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PROJECT

IN
HEALTH
8
Submitted by:
Christian Joeven T. Oruga
Gr/Sec: Grade 8- Milton

nicotine can act as either a stimulant or tranquilizer. reaching the brain in about 10 seconds and dispersing throughout the body in about 20seconds. rai ses the levels of fat in the blood. Tar is a sticky substance that forms into deposits in t he lungs. Nicotine.S. causing lung cancer andrespiratory distress. However. Carbon monoxide limi . Thiscan explain why some people report that smoking gives them energy and stimulates their mental activity. Smoke from a cigar ette. and increases the heartrate and flow of bloo d from the heart. Depending on the circumstances and the amount consumed. usually in a social situation or to relieve stress. he or she is ingesting a lotmore than nicotine. raises the blood pressure. pipe. Many health experts now regard habitual smoking as a psychological addictio n. andone with serious health consequences. and cigars. or cigar is made up of many additional toxic chemicals. the a ctive ingredient in tobacco.Submitted to: Ms. by itself. while o thersnote that smoking relieves anxiety and relaxes them. Casual sm oking isthe act of smoking only occasionally. increases the risk of heart disease. where most of it stays. when a perso n smokes. including t arand carbon monoxide. Food and Drug Administration has asserted that cigarettes and smo keless tobacco should be considerednicotine delivery devices. The initial "kick" r esults in part from the drug's stimulation of theadrenal glands and resulting r elease of epinephrine into the blood. Therest passes into the bloodstream. is inhaled into the lungs. Nicotine. pipes. Epinephrine causes several physiologic al changes—ittemporarily narrows the arteries. Some researchers think epinephrine contributes to smokers ' increased risk of highblood pressure. Elaine General Smoking Definition Smoking is the inhalation of smoke of burning tobacco encased in cigarettes. too. A smoking habit is a physicaladdiction to tobacco products. Description The U.

researchers think that genetic factors contributesubstantially to developing a smoking ha bit. It isn't kno wn how much nicotin e may b e consumed before th ebody becom es addict ed. once sm oking becom es a habi t. Although specific genes have not yet been identified as of 2003. Here's why sidestream smoke is more toxic than exhaled smoke: When a per son smokes. the smoke r faces a lifetime of he alth risks associated wi th one of the stronges t addictions known to man. About 70% of smokers in the United States would like to quit. That's why exposure to to bacco smoke is dangerous even for a nonsmoker. it may damage the inner walls of the arteries. cigar. which allows fat to build up in them. . or pip e. Besides tar. and carbon monoxide. But because lungs partially cleanse the smoke. Nons mokers who are exposed to tobacco smoke also take in these toxic chemicals . More than 200 of thesechemicals are known be toxic. e xhaledsmoke contains fewer poisonous chemicals. It is thought that some genetic variations affect the speed of nicotine me tabolism in the body and the activitylevel of nicotinic receptors in the brain.They inhale the smoke exhaled by the smoker as well as the more toxic side stream smoke—the smoke from the end ofthe burning cigarette. tobacco smoke contains 4.6% of thecountry's 47 million smokers quit success fully. in any given ye ar.000 di fferent chemicals. only about 3.ts the amount of oxygen that the red blood cells can convey throughout your body. nicotine. However . Causes and symptoms No one st arts smoking to becom e addicted t o nicotin e. the smoke he or she inhalesand then breathes out leaves harmf ul deposits inside the body. Also. Several twin studies have led to estimates of 46-84% heritability forsmok ing. however.

Because smoking affects so many of the body's systems. causing or contributing to the deaths of approximately430. and cardiovascular disease. turning th e othermolecules into free radicals and destabilizing the molecules in the bod y's cells. Smoking can damage fertility. chronicbronchitis. Studies reveal that the more a person smokes. and atherosclerosis (narrowing and h ardening of the arteries). If a smoker switches to a low-tarcigarette. Therisk of stroke is especially high in women who ta ke birth control pills.Smoking risks Smoking is recognized as the leading preventable cause of death. stroke. Though some people believe chewing tobacco is safer. There is some evidenc e thatsmoking may cause impotence in some men. cervical. making it harder to conceive. But even smo kers who indulge in the habit only occasionally are more prone to thesedisea ses.700 Americans each year. and emphysema. he is likely to inhale longer and more deeply to get the chemicals his body craves. Smoking is recognized as one of several factors that might be related to a hi gher risk of hip fractures in older adults. respiratory diseases such as emphysema. An yone with a smoking habit has an increased chance of lung. Some brands of cigarettes are advertised as "low tar. high blood pressure. and c hronic bronchitis. it also carries health ri sks. It accounts for an estimat ed 14% of premature births and 10% of infant deaths.such as heart attack. and oth er typesof cancer. smokers often have vitamin deficiencies and suffer oxidativedamage caused by free radicals. and it can interf ere with the growth of the fetus duringpregnancy. asthma. People who chew tobacco have anincreased risk of heart disease and mo ." but no cigarette is trul y safe. A smoker has to quit t hehabit entirely in order to improve his health and decrease the chance of di sease. Fre e radicals are molecules that steal electrons from other molecules. the more likely he is to sustai n illnesses such as cancer.

a sign of cancer o f the cervix. It helps to quit with afriend or to join a group such as those . wheezing. That's why it may be wise for a smoker to turn t o his physician for help. that brings up phlegm or blood—a sign of lung cancer. nausea. For the greatestsuccess in quitting and to help with t he withdrawal symptoms. loss of concentration. even though these smokers generally do not inhale as deeply as cigaret te smokers do. Smokers' symptoms Smokers are likely to exhibit a variety of symptoms that reveal the damage c aused by smoking. havean increased chance of many healt h problems such as lung cancer and asthma. Withdrawal symptoms A smoker who tries to quit may expect one or more of these withdrawal sym ptoms: nausea. Smoking also increases fatigue and decreases the smoker'ssense o f smell and taste. but there is evidence that they may be at a slightly lower risk ofcar diovascular problems but a higher risk of cancer and various types of circulat ory conditions. there will be warni ng signs. the smoker should talk over a treatment plan with hisdoctor or alternative practitioner. constipation or diarrhea. with c old hands and feet and prematurewrinkles. For instance. At other times. Treatment Research shows that most smokers who want to quit benefit from the suppor t of other people.uth and throat cancer. and in children. and irritability. such as br onchitis.drowsiness. i nsomnia. coronary artery disease may exhibit few or no symptoms. Sometimes the illnesses that result from smoking come on silently with little warning. He should have a general physical examination to gauge his general health anduncover any deficiencies. Other symptoms include shortness of breath. sudden infant death syndrome. Diagnosis It's not easy to quit smoking. such as bloody discharge from awoman's vagina. A nagging morningcough may be one sign of a tobacco h abit. headache. Recent research reveals that passive smokers. and frequentoccurrences of respiratory illness. Smokers are more likely to develop poor circulation. These groups haven't beenstudied as extensively as cigarette smokers. Pipe and cigar smokers have increased health risks as well. worse than the usual s moker'scough. Another warning sign is a hacking cough. or those who unavoidably bre athe in second-hand tobacco smoke. He s hould also have a thorough evaluation for some of the serious diseases that s moking cancause.

Its most common side effect is insomnia. the amount of gum the smoker chews is decreased and th e amountof time between applying the patches is increased. But there's one important caution: If the smoker lights up while taking a nicot ine replacement. and was originally developed as an antidepressant. These groups provide support and teach behavior modification methods that can help the smoker quit. anicotine overdose may cause serious health problems. which ca n alsoresult from nicotine withdrawal. It isn't known exactly how bupropion works tosuppress the desire for nicotine. nasal spra ys.satisfying the smoker's physical c raving. and oral inhalers. eventually beatinghis addiction to the drug. Other alternatives to help with the withdrawal symptoms of kicking the habit include nicotine replacement therapy in theform of gum. Aphysician can provide advice on how to use them.organized by the American Cancer Society. patches. These are available by prescription or over the counter. . The smo ker's physician can often refer him to suchgroups. Over time. This helps wean the smoker from nicotine slowly. The prescription drug Zyban (bupropion hydrochloride) has shown some succ ess in helping smokers quit. They slowly release a sm all amount of nicotine into the bloodstream. This drugcontains no nicotine. A five-year study of bupropion reported in 2003 that the drug has a very good record forsafety and effectiveness in trea ting tobacco dependence.

” But if a person consumes more than the body can handle. They start to feel “stupid” or lose coordination and control. Most people drink for thestimulant effect. There are different kinds of alcohol. the only alcohol used in beverages. coma or death from severe toxic overdose). disturbed perceptions and an inability to react quickly. is produced by the fermentation of grains and fruits. Alcohol overdose causes even more severe depressant effects (inability to feel pain. worse. it is best understood as a drug that reduces a person’s ability to think rationally and distorts his or her judgment. such as a beer or glass of wine taken to “loosen up. toxicity where the body vomits the poison. unsteady movement. It is classed as a depressant. and finally unconsciousness or. meaning that it slows down vital functions— resulting in slurred speech. creating alcohol. Fermenting is a chemical process whereby yeast acts upon certain ingredients in the food. Although classified as a depressant. These reactions depend on how much is consumed and how quickly. As for how it affects the mind. they then experience alcohol’s depressant effect. the amount of alcohol consumed determines the type of effect. Ethyl alcohol (ethanol).WHAT IS ALCOHOL? Alcohol is a drug. .

leaving the excess circulating throughout the body. Within minutes of drinking alcohol. . which eliminates the alcohol from the blood through a process called “metabolizing. such as beer and wine. Alcohol is also carried by the bloodstream to the liver. The usual alcohol content for each is: Beer 2–6% alcohol Cider 4–8% alcohol Wine 8–20% alcohol Tequila 40% alcohol Rum 40% or more alcohol Brandy 40% or more alcohol Gin 40–47% alcohol Whiskey 40–50% alcohol Vodka 40–50% alcohol Liqueurs 15–60% alcohol UNDERSTANDING HOW ALCOHOL AFFECTS THE BODY Alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream via small blood vessels in the walls of the stomach and small intestine. or liquor. slowing the action of nerve cells. Thus the intensity of the effect on the body is directly related to the amount consumed. Approximately 20% of alcohol is absorbed through the stomach. Most of the remaining 80% is absorbed through the small intestine. where it quickly produces its effects. contain from 2% alcohol to 20% alcohol. it travels from the stomach to the brain. contain from 40% to 50% or more alcohol. The liver can only metabolize a certain amount at a time. Distilled drinks.ALCOHOL CONTENT Fermented drinks.” where it is converted to a nontoxic substance.

hallucinates and loses touch with reality.’s) begins three to four days later where the person becomes extremely agitated. The delirium tremens (D. starting eight to twelve hours after the last drink. but a progression. WHAT IS ALCOHOLISM OR ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE? Alcohol dependence (alcoholism) consists of four symptoms:  Craving: a strong need. Serious dependence can lead to life-threatening withdrawal symptoms including convulsions. or compulsion. . shakes. sweating. such as nausea. Alcoholism is not a destination.T.  Physical dependence: withdrawal symptoms. a long road of deterioration in which life continuously worsens. occur when alcohol use is stopped after a period of heavy drinking.When the amount of alcohol in the blood exceeds a certain level.  Tolerance: the need to drink greater amounts of alcohol in order to get high. to drink. and can cause a coma or death.  Loss of control: the inability to limit one’s drinking on any given occasion. shakiness and anxiety. An increasingly heavy drinker often says he could stop whenever he chooses —he just never “chooses” to do so. the respiratory (breathing) system slows down markedly. because oxygen no longer reaches the brain.

It was the worst and longest nightmare. how was it possible I couldn’t quit.” —Jan . trying to figure out what happened to me.“I spent the next 8 years in and out of detox and hospitals.