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M = F x d. The couple has only rotating effect on a body but no translation effect. 4. ΣFz = 0 ΣM x = 0. Composition of forces means add adding a given system of forces to get as equivalent single force giving the same effect as that of the system of forces. and it has both rotating effect as well as translation effect. A simply-supported supported beam is a determinate erminate structure and is just stable. d 3. A ffixed beam is an indeterminate structure and is more stable than a simply supported beam. Resolution of forces is reverse of composition. ΣM y = 0. Removal of any one reaction may cause its collapse. It develops moments at its supports and bends into double curvature. A simple supported beam develops only a single curvature while bending due to a un un-directional loads. diving a given force into two or more components along specified directions (such as cartesian x and yy-axes). It has same effect (moment) about eevery point in its plane. a moment is the turning effect of a single force about some point point. They may be opposite or in the same direction. one or more forces lie in different planes. ΣM z = 0 . (a) Coplanar forces lie in the same plane whereas in a non non-coplanar coplanar forces system. (b) Collinear forces are those forces whose lines of action coincide. In the fig. and it does not develop bending moments at the supports. 6.e. Whereas. For planar structures (2D). 2.Mid-sem sem Exam Solution to Engineering Mechanics (10B11CE211). the equations of equilibrium are: For space structures (3D). i... Failure of one reaction does not cause collapse of this beam. ΣFy = 0. the equations of equilibrium are: ΣFx = 0. below. 5. A couple is formed by a pair of two equal and opposite forces with some distance between them. March 2015 SECTION-A 1. Moment of a force changes as the point is dislocated. Moment of a force can be represented by area of a triangle whose base is the force itself and apex the point about which moment is to be taken.

These trusses are also known as perfect frames. Figure below gives the examples of three type of frames. m = 2j – 3 (for plane trusses) or m = 3j – 6 (for space trusses). Such trusses are also known as redundant frames and satisfy the relationship m > 2j – 3 (or m > 3j – 6 for space trusses). (b) Redundant frame. A truss having extra members than required for limiting stability is known as internally indeterminate truss and its degree of internal indeterminacy is given by the excess number of members. m < (2j – 3). The trusses with less members than required for stabilty are unstable trusses and are known as deficient frames. (a) Perfect frame. A truss is said to be internally determinate if it has just sufficient number of members required for stability. (c) Deficient frame .SECTION-B 1. For such frames. Such trusses satisfy the relationships.