Hav Roshan Ali, Sind Hav Habib Ullah, S ind Maj Tariq Sharif Malik, Punjab Maj Ayyaz Ahmed, Sind N/Sub Said Ullah, Sind 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 June93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 Jun 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 Jun 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 J une 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 June 93 5 J une 93 17 June 93 28 June 93 28 June 93 2 September 93 9 September 93 21 Septemb er 93 21 September 93 21 September 93 27 September 93 19 February 94 19 June 94 Lnk Muhammad Ilyas, Engrs Lnk Tariq Mehmood, Engrs Hav Mohammad Hussain, Engrs L nk Mushtaq Ahmed, Engrs Lnk Mohammad Younas, Engrs Lnk Nazeer Ahmed, Engrs Hav M ohammad Siddiq, Engrs 11 May 93 12 May 93 7 June 93 7 June 93 14 July 93 10 Augu st 93 10 August 93
mm. nn. oo. UNMIBH a. b. c. d. e. f. UNMIH a. b. UNAMSIL a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Capt Muhammad Shafi, FF Sep Muhammad Tariq, Sind Spr Muhammad Hafeez, Engrs 19 August 94 12 September 94 1 February 95 Sub Bagh Hussain,AK Capt HassanRauf,Engrs Capt Rashid Hussain Syed, EME Lnk Zaho or Ul Hassan, EME Hav Ghulam Mustafa,AK Lnk Haider Khan,AK 18 July 94 22 March 95 22 March 95 22 Mar 95 6 July 95 24 February 96 Capt Atif Bangash, AMC Sep Muhammad Akhlaq, AK 5 June 96 21 January 97 Nk MT Mehboob Hussain, ASC L/Nk Sajid Mehmood , ASC Sep Tariq Mehmood, Baloch Ca pt Abrar Ahmed, Engrs N/Khateeb Nisar Ahmed, AEC Sep Liaqat Ali, Punjab NK/VM Mu hammad Safdar, EME Sep Mumtaz Khan, FF 3 August 2001 3 August 2001 27 October 2001 28 April 2002 28 January 2003 2 Apri l 2003 8 January 2004 11 January 2004 West Irian The only example in United Nation s history when a United Nations mil itary force had gone in, performed its role honestly and came out, was Pakistan s military contingent to Indonesia”. Premier Chou-en-Lai PEACEKEEFERS “It was becaus e of Pakistani troops that Indonesia and Pakistan came so close togather. They w ere Pakistan s best ambassadors. President Soelearno Cambodia “Pakistani Continge nt showed professionalism, patience, determination and compassion, which indeed are the hallmarks of an effective peacekeeping force. Lieutenant General J.M. Sa nderson Force Commander U TAC Somalia “Many of the soldiers are alive today becaus e of the willingness and skill of the Pakistani soldiers who worked jointly in a rescue operation. We are thankful to people and Army of Pakistan for sending su ch splendid soldiers to Somalia whom we feel proud to serve with. Pakistani sold iers have been completely dependable even in the most difficult circumstances. T hey have shouldered a huge and dangerous load for UNOSOM and the Somali people.” M ajor General Thomas M. Montgomery Deputy Commander the United ations Forces in S omalia Bosnia “Many of the soldiers are alive today because of the willingness and skill of the Pakistani soldiers who worked jointly in a rescue operation. We ar e thankful to people and Army of Pakistan for sending such splendid soldiers to Somalia whom we feel proud to serve with. Pakistani soldiers have been completel y dependable even in the most difficult circumstances. They have shouldered a hu ge and dangerous load for UNOSOM and the Somali people.” Eastern Slavonia “I wish to reaffirm my gratitude and appreciation for the professionalism the Pakistani Co ntingent has displayed during stay in Eastern Slovenia . They are indeed perform ing great services to humanity." Paul klein Transitional Administrator United at ions Haiti “It gives me great pleasure to express my warmest congratulations and s incere admiration for the splendid work you and the officers and men of the Paki stani battalion have done all over the northern part of Haiti. \‘ours was the mos t difficult area with a history of militant activities and local feuds. The Amer icans, before you had probably 4 or 5 times more troops and had difficulty contr olling the situation. The PAKBAT s performance was consistently impeccable and e arned admiration of everyone, Haitians and foreigners alike." Lakhdar BrahimiSpe cial Representative of the United ations Secretary General for Haiti
Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan) From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Chief of Army Staff (COAS) of the Pakistan Army is the highest post in the P akistan Army. The current Chief of Army Staff is General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani. T he COAS operates from army headquarters in Rawalpindi, near Islamabad. List of A rmy Chiefs o. ame Term of Appointment Unit of Commission Decorations KCSI, KBE, CB, 1 General Sir Frank Messervy August 15, 1947 – February 10, 1948 9th Hodson s Horse DSO KCB, KCIE, CBE, 2 General Sir Douglas Gracey February 11, 1948 – January 16, 1951 1st Gurkha Rifles MC NPk, HPk, HJ, 3 General Muhammad Ayub Khan Januar y 16, 1951 – October 26, 1958 1/14 Punjab Regiment GCMG, MBE HPk, HJ, HQA, 4 Gener al Muhammad Musa Khan October 27, 1958 – June 17, 1966 6/13 Frontier Force Rifles MBE General Agha Muhammad Yahya 5 June 18, 1966 – December 20, 1971 4/10 Baluch Re giment HPk, HJ, SPk Khan Lieutenant General Gul Hassan 6 December 20, 1971 – March 3, 1972 Armoured Corps SPk, SQA Khan 7 General Tikka Khan March 3, 1972 – March 1 , 1976 12 Artillery HJ, HQA, SPk 8 General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq March 1, 1976 – Aug ust 17, 1988 Armoured Corps 9 General Mirza Aslam Beg August 17, 1988 – August 16, 1991 Baloch Regiment NI(M), SBt 10 General Asif Nawaz August 16, 1991 – January 8 , 1993 Punjab Regiment NI(M), SBt (Bar) 11 General Abdul Waheed January 11, 1993 – January 12, 1996 Frontier Force Regiment NI(M), SBt 12 General Jehangir Karamat January 12, 1996 – October 6, 1998 Armoured Corps NI(M), TBt 13 General Pervez Mu sharraf October 6, 1998 – November 28, 2007 Artillery NI(M), TBt 14 General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani November 29, 2007 – Baloch Regiment NI(M), HI List of Army Vice Chi efs The post of Vice Chiefs of Army Staff existed whenever the Chief of Army Sta ff was also the President of Pakistan. o. ame Term of Appointment Unit of Commis sion Decorations 1 General Abdul Hamid Khan March 25, 1969 – December 20, 1971 Bal och Regiment HQA, SPk 2 General Mohammad Sawar Khan April 13, 1980 – March 22, 198 4 Artillery NI(M) 3 General Khalid Mahmud Arif March 22, 1984 – March 29, 1987 Arm oured Corps NI(M), SBt 4 General Mirza Aslam Beg March 29, 1987 – August 17, 1988 Baloch Regiment NI(M), SBt 5 General Muhammad Yusaf Khan October 8, 2001 – October 6, 2004 Armoured Corps NI(M) 6 General Ahsan Saleem Hyat October 7, 2004 – Octobe r 7, 2007 Armoured Corps NI(M) 7 General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani October 8, 2007 – No vember 28, 2007 Baloch Regiment NI(M), HI See also Pakistan Army Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (Pakistan) Chief of Air Staff (Pakistan) Chief of Nava l InterStaff (Pakistan) External links List of Army Chiefs at Pakistan Army webs ite Official Pakistan Army website InterServices Public Relations
List of serving generals of the Pakistan Army From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This is the list of serving generals of th e Pakistan Army. At present, the army has 2 full generals, 29 lieutenant general s and more than 130 major generals. Barring exceptions for some major generals, all others have been listed here. The list is arranged according to the officers respective seniority. Current Army Senior Command 1. General Ashfaq Parvez Kay ani HI, Baloch — Chief of Army Staff (COAS), GHQ. (Colonel-in-Chief of the Baloch Regiment) due to retire on ovember 28, 2010. 2. General Tariq Majid, Baloch — Chai rman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC), JS HQ, Chaklala. due to retire on October 8, 2010. 3. Lt Gen Muhammad Masood Aslam SJ, Punjab — Commander, XI Corps, Peshawar. (Colonel Commandant of the Punjab Regiment) 4. Lt Gen Ahsan Azhar Hay at, AC — Inspector General Training and Evaluation (IGT&E), GHQ. due to retire on April 11, 2010. 5. Lt Gen Nadeem Ahmad TBt, Sind — Commander, I Corps, Mangla. due to retire on April 11, 2010. 6. Lt Gen Sikandar Afzal, AC — Commander, II C orps, Multan. due to retire on April 11, 2010. 7. Lt Gen Ijaz Ahmed Bakhshi, Art y — Commander, IV Corps, Lahore. due to retire on April 11, 2010. 8. Lt Gen Kha lid Shameem Wynne, Punjab — Commander, Southern Command, Quetta. due to retire on March 8, 2011. 9. Lt Gen Muhammad Ashraf Saleem, AD — Commander, Army Air Defen ce Command (Comd AAD Comd), Rawalpindi. (Colonel Commandant of the Army Air Defe nce) due to retire on March 8, 2011. 10. Lt Gen Shahid Niaz, Engrs — Engineer-i n-Chief (E-in-C), GHQ. (Colonel Commandant of the Corps of Engineers) due to ret ire on March 8, 2011. 11. Lt Gen Muhammad Yousaf, Arty — President, National De fence University (NDU), Islamabad. due to retire on March 8, 2011. 12. Lt Gen Sy ed Absar Hussain, Arty — Commander, Army Strategic Forces Command (Comd ASFC), Rawalpindi due to retire on March 8, 2011. 13. Lt Gen Javed Zia, Punjab — Adjut ant General (AG), GHQ. due to retire on September 21, 2011. 14. Lt Gen Shujaat Z amir Dar SBt, Punjab — Chairman, Pakistan Ordnance Factories (POF), Wah Cantonm ent. due to retire on September 21, 2011. 15. Lt Gen Mohsin Kamal, Punjab — Mil itary Secretary (MS), GHQ. (Colonel Commandant of the orthern Light Infantry Reg iment) due to retire on September 21, 2011. 16. Lt Gen Muhammad Asghar, Engrs — Rector, National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad. due t o retire on September 21, 2011. 17. Lt Gen Jamil Haider, Arty — Inspector General Arms (IG Arms), GHQ. due to retire on September 21, 2011. 18. Lt Gen Nadeem Taj, Punjab — Commander, XXX Corps, Gujranwala. due to retire on September 21, 2011. 1 9. Lt Gen Muhammad Rehan Burney, AMC — Surgeon General/DG Medical Services (Int er-Services), GHQ. (Colonel Commandant of the Army Medical Corps) due to retire on March 24, 2012. 20. Lt Gen Tahir Mahmood SBt, Punjab — Commander, X Corps, R awalpindi. due to retire on September 29, 2012. 21. Lt Gen Shahid Iqbal, Baloch[ 1] — Commander, V Corps, Karachi. due to retire on September 29, 2012. 22. Lt Gen Tanvir Tahir, EME — Inspector General Communications and IT (IG Comm&IT), GHQ. due to retire on September 29, 2012. 23. Lt Gen Zahid Hussain, Arty — Quarter-M aster General (QMG), GHQ. due to retire on September 29, 2012. 24. Lt Gen Ahmad Shuja Pasha, FF — DG Inter-Services Intelligence (DG ISI), ISI HQ, Islamabad. d ue to retire on September 29, 2012. 25. Lt Gen Muhammad Mustafa Khan, AC — Chie f of General Staff (CGS), GHQ. due to retire on September 29, 2012. 26. Lt Gen A yyaz Saleem Rana, AC — Chairman, Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT), Taxila. due to retire on September 29, 2012. 27. Lt Gen Naeem Khalid Lodhi, Engrs — Commander, XXXI Corps, Bahawalpur. due to retire on February 17, 2013. 28. Lt Gen Khalid N awaz Khan, Baloch — Commandant, Command and Staff College (Comdt C&SC), Quetta. due to retire on October 4, 2013. 29. Lt Gen Sardar Mahmood Ali Khan, Punjab — DG Joint Staff (DG JS), JS HQ, Chaklala. due to retire on October 4, 2013. 30. Lt Gen Muhammad Alam Khattak TBt, FF — Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS), GHQ. due to retire on October 4, 2013. 31. Lt Gen Shafqaat Ahmed, Punjab — due to retir e on October 4, 2013. 32. Maj Gen Mir Haider Ali Khan, FF (superseded) — Additiona l Secretary-I (Army) at Ministry of Defence, Rawalpindi. 33. Maj Gen Ghulam Haid er, Ord (superseded) — DGP (Army), Directorate General Defence Purchase (DG DP), R awalpindi. 34. Maj Gen Muhammad Tariq Masood, Baloch (superseded) — Member Logi stics Reform Committee (MLRC), IV Corps, Lahore. 35. Maj Gen Asif Akhtar, Baloch (superseded) — . 36. Maj Gen Shafique Ahmed Kayani, AMC (superseded) — . 37. Maj Ge n Syed Guftar Shah, EME (superseded) — DG Defence Science and Technology Organi
sation (DG DESTO), Rawalpindi. 38. Maj Gen Syed Khalid Amir Jaffery, Arty (super seded) — DG Anti-Narcotics Force (DG ANF), Rawalpindi.
39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. Maj Gen Nusrat Naeem, Arty (superseded) — . Maj Gen Asif Ali, Engrs (superseded) — S urveyor General, Survey of Pakistan, Rawalpindi. Maj Gen Shaukat Sultan, Sind (s uperseded) — DG Foreign Military Cooperation (DG FMC), JS HQ, Chaklala. Maj Gen Mu hammad Akram Sahi, Punjab (superseded) — Commander, Logistics Area (Comd Log Ar ea), Gujranwala. Maj Gen Muhammad Tahir Saeed, ASC (superseded) — Vice Chief of Lo gistics Staff (VCLS), GHQ. Maj Gen Masood Hasan, Arty (superseded) — DG Person nel Services and Provost Marshal (DG PS), GHQ. Maj Gen Qasim Qureshi, Punjab (su perseded) — DG Operations and Plans, JS HQ, Chaklala. Maj Gen Bilal Omer Khan, AC (superseded) — DG Armoured Corps (DG AC), GHQ. Maj Gen Imtiaz Ahmed, Engrs (supers eded) — DG National Logistics Corporation (DG NLC), Rawalpindi. Maj Gen Muhammad J aved Khan, AMC — DG Medical Services (Navy), GHQ. Maj Gen Jamshed Riaz, EME (s uperseded) — DG Electrical and Mechanical Engineering (DG EME), GHQ. (Colonel Comm andant of the Corps of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering) Maj Gen Waqar Ahme d Kingravi, Avn (superseded) — DG Defence Purchase (DG DP), Rawalpindi. (Colonel C ommandant of the Army Aviation Corps) Maj Gen Syed Taqi Naseer Rizvi, Avn (super seded) — DG Defence Security Guards (DG DSG), GHQ. Maj Gen Mian Nadeem Ijaz Ahmad, AC (superseded) — General Officer Commanding (GOC), 26th Mechanised Division, Bahawalpur. Maj Gen Zawar Hussain Shah, Ord (superseded) — DG Ordnance Services ( DG Ord), GHQ. Maj Gen Iftikhar Ahmed Choudhry, Arty (superseded) — DG Welfare and Rehabilitation (DG W&R), GHQ. Maj Gen Syed Mohammad Owais, AD (superseded) — D G Army Air Defence (DG AAD), GHQ. Maj Gen Mukhtar Ahmed, AK (superseded) — DG Doctrine and Evaluation (DG D&E), GHQ. (Colonel Commandant of the Azad Kashmir R egiment) Maj Gen Zahid Parvez, AC (superseded) — DG Budget, GHQ. Maj Gen Muhammad Naeem Khan, AMC — Principal, Army Medical College (AMC), Rawalpindi. Maj Gen S hahida Badsha, AMC — Adviser in Pediatrics/Professor Army Medical College (AMC), R awalpindi. Maj Gen Najeeb Tariq, EME (superseded) — DG C4I, GHQ. Maj Gen Muhammad Ali Khan, ASC (superseded) — DG Remount, Veterinary and Farms Corps (DG RVFC), GHQ . Maj Gen Muhammad Farooq SBt, Punjab (superseded) — . Maj Gen Ahmed Bilal, Sigs[1 5] (superseded) — DG (Security) at Strategic Planning Division (SPD), Chaklala. (C olonel Commandant of the Corps of Signals) Maj Gen Niaz Muhammad Khan Khattak, A K (superseded) — DG(A) at ISI (Analysis and Foreign Relations wing), ISI HQ, I slamabad. Maj Gen Javed Iqbal, Engrs (superseded) — DG Defence Complex Islamabad ( DCI) Project. Maj Gen Taufiq Rafiq, Engrs (superseded) — DG Frontier Works Organis ation (DG FWO), Rawalpindi. Maj Gen Tahir Ali, AD — . Maj Gen Anwar Saeed Khan, AS C — Managing Director, Pakistan Agricultural Storage and Service Corp. (MD PASSCO) , Rawalpindi. Maj Gen Azhar Rashid, AMC — DG Surgery, GHQ. Maj Gen Khushnood J avaid Khan, AMC — Deputy Surgeon General/DG Medical Services (Inter-Services), GHQ. Maj Gen Muhammad Ovais Mustafa, EME — DG Military Vehicles, Research and Dev elopment Establishment (DG MVRDE), Wah Cantonment. Maj Gen Raja Muhammad Arif Na zir, Avn — DG Organization and Method (DG O&M), GHQ. Maj Gen Zahid Mubashir Sheikh , Arty — DG Artillery (DG Arty), GHQ. Maj Gen Nasir Mahmood, Avn — DG Army Aviation (DG Avn), GHQ. Maj Gen Asif Yasin Malik, Punjab — DG(B) at ISI, ISI HQ, Islamabad. Maj Gen Muhammad Haroon Aslam SBt, AK — GOC Special Service Group (GOC SSG), Cher at. Maj Gen Waheed Arshad TBt, AC — Vice Chief of General Staff (VCGS), GHQ. Maj G en Rashad Mahmood, Baloch — DG(CT) at ISI (Counter-terrorism wing), ISI HQ, Islama bad. Maj Gen Muhammad Yaqub Khan, AK — DG Rangers (Punjab), Lahore. Maj Gen Ha mid Mahmud, Sigs — DG Special Communication Organization (DG SCO), Rawalpindi. Maj Gen Syed Ithar Hussain Shah, Arty — GOC 2nd Artillery Division, Gujranwala. M aj Gen Farooq Ahmed Khan, AMC — Adviser in Pathology/Dean and Professor Army Medic al College (AMC), Rawalpindi. Maj Gen Chaudhry Ahmad Khan, AMC — Adviser in Surger y/Professor Army Medical College (AMC), Rawalpindi. Maj Gen Ulfat Hussain, ASC[1 7] — DG Supply and Transport (DG S&T), GHQ. Maj Gen Syed Shakeel Hussain, Baloch — V ice Military Secretary (VMS), GHQ. Maj Gen Gul Muhammad, FF — DG Personnel Adm inistration (DG PA), GHQ. Maj Gen Liaquat Ali, Arty — DG Rangers (Sindh), Kara chi. Maj Gen Ghulam Mustafa Kausar, AK — MARC, GHQ. Maj Gen Noor Hussain SBt, Balo ch — DG Quartering and Lands, GHQ. Maj Gen Raheel Sharif, FF — Commandant, Pakist
an Military Academy (Comdt PMA), Kakul. Maj Gen Tariq Mahmood, Engrs — . Maj Gen T ahir Mahmood Malik, FF — Member Logistics Reform Committee (MLRC), V Corps, Karach i. Maj Gen Athar Abbas, AC — DG Inter-Services Public Relations (DG ISPR), Rawalpi ndi. Maj Gen Wajahat Ali Muftee, Arty — DG Military Lands and Cantonments (ML&C), Rawalpindi. Maj Gen Waqar Ahmed, AMC — DG Medicine, GHQ. Maj Gen Sefvan Majed Janjua, AMC — Commandant, Armed Forces Post-Graduate Medical Institute (Comdt AFPGMI), Rawalpindi. Maj Gen Sohail Shafkat, ASC — Commander, Logistics Area (Comd Log Area), Multan.
98. Maj Gen Azhar Ali Shah, Punjab — DG Institute of Strategic Studies, Resear ch and Analysis (DG ISSRA) at NDU Islamabad. 99. Maj Gen Tariq Khan, AC — IG Front ier Corps (IGFC N.W.F.P), Peshawar. (Frontier Corps currently participating in O peration Rah-e-Nijat in South Waziristan since October 2009. Before this, it con ducted Operation Sherdil in Bajaur Agency from August 2008 to February 2009) 100 . Maj Gen Munawar Ahmad Solehria, Engrs — Deputy Engineer-in-Chief, GHQ. 101. Maj Gen Agha Muhammad Umer Farooq, Baloch — Commandant, School of Infantry and Tac tics (Comdt SI&T), Quetta. 102. Maj Gen Mohammad Zahirul Islam, Punjab — D G(C) at ISI (Internal wing - dealing with Counter-intelligence and political iss ues inside Pakistan), ISI HQ, Islamabad. 103. Maj Gen Rashad Javeed, Arty — Comman dant, School of Artillery (Comdt S of A), Nowshera. 104. Maj Gen Salim Nawaz SBt , Baloch — IG Frontier Corps (IGFC Balochistan), Quetta. 105. Maj Gen Mumtaz A hmad Bajwa, Baloch — DG(S) at ISI (External wing - handling relations with Mujahideen groups inside Kashmir and other similar groups), ISI HQ, Islamabad. 106. Maj Gen Muhammad Ashraf Tabassum, Arty — . 107. Maj Gen Muhammad Farooq Iqbal , Ord — Commander, Logistics Area (Comd Log Area), Rawalpindi. 108. Maj Gen Shahid Maqbool, Sigs — Commandant, Military College of Signals (Comdt MCS), Rawalpindi. 109. Maj Gen Jehangir Anwar Khan, AMC — DG Medical Services (Azad Kashmir), GH Q. 110. Maj Gen Abdul Qadir Khan Shahid, AD — DG National Guard (DG NG), GHQ. 111. Maj Gen Khalid Rabbani, Infantry — GOC 9th Infantry Division, Kohat. (Division cu rrently conducting Operation Rah-eNijat in South Waziristan since October 2009. Before that conducted Operation Zalzala in South Waziristan in 2008, Operation i n North Waziristan in 2007 and Battle of Wana in 2004) 112. Maj Gen Jahangir Kha n, Infantry — DG Infantry (DG Inf), GHQ. 113. Maj Gen Abdul Aziz Tariq, Infantry — C ommander, Logistics Area (Comd Log Area), Karachi. 114. Maj Gen Ijaz Awan, Infan try — DG Defence Export Promotion Organization (DG DEPO), Islamabad. 115. Maj Gen Muzammil Hussain, Baloch — Commander, Force Command Northern Areas (Comd FCNA), Gi lgit. (Division conducted Kargil War in 1999) 116. Maj Gen Sajjad Ghani, Engrs — G OC 19th Infantry Division, Mangla. (one of the two divisions conducting Operatio n Rah-e-Rast in Swat District (North) since April 2009) 117. Maj Gen Ausaf Ali, Engrs — . 118. Maj Gen Tariq Rashid Khan, Arty — Chief of Staff (COS), Southern Comm and, Quetta. 119. Maj Gen Tahir Ashraf Khan, Infantry — GOC 33rd Infantry Division , Quetta. 120. Maj Gen Khadim Hussain, Arty — GOC 23rd Infantry Division, Jhel um. 121. Maj Gen Mohammad Ahsan Mahmood, Engrs — GOC 15th Infantry Division, S ialkot. 122. Maj Gen Muhammad Asif, Infantry — DG Military Intelligence (DG MI ), GHQ. 123. Maj Gen Muhammad Mansha, Infantry — . 124. Maj Gen Abid Pervaiz, AC — D G Logistics (DG Log), GHQ. 125. Maj Gen Tahir Habib Siddiqui, AC — . 126. Maj Gen Kaleem Saber Taseer, Arty — . 127. Maj Gen Ziauddin Najam, Arty — GOC Army Strat egic Forces Command (ASFC). 128. Maj Gen Akhtar Iqbal, Arty — GOC 16th Infantry Di vision, Pano Aqil. 129. Maj Gen Muhammad Khalid, Infantry — . 130. Maj Gen Ghulam Dastgir, Infantry — DG Human Resource Development (DG HRD), GHQ. 131. Maj Gen J aved Iqbal, Infantry — DG Military Operations (DG MO), GHQ. 132. Maj Gen Shahi d Ahmed Hashmat, Infantry — GOC 18th Infantry Division, Hyderabad. 133. Maj Gen Na sser Khan Janjua, Infantry — GOC 17th Infantry Division, Kharian. (Division co nducted Operation Rah-eHaq in Swat District from November 2007 to December 2008, but reverted back to original location in December 2008 after 2008 Mumbai attac ks) 134. Maj Gen Shahid Hamid Khan, AC — GOC 1st Armoured Division, Multan. 13 5. Maj Gen Asif Nawaz Janjua, AC — Commandant, School of Armour and Mechanized War fare (Comdt SA&MW), Nowshera. 136. Maj Gen Tariq Nadeem Gilani, Arty — Command ant, Armed Forces War College (Comdt AFWC) at NDU Islamabad. 137. Maj Gen Mohamm ad Ijaz Chaudhry, Arty — GOC 14th Infantry Division, Okara. (Division conducte d Operation Zalzala in South Waziristan from January 2008 to May 2008. Moved bac k to original location in December 2008 after 2008 Mumbai attacks) 138. Maj Gen Javaid Iqbal Nasar, Arty — . 139. Maj Gen Zahir Shah, Engrs — Commandant, Milita ry College of Engineering (Comdt MCE), Risalpur. 140. Maj Gen Junaid Rehmat, Eng rs — DG Works and Chief Engineer (DG W&CE), GHQ. 141. Maj Gen Mohammad Azeem Asif, Engrs — DG Engineers (DG Engrs), GHQ. 142. Maj Gen Mohammad Rafiq Sabir, Engr s — DG Housing, GHQ. 143. Maj Gen Muhammad Khalid Rao, Sigs — DG(T) at ISI (Tech nical wing), ISI HQ, Islamabad. 144. Maj Gen Mohammad Saeed Aleem, Infantry — GOC 8th Infantry Division, Sialkot. 145. Maj Gen Wasim Sadiq, Infantry — . 146. Maj Ge
n Naweed Zaman, Infantry — GOC 7th Infantry Division, Peshawar. (Division deployed in North Waziristan) 147. Maj Gen Muhammad Nawaz, Infantry — GOC 40th Infantr y Division, Okara. 148. Maj Gen Raza Muhammad, Infantry — GOC 11th Infantry Divisi on, Lahore. 149. Maj Gen Khawar Hanif, Infantry — GOC 35th Infantry Division, Baha walpur. 150. Maj Gen Maqsood Ahmad, Infantry — GOC 12th Infantry Division, Mur ree. (deployed near LoC) 151. Maj Gen Tanveer Ullah Khan, Avn — GOC Army Aviat ion Command, Rawalpindi. 152. Maj Gen Niaz Kausar Sheikh, ASC — DG Pay, Pensio n and Accounts (DG PP&A), GHQ.
153. Maj Gen Mohammad Shahid, EME — Commandant, College of Electrical and Mech anical Engineering (Comdt CEME), Rawalpindi. 154. Maj Gen Obaid Bin Zakria, EME — DG Inspectorate of Technical Development (DG ITD), GHQ. 155. Maj Gen Zia Ullah K han, AMC — Commandant, Combined Military Hospital (Comdt CMH), Rawalpindi. 156. Ma j Gen Azhar Mehmood Kayani, AMC — Commandant, Armed Forces Institute of Cardio logy (Comdt AFIC)/Executive Director, National Institute of Heart Diseases (NIHD ), Rawalpindi. 157. Maj Gen Muhammad Hamid Akram, AMC — Adviser in Radiology/Profe ssor Army Medical College (AMC), Rawalpindi. 158. Maj Gen Asif Ali Khan, AMC — Hea d of Cardiac Surgery, AFIC/NIHD Rawalpindi. 159. Maj Gen Suhaib Ahmad, AMC — Comma ndant, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (Comdt AFIP), Rawalpindi. 160. Maj Ge n Syed Wajid Hussain, AC — . 161. Maj Gen Changez Dil Khan, AC — GOC 6th Armoured Di vision, Kharian. 162. Maj Gen Isfandyar Ali Pataudi, AC — GOC 25th Mechanised Divi sion, Karachi. 163. Maj Gen Zubair Mahmood Hayat, Arty — DG Staff Duties (DG S D), GHQ. 164. Maj Gen Noel Israel Khokhar, Arty — . 165. Maj Gen Shaukat Iqbal, Ar ty — . 166. Maj Gen Mazhar Jamil, Arty — . 167. Maj Gen Tahir Mahmood, AD — GOC 3rd Ai r Defence Division, Sargodha. 168. Maj Gen Zamir Ul Hassan Shah TBt, AD — GOC 4th Air Defence Division, Karachi. 169. Maj Gen Najib Ullah Khan, Engrs — . 170. Maj G en Khalid Asghar, Engrs — . 171. Maj Gen Waqar Ahmed, Sigs — DG Signals (DG Sigs), G HQ. 172. Maj Gen Farrukh Bashir, Infantry — . 173. Maj Gen Ishfaq Nadeem Ahmad, In fantry — GOC 37th Infantry Division, Gujranwala. (One of the two divisions con ducting Operation Rah-e-Rast in Swat District (South) since April 2009) 174. Maj Gen Javed Iqbal Ramday, Infantry — . 175. Maj Gen Qamar Javed Bajwa, Infantry — . 176. Maj Gen Mohammad Saad Khattak, Infantry — GOC 41st Infantry Division, Quet ta. 177. Maj Gen Sajjad Ali Khan, Infantry — . 178. Maj Gen Khalid Mahmood, Infant ry — . 179. Maj Gen Mohammad Tahir, Avn — Deputy Quarter-Master General (DQMG), GHQ. 180. Maj Gen Rehan Bashir, EME — Project Management Organization (PMO), Khanpur. 181. Maj Gen Waqar Ahmed Khan, AMC — . 182. Maj Gen Zafarul Islam, AMC — . 183. Maj Gen Waqas Ahmed, AMC — Adviser in Anesthesia, CMH Rawalpindi. Senior commanders du ring 1965 and 1971 Wars During the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War, there were only two Lt. Gens in the Army; Bakhtiar Rana the Commander I Corps and Altaf Qadir who wa s on deputation to CENTO, Turkey and a handful of Maj. Gens, "unlike the present when both are overflowing every conceivable container." During the 1971 Ind o-Pakistani War, the number of Lt Gens reached 12 while there were two full gene rals; five were posted at the GHQ/CMLA HQ, one at the CENTO HQ in Ankara, Turkey , four were corps commanders, and the rest of four were governors under the mart ial law. General Yahya Khan was the Commander-in-Chief, General Abdul Hamid Khan was the Chief of Staff (COS), Lt Gen S.G.M.M. Peerzada was the PSO CMLA HQ in R awalpindi, Lt Gen Gul Hassan Khan was the Chief of General Staff (CGS), and Lt G en Khawaja Wasiuddin was the Master-General of Ordnance (MGO). Lt Gen Muhammad S hariff was sent as Permanent Representative to the CENTO HQ in Turkey. Eastern C ommand was under Lt Gen A.A.K. Niazi, I Corps was under Lt Gen Irshad Ahmad Khan , II Corps was under Lt Gen Tikka Khan, IV Corps was under Lt Gen Bahadur Sher. On the other hand, governor Punjab was Lt Gen Attiqur Rahman, governor Sindh was Lt Gen Rakhman Gul, governor NWFP was Lt Gen K.M. Azhar, and governor Balochist an was Lt Gen Riaz Hussain. otes All the names in the list are extracted from op en sources (which in turn rely on Pakistan Army s ISPR press releases), therefor e the above names might not correlate with the actual current posts of the comma nders. The promotions from brigadiers to majorgenerals are done in groups once e very year. The links from 2002 and onwards are: 2002 (27), 2003 (19), 2004 (18), 2005 (26), 2006 (29), 2007 (29), 2008 (26), and 2009 (24) Additionally, the sen iority for major-generals is ascertained from the bi-annual military award recip ients of Hilal-e-Imtiaz (Military); first on 23rd March (Pakistan Day) and then on 14th August (Independence Day). The links from 2002 and onwards are: 2002 Mar ch, 2003 March, 2003 August, 2004 March, 2004 August, 2005 March, 2005 August, 2 006 March, 2006 August, 2007 March, 2007 August, 2008 March, 2008 August, 2009 M arch, and 2009 August. Following abbreviations have been used for the respective units/regiments of the officers, • AC — Armoured Corps • • Avn — Army Aviation Corps o Si nd — Sind Regiment • Arty — Corps of Artillery • EME — Corps of Electrical and o AK — Azad ashmir Mechanical Engineering • Infantry — One of the five Regiment Infantry regimen ts • ASC — Army Service Corps • Engrs — Corps of Engineers o Punjab — Punjab • Ord — Army O
ance Corps Regiment • AMC — Army Medical Corps o Baloch — Baloch • AD — Army Air Defence R egiment • Sigs — Corps of Signals o FF — Frontier Force Regiment  References 1. ^ a b c d e f g h Sajjad Malik. "ISI chief, four corps commanders changed" Daily Times, 30 September, 2008 2. ^ Muhammad Imran. Multan and Karachi Corps Command er Replaced Daily Times, April 11, 2006
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.
^ a b Major reshuffle in Army: Corps Commander Mangla, Lahore Changed The ews, M arch 25, 2008 ^ a b c Iftikhar A. Khan. Strategic forces command gets new head Dawn, March 8, 2007 ^ a b c d e f "Bahawalpur gets new corps commander" Dawn, 4 October, 2009 ^ a b c d e f Muhammad Saleh Zaafir. "Another reshuffle in Army t op brass" The ews, 5 October 2008 ^ Shakil Shaikh. "Lt-Gen Dar appointed POF cha irman" The ews, 19 April, 2009 ^ Six major-generals promoted as lieutenant-gene rals The ews, September 22, 2007 ^ "DSA2008 Foreign - VVIP Delegation List" Def ence Services Asia, 23 April, 2008 ^ a b c d Asim Yasin. "Civil, military leader s pledge to uproot militancy" The ews, 24 October, 2009 ^ a b c d e f g "About U s Page" PAFMJ, accessed 17 August, 2009 ^ a b "APSACS Dateline" APSACS Secretari at, Vol. 3 Issue 1, February 2009 ^ a b c "Corps commanders of Peshawar, Quetta and Bahawalpur changed" Dawn, April 15, 2007 ^ "Maj Gen Mukhtar New Colonel Comm andant AK Regiment" paktribune.com, 28 September, 2008 ^ Ansar Abbasi. "SPD also under pressure over political appointments" The ews, 1 October, 2008 ^ a b c Sh uja Nawaz. "Focusing the Spy Glass on Pakistan s ISI" The Huffington Post, 2 Oct ober, 2008 ^ "Defence Logistics Middle East 2009" IQPC, 26 January, 2009 ^ Muham mad Saleh Zaafir. Major changes in Army top brass on cards The ews, September 21, 2007 ^ a b "Contact Info for NDU" DU Website, retrieved 09-05-19 ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shakil Shaikh. "New postings in Army" The ews, 3 September, 2008 ^ "T roops directed to focus on training", ISPR Press Release, 15 December, 2007 ^ "M ohammed Asif to be new DG Military Intelligence" The ews, April 2, 2008 ^ Shakil Shaikh. "Lt Gen Pasha to head ISI" The ews, 30 September, 2008 ^ Shuja Nawaz. " FATA-A Most Dangerous Place" Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSI S), January 2009 ^ a b "34 militants killed in four-day Swat operation, claim fo rces" The ews, 28 December, 2008 ^ a b c "Newly promoted major generals posted", Daily Times, September 3, 2008 ^ "Maj Gen Azhar Kiyani appointed Commandant AFI C" AAJ TV, 9 March, 2009 ^ Iftikhar A. Khan. "Swat commanding officer Gen Ijaz r eplaced" Dawn, 5 July, 2009 ^ Shaukar Qadir. "1965: Operation Grand Slam" Daily Times, October 04, 2003
Pakistan Army Order of Battle Punjab - Strike Corps I Corps Mangla 6 Armoured Division Kharian 17 Mechanized I nfantry Division Kharian 37 Mechanized Infantry Division Gujranwala Punjab - Hol ding Corps IV Corps Lahore 10 Infantry Division Lahore 11 Infantry Division Laho re XXX Corps Gujranwala 2 Artillery Division Gujranwala 8 Infantry Division Sial kot 15 Infantry Division Sialkot Sindh V Corps Karachi 16 Infantry Division Hyde rabad 18 Infantry Division Hyderabad 25 Mechanized Infantry Division Malir West Front Balochistan XII Corps Quetta 33 Infantry Division Hyderabad 41 Infantry Di vision Hyderabad Other Major Commands ISI (Inter-Services Intelligence) Army Air Defence Command Army Strategic Forces Command In April 2007 Pakistan was report ed to be creating three new Army commands to "improve the operational efficiency and working" of its land forces. The Northern, Southern and Central Commands wo uld be responsible for the administrative arrangements of the corps falling unde r their respective commands. At that time, the establishment of the Northern and South Commands had been finalised, while the Central Command was to be raised s hortly. A three-star General (Lt. General) heads these regional commands. The Pa kistan Air Force (PAF) already had three regional commands. According to The New s, the Southern Command would have its headquarters in Quetta, provincial capita l of Balochistan and home to XII Corps, while the Northern Command s headquarter s was yet to be determined. The two likely choices in Punjab Province were eithe r Gujranwala, home to XXX Corps and 37 Mechanized Infantry Division, or Mangla, home to I Corps. The whereabouts of the headquarters for Central Command was not reported. These commands are very poorly attested. Governor of Balochistan Owai s Ahmad Ghani visited Balochistan Institute of Technical Education "BITE" on 9th May 2007 along with Commander Southern Command Lt. Gen Hamid Rab Nawaz to see t he progress and activities going on at BITE. On 04 December 2007 President Perve z Musharraf appreciated the performance of the Pakistan Army and said that he wa s proud of commanding the best army of the world. Addressing a farewell dinner p arty hosted by Commander Southern Command Lieutenant General Khalid Shamim Wyne at the Command and Staff College Quetta, he recalled his affiliation with the co llege and said he had served as staff director while he was a lieutenant colonel . Commander Southern Command Khalid Shamim Wyne presented a souvenir to Presiden t Musharraf and lauded his services as army chief. On arrival at Quetta on 08 Ju ly 2008, Chief of Army Staff General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani was received by Comman der Southern Command, Lieutenant General Khalid Shamim Wynne. Kayani also visite d Headquarters Southern Command, where he was given a briefing on operational, t raining and administrative matters. After the accession of Punjab in the British Empire in March 1849, Rawalpindi was made the Headquarters of Northern Command due to its central location and geo-political importance. The Pakistan Army came into being as a result of the amalgamation of the Muslim troops of the pre-inde pendence British Indian Army. The new Pakistan Army when it took over the operat ions and offices of the British North Command in India in Rawalpindi after indep endence. Out of the British Northern Command HQ nucleus, the Pakistan Army GHQ w as organized at its present location. Lt Gen Messervy, the then GOC-in-C Norther n Command, was promoted and appointed Commander-In-Chief (C-in-C) Pakistan Army. The GHQ started functioning on 15 August 1947. Engineer-in-Chief Pakistan Army ERRA (Earthquake Reconstruction & Rehabilitation Authority) WFP / FATA XI Corps Peshawar 7 Infantry Division Mardan 9 Infantry Division Kohat XXXI Corps Bahawal pur 26 Mechanized Division Bahawalpur 35 Infantry Division Bahawalpur 40th Infan try Division Okara J&K, FA A X Corps Rawalpindi Northern Area Command Gilgit 12 Infantry Division Murree 19 Infantry Division Jhelum 23 Infantry Division Gujrat II Corps Multan 1 Armoured Division Multan 40 Infantry Division Okara
Structure of the Pakistan Army From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Structure of the Pakistan Army can be broken down two ways, administrative, and operational. Operationally the Pakista n Army is divided in 10 Corps having areas of responsibility (AOR) from mountain ous regions of northern Pakistan to the desert and coastal regions of the south. Administratively it is divided in different regiments (details below). The Gene ral Headquarter (GHQ) of Pakistan Army is located in the garrison city of Rawalp indi in Punjab province. It is planned to be moved to the capital city of Islama bad. Army headquarters and staff The Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), formerly ca lled the Commander in Chief (C in C), is challenged with the responsibility of c ommanding the Pakistani Army. The COAS operates from army headquarters in Rawalp indi, near Islamabad. The Principal Staff Officers (PSO s) assisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant General level include: • Chief of General Staff (CGS) — Lt Gen Mohammad Mustafa Khan • Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS) — Lt Gen Muhammad Alam Kh attak • Inspector General Arms — Lt Gen Jamil Haider • Adjutant General (AG) — Lt Gen Ja ved Zia • Quarter-Master General (QMG) — Lt Gen Zahid Hussain • Inspector General Trai ning and Evaluation (IGT&E) — Lt Gen Ahsan Azhar Hayat • Military Secretary (MS) — Lt Gen Mohsin Kamal • Inspector General Communications and IT — Lt Gen Tanvir Tahir The Military Operations and Intelligence Directorates function under the Chief of G eneral Staff (CGS). A major reorganization in GHQ was done in September 2008 und er General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani, when two new PSO positions were introduced: the Inspector General Arms and the Inspector General Communications and IT, thus ra ising the number of PSO s to eight. The headquarters function also includes t he Judge Advocate General (JAG), and the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Chief of the Corps of Engineers (E-in-C) who is also head of Military Engineerin g Service (MES), all of them also report to the Chief of the Army Staff. Operati onal Structure Hierarchy • Corps: A Corps in the Pakistani Army usually consists o f two or more Divisions and is commanded by a Lieutenant General. Currently the Pakistani Army has 10 Corps. The tenth one is the recently raised Army Strategic Force Command (ASFC), responsible for bearing the national strategic and nuclea r assets. Initially a Division, but then raised to the status of a Corps. • Divisi on: Each division is commanded by a Major General, and usually holds three Briga des including infantry, artillery, engineers and communications units in additio n to logistics (supply and service) support to sustain independent action. Excep t for the Divisions operating in the mountains, all the Divisions have at least one armoured unit, some have even more depending upon their functionality. The m ost major of all ground force combat formations is the infantry division. Such a division would primarily hold three infantry brigades. There are 19 Infantry di visions, two mechanised divisions, two Armoured Divisions and 2 Artillery Divisi ons in the Pakistani Army. • Brigade: A Brigade is under the command of a Brigadie r and comprises three or more Battalions of different units depending on its fun ctionality. An independent brigade would be one that primarily consists of an ar tillery unit, an infantry unit, an armour unit and logistics to support its acti ons. Such a brigade is not part of any division and is under direct command of a corps. • Battalion: Each battalion is commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel and has r oughly 600 to 900 soldiers under his command. This number varies depending on th e functionality of the battalion. A battalion comprises either three batteries ( in case of artillery and air defence regiments - generally named Papa, Quebec, R omeo, and Headquarters Battery) or four companies (in case of infantry regiments - generally named Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, and Delta - and other arms excluding a rmored units that are organized into squadrons) each under the command of a majo r and comprising of individual subunits called sections (which are further divis ible into platoons and squads). Corps There are 10 Corps including the newly formed strategic corps (2004) located at various garrisons all over Pakistan. Co rps HQ Location Major Formations under Corps Commander otes Formed 1958 in Abbot tabad, now is 6th Armoured Division (Kharian), Mangla, Azad Lt Gen Nadeem in Man gla; Fought in the 1965 and I Corps 17th Infantry Division (Kharian), 37th Kashm ir Ahmad 1971 wars, as well as sent Infantry Division (Gujranwala) replacements to Kashmir for LOC. 1st Armoured Division (Multan), 40th Lt Gen Sikandar II Corp s Multan, Punjab Formed 1971 Infantry Division (Okara) Afzal 10th Infantry Divis
ion (Lahore), 11th Lt Gen Ijaz IV Corps Lahore, Punjab Formed 1966 Infantry Divi sion (Lahore) Ahmed Bakhshi Formed 1975. 16, 18 IDs are all 16th Infantry Divisi on (Pano Aqil), Lt Gen Shahid mechanized. Has a lot of V Corps Karachi, Sindh 18 th Infantry Division (Hyderabad), Iqbal independent Brigades as well, since 25th Mechanized Division (Malir) it has all of Sindh to cover. Rawalpindi, Force Com mand Northern Areas Lt Gen Tahir X Corps Formed 1975 Punjab (Gilgit), 12th Infan try Division Mahmood
(Murree), (Mangla), (Jhelum) XI Corps 19th 23rd Infantry Infantry Division Division Peshawar, North Lt Gen Formed 1975. Presently engaged in 7th Infantry Division ( Peshawar), 9th West Frontier Muhammad fighting in the Federally Infantry Divisio n (Kohat) Province Masood Aslam Administered Tribal Areas Quetta, 33rd Infantry Division (Quetta), 41st Lt Gen Khalid XII Corps Formed 1985. Balochistan Infantr y Division (Quetta) Shameem Wynne 2nd Artillery Division (Gujranwala), Formed 19 87. Each division has 4 Gujranwala, Lt Gen Nadeem XXX Corps 8th Infantry Divisio n (Sialkot), 15th brigades and an armoured division is Punjab Taj Infantry Divis ion (Sialkot) in the process of raising. 14th Infantry Division (Okara), 26th Ba hawalpur, Lt Gen Naeem XXXI Corps Mechanized Division (Bahawalpur), Formed 1988 Punjab Khalid Lodhi 35th Infantry Division (Bahawalpur) 2 Divisions, 1 in Sindh and 1 in Strategic Rawalpindi, Lt Gen Syed Punjab, 47th Artillery Brigade Corps Punjab Absar Hussain (Sargodha) Army Air Lt Gen Rawalpindi, 3rd Air Defence Divi sion (Sargodha), Defence Muhammad Punjab 4th Air Defence Division (Malir) Comman d Ashraf Saleem Armoured divisions HQ Brigades otes Division Location 1 Armoured Part of II HQ Multan Brigades Division Corps 6 Armoured 7th Armoured Brigade, K harian; 9th Armoured Brigade, Kharian; 1st Armoured Part of I HQ Kharian Divisio n Brigade, Kharian Corps Infantry divisions Division HQ Location Brigades otes W as the old Bahawalpur State forces, which joined the Pak Army on its formation. Disbanded after 1948 war. Today, 35th 6 Infantry Division N/A N/A Infantry Divis ion is located in Bahawalpur and carries the same Pelican insignia of the state forces, though there is no lineage. XI Corps, Peshawar named as The Golden 7 In fantry Division HQ Peshawar Y Arrows 8 Infantry Division HQ Sialkot Part of XXX Corps 9 Infantry Division HQ Kohat Part of XI Corps Part of IV Corps, stationed at Lahore, 10 Infantry Division HQ Lahore named as Tenacious Ten 11 ID is par t of IV Corps with HQ at Lahore. It is mechanised but seems to have less armored contingent then other 11 Infantry Division HQ Lahore mechanized formations. The division fought in 65 and 71 wars. The division is named as Battle axe Part o f X Corps, 12th ID is a double sized division which has 7 infantry brigades. 12 Infantry Division HQ Murree Uniquely all component battalions are from Azad Kash mir Regiment. Part of XXXI Corps. The division is 14 Infantry Division HQ Okara mechanised. 15 Infantry Division HQ Sialkot Part of XXX Corps Originally was par t of XII corps, shifted at 16 Infantry Division HQ Pano Aqil Panno Aquil Cantonm ent in 1987. Now form part of V Corps  17 Infantry Division HQ Kharian Part o f I Corps 18 Infantry Division HQ Hyderabad Part of V Corps 19 Infantry Division HQ Mangla Part of X Corps 23 Infantry Division HQ Jhelum Part of X Corps 25 Mec hanized Division HQ Malir Part of V Corps 26 Mechanized Division HQ Bahawalpur P art of XXXI Corps 29 Infantry Brigade (Zhob);60 33 Infantry Division HQ Quetta I nfantry Brigade (Sibi);205 Part of XII Corps Infantry Brigade
(Loralai);Divisional Artillery(Zhob) 35 Infantry Division 36 Infantry Divisio n 37 Infantry Division 39 Infantry Division 40 Infantry Division 41 Infantry Div ision Part of XXXI Corps Disbanded after 1971 war Part of I Corps N/A Disbanded after 1971 war; see below Part of II Corps Part of XII Corps Part of X Corps but often functions independently under direct command of Force Command Northern GH Q. It is a double sized division Gilgit Areas containing 6 brigades. This format ion has been in action on the LOC since its inception. Independent Brigades Ther e are seven Independent Mechanized Infantry Brigades, eight Independent Armoured brigades, 4 Artillery Brigades, and nine Engineer brigades. These include 105 I ndependent Brigade Group in XXXI Corps, 111 Independent Infantry Brigade at Rawa lpindi with X Corps, 212 Infantry Brigade at Lahore with IV Corps and 105 Indepe ndent Infantry Brigade under V Corps. Nine independent signal brigade groups are also present (one in each corps). Former formations Eastern Command was a Corps level formation in the former East Pakistan comprising of 14th, 9th and 16th In fantry Divisions. All three were re-raised after the war and exist today. 14 ID pretty much did not fight, since it was heavily Bengali and 6 of its battalions deserted when the operation began. 36 ID and 39 ID were raised to command the Pa ramilitary troops and a few loyal battalions. Were later reinforced with a coupl e of other battalions each. They were not re-raised after the war. Administrativ e Structure Infantry,Armour and Engineers The Army s infantry force includes two Special forces Brigades with 5 Battalions, while the armoured force includes ei ght Armoured Reconnaissance regiments. Engineers Infantry: 13th Lancers (Baloch Regt) Frontier Force (FF) 1 Engineers 28th Cavalry 2 Engineers 29th Cavalry Punj ab 14th Lancers 3 Engineers Sindh 30th Cavalry 15th Lancers Baloch 4 Engineers 3 1st Cavalry 19th Lancers 9 Engineers 32nd Cavalry Azad Kashmir (AK) 20th Lancers Northern Light Infantry (NLI) 19 Engineers 33rd Cavalry 22nd Cavalry President s Bodyguard 24 Engineers 34th Lancers 23rd Cavalry (FF) Armour 313 Assault Engin eers 37th Cavalry 24th Cavalry (FF) 4th Cavalry (under 1 armoured division) 41st Horse (FF) 25th Cavalry (FF) 314 Assault Engineers 5th Horse 52nd Cavalry 26th Cavalry 6th Lancers 53rd Cavalry (under 6 armoured division) 27th Cavalry 7th La ncers 25 Mechanised Engineers 54th Cavalry (under 25 mechanised 8th Cavalry 56th Cavalry 9th Lancers 58th Cavalry division) Guides Cavy (FF) 26 Mechanised Engin eers (under 26 mechanised 11th Cavalry (FF) 12th Cavalry (FF) division) *The Pre sident s Bodyguard formed at independence from members of the Governor General s Bodyguard, itself successor to the Governor s Troop of Moghals raised in 1773 * 5th Horse is the successor to the 1st Sikh Irregular Cavalry (Wales s Horse), an d the 2nd Sikh Irregular Cavalry, both raised in 1857 *6th Lancers is the succes sor to The Rohilkhand Horse raised in 1857, and the 4th Sikh Irregular Cavalry r aised in 1858 *Guides Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the successor to the Corps of Guides raised in 1846 *11th Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the successor to 1st Reg iment of Punjab Cavalry and 3rd Regiment of Punjab Cavalry, both raised in 1849 *13th Lancers is the successor to the 1st Native Troop raised in 1804, and the 2 nd Native Troop raised in 1816. It is also the senior most armour regiment of th e Indian Sub-Continent. *19th Lancers is the successor to the 2nd Mahratta Horse (Tiwana Horse) raised in 1858, and Fane s Horse raised in 1860 *25th Cavalry (F rontier Force) is the famous unit which stopped Indian armour thrust in Chawinda in 1965 *29th Cavalry Regiment, nicknamed as Royal Bengal Tigers was the armo red regiment stationed in former East Pakistan. Entire regiment was lost in 1971 war and was raised later with nickname Tigers . Currently the regiment forms p art of 6th Armored Division and is stationed at Kharian. *The Punjab Regiment fo rmed in 1956 from the 1st, 14th, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments; can be traced b ack to the 3rd Battalion of Coast Sepoys raised in 1759 *The Baloch Regiment for med in 1956 from the 8th Punjab Regiment, The Baloch Regiment, and The Bahawalpu r Regiment; can be traced back to the 3rd Extra Madras Battalion raised in 1798 *The Frontier Force Regiment is the successor to the Frontier Brigade raised in 1846 *The Azad Kashmir Regiment was raised in 1947, became part of the army in 1 971 *The Sindh Regiment was raised in 1980 from battalions of the Punjab Regimen t and Baloch Regiment *The Northern Light Infantry was formed in 1977 from vario us paramilitary units of scouts, became part of the army in 1999 after the Kargi l War N/A HQ Bahawalpur N/A HQ Gujranwala N/A HQ Okara HQ Quetta
*The Special Service Group was formed in 1959 around a cadre from the Baloch Reg iment* Other Combat Arms • Regiment of Artillery • Regiment of Air Defence (contribu tes to Air Defence Command with 3 Air Defence Groups, 8 AD Brigades) • Corps of En gineers • Army Medical Corps • Corps of Signals • 23 aviation squadrons Services • Army Ordnance Corps • Corps of Electrical & Mechanical Engineering (EME) • Army Supply & Transport Corps (ASC) • Army Education Corps (AEC) • Corps of Military Police (CMP) • Remount, Veterinary, and Farming Corps (RV&FC) otes 1. ^ Iftikhar A. Khan. "Kaya ni shakes up army command" Dawn, 30 September, 2008 2. ^ "" Subdivisions of the army"". http://www.fotw.net/flags/pk%5Eard.html. Retrieved 2007-01-21. 3. ^ http ://horsesandswords.blogspot.com/2006/03/administrative-control-over.html - Note 10 4. ^ http://horsesandswords.blogspot.com/2006/03/administrative-control-over. html - Note 10 From left, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Navy Adm. Mike Mullen and Rear Adm. Scott Van Buskirk, commander of Carrier Strike Group 9, speak with Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army Gen. Ashfaq Kayani and Pakistani Maj. Gen. Ahma d Shuja Pasha, director general of military operations, on the flight deck of th e aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN 72) while under way in the North Ara bian Sea Aug. 27, 2008. M109A6 "Paladin" firing at night. Pakistan Army aviation squadron s Mi-17 helicopter at the Skardu Airport. Bell 2 06L The Pakistani Army is divided into two main branches, which are Arms and Ser vices.
Special Service Group Special Service Group Formation Insignia outside their headquarters at Cherat. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Active Country Branch Type Size Part of Garrison/HQ Motto Anniversaries Engageme nts March 23, 1956- Present Pakistan Pakistan Army Special Forces Six Battalions Pak istani Special Forces Cherat, Attock Faith, Piety, to strive in the path of Alla h March 23, 1956 Operation Gibraltar Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 Indo-Pakistani W ar of 1971 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan Siachen Glacier Kargil War Operation S ilence Counter Terrorism Operations United Nations Military missions War In Afgh anistan Abbreviation SSG Special Service Group (SSG) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Army. It is an elite special operations force similar to the Un ited States Army Special Forces (Green Berets) and the British Army s SAS. Accor ding to Indian analyst, Mandeep Singh Bajwa, the SSG "are formidable opponents a nd easily rank as one of the finest special forces in the world." Official nu mbers are put at 2,100 men, in 3 Battalions; however the actual strength is clas sified. It is estimated to have been increased to 4 Battalions, with the even tual formation of 2 Brigades of Special Forces (6 Battalions). Soldiers of the S SG are commonly known as the Black Storks Based out of Cherat and Attock, the SS G was created in 1956 with active support from U.S. Special Operations Forces. T hat year the 19th Battalion of the Baloch Regiment (19 Baloch) was selected for conversion to a Special Operation Force. As a result of this, the SSG has inheri ted many of the traditions and insignia of the Baloch regiment. Their first CO w as Lt. Col. (later Maj. Gen.) Abu Bakr Osman Mitha who commanded it for six y ears till 1963. and the first Officer Commanding of its Alpha Company was Maj or Gaideen Khan Abdullai Mahsud (Later Lt Col). Their initial training and orien tation as regards tactics was based on the US Special Forces pattern with whom t hey co-operated closely in the Cold War years. The SSG initially had 6 compan ies and each company had specialization units, specialized in desert, mountain, ranger, and underwater warfare. The desert companies participated in training exercises with US Army Special Forces Mobile Training Team in late 1964. The scuba company in Karachi was renowned for its tough physical training. Later on Chinese training, tactics, weapons, and equipment were also introduced. I ndo-Pak War of 1965 The SSG were initially deployed along the Afghan border to r epel Afghan incursions into Pakistan but the first major deployment came during the war of 1965. Around 120 officers and men were dropped on the night of 6/7 Se ptember near the Indian airbases of Adampur, Pathankot and Halwara in an ill-con ceived operation to destroy Indian combat aircraft and put the bases out of acti on. Badly planned, lacking any solid intelligence, and even more badly executed the operation ended in a disaster. However the SSG sources declare it as partial ly successful: according to them all aircraft from Pathankot airbase were evacua ted and 2 Indian infantry brigades (I brigade by admission of Gen J.N. Chaudary, Indian Army Chief at that time in his autobiography) kept searching for these p aratroopers.  Due to the difficult terrain and very low visibility, none of t he teams were able to regroup after the drops. The Adampur group was unable to a ssemble at night and waited the following day out hiding in the cornfields. Howe ver, most of the commandos were rounded-up and captured including their commande r Captain Assad Durrani.The Pathankot group faced a similar fate and most of the SSG operators were taken as POWs including their commanding officer Major Khali d Gulrez Butt. Many in the group designated for assault on Halwara actually land ed around the air field perimeter itself but did not have any wire-cutters and w ere easily captured by the alerted Indian defenders. The leader of the Halwara t eam, Captain Hasan Iftikhar was taken prisoner while he attempted to meet up wit h the rest of his team. Only a few made it back to Pakistan. Captain Hazur Husna in
(2nd-in-command to Captain Hasan Iftikhar) and a few jawans were able to command eer an Indian Army jeep and made it back via Fazilka By 1971, the SSG had gro wn to 3 Battalions with 1 permanently stationed in East Pakistan (Bangladesh). I ndo Pak War of 1971 The performance of the SSG in the 1971 was much better with 1 Commando Battalion making a spectacular raid on an Indian artillery regiment a nd disabling several of their guns besides inflicting casualties. SSG Involve ment in Soviet Afghan War During the Soviet war in Afghanistan, the SSG deployed there, disguised as Afghans and provided support to the Mujahideen fighting the Soviets. Author Aukai Collins, in the book My Jihad, gave the Pakistani infiltr ators the title "Black Storks".. They appear to have engaged the Soviet Airbo rne Forces in major battles such as the January 1988 Battle for Hill 3234 in whi ch the Russians lost six men while the SSG did not lose a single soldier. Anothe r battle sometimes reported as having been fought between the Pakistanis and Sov iet troops, in Kunar Province in March 1986, appears to have actually been fough t between the GRU Spetsnaz s 15th Spetsnaz Brigade, and the Asama Bin Zaid regim ent of Afghan mujahideen under Commander Assadullah, belonging to Abdul Rasul Sa yyaf s faction. Siachin and Kargil War The SSG were also active on their east ern border with India and fought well in Siachen though in one or two instances taking heavy casualties. In the preliminary stages of the 1999 Kargil Operati ons the SSG performed well, infiltrating relatively deep into Indian territory u ndetected and subsequently were used as stock infantry troops to hold posts/defe nsive positions. In 1980, the SSG s Musa Company, which was originally formed in 1970 as a combat diver unit, was given the antiterrorist operations role. Mu sa Company got the best founders in the beginning like Major Faiz Akbar Shah and Captain Sajjad Ali Shah. They were UDT/Seals qualified from class 79 of America n Navy Seals. Captain Sajjad, who later retired as a Lieutenant Colonel was a sa lvage expert and had the intensive training of under water demolition. Musa Comp any was trained by British SAS advisers in mid-1981. Recently, SSG has been a ctive in anti-terrorist operations in Pakistan s restive western borders with Af ghanistan and fighting Islamic extremists in Pakistani cities such as the Lal Ma sjid siege. Doctrine The SSG was initially formed as a special operations for ce to be used against enemy forces in times of war. The American Green Berets we re chosen as a template due to their superb performance in the Korean War. The K orean terrain was similar to the Kashmiri terrain where Pakistan had border disp utes with India. In 1953-54 the Pakistan Army raised an elite commando formation with US Army assistance and by 1964, the SSG became HALO/HAHO qualified. Howeve r, several instances of domestic terrorism saw that additional training was need ed to teach the SSG the skills of anti-terrorist operations. In 1970 an anti-ter rorist role was added but the unit went fully operational until it received trai ning by British SAS advisors in Cherat during mid-1981. The Americans had a stri ct policy of the military not intervening domestically and relying on the FBI an d SWAT to deal with those problems. The British on the other hand had incorporat ed Anti-terrorist training into their special forces, the SAS, due to the troubl es in Northern Ireland. Capabilities The SSG are trained and qualified to carry out missions in unconventional warfare, foreign internal defense, special reconn aissance, direct action by sabotage and offensive raiding in medium and deep bat tlespace, Counter terrorism, counterproliferation, VIP protection, and informati on and intelligence gathering operations in deep battlespace. Other duties inclu de coalition warfare and support, combat search and rescue (CSAR), security assi stance, peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance, humanitarian de-mining, and count er-drug operations. The SSG have also served as Air Marshals for Pakistan Intern ational Airlines. The SSG has a presence in a large number Arab/Muslim countries through its training/advisory teams in which basic training, setting up special forces programs, CI ops and VIP security is taught. In 1986, the SSG began l arge-scale training of the Sri Lankan Commando Regiment to help them against the LTTE fighters. In 1994, the SSG trained the Special Services Regiment of the Malaysian Army in high-altitude warfare in preparation for their deployment and operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina as part of the United Nations peacekeepers. The operational doctrine of the SSG is a mixture of US, Chinese and British SAS tactics and philosophy with a great deal of experience from the Afghan War, Sia
chen, Kashmir and Kargil thrown in. The SSG showed their tough physical condi tioning when they marched past the saluting dais in double time, a very tiring p rocedure, during the annual March 23 Pakistan day parade in Islamabad. Operat ions Military operations • The SSG were first used in 1965 in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Codenamed Operation Gibraltar, their aim was continued reconnaissance, sabotage of Indian Military facilities and eventual liberation of Kashmir from Indian control.  • In the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 they were once again used, this time in assistance to regular infantry units and for nonconventional and r escue operations. SSG conducted what would be considered to be "classic special forces missions" against Indian forces during this war. Eventually faced against massive political and military onslaught in East Pakistan, the SSG could do lit tle in turning the tide of war. Of note is that Pervez Musharraf commanded a company of commandos during the war. It s told that it were basically some SSG t roops who arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman at the night of 25 March 1971 during th e Operation Searchlight, who sent the message to Dhaka Cantonment headquarters s aying, "Big bird in the cage". • The SSG was active in Afghanistan in the 1980s du ring the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, conducting different type of covert and direct action missions. Again when the balance of power shifted, it led some co vert operations against the very Afghan government (Taliban) that Pakistan (alon g with Saudi Arabia and UAE) had once aided, this time as part of the allied for ces in operation Enduring Freedom. The SSG has aided in the capture of many seni or Al Qaeda leaders, most notably Abu Zubaida and Khalid Shaikh Mohammed • The SSG has partnered with the US CIA s elite Special Activities Division and has been very active "on the ground" inside the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA ) targeting al-Qa ida operatives for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Predator stri kes.  These strike have led to what has been described as highly successful counterterrorism operations.  • • The SSG has also conducted many operations in Siachen Glacier against Indian pos itions. The most noted one took place in 1987 when Pervez Musharraf (then brigad ier) orchestrated a successful SSG unit assault on Indian posts. In addition, so me covert operations in United Nations military missions in Bosnia and Herzegovi na, Somalia and Sierra Leone have also been executed by SSG operators.
The involvement in the Kargil War involved early gains which were later lost due to determined Indian Army assaults, resulting in the eventual return of Pakista ni forces to the Line of Control. • SSG Commandos abseiled down from helicopters i nto Daggar, a town N.West of Islambad, killing up to 50 militants in Operation B lack Thunderstorm. Counter terrorism operations • On September 1986, Pan Am Flight 73 was hijacked by four Palestinian terrorists while it was refuelling in Karac hi. As negotiations stalled and the terrorists started to kill the passengers, t he SSG stormed the plane. The SSG killed 1 hijacker and captured the rest. 21 pa ssengers died and over a hundred were injured. Many inadequacies within the SSG regarding such missions were revealed and were later addressed. • On February 1 994, Afghan hijackers took over a school bus with 74 children and 8 teachers bec ause they wanted the Pakistan government to re-open the Pakistan-Afghanistan bor der and improve conditions of the Afghan refugee camps. They drove to the Afghan mission in Islamabad where they released 57 students but kept 16 boys and the t eachers. The negotiations lead nowhere and it was decided to free the hostages b y force. The Pakistani authorities had somehow managed to inform the children of the impending raid. The SSG commandos used a secondary explosion as a distra ction and entered the room at the Afghan embassy where the hostages were being h eld, killing the three hijackers. • On May 1998, three members of the Baluchist an Students Federation took over a PIA Fokker plane because they were angry at t he government for conducting nuclear tests in Baluchistan. As negotiations dragg ed, the SSG commandos rushed the plane and apprehended all 3 hijackers. None of the passengers were harmed during the assault. • On July 2007, the SSG was the mai n assault force which re-took the Lal Masjid from Islamic extremists. The SSG su ffered 11 killed and 33 wounded. On September 13, 2007 a suicide bomber kill ed at least 20 personnel of the SSG and injured dozens others at the officers’ mes s of the sensitive cantonment area of Tarbela-Ghazi. The blast has reported to been a vendetta attack by the Islamic fundamentalists who were attacked in th e Red Masjid siege in July. According to reliable sources a civilian wearing a white cap with a long beard walked with his bicycle towards the SSG mess and blew himself up there. • On 30 March 2009, SSG successfully participated in th warting the 2009 Lahore police academy attacks. • On 10 October 2009, mili tants attacked the Pakistan Military Headquarters, taking hostage 42 civil and m ilitary officials. SSG commandos rescued 39 hostages and killed 9 militants, cap turing one.The militants have been linked to a former SSG operator, Ilyas Kashmi ri being a leading Al Quaida commander operating along side Tehrik-e-Taliban. A total of six SSG commandos and three hostages were killed in the operation.As re ported by ISPR (Inter Services Public Relations) http://www.ispr.gov.pk/front/ma in.asp?o=t-press_release&id=930. The operation was undertaken by SSG s Counter T errorism Force.  Three more SSG commandos, injured during the operation, pas sed away in the hospital on October 12. SSG interaction with other elite uni ts SSG conducts regular (bi-annual) exercises with the Turkish Special Forces wh ich have been designated as the "Ataturk" series. The first of these exercises w as held in December, 1998. The Turkish force included 21 officers and 14 non-com missioned officers. The second exercise of this series was held in November 2000 , while Atatürk-III concluded in September 2002. During the 1980s and then int o the 1990s, SSG held many similar training exercises with US Special Forces cal led "Inspired Venture". These exercises were usually held during the early month s of January and February with approximately 150 US troops. The exercises were f ocused on weapon familiarization and use, mountain-warfare along with tactics, r aids and ambushes, and eventually airborne operations. With a new phase in U.S.Pakistan relations, military cooperation has been restarted and joint exercises have already started anew. The SSG also conducts exercises with Chinese special forces, which is a strong ally of Pakistan. In 2006, China and Pakistan conducted an eight-day exercise called the Pakistan-China Joint Exercis e Friendship-2006. SSG has also been reported to train with the Jordanian an d Iranian special forces and regularly conducts training for special forces of o ther friendly Middle Eastern countries who opt to come to Cherat. Organization P akistani Special Forces have 10 battalions (bns): • 1st Commando Yaldram Battalion • 6th Commando Samsaam Battalion • 2nd Commando Rahber Battalion • 7th Commando Batta
lion • 3rd Commando Pawindha Battalion • 8th Commando Battalion • 4th Commando Yalghar Battalion • 9th Commando Battalion • 5th Commando Zalzaal Battalion • 10th Commando B attalion Each battalion consist of 700 men in four companies, with each company split into platoons and then into 10 men teams. Battalions are commanded by Lieu tenant Colonels Plus three independent commando companies: • Zarrar (Jarri)Battali on - Specializes in Counter Terrorism • Musa (Moses) Amphibious operations company • karrar (Hadri)Battalion - Specializes in Counter terrorism Training SSG officer s must have at least two years of prior military experience and volunteer from o ther formations for three-year assignments with the SSG; non-commissioned office rs and enlisted men volunteer from other formations to serve permanently in the SSG. All trainees must participate in an eight month SSG course at Cherat. The S SG course emphasizes tough physical conditioning. Included is a 50 mile march in 12 hours, a gruelling requirement that was first institutionalized by Brigider Tariq Mehmood Sitara Jurat and Bar over it. They are also required to run 5 mile s in 40 minutes with full gear. Following the SSG course, trainees must go throu gh the airbourne training to get their Commando wing form the SSG Airborne Schoo l. The course last four weeks, with wings awarded after seven (five day, two nig ht) jumps. Many in the SSG school are selected for additional specialist trainin g. A HALO course is given at Peshawar with a "Skydiver" tab awarded after 25 fre efall jumps. A "Mountain Warfare" qualification badge is given after completing a course at the Mountain Warfare School in Abbotabad; and a "Combat Diver" badge is awarded for the course held by the Naval Special Services Group SSGN at Kara chi. Three classes of combat swimmers are recognized: 1st class to those complet ing an 18 mile swim, 2nd class to those finishing a 12 mile swim, and 3rd class for a 6 mile swim. SSG regularly sends •
students to the US for special warfare and airborne training. Later on due to Si achen crisis, a Snow and High Altitude Warfare School was also established in no rther area after getting it bifrcated from the Army School of Physiacal training and mountain warfare located at Abottabad SSG officers also have a unique recor d of crossing the Mangla lake at its widest when it was full in the month of Aug ust 1971 as part of their watermanship training, a distance of 6 miles in 2 hour s and 35 mins. It was done by Capts Yasub Dogar, Capt later Commander SSG, Brig Akram, Capt Tolebaz and Capt Habib. This record is yet to be equalled. Deploymen t Components of the battalions are constantly rotated between Cherat, Attock, an d any other hot spots (such as PakistanIndia border or when Pakistani forces are deployed overseas as part of the UN peace keeping operations) in order to provi de experience to the operators. The SSG are used to provide security to various vital points such as the strategic nuclear facilities in Pakistan. It is thought that a number of SSG operators are stationed in Saudi Arabia for the protection of the Saudi royal family. Many SSG Officers and other ranks are routinely seco nded to the Directorate of Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) for clandestine and reconnaissance missions. otable members of SSG • Brigadier Tariq Mehmood (known as the father of Special Services Group Pakistan Army). • General (retired) Mirza Aslam Beg the Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army from 1987 to 1991. As a major, Beg commanded an SSG company in 1960 to remove the Nawab o f Dir in Chitral in the northern part of North-West Frontier Province. • General ( retired) Shamim Alam Khan, former Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. As a major, he commanded the SSG company in Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, for which he was awarded Sitara-e-Jurat. • General (retired) Pervez Musharraf former President of Pakistan and a former Chief of Army Staff of the Pakistan Army. In the IndoPakistani War of 1971, he served as a Company Commander in the SSG Commando Batt alion. aval and Air Force Main articles: Special Service Group Navy and Special Service Wing The SSG also has a unit in the Pakistan Navy modelled on the U.S. N avy SEALs and British SBS called the Special Service Group Navy (SSGN). The SSGN currently maintains headquarters in Karachi headed by the Pakistan Navy Command er. It has a strength of one company and is assigned to unconventional warfare o perations in the coastal regions. During war it is assigned to midget submarines . Operatives are also trained in underwater demolition and clearance diving. All other training is similar to the army SSG with specific marine oriented inputs provided at its headquarters. The strength of the navy commandos is put at 1,000 . After the 1965 war with India, Air Commodore Mukhtar Ahmed Do gar SJ who had flown Royal Indian Air Force air crafts supporting the Chindits O perating behind Japanese lines in Burma was instrumental in creating a special f orces unit for the Pakistan Air Force called the 312 Special Service Wing (SSW). It was put in suspended animation in 1972 but revived in 1999 The unit was mode led on the US Air Force s 1st Special Operations Wing unit and the US Army s Ran gers. This new component of the Special Forces of Pakistan has been recently cre ated and fields a force of 1,000 -1400 men. They can under take Airborne Assault s, heli borne Assault, HAHO Operations, They are trained to take action against the enemy s Airforce related targets. They can also be assigned for sabotage mis sions. Appearance and equipment Uniforms The commandos are distinguished by thei r insignia of maroon berets, a common color for the airborne troops, with a silv er metal tab on a light blue felt square with a dagger and lightning bolts, and a wing on the right side of the chest. The combat uniform of the SSG is similar to the US woodland pattern camouflage coat and pants. Other uniforms include cam ouflage and black dungarees (for the CT team). SSGN (SSG Navy) is distinguished by a dark blue beret with three versions of the "fouled anchor" navy badge for o fficers, NCOs and enlisted men. A metal SSGN qualification badge featuring a ver tical dagger superimposed over a midget submarine is worn over the left pocket o n dress uniforms. Parachute wings are worn over the right pocket. While SSW (Spe cial Services Wing) is distinguished by maroon berets with PAf Officer, JCO or A irmen berrit insignia on the beret, and a wing on the right side of the chest. T he combat uniform of the SSW is Olive Drab camouflage. The also wear their Speci al service wing insignia on the left shoulder "Winged Dragons and lightning bolt s" . Equipment The SSG could be equipped with an array of modern weaponry which
includes, Steyr AUG, HK G3, and Chinese Type81/56 rifles, Colt M4 Carbines, and FN P90 and HK-MP5 Sub-machine guns (many different variants). Light machi ne gun in use is Rheinmetall MG3 (locally produced along with HK G3s and MP5s). In sniper or Marksman role, the SSG CT (CounterTerrorism) teams are equipped wit h Steyr SSG 69 and Finnish Tikka bolt-action rifles and HK PSG1 and Dragunov SVD Semiautomatic rifles. Pistols include various Heckler & Koch models. References 1. ^ http://orbat.com/site/toe/toe/pakistan/ssg.html 2. ^ a b c d e f "Special Service Group (Army)". PakDef. http://www.pakdef.info/pakmilitary/army/regiments /ssg.html. 3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Singh Bajwa, Mandeep. "Pakistan Special Service Group". http://orbat.com/site/toe/toe/pakistan/ssg.html. Retriev ed 2007-07-21. 4. ^ A.H. Amin "Interview with Brig (retd) Shamim Yasin Manto" De fence Journal, February 2002 5. ^ My Jihad: One American s Journey Through the W orld of Usama Bin Laden--as a Covert Operative for the American Government. Auka i Collins. ISBN 0-7434-7059-1. 6. ^ Lester W. Grau & Ali Ahmed Jalali, Forbidden Cross-Border Vendetta: Spetsnaz Strike into Pakistan during the SovietAfghan Wa r, Journal of Slavic Military Studies, December 2005, p.1-2 Referenced copy was obtained via the Foreign Military Studies Office website 7. ^ "Mosque siege ends , and grim cleanup begins". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgibi n/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/07/12/MNGOTQUTPG1.DTL. 8. ^ Kashmiris didn’t back Pak istan in 1965: Gohar 9. ^ Book Review Tarikh ke Aine Main By Lt. Col. (retd) Ghu lam Dawn 10. ^ Secret U.S. Unit Trains Commandos in Pakistan, Eric Schmit and Ja ne Perlez, New York Times, 22 February 09 11. ^ CIA Pakistan Campaign is Working Director Say, Mark Mazzetti and Helene Cooper, New York Times, 26 February 09, A15 12. ^ http://www.nbcnewyork.com/news/us_world/Panetta_warns_against_politici zation.html?extpar=polit 13. ^ "Pakistani Forces Kill Last Holdouts in Red Masji d". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2007/07 /11/AR2007071100367.html.
14. ^ Dead belonged to company deployed at Lal Masjid, Jamia Hafsa’ By Javed Iqbal & Mushtaq Yusufzai The News, Pakistan September 14, 2007 15. ^ Bomb in Pakistan Kills at Least 15 From Elite Unit By SALMAN MASOOD and ISMAIL KHAN September 14 , 2007 16. ^ Blast case registered -DAWN - Top Stories; September 16, 2007 17. ^ Faisal Ali, Mohammad (2009-03-30). "13 killed, 100 injured as forces recapture Manawan academy". Dawn TV. http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/Dawn%20Content%20 Library/dawn/news/pakistan/attack-on-police-academyleaves-8-dead--150-injured--i l. Retrieved 2009-03-31. 18. ^ Nawaz, Hamid (2009-03-30). "Lahore under attack a gain: 12 dead, 90 injured in bloody siege at police academy, three gunmen captur ed". Aaj TV. http://www.aaj.tv/news/Latest/105_detail.html. Retrieved 2009-03-31 . 19. ^ "Pakistan commandos rescue 39 hostages, three killed". Reuters. 2009-1011. http://www.reuters.com/article/asiaCrisis/idUSSP477910. Retrieved 2009-10-11 . 20. ^ "Senior officers were main target of GHQ attack". The News. 2009-10-13. http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24981. Retrieved 2009-10-13. 2 1. ^ Special Service Group (Army) 22. ^ "Joint Anti-terror Military Exercise Con cludes". Xinhua News Agency. http://www.china.org.cn/english/China/193029.htm. 2 3. ^ "The Special Services Group". Haider, Shahnam. 2007. http://www.specwarnet. net/world/pakistan_ssg.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-04. Recommended reading • Tarikh ke Aine Main (Urdu) By Lt. Col. (retd) Ghulam, Published by Jilani Khan Headquarter s SSG, Cherat Sources and external links • SSG history and Missions • More info and pictures on SSG • Navy SSG information • Orbit on SSG Naval SSG operating in the Gulf of Oman The Special Service Group (SSG) is an in dependent commandos detachment from the Pakistani Army. Official numbers are put at 2,100 men, in 3 Battalions; however the actual strength is classified. It is estimated to have been increased to 4 Battalions, with the eventual formation o f 2 Brigades of Special Forces (6 Battalions). Based out of Cherat and Attock, t he SSG started out in the 1950s with active support from U.S. Special Operations Forces as an irregular military unit called the 19th Baluch Regiment. SSG offic ers must have at least two years of prior military experience and volunteer from other formations for three-year assignments with the SSG; NCO and enlisted men volunteer from other formations to serve permanently in the SSG. All trainees mu st participate in an eight-month SSG courses which includes 36-mile march or mor e in 12 hours, a grueling requirement that was first institutionalized by 19 Bal uch. They are also required to run 5 miles in 40 minutes with full gear, fully l oaded. Following the SSG course, trainees must volunteer for Airborne School. Th is course lasts for four weeks and all SSG recruits must pass this course and wi ngs are attainted after conducting 5 day and 2 night static-line jumps. A large number of the SSG operators are also HALO/HAHO qualified. Additionally, a Counte r-terrorist hostage rescue company commonly referred to as Zarrar (previously Mu sa) Company (all companies and Battalions of the SSG have names ascribed to them ) is also part of the SSG. Many are selected for additional specialist training. A course is given at Peshawar with a skydiver tab awarded after 5 freefall ju mps. A "Mountain Warfare" qualification badge is given after completing a course at the Mountain Warfare School in Abbotabad; and a "Combat Diver" badge is awar ded for the course held by the Naval Special Services Group SSGN at Karachi. Thr ee classes of combat swimmers were recognized: 1st class to those completing an 18-mile or more swim in designated time period; 2nd class to those finishing a 1 2-mile swim; and 3rd class for a 6-mile swim. Initially, SSG officers were sent in large numbers to the United States for Special Forces training. Today, it con sists of various companies within each battalion specialized in specific roles i ncluding desert warfare, ranger, mountain warfare. Due to Siachen crisis, a Snow and High Altitude Warfare School was also established. Operations The SSG were first used in 1964 in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Codenamed Operation Gibralta r, their aim was continued reconnaissance, sabotage of Indian Military facilitie s and eventual liberation of Kashmir from Indian control. This Operation was a f ailure and led to a full scale war after India discovered the infiltrators and a ttacked Pakistan in retaliation. In the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 they were onc e again used, this time in assistance to regular infantry units and for non-conv entional and rescue operations. SSG conducted what would be considered to be "cl
assic special forces missions" against Indian forces during this war. Eventually faced against massive political and military onslaught in East Pakistan, the SS G could do little in turning the tide of war. Of note is that Pervez Musharraf c ommanded a company of commandos during the war. The SSG was active in Afghanista n in
the 1980s during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, conducting different type o f covert and direct action missions. Again when the balance of power shifted, it led some covert operations against the very Afghan government (Taliban) that Pa kistan (along with Saudi Arabia and UAE) had once aided, this time as part of th e allied forces in operation Enduring Freedom. The SSG has aided in the capture of many senior Al Qaeda leaders, most notably Abu Zubaida and Khalid Shaikh Moha mmed and conducts regular operations as part of the Pakistani Special Operations Task Force in the Tribal Areas of North West Pakistan. The SSG has also conduct ed many operations in Siachen Glacier against Indian positions. The most noted o ne took place in 1987 when Pervez Musharraf (then Brigadier) led an SSG unit ass ault on Indian posts before being beaten back.  In addition, some covert Oper ations in United Nations Military missions in Bosnia Herzegovina, Somalia and Si erra Leone have also been executed by SSG operators. The involvement in the Karg il War involved early gains which were later lost due to political/military pres sure and eventual withdrawal of Pakistani forces to the Line of Control. Organiz ation Pakistani Special Forces have 3 battalions (bns): • 1st "Yaldaram" Commando Battalion, • 2nd "Pawinda" Commando Battalion, • 3rd "Rahbar" Commando Battalion. Pl us two independent Commando companies: • "Zararr" Company - Antiterrorist company and, • Musa" Company - A combat diver unit. Components of the Battalions are const antly rotated between Cherat, Attock, and any other hot spot (such as Pakistan-I ndia border or when Pakistani forces are deployed overseas as part of the UN Pea ce Keeping operations) in order to provide experience to the operators. The SSG is also used for providing security to various vital points such as the strategi c nuclear facilities in Pakistan. It is thought that a number of SSG operators a re stationed in Saudi Arabia for the protection of the Saudi royal family. Many SSG Officers and other ranks are routinely seconded to the Directorate of InterServices Intelligence (ISI) for clandestine and reconnaissance missions. The SSG also has a unit in the Pakistan Navy modeled on the US Navy SEALs : NSSG, other wise known as SSGN. The SSGN currently maintains headquarters in Karachi headed by Pakistan Navy Commander. It has a strength of one company and is assigned to unconventional warfare operations in the coastal regions. During war it is assig ned to Midget submarines. Operatives are also trained in Underwater Demolition a nd Clearance Diving. All other training is similar to the Army SSG with specific marine oriented inputs provided at its Headquarters. The strength of the Navy c ommandos is put at 1,000. Uniforms The commandos are distinguished by their insi gnia of maroon berets with a silver metal tab on a light blue felt square with a dagger & lightning bolts, and a wing on right side of chest. The combat uniform of the SSG is similar to the US woodland pattern camouflage coat and Khaki Pant s. Other uniforms include cammies and black dungarees (for the CT team). SSGN (S SG Navy) is distinguished by a dark blue beret with three versions of the "foule d anchor" Navy badge for officers, NCOs and enlisted men. A metal SSGN qualifica tion badge featuring a vertical dagger superimposed over a midget submarine is w orn over the left pocket on dress uniforms. Parachute wings are worn over the ri ght pocket. Selection Each member of the Pakistani army (ground, air, sea) can v olunteer for SSG selection. The SSG s training course lasts six months to a year . To become a member of SSG, a soldier must be in the army for at least three ye ars. Then passing all required medical and psychological testing. Much of the SS G s training involves mountain warfare do to the Pakistani terrain. Members also train in specialized roles such as Airborne and combat diving. Links http://en. allexperts.com/e/s/sp/special_service_group.htm http://www.brentflynn.com/brent/ pakistan.htm
Pakistan Army FC From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Full name ickname(s) Founded Ground Chairm an Manager League PPL 2008 Pakistan Army Football Club The Soldiers 1950 Army St adium, Rawalpindi, Pakistan (Capacity: 7,000) Brig. Saleem Nawaz Major Shafqat M ehmood Pakistan Premier League 2nd The Pakistan Army FC are a Pakistani football club who play in the Pakistan Prem ier League. They have won the league under its current format twice, in 2005 and 2006/7. They won the National Championship in 1993/94 and 1995. They have also been Cup winners twice, in 2000 and 2001.  Since the turn of the millenniu m, Army have become one of the three dominant clubs in Pakistan. This has been a ided by their good training facilities in comparison to other teams and their fi nancial resources. In the 2006/7 season, keeper Jaffar Khan set a new Pakistani record by remaining unbeaten for 1170 minutes. The Pakistan Army represented Pak istan in the AFC President s Cup 2006, and again 2007 as last seasons national c hampions. In both instances, Army has showed a poor performances finishing botto m of their groups and failing to qualify for the next rounds of the tournaments. Achievements • Pakistan Premier League: 4 1993/94, 1995, 2005, 2006/07 • Pakistan a tional Football Challenge Cup: 2 2000, 2001 • Quaid-i-Azam Shield : 5 1995, 1997, 2001, 2004, 2007 Performance in AFC Competitions • Asian Club Championship: 1 appe arance 1994: Qualifying - 2nd round • AFC President s Cup: 2 appearances 2006: Gro up Stage 2007: Group Stage Current Squad o. Position Player 1 GK Jaffar Khan (ca ptain) 2 DF Muhammad Shahbaz 3 DF Muhammad Khabab 4 DF Muhammad Kashif Shah 5 DF Ghulam Mustafa 6 MF Majid Khan 7 MF Michael Masih 8 MF Babar Mehmood 9 FW Adnan Bari 10 FW Muhammad Sajid 11 FW Imran Hussain 12 DF Tanveer Shahid o. Position Player 13 MF Khalid Munir 14 FW Jafar Ali 15 DF Mohammad Imran 16 DF Umar Daraz 17 FW Muhammad Sajid 18 GK Muhammad Imran 19 DF Muhammad Sharif 20 MF Faheem Ria z 21 MF Muhammad Shabbir 22 MF Mubashar Hussain 23 DF Gulzar Ahmed 24 GK Mahmood Ahmed References ^ Pakistan - List of Champions ^ Pakistan - List of Cup Winners
U.S. Army soldiers with the 212th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital and Pakistan arm y personnel from the 67th Medical Battalion form an honor guard carrying the fla gs of both countries during a transfer of authority ceremony in Muzaffarabad, Pa kistan, Feb. 16, 2006. The U.S. military is participating in a Pakistani-led rel ief operation designed to aid victims of the devastating earthquake that struck the region Oct. 8, 2005. U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Joseph McLean
Pakistan Army Order of Battle – Corps Insignia Pakistan Army Division Insignia
OPERATIONAL AWARDS NISHAN-I-HAIDER - HILAL-I-JUR AT - SITARA-I-JUR AT - TAMGHA-I-JUR AT CAMPAIGN/WAR MEDALS TAMGHA-I-DIFA - SITARA-I-HARAB (1965 WAR) - SITARA-I-HARAB (1971 WAR) - TAMGHA-I -JA G (1965 WAR) TAMGHA-I-JA G (1971 WAR) NON-OPERATIONAL AWARDS SITARA-I-BASALAT – TAMGHA-I-BASALAT - NISHAN-IMTIAZ (MILITARY) - HILAL-I-IMTIAZ SITARA-I-IMTIAZ - TAMGHA-I-IMTIAZ (MILITARY) - TAMGHA-I-KHIDMAT (MILITARY) CLASS -I TAMGHA-I-KHIDMAT (MILITARY) CLASS-II - TAMGHA-I-KHIDMAT (MILITARY) CLASS-III
SERVICE MEDALS SERVICE MEDAL (10 YEARS) SERVICE MEDAL (20 YEARS) SERVICE MEDAL (30 YEARS) SERVI CE MEDAL (40 YEARS) COMMEMORATIVE MEDALS PAKISTA MEDAL 1947 - TAMGHA-I-SAD SAALA JASHA -I-WILADAT-I-QUAID-I-AZAM - REPUBL IC COMMEMORATIVE MEDAL - HIJRI MEDAL – Democracy Medal - PAKISTA RESOLUTIO DAY GOL DE JUBILEE MEDAL 1990 PAKISTAN INDEPENDENCE DAY GOLDEN JUBILEE MEDAL 1997 - TAMGHA-I-BAQA - IMTIAZI SA AD