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Unit 1: Introduction to Science
A. What is science and History of science?

What is science? The revolutions in physics- contributions of Copernicus and Galileo; A
brief history of the Renaissance in Europe; Age of Enlightenment; Industrial revolution;
Science of 20th century
Modern science and scientific methods
A discussion on hypothesis, experimentation, criteria for experimentation, theorizing and
the open-ended nature of the scientific quest
Science in other cultures
A brief exploration of science and technology in pre-modern era with emphasis on India
in areas of mathematics, Metallurgical Sciences, Medicine and health

B. The interdependence of Science and Technology

Molecular basis of disease and vaccination
Laser and photonics applications
Microscopy and applications

C. Science and the public

Discussion on the need for an informed public in a democracy about S&T, Science policy
and research funding, S&T and development

Madhusudhan T K


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focusing on biological causation and the diversity of life. From their beginnings in Sumer (now Iraq) around 3500 BC. All aspects of scholasticism were criticized in the 15th and 16th centuries.SCIENCE AND SOCIETY (FC) UNIT-I III SEM BCOM. 15. 11.. a synthesis of Catholicism and Aristotelianism known as Scholasticism was flourishing in Western Europe. BBA 1. 12. Ptolemy. the Mesopotamian people began to attempt to record some observations of the world with numerical data.scientia. Mesopotamian record shows a number of Pythagorean triplets (3. "knowledge. Science is the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment. 7. a knowing. 5. before Pythagoras. expertness" 4. 2. Iraq.( 9th to 13the century) 13. By the late middle Ages. 8. 13). and dissected at least 50. The word comes from the Latin.. preserved in the Houses of Wisdom. 6. "Science" also refers to this body of knowledge.. 4. The ancient people who are considered the first scientists may have thought of themselves as natural philosophers. 9. 5) (5. 14. Some ancient knowledge was lost during the fall of the Roman Empire. and Euclid. . The texts of Aristotle. Madhusudhan T K RNSFGC Page 2 . 10. During medieval period Many Greek science texts were preserved in Syriac translations done by groups such as Nestorians and Monophysites. Aristotle produced many biological writings that were empirical in nature. 12. The House of Wisdom was established in Baghdad. Mesopotamian scientists are still widely used in Western calendars such as the solar year and the lunar month. dated 1900 BC. Aristotle classified more than 540 animal species. 3.

The first half of the 14th century saw much important scientific work being done. Copernicus formulated a heliocentric model of the solar system unlike the geocentric model of Ptolemy's. Galileo had used arguments from the Pope and put them in the voice of the simpleton in the work "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems" which caused great offense to him. 24. The period culminated with the publication of thePhilosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica in 1687 by Isaac Newton. The Scientific Revolution is traditionally held by most historians to have begun in 1543. BBA 16." 22. the Black Death and other disasters sealed a sudden end to the previous period of massive philosophic and scientific development. 12th century Toledo School of Translators from Arabic to Latin started 21. 20. 27. Plato. 23. 17. representative of the unprecedented growth of scientific publications throughout Europe. the rediscovery of ancient texts was improved after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. with the result that the "medieval university laid far greater emphasis on science than does its modern counterpart and descendent. now known as the Scientific Revolution. Madhusudhan T K RNSFGC Page 3 . European university put many works about the natural world and the study of nature at the center of its curriculum. The willingness to question previously held truths and search for new answers resulted in a period of major scientific advancements. largely within the framework of scholastic commentaries on Aristotle's scientific writings. 26. In Northern Europe. and Aristotle. Scholars such as Jean Buridan and Nicole Oresme started to reinterpret elements of Aristotle's mechanics. In 1348. the new technology of the printing press was widely used to publish many arguments. 18. Medieval science carried on the views of Socrates. 25. 19.SCIENCE AND SOCIETY (FC) UNIT-I III SEM BCOM.

The Age of Enlightenment was a European affair. 1901 Guglielmo Marconi in Newfoundland receives the first telegraph signal. Major inventions of 19th & 20th century 32. 1913 Henry Ford invents the moving assembly line for mass production of automobiles 39. 1923 Vladimir Zworykin invents the television camera 43. 31. spin dryer. electric shaver. epitomized in the appearance of Denis Diderot's Encyclopédie between 1751 and 1772. 1900 Max Planck discovers quanta . 1926 John Logie Baird makes first television broadcast over radio waves 45. 29. 30. 1913 Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford discover the structure of the atom 38. which took place during the 18th century "Age of Enlightenment". BBA 28. Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765) and Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717–1783).the vacuum cleaner. the practice of science became professionalized and institutionalized in ways that continued through the 20th century. Leonhard Euler (1707–1783). 1920 First radio broadcast 40. 1909 Paul Ehrlich finds a cure for syphilis 37. 1903 The Wright brothers successfully demonstrate motor powered flight 35. The 17th century "Age of Reason" opened the avenues to the decisive steps towards modern science. sent from Cornwall in Great Britain 34.the basis of quantum theory 33. 1920's Household appliances appear . During the 19th century. 1905 Albert Einstein publishes the Special Theory of Relativity 36. The generation of Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790). 1922 Frederick Banting and Charles Best discover insulin 42. speaker radio 41. 1924 Edwin Hubble discovers the first new galaxy besides our own 44. 1927 Georges Lemaitre puts forward Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe Madhusudhan T K RNSFGC Page 4 .SCIENCE AND SOCIETY (FC) UNIT-I III SEM BCOM. frozen foods. electric refrigerator.

the building block of life 61. 1932 James Chadwick describes the nucleus of the atom as composed of protons and neutrons 51. 1960s Discovery of restriction enzymes . 1928 Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin 47. 1950 Gertrude Elion develops chemotherapy to treat leukaemia 58. discover the double helix structure of DNA. 1960 Stephen Hawking publishes his Grand Unified Theory of the origin of the universe 64. BBA 46.the 'scissors' used to splice genes in genetic engineering Madhusudhan T K RNSFGC Page 5 . 1948 Percy Julian develops synthetic cortisone 57. 1953 James Watson and Francis Crick. 1952 Jonas Salk produces a vaccine against poliomyelitis 59. 1935 Invention of nylon and plastics . Atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan a month later. 1945 The first electronic computer .SCIENCE AND SOCIETY (FC) UNIT-I III SEM BCOM. 1957 The Soviet Union launches the 1960 Peter Medawar discovers basis of immuno-suppression Sputnik satellite 63. 1952 Henri Laborit's discovery of chlorpromazine founds the basis for drug therapies to treat mental illness 60. 1931 Ernest Lawrence invents the cyclotron to study the behaviour of accelerated atomic particles 50. 1929 Edwin Hubble puts forward the theory of the expanding universe 48. 1945 The first atomic bomb is detonated in New Mexico. with the contribution of Rosalind Franklin and demonstrated.The Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer (ENIAC) .the first nylon stockings 52. 1947 William Shockley invents the transistor 56. 1954 First successful kidney transplant 62. It used so much power it caused lights to dim 55. 54. 1930 The British Broadcasting Corporation starts TV broadcasts 49. 1942 Enrico Fermi demonstrates the first controlled nuclear reaction 53.

1983 Luc Montagnier and Robert Gallo isolate HIV. 1996 'Dolly' the sheep is born in Scotland. BBA 65. greatly reducing the social and economic effects of the floods and droughts that follow in many parts of the world. 1967 Jocelyn Bell identifies pulsars (neutron stars) 69. 1990 Tim Berners-Lee. 1970s Some US university campuses linked by a computer network. a consultant at CERN. 1997 Scientists accurately predict the El Niño climatic phenomenon in the tropical Pacific. ARPAnet 73. 1990 Hubble space telescope launched 81. 1971 Gilbert Hyatt and Intel make the first commercial computer microprocessor 74. 1970's Computerised tomography (CT scan) to look at soft tissues 72. 1980s Discovery of prions . along with his colleague Robert Cailliau author software that gave birth of the World Wide Web 80. 1969 Dorothy Hodgkin describes the molecular structure of insulin 70. 1967 Christiaan Barnard carries out first human heart transplant 68. 1964 Murray Gell-Man predicts the existence of quarks 67. 1975 Discovery of endorphins . 1961 The Soviet Union puts the first astronaut into orbit around the Earth 66. 1987 Discovery of fluoxetine (Prozac) as a therapy for depression 79. Madhusudhan T K RNSFGC Page 6 . the European laboratory for particle physics.a new class of infectious agents unlike viruses. 1975 Cesar Milstein and co-workers develop monoclonal antibodies. the 'magic bullets' that can seek out specific antigens and therefore disease-causing organisms 76. 1969 US Apollo astronauts walk on the moon 71.SCIENCE AND SOCIETY (FC) UNIT-I III SEM BCOM.natural pain killers in the brain 75. She was produced by cloning a single mammary cell 82. A prion causes Bovine Spongiform Encephaly or 'mad cow disease' 77. the virus that causes AIDS 78.

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain. 87. father of the Green Revolution. Norman Borlaug. Madhusudhan T K RNSFGC Page 7 . Contributions of Galileo  By 1590 Galileo Galilei had developed a number of criticisms of the Aristotelian system's view of the physical world. Aristotle's claim that the rate of fall was determined by the weight of an object was thus overthrown. Primary among these was his theory on falling objects. The First Industrial Revolution evolved into the Second Industrial Revolution in the transition years between 1840 and 1870. The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. Malaria and other diseases affected large populations. Disease threatened to destabilize many regions of the world. is often credited with saving over a billion people worldwide from starvation. the virus which causes AIDS. killed anywhere from 20 to 100 million people between 1918 and 1919. 84. Galileo explores and goes on to reject the Aristotelian explanation of the acceleration of falling bodies and substitutes his own. 88. Millions were infected with HIV. which has become the foundation of modern dynamics. hit the ground at the same time.  In 1591. 85. and spread to Western Europe and North America within a few decades. 86.SCIENCE AND SOCIETY (FC) UNIT-I III SEM BCOM. BBA 83. boats and ships). and replaced by Galileo's correct theory that the Earth's gravity produced a universal acceleration of objects toward its surface. New viruses such as SARS and West Nile continued to spread. 89. dropped from the top of the tower at the same time. An influenza pandemic. he demonstrated from the leaning tower of Pisa that weights of one pound and one hundred pounds. when technological and economic progress continued with the increasing adoption of steam transport (steam-powered railways. the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the increasing use of machinery in steam-powered factories. Spanish Flu.  In 1638 Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences. The virus was becoming an epidemic in southern Africa.

meaning “Sun. During 2500 BC ayurveda medicine system practice in India 96.” system—derived from the Greek helios. A Vaccine is a substance which is administered to an individual to acquire immunity against particular disease. During 7th century Brahmagupta proposed a theorem.  Copernicus probably hit upon his main idea sometime between 1508 and 1514. and during those years he wrote a manuscript usually called the Commentariolus (“Little Commentary”). also turns once daily on its own axis. Modern Science and scientific methods  Experimentation is the scientific research method. 98. In 12th century Bhaskara wrote Siddantha Shiromani 95. including such major figures as Galileo. besides orbiting the Sun annually. Contributions of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)-Poland  Polish mathematician and astronomer who proposed that the planets have the Sun as the fixed and the Earth is a planet which. 91.SCIENCE AND SOCIETY (FC) UNIT-I III SEM BCOM. 99. During 5th century Aryabhata wrote Aryabhatiya (astronomy and mathematics) 93.” Copernicus’s theory had important consequences for later thinkers of the scientific revolution. The administration of vaccines is called vaccination 100. which explained the use of Zero 94. Descartes. Kepler. and Newton.  This representation of the heavens is usually called the heliocentric. reproducibility 92.  Hypothesis is the assumptions or the tentative statements  Data is the generalized explanation or the observation  Scientific quest is finding answer to the questions  Criteria for experimentation is repeatability. Madhusudhan T K Types of vaccines are- RNSFGC Page 8 . BBA 90. or “Sun-centred. Stainless steel discovered in India 97.

Light Detection and Ranging 109. and skin and also various types of surgery can be done by using LASER.Cell biology.Outer coats of bacteria are used 101. LASER in having industrial applications like cutting of metals. communication technology. BBA  Inactivated. Military application of LASER is in LIDAR. controlling. which are particles of light. eye. heat radiation etc  Toxoid .Some vaccines contains inactivated. Biotechnology. Vision treatment from LASER is called LASIK 106. spectroscopy etc 108. Applications of Microscopy. joining of metals 104.Made up of protein sub unit of a microbe  Conjugate.SCIENCE AND SOCIETY (FC) UNIT-I III SEM BCOM. LASER = Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation 102. 115. Photonics is the science and technology of generating. Nanotechnology. 111. and detecting photons. Microscope is an optical instrument used for viewing very small objects 112. pathology etc. LASER used in data storage. TEM= Transmission Electron Microscopy 113.These are made from inactivated toxic compounds  Sub unit. Forensic science. SEM= Scanning Electron Microscopy 114. The word photonics is derived from Greek word Photos means light 110. LASER is having many medical applications like dentistry. Electromagnetic radiations are used in LASER 103. 105. but previously virulent. microbs that have been destroyed with chemicals.Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Madhusudhan T K RNSFGC Page 9 . CSIR. LASIK =laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis 107.

UGC.SCIENCE AND SOCIETY (FC) UNIT-I III SEM BCOM.University Grant Commission 117.Dept of Biotechnology  DST.Defense Research and Developmental Organization  ICAR. BBA 116. Some of the research funding agencies in India are DBT.Dept of Science and Technology  DRDO.Indian Space Research Organization Madhusudhan T K RNSFGC Page 10 .Indian Council of Agricultural Research  ISRO.