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# Vibration Based SHM

Dr. K. Gopikrishna
Department of Civil Engineering,
NIT Warangal
Teaching Aid for CE 5265

Vibration Monitoring

The aim of vibration monitoring is to describe a structure in terms
of its modal parameters which are the frequency, damping and
mode shapes.

• Suppose we apply a sinusoidal force.
and change the rate of oscillation
of the frequency but the peak force will
always be the same. To measure the response of the plate due
to the excitation, an accelerometer attached to one corner
of the plate.
• notice that the amplitude changes as we change the rate of
oscillation of the input force.
There will be increases as well as
decreases in amplitude at
different points as we sweep in
time domain

Modal analysis
• The time data provides very useful information. But if we take
the time data and transform it to the frequency domain using
the Fast Fourier Transform then we can compute something
called the frequency response function.

we notice that these peaks occur at frequencies where the time response was
observed to have maximum response corresponding to the rate of oscillation of the
input excitation
we can either use the time trace to determine the frequency at which the maximum
amplitude increases occur or the frequency response function to determine where these
natural frequencies occur. Clearly one can understand the frequency response function is
easier to evaluate

Vibration Monitoring

.How many points needed for Vibration measurement.

Points needed… .

Points needed .

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Modal analysis .

Modal analysis .

SDOF system .

Contd… .

. the damping ratio is rarely larger than ten percent unless the system contains some active damping mechanisms.FRF For real world systems.

MDOF .

FRF_MDOF .

Residues .

. FRF. The FRF is actually a matrix of terms.Big picture It turns out that the adjoint matrix contains the modal vectors and we call this the Residue Matrix The determinant of [B(s)] contains the roots. or poles of the system. Well. [H(jω)]. this is the same basic information that is obtained from the analytical model Now another important relationship is the Frequency Response Function. This is the system transfer function evaluated along the jω axis.

particular output response at point 'i' due to an input force at point 'j' is called hij(jω) Remember that the FRFs can be generated from residues and poles. And that the residues are directly related to the mode shapes and the poles are the frequency and damping of the system .

Teaching Aid for CE 5265 19 .Gopikrishna.Complex exponential K.

Gopikrishna.Rational Fraction polynomial • This method applies the rational fraction polynomial expression directly to FRF measurement. Teaching Aid for CE 5265 20 . • Advantage is that it can be applied over any frequency range of data. and particularly in the vicinity of a resonance peak. K.

Gopikrishna. Teaching Aid for CE 5265 21 .K.

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Vibration Monitoring in Buildings Why do we instrument buildings .

Why do we instrument ?? Emergency response : A detailed real time hazard analysis Improvement in mathematical models: An instrumentation program should provide enough information to reconstruct the response of the structure in enough detail to compare with the response predicted by mathematical models and those observed in laboratories in urban environments Damage detection: Explain the reasons for any damage to structures Improve our understanding of the behavior and potential for damage in structures during catastrophes (dynamic loads of earthquakes etc.) Quantify the interaction of the soil and the structure: The nearby freefield and ground-level time history should be known in order to quantify the interaction of soil and structure) Determine the importance of nonlinear behavior on the overall and local response of the structure .

Follow the spreading nonlinear behavior throughout the structure as the response increases and determine the effect of this nonlinear behavior on the frequency and damping Correlate the damage with inelastic behavior Determine the ground-motion parameters that correlate well with building response damage Make recommendations to improve the building codes Facilitate decisions to retrofit/strengthen the structural system as well as securing the contents within the structures Determining the structural members and parts that have to be retrofitted in the structure Determine the maximum interstory drifts in the structure Providing an early warning system for traffic closure when the bridges are subjected to excessive wind loading Prediction of the behaviour of the buildings under future earthquakes by monitoring their behaviour under small magnitude earthquakes or ambient vibrations .

.Real time assessment of the performance level of the structure following catastrophic earthquakes and aftershocks.

Therefore. for seismic zones 3 and 4 a minimum of three accelerographs be placed in every building over six stories with an aggregate floor areas of 5500m2 or more in every building over ten stories regardless of the floor area As an example. the Uniform Building Code (UBC-1997 and prior editions). three horizontal accelerometers are required to define the horizontal motion of a floor (two translations and torsion) Rojahn and Matthiesen(1977) concluded that the predominant response of a high-rise building can be described by the participation of the first four modes of each of the three sets of modes (two translations and torsion).How to Instrument buildings in a seismically active area The most widely used code in the United States. a minimum of 12 accelerometers would be necessary to record these modes . recommends.

If vertical motion and rocking are expected to be significant and need to be recorded. at least three vertical accelerometers are required at the basement level. Diaphragm effects are best captured by adding sensors at thecenter of the diaphragm as well as the edges .

Steps for Instrumentation .

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Tests for Dynamic characteristics Although it is possible to obtain a satisfactory understanding of a structure's expected dynamic behavior by preliminary analytical studies. weights. and STRUDL) . a forced-vibration test is more difficult to perform. The required equipment (vibration generator with control consoles. and the test takes longer than the ambient vibration test State-of-the-art vibration generators do not necessarily have the capability to excite to resonance all significant modes of all structures (Çelebi and others. recorders. ANSYS. accelerometers.g. SAP2000. and cables) is heavier. an ambient-vibration and/or a forced vibration test on an existing structure can be performed to identify mode shapes and frequencies Ambient vibration tests can be performed efficiently using portable recorders at three to five locations that are expected (from analytical studies or other information) to have maximum amplitudes during the first three to four vibrational modes Compared to ambient-vibration test. with any one of the several tested computer programs available (e. 1987) A simplified finite-element model can be developed to obtain the elastic dynamic characteristics.

Installation of Instruments While developing the instrumentation scheme within the budgetary constraints. Most recording systems have maximum of 12 or 18 channels of recording capability. it is best to consider the maximum available channels for each recording system. .

General Guidelines for installation After an instrumentation scheme is developed and approximate sensor locations are chosen. routing of cables. This is important from viewpoint of longterm accessibility. placement of data cable runs. location of junction boxes and recording units . monitoring team and the owner's representative review the site to determine exact sensor locations and routing of cables satisfactory to both parties. potential interference with the occupant's space. and aesthetic requirements of the owner Figure exhibits a sample schematic showing locations of sensors.

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three measurements are needed and required to satisfy following conditions – The measurements have to be taken from two separate locations – The three measurement directions should not be parallel. the vibrations of the structure can be fully described by 3 translations and 3 rotations . the degrees of freedom are 2 translations and one rotation A typical example to such a structure is a multistorey building with shear walls and a rigid diaphragm In order to determine these two translations and one rotation.Sensor Locations The number of required sensors and sensor locations depend on the condition that whether 2 dimensional or 3 dimensional motions of the structure are going to be monitored In 2 dimensions. – The three measurement directions should not intersect each other In 3 D space.

The location you should search for is the one whose displacement has contributions from a maximum number of modes. – The 6 measurement directions should not be parallel. we need at least 6 measurements which have to satisfy the following conditions in order to solve for the 3 rotations and 3 translations from the dynamic equilibrium equations: – The measurements have to be taken at least from 3 separate locations. there is no reason to put a vertical sensor in the middle of floor slab. it would record only the local behavior of the floor slab. Even then.2009) .In such a structure. because that displacement can be dominated by a single mode. unless it has a huge span with no beams and columns to support it. – The measurement locations should not be on a straight line.2009). That way you can identify more modes (Şafak. Sensor locations should not be determined based on the locations of maximum displacements. – The 6 measurement directions should not intersect each other. which is more important when matching analytical models (Şafak. For typical multi-story buildings. if you put a sensor there you would only identify that mode. not the global behavior of structural system. That means.

For torsion. the more accurate the calculated torsion (i.e. the better the signal to noise ratio in the torsional signal) (Şafak.. the larger the distance between the two parallel horizontals.2009) Order of Placing the Sensor In general the order for placing sensors: • Roof • Ground floor • Basement • Any location where stiffness and/or mass changes significantly • Any location where the curvature of the deformed shape is expected to change .

4. The second group of sensors should be placed on the top of the foundations (in the ground floor or basement). 2.Sensor Locations The first group of sensors should be located on the roof of structures. . The rest of the sensors should be placed on locations where the amplitudes of the vibration modes of the structure are expected to be large 1. The third group of sensors should be placed at the locations where the rigidity and the mass of the structure change. 3.

Optimum Driving Point Based Method 3. Effective Independence Technique 2. Non-optimum driving point based method 4. 1.Driving point residue method . EFI.Optimal sensor placement • Decided based on following approaches.

All inspection procedures are recorded in the permanent station file at the laboratory . • As a final maintenance procedure. and charge rate (batteries are replaced every 3 years). load voltage.Maintenance This maintenance includes the following: 1. Remote calibration of period and damping. a calibration record is obtained and then examined for the desired characteristics. Inspection of battery terminals. Measurement of threshold of triggering system and length of recording cycle. 3. 2.

GPS Units .

References are given in next part of this lecture .