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archive.Digitizedin by the Internet Archive 2010 with funding from Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School .

Fig. earlier stages shown on page 70. Cunningham. Fig. 4. earlier part of the fifth month. human embryo . Fig. J. left side view between the eighth and ninth month.) Plate showing stages in the development of the convolutions in the brain of the (after Professor D. i. about the seventh month. Fig. 3. 2. near the seventh month. right side view.

Asylums Eta CHICAGO.D.Libra*? of American Medical association Brain in Relation to Mind — BY — J. Formerly for the . 1899. SANDERSON CHRISTISON. M." of the New York City Insane. Etc. Author of "Crime and Criminals.

Entered according By J. . SANDERSON CHRISTISON. to Act of Congress in the year 1899.

This brochure is addressed to physicians and laymen. where a short glossary for lay readers will also be found. 1899. The numbers in the text point to references given at the end of the book. SANDERSON CHRISTISON. j. The plan of the work. Chicago. a right to must surely have view of the recent revival of the live. rather than present arguments. in the main.PREFACE. In the the best of references. . of brevity as an attractive fea- ture to a large class of lay readers. and thus a concise sufficient relevant facts to indicate the present status of our knowledge. some interesting deductions have been omitted. 100 State St. ciples are applied the to and has been to establish first chapter claims to cite facts these facts by some general prin- of materialism. July. especially in materialistic doctrine of mind. while the second and third chapters present a general outline of the development and functioning of the brain. especially in regard V and VI These I hope to to the data in Chapters point out in a psychological treatise. Com- paratively few physicians arid fewer laymen have a satisfactory view of the relationship of brain treatise to upon the subject containing mind. data having reference is the seat of the Owing to the theory that mind or is Chapter some part of the brain most subservient to the desirableness IV presents to thought activity.

— Theory of Mind Localization V. — Normal Mind I. 34 47 69 9 1 109 143 . — Supplement to Chapter iv. CHAPTER PAGE — General Consideration — Brain Cells and Their Relations —Theory of Sensory and Motor Centers IV. III. — Brain Form Relation Mind VI.TABLE OF CONTENTS. — Brain Size Relation Mind VII. " 7 II. in to in to - VIII.

or same ferent sides of the thing. for every mental state there being a correlative nervous two things occur in state. (r) Although the parallelism. here an supposed to produce physical effects. Hughlings Jackson as follows: First. GENERAL CONSIDERATION. there (7) is no inter- ." Third. The three principal doctrines of brain in relation by Dr. ' 'That activities of the highest centers and mental states are one and the same thing. to mind. dif- This doctrine has been destroyed. "That mind acts through the nervous system (through the highest centers immaterial agency is first) . mously "(a) states of States of consciousness (synony- mind) are utterly different from nervous states of the highest centers." Second. (/>) The two things occur together. are given J.CHAPTER I.

recent utterances go to show. view as follows: "The Edinburg. Says Clodd: "If mind of brain. Her- man. Tyndall. it seems to more assertiveness than ever. describes functions of the brain are receptive. Laycock. retentive or connective and executive. but it would ordi- also maintain the equilibrium which a dose of narcotics or of alcohol. DuBois Raymond. Dr.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. 8 Hence we do not ference the one with the other. Jackson holds the last theory. Bain. say that psychical states are functions of the brain. Notwithstanding the correctness of Dr. Huxley. but simply that they occur during the functioning of the brain. (i). Clifford. Just as the functions of the stomach are the . Hamilton. Spencer. Jackson's statement that the materialistic doctrine of mind has been destroyed. or which starvation and gorging alike rapidly upset" (2). etc. it is be reviving with as the following an entity independent would not only stand outside the nary conditions of development. Max Mueller." Dr. and observes that an essentially similar theory was held by Mill. Morison in a lecture last year before the Royal College his of Physicians. A.

New York. and the more complex the thought or more varied be the number development" its manifestations. combined and coordinated action of certain groups of cortical nerve the cells. it we know cell.GENERAL CONSIDERATION. more that one and we know that alterations in the quality or quantity of the blood circulating physiological Thought is in the liver activities of cause changes such a a manifestation of the in the hepatic cell. depends upon the example of its if we groups of ''Physiologically does or by what it take a liver functions to is "It declares: that the basis of the phe- activities of certain cells or or less correlated. the higher brain receives and inwardly digests im- them pressions and transmutes tary." (3). emotional. Luys accounts for memory as follows: (the brain cells) are gifted with a sort "These of organic phosphorescence and are capable of vibrating and storing up external impressions. cells we judge produce bile. regulative into action. a For produces. 9 digestion and transmission of food. so reception. the greater will required for of cortical cells its (4). is beyond controversy nomenon which we call cell by what thought. volun- and trophic" The Medical Record. " ' 'They act simul- .

inconceivable that anything which is in it not condi- tioned by these two universal essentials of matter can in any way have been derived from matter. in its It memory. hand if we we compare cell see on the one that all cell products are sooner or later dis- . propose to briefly discuss the subject under memory and the terms of thought.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. conditioned by time and space. expect to recognize a parallelism or an- alogy either in the development of events or in the conditions of results. using memory ordinary sense. Thus.and exist in them another. But products with mental factors. the if mind was a product same sense we would as bile is of brain cells a product of liver in cells. no analogy. otherwise there could be no illustration. so that a product must in the nature of common is with matter all its is origin it. luminous waves they have stored up in their substance" I of reminiscences as illuminated off the off phenomena may be laid down as a general principle that the essential qualities in a cause must also enter into its results . IO taneously to produce the and separately give bodies give (5). It in one way or some way reveal by exhibiting something follows therefore as that.

such a exist. It is thus evident that the tests of time and space — the two ever present and essential conditions of matter and energy — do not (change and tangibility) apply to the contents of mind. everything being retained to the power mote and for acquiring more.GENERAL CONSIDERATION." deposit. mind was a mere memory in the could not cell product. in one the the permanent but intangible. We insignificant experiences to know that remay return to consciousness after an interval during which the brain may have changed great is its matter many blood supply and so active times. to assume that reminiscences emanate . Again. I I charged and destroyed. every so- "memory im- age" or sort of boxed impress would stand outside the physical economy if it did not share in the dissi- pation produced by the ceaseless chemic changes required by the organic law of supply and de- mand. while on the other hand see that the contents of mind are permanent add acquisitions. for while we have the other case we have case Indeed. for called "phosphorescent. and add nothing to the power we of forming more. thing as if transient and tangible. so its is meta- bolism.

mind is. the results altations or depressions. special. or in it.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. would imply the existence entity beyond the of an elaborating The same brain. In fact. true in is supposing that sensory impressions upon the remained like dents upon a phonographic a creating the necessity for outside agency to gencies of life. in some create reactions. being a double organ. controlling. concerting cylinder. make them respond Indeed. contents. or the existent from the non-existent. as unless there existed a unifying entity ating. some kind i. to the exi- unit. a elabor- metaphys- brain matter was the source of the ideational process. from the incoor- the living from the dead. While sensory impressions doubtless way affect brain thus produce in the cells. .e. its cell —an necessity. produce a cells any way the basis of the destruction of any portion would result in some form of mental blank enduring for the coordinate cannot arise dinate any more than forever. 12 from wave-like radiations to a coordinating cells in point. how could subtle energies from by radiating ical power? — and. the. and of result or modified state we have no reason to assume that are anything more than functional ex- cells. if by brain. for the brain can have a .

of brain while so far as facts. as chapter iv. sensory and motor. that cells enter into the fact of congenitally fettered. is But complexity of thought ent are minds with small brains and common minds with large brains? lic we cells in sage And how dergarten and the senate. The theory that complexity of thought the activity of a corresponding number cells needs the support of know brain both structurally and numerically alike lowly peoples — the savage and the find great idiocy is the mind in The not a pertinent that state high and — the kin- often do we upon the nature.GENERAL CONSIDERATION. for while that necessity develops function we may also say in much the same . as so evidently depend- is relating of ideas not certain that brain it is problem at all. For time of greatest microcepha- illustration number and directed to a purpose. as many difficult strongly suggests. It is a biologic is overlooked by axiom that function precedes organization. here. I 3 conditioning and sympathetic influence only as a medium of action. Another obvious principle materialists. we know. microcephales) (excepting requires all problems are solved unconsciously. sleep may be our mental activity. and multitudes of daily cares are nightly adjusted.

that the state of the or rather by reacting one conditions something master and servant. To mind and brain so evidently a certain extent. follows that something of a mind must it exist before a brain can be formed. materialistic theory of mind child of the current evolution idea.A BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. to conceive of mind existing apart from a vironment The is of per- fitting en- a very different thing. for it we know them simply due to their habit nevertheless a fact that per- is sonalities stand apart that is mind ex- of from physical features and best are associated the least. I we sense. of thought. develop along parallel lines. as That some thinkers cannot conceive isting apart from brain. for only the pre- in Thus existing can be the cause of a necessity. having a plan the abstract. when somatic Do we not conditions distinguish between the lovable personality and the repulsive form. that is say the mother of invention. is a natural the greatest . while we find criminal tractive features? characters with at- While the association sonality with brain or body is simply a habit. of the action of the other. steps. it is it evident that the use of means to a given end implies the pre-existence of a specific potentiality.

It patch work and suggestion. but it 5 it is We absolutely incompatible with law and order. but are Nor can they with their properties. Thus development is the intrinsic law of which with the extrinsic complement (environ- ment) gives extension and expansion along by the of affinity limited life. by facts far But such a view more fundamental in is as signs contradicted character. or else chaos would tial in plan result. are not separable from them. which is a reductio ad absurdum. and which the so-called "stygmataof degeneracy" are regarded and symptoms. observe that laws of nature are immutable. Vir- . and more mysteries than is I a product of not only creates it can seem to solve. lines specific character of the entity. All entities are therefore immutable laws. The theory twin to evolution atavism. delusion of the 19th century. e.GENERAL CONSIDERATION. i. is which implies a reversion to an organic state level with a lower biologic type. trinsic properties unless y characteristics or affinity unalterable in essential qualities. is it is as identical lose their in- also a law that laws are not necessarily immutable. and thus whatever must be poten- specific in character.

it (see have life filled in And 84). 1 chow and others have shown that individuals with ape-like brains are not only destitute of the mental characteristics of the ape. it is ir- not because the one group of facts are expressive of the other. day In Thus it is that in every- mental and moral qualities are seen to have no regular relationship to anatomical features. as the Malay. (see had. While physical defects and deformities are mostly found where we mostly find mental and moral regularities. the psychic either increased or reduced while the physical forms remain. Mongolian. has been observed that among feeble-minded It children there are types which resemble foreign races. the busi- the ordinary either destitute of a corpus callosum page 65) or brain page little is more than evident half a' that external features are not necessarily of fundamental signifi- cance. but possess every characteristic of the when we human mind (see find that individuals ness and social functions of who were way. but page 62).6 BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. post-natal or extended environment. as they also do elsewhere. Negro and North . but simply because psychic and somatic evils usually co-exist in prenatal environment. evils may be life.

we simply mean to imply that without a morbid physiologic state the particular thoughts or acts would not have arisen under the given circumstances. to and also means and that skill rather than the nature of maladies. not the case. while form of delinquency is we traceable to a moral cause in its last analysis. American among But the same Indian. even inferior in civilization which we know When we is we if in believed that races were also biologically lower. which incurable dem- of ideational substitution over morbid habits and physiologic the term present an relates states. so to speak. One suggestion more.GENERAL CONSIDERATION. either as to first recognize that every an egotistic rebellion principles or a traduction by personal in- fluences. Indeed resem- York. \J may be observed the ordinary population in London or New any large crowd. or even in blances to such types are too frequently observable among our best citizens to suggest atavism humbler people. The remarkable results in tained by home and foreign array of "clinical" onstrate the power facts. speak of disease as causing mental or moral obliquity. It is axiomatic that the . character change obmissions. operating directly or indirectly.

the and plan of creation. delusion.8 BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. nor the co-equal. The is Yet men demand lesser does the co-ordinate to know. 1 origin. misconduct into mis- and the moral aspect of life into a stupid . plan and purpose of anything cannot be comprehended by an than the character of intelligence of a lower level its cause. and some men even declare they do know. into fatalism. not comprehend the greater. Such egotism carries presumptions the elements of by turning hope fortune. its own origin in its destruction.

the sympathetic. and those organs which are not directly connected with the (19) . the heart of the alimentary canal receive nerves directly from it. circulation. to The viz: the cerebro-spinal and cerebro-spinal system has do with the receptive and expressive functions — those of life requirements. also the and the upper and lower parts the lungs. BRAIN CELLS AND THEIR RELATIONS.CHAPTER II. The nervous matter of the body is arranged in ganglia (cell-groups) cords and plexuses (networks) forming two systems. secretion. distributed to the the sympathetic cerebro-spinal But some organs connected with system come directly from system. elimination nerves and reproduction. most viz: w hile T directly subservient to the sensory organs and voluntary the sympathetic system diate charge of mind the functions is in imme- performed by the organs of digestion. muscles. respiration.

in except the skin and fails to affect conscious- an abnormal condition. to distinguish between the sensory and the secretory-motor fibers within the glandular organs all organs in the (i). Thus it is evi- dent that the division of the two great systems of nerves The is not at all points distinct.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. stimulation ness. consciousness by a sense of pain (2). while. but also a portion of the sympathetic system. normal state. the other hand. but in is affected according to Foster. have a close affinity with fibers tem (Quain) and it from the sympathetic sys- seems impossible. tem of nerves pairs. although most of the fibers of the sympathetic system connect with the brain as constituents of the roots of certain of the cerebrospinal nerves and thus they have only an indirect connection with the brain. at the The cerebro-spinal sys- comprises a series of symmetrical twelve of which issue from separate apertures base of the skull and are known as cranial . even with the aid of the microscope. brain not only comprises the central ganglia of the cerebro-spinal system. nervous system. 20 cerebro-spinal system receive fibers derived origin- from ally On it through their sympathetic plexuses. some of the nerves arising from the cerebro-spinal system within the brain.

thick- ness of the cortex varies at different locations and points. the deepest of which serve to divide the brain into lobes. mouth. face. at their points of peculiar formation of to the brain into convolutions or gyri. which form the more or less deep infolds or fissures. while the remaining thirty pairs of nerves below the successive segments issue all of the spinal column. in what known in the visual is is its the summit of commonly as the sensory-motor area. is not while areas at the back of the brain the cor- the thinnest it is also the densest While minute but very lymphatic canals exist in (3). and especially at the the pre-central convolution. which entirely surrounds its hemispheres except Owing union. 1. to The of the head.BRAIN CELLS AND THEIR RELATIONS. the cortex only the thickest. ranging from front of the brain. but tex Toward cells are the largest. etc. 2 of below these make their and the atlas the skull bone.5 to 4 mm. elastic blood-vessels and great abundance within . pair next between the base exit I do with the special senses and the numerous muscles throat. They have nerves. The is its part of the brain which has been most studied gray-matter covering or cortex. only about one- The third of the cortex appears externally.

Fig. Sub-fty. of the i. zone. PI. PI. Sub-molecular plexus. the of which is number variously estimated at from three to . Subm. or less orderly arrangement of layers. PL Py- Snb-py. c. M. and in the deeper part two "short pyramidal cells" are also shown). PI. Stratum of ambiguous cells (three are shown). Subm. — Microscopic view of a vertical section showing the ambiguous and long pyramidal cells and the nervo-protoplasmic plexuses belonging to them. M. Deep stratum of long pyramidal cells (four are shown. str. z. str. 22 the cortex. Clear Molecular nervo-protoplasmic plexus.z. A. (From Andriezen) human cortex. PL A. its constituents of chief interest are the forms which are stationed cells of various in a more c. Sub- pyramidal plexus (of which the upper half is only shown).BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. Py.

10. 6. Polymorphic cell. is the Von common forms 23 usually imputed. 12. while five While Golgi. cells. Protoplasmic neurogliar cell attached to an artery. 9. Small pyramidal 11. Spider cell. 7. Goltz. eight.BRAIN CELLS AND THEIR RELATIONS. 2. cells. (After various ) other investigators agree that parts of the cortex having different functions show throughout essen- . human 2. be sensory). 3. Koelliker and most of the cells in the cortex of the Tangenital nerve-fibers at the surface of the cortex. 8. 5 Forms of motor 4. Glia Granular cell of first layer. Nerve-fiber from white matter (supposed to Pyramidal nerve-cells (motor). — Showing brain. 1. Spindle cell. the number Cajal. Fig. Fusiform nerve-cell. observers cell.

spider. the large spindle cell of Branca in the gyrus fornicatus. is usually the largest.. The all is said to be (4). As many may grow from growing of these grow in the direc- dendrons have at acute angles to tiny bud-like processes these tree-like branches are supposed to points of contact cells. many branches. and a upon be the and communication with other to generate or receive energy or impulses from surrounding matter. spindle. Flechsig asserts found a form of cell peculiar to he has one location. their forms. owing to the commonest cell-body or bulb. 24 same the tially structure. From a point in the cell-body. called the pyramidal form of its sometimes cell. according to neurogliar. which the main stem. molecular and granular. the chief one Some tion of the surface. A microscopic view of a cross-section of the cor- tex reveals what much resembles rooted shrubs winter bud. viz.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. usually opposite the main dendron. there projects at least one pro- . and associated with in a forest of up- other forms of cells variously named. which visible to the naked eye as twenty processes or dendrons single cell-body. The is shrub-like which cell.

but of the dendrons. vital centre. which associ- . while the main stem passes into the white substance of onward the brain and to a near-by or within the brain or spinal cord. while the cell-body bodies. 25 cess or neuron which also gives off branches. but fewer and at right angles to the main stem. it quity. to remain the pleteness The this struc- in or at the buds cell-body. development it is Because of supposed that impulses do not originate in the cell-body. remote point more that of propin- ends to form to be a cylindric rod. for these what appears 3 is them than two offshoots join cell- parent to both eventually sustains no structural relationship to Fig These neurons are But. The cell in its seems com- — bulb. the first processes which develop from the dendron and neuron. neurons and dendrons — appears to constitute an isolated anatomic unit.) many as fifty fibrils (19) which pass through the cell- body without tural interruption.BRAIN CELLS AND THEIR RELATIONS. containing as — Section of nerve-fibers showing the tubular appearance of the fibrils of the axis-cylinder (after Schiiefer. however.

4 — Diagram of sympathetic ganglion-cell (Retzius). one daughter cell remaining as the germinal cell. the cortical cells have begun to appear as minute spheric objects. although its dendrons may extend and of the cortex. while the other migrates to a fully fledged nerve-cell (5). These cells rapidly divide. Within the first month embryonic develop- of ment. and while the brain resembles a distorted tube with here and there a bulge. but gradually increase in size from 1 to They do not puberty or after. 26 ates but does not fuse with other cells or fibers. its neurons as to the surface far as the lumbar region of the spinal cord. after which the cells seem- ingly cease to multiply. each of which develops a nucleus which contains one or two minuter bodies or nucleoli. become This process goes on for about two months. Fig. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CELL. at their base -^y of an .BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. when 500 times or more growth obtain their full the largest may measure until (6).

1 cubic mm. 5— Sensory as afferent and and motor brain-cells — showing their interrelation efferent neurons to the cortex. but generally from ten to twenty.BRAIN CELLS AND THEIR RELATIONS. Neurons Fig. inch diameter and four or in length. diameter from in 1 The number 5 a 1. according to the idea of Cajal. which 2 /x at birth to 7 or 8 m. while its five 27 times more in neurons and dendrons have made proportional gain in length and thickness. o. . or more than three and a half billions in a brain. one-tenth its total weight and constituting about (5). measure become at maturity 10 to ively for the largest (7).2 or respect- of cells in varies from five or six to ninety.

while the lifetime of an individual cell may be as But life at their extremities. posed and most have sheathed fibers are ex- all seem never cells to develop beyond their stage. thus either a rapid proliferation or a rapid undeveloped cells. has lately some mature lower animals (9). or at least very hypothetically capable of proliferation However. ''all life of the person. while the " fungus" growths following injuries of the brain contain brain tissues (10). that cells can only pro- . proliferation been observed in of brain-cells " (8). of the fibers of the the other until regarded have no sheaths. for cells destined for the highest animal functions prove sterile. Some fibers of the sympathetic system do not functionate they possess a sheath. 28 The neurons and dendrons gradually become veloped in a fine medullary sheath which as both insulating and nutritive in Only a small proportion hand very few of the nerve-fibers of the sympa- system have any sheaths whatever. while on cerebro-spinal system thetic its is en- co-extensive with the Virchow observes. and some do not have a sheath until late in middle none even then. as well as a pathologic law. Some first functions.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. for it is showing maturing of a recognized histologic.

is of yellow In pigment is supposed to represent This pigment and imbeciles. brain-cells are very elastic pressure. . Hammond.BRAIX CELLS AND THEIR RELATIONS. 20. duce tion cells which are identic with them and function The and break their bulbs a small bygone functional in idiots is amount activity. with a speed. the ingredients of the brain are stituted more numerous. From a chemic point of view. rate of ten per to resistant to their processes (4). hundred different It than those of any contains more than three chemic constituents. more and more diversified other organ or system. according 100 to 120 feet per second for of motor nerves and about 24 feet per second for vis- ceral nerves. and those peculiar to the brain are bility in intricately con- endowed with great sta- a chemic sense and with great sensitiveness to reacting influences from without (12). and which body and requiring considerable force to destroy their contour absent in constitu- (8). The composed is usually rest of the cell- of granular matter surrounding Brain-cells discharge impulses at the the nucleus. while all nerves are capable of con- ducting impulses in either direction. second (n). CHEMIC COMPOSITION. normally found.

that they were devoid It has been thought of nerve-fibers. and said that it In when its can maintain three of topsies its its inde- functional activity even four arteries are obliterated. a greatly reduced circulation of blood has sufficed to maintain the requirements of the brain for ordinary purposes. VASCULAR SUPPLY OF THE CORTEX. ash. water and 1. water and white matter there in age gray matter specific gravity of white matter 104 1 aver- 1034 and for In the insane the average (13).7 per cent. or a trifle (3). 1 is for white matter the as normal. (thirty cases all kinds) is only is The 70 per cent. while is 85 per cent. 30 In gray matter there per cent. but that has been disproved by Oberstiner. upon cases of it is Au- sudden death not infrequently disclose the fact that owing to obstructive organic disease of the heart. supply of blood-vessels the cortex is pendent of the other parts of the brain.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. but for gray matter heavier than in the sane it is same 1037. It has also been observed that other arteries of the body are calcified (14) and when the by disease the arteries of the brain remain soft and yielding . Unlike other arteries of the body the arteries of the brain rarely fuse together. Morison others. ash.

at which time it . for males therefore. constitute about onefourth of the entire brain mass (5). The (15). which.— Alcoholic degeneration in posi- of the cortical nerve-cells— various stages. which are supported 6.1 BRAIN CELLS AND THEIR RELATIONS. of 340 gm. 12 per cent. but serve as an elastic padding to the cells Fig. one-fourth weighs about its for females. vast number 3 of small blood-vessels capillaries within the brain not only afford it and a liberal supply of nutriment. and fibers. tion by an abundance of connective fine tissue. GROWTH AND DECLINE OF THE At birth the brain the whole body or an average and 330 gm. BRAIN. with the blood-vessels. nearly maturity. size at It of is.

These children were from the According poor of London. 32 weighs only about During the per cent.. the case of eminent men it shows a rise ordinarily rise until the until 65 years of age. the brain 7) when it its growth makes a pause again makes a rise. Robert Boyd found that the brains boys between the ages of 4 and 7 weighed on an average 12 14 gm. and about the same for girls. of only 1265 ( 1 is to Fuchs and Vulpius. (16) Dr.) After birth the most active period of brain growth is during the first four years. of the whole body.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. until Donaldson has pointed out that the curve for brain weight while in shows a age of 55 years. At this stage but little else than .. when it begins to decline (18. at which stage puberty. while girls be- tween the same years gave an average brain weight gm. of but boys between 7 and 14 years of age gave an average brain weight of 14 10 gm. 2 nine months after birth the brain first gains about one-third eighth or ninth year its it whole increase and by the has attained nearly its full growth. not fully organized until 7 or 8 years of age." as Virchow long since termed it when its brain structure was much less known than now. The babe at birth is physiologically but little more than a "spinal thing.

in is of the fibers are substituted by connective In senile dementia the spider cells increase number. the fibers for vision month third organize. while they atrophy. become heavily pigmented. and many tissue. In old age the structures. suffers the least from disease. 33 the spinal cord and medulla contain perfected nerve- which gradually extend upward to meet those fibers. Its it also reparative and adaptive powers are greatest before the cells and fibers are fully formed. deaths from nerv- ous diseases (excluding infant eclampsia) are only 7 per cent. fibers may - . According to Althus. to Flech- those from the bodily-sense area of the cortex appear first and are followed by the appearance A fibers for the sense of smell. unite and new when broken fibers develop. sig. According developing from the cortex. evident that while in health it suffers the organs from a general starvation.. In adults the increase of the brain growth of the cortical cells. the and the other related cells due to the embryonic cells.BRAIN CELLS AND THEIR RELATIONS. month or so of later and by about the after birth the fibers for the sense of hearing and volitional acts begin to mature. and a large proportion of these are primarily due Thus it is least of all to diseases of the blood-vessels.

From the cells of the cortex fibers are distributed in all directions. which clasp hands. Some go another part of the cortex but a short distance to in the while others extend farther on. Some cross over (through the corpus callosum) to the cortex of the opposite hemisphere. where they end in twiglets do not unite). Only about one-third of the cortex of the brain (34) . e. so to speak (but with other twiglets from nerve cells in the spinal cord. while other fibers pass into lower ganglia or onward to cross over to the opposite side below the medulla from whence they ex- tend to points within the spinal cord. From these spinal cells other nerve-fibers arise which extend to the various organs of the body — the skin. glands. etc.CHAPTER III. muscles. THEORY OF SENSORY AND MOTOR CENTERS. same hemisphere. the visual sphere of one side connecting with the auditory of and other spheres the opposite side.g..

remaining. . 11 fibers The muscle (after Edinger). have therefore been supposed to be more especially subservient to intellectual operations. which conduct the impulses — Motor nerve-cell connecting with the muscles.two-thirds or so-called silent areas " of the brain. and those Fig. areas spond to which do not to experimental stimulations. 1.THEORY OF SENSORY AND MOTOR CENTERS. the bodily-sense fibers as described by Flechsig. seems 35 to be in direct relation with the nerve tracts which cover the excitations of the periphery of the body. or re- which pro- duce no special motor or sensory disturbances when damaged.

as well as in their order of development. or at the time of birth. according to complete organization within to first thirst. '* Last of silent areas " all to organize are the so-called which even three months after birth . 36 " association The " bands of fibers vary in size and functional service. Those connected with the sense bodily needs (hunger. etc. the brain. 2. the nerve-fibers for vision begin it is another month before the or- ganization of the fibers for the sense of hearing takes place. Flechsig.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. while those connected with the special sense of smell develop By a month more to mature.) are. while later. the Fig. of — Indicating Flechsig's localization of brain centers.

directly or indirectly. of the brain are of ingress and egress seems that damage affects to the brain mental action way according to jr not the cells involved. the area of bodily sensa- much richer in association bands than are tion is the other sensory organs. According to Flechsig. undeveloped cells and and ex- process as in active is still year late as the thirty-ninth (2). while millions of (3). fibers exist in old age (4). to the outer surface and base of the temporal lobe. While the various areas as but all its in location a it sometimes more or more or less sud- less special and extent and whether and the association fibers are both . It sends out numerous long bands of fibers into the middle of the great one especially a large association centre.THEORY OF SENSORY AND MOTOR CENTERS. espe- cially those originating in the first layer tending parallel with it. den others development. regarded to the gen- every part of which has a wide range of association. Flechsig says this by its late band is distinguished from highways eral cortex. 2>7 possess but few axis cylinders or sheathed fibers But the development of fibers in the cortex. is a sensory-motor and was formerly designated the " motor area. area It " by experimentalists.

or rather of which are classed as aphasias. times seem to be due to localized affections of the sense centers or their connections.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. ideas. 38 The memory. Such p IG localized 3 —Showing affections. fibers are affected. the result may be "mind-blind- . the anatomical however. some peculiar affections of recollection. producing an uncompensated loss of an established and special physiologic correlate to a subtle mental process. and thus cause a confusion of words and but otherwise the conduct of the subject may But if the visual "association" remain normal. damage inhibits For ex- to the cells of a visual area may produce inability to recognize familiar objects by name. ample. can only be and hypothetical brain centers (8) causative through a peculiar suggestive influence which in a negative or sub-conscious way ideational associations along special lines.

(5) loss of sight. Indeed. (6) loss of But these phenomena seem (3) diseased. Fig. may loss of speech.. manner damage to the speech inability to recognize the inability to express words. smell.THEORY OF SENSORY AND MOTOR CENTERS. when mind-blindness. inhibition. center may produce damage meaning of words heard. the (2) brain which. ness. "mind-deafness" or the may In like result. cause (4) 4. ' the cells of the auditory area are injured percep- tive may result. viz. and "word-deafness" if their "asso- ciation" fibers are involved. while to the sense area for smell may pervert or abolish the faculty for smelling. — Showing (1) loss of areas of power mind-deafness. to write. to have much the same psycho-physiologic explanation as do halluci- nations. so subtle in their operation . or perversion along special memory lines or associating qualities of ideas with perversion or destruction of their correlated sense organs. If 39 or the inability to recognize familiar objects.

For example. as in the case most natural and earliest es- tablished habits persist the longest with the subject. as they repre- sent the simplest kind of order and space atic is natural relationship in — an evolutionary order or system- proportion of one quality. All mental defects whatever are correlative to abnormal or inefficient brain-cell reaction while. of insanity proper. the may have been speak- Thus. a person may be able write numerals to some to speak and extent. many years they ing English most of the time. because numerals are associated by the stronger law (so to speak).BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. whereas the alphabet an artificial A common association of differing qualities. brain-cells can not in any on way hold . while others next them may be space may be signs in time or entirely forgotten for the time being. while he has forgot- ten the alphabet. the other hand. 40 mind are the laws of the that through perverting conditions certain groups of memory remembered. and suggestive illustration of the perverting influence of the brain upon the less natural or later acquired habits of in the proneness of many to revert to their native in intoxicating although for mind is observable foreign-born Americans language when indulging drinks in English-speaking company.

the preced- was not a constant chemic change going on within them. memory images as every or sensory impressions of any kind. whether exalted or de- . new impression must destroy even ing. Defective functioning of the brain-cells ex- - is pressed by sensory. Illusions have the particular factor of expectancy. reducing the vital en- ergy below what is required for effective attention or the proper association of related ideas. conscious or subconscious. As abnormal conditions of the cells connected with the special senses necessarily deliver tric ends wrong impressions in the brain. the result misinterpretation or hallucination. motor and intellectual irregularities or inefficiencies. Delusions are due to a more or less general in- efficiency of the brain-cells. espe- those belonging to the order of Atropa- can produce aphasias and insanity. while the character of the delusions. if there caea. cially 4 Certain toxic drugs.1 THEORY OF SENSORY AND MOTOR CENTERS. but which be corrected inefficient to if is a may the brain-cells in general are not too preclude the requisite amount of atten- tion (reasoning) to secure the correction. in reference to a particular external object. must at their cen- and thus discharge a wrong suggestive influence on the mind.

and on the inner side is the optic thalamus. All bodily organs have their special suggestive influence upon the mind . — Horizontal section through the brain (after Edinger) showing some of the ganglia and the internal capsule through which the sensory-motor fibers from the cortex pass on their way downwards. On the outer side of the internal capsule is the corpus striatum.S Fig. will particular bodily organs (especially the glands) 7\Afu. 5. the relation of most perverted in function. 42 depend not only upon the character and environment of the subject but also upon those pressed.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND.

soldiers few minutes at a live for twenty five days endurance with- Some persons. The brain requires regular sleep and food. since the brain itself exhibits no sex characteristics whatever. insanities — of digestion. moral and emotional qual- very different proportions. great difference in the personalities of the two sexes. a fact the observation that its which is sexes exhibit intellectual. Man's live for a more than limit of estimated at ten days. secre- Idiopathic insanity or toxic have no other pathology distinctive ex- cept in their final stages. can not without sleep out sleep is (4). Dogs. among normal individuals. and nurses. must be due to differences in the functional character of their end-organs outside the brain. can sleep time and awaken at any . either in in harmony with common normal types of both cells or architecture. in ities Indeed. which can days without food.THEORY OF SENSORY AND MOTOR CENTERS. the cause and treatment of insanity are as a rule chiefly matters of glandular concern tion and elimination. especially seamen. but especially sleep. for in this way they constantly influence our feelings so that by normal and harmonious action the sense their of well-being The is experienced. through their neural centers 43 in the brain.

for in sound. the demand being constant but fluctuating. Before a great event with great anxiety. thus breaking contact. but their power to must correspond with ciency. tion of the is thought to be due to a retrac- dendron buds. As yet but little is known of the corpus striatum. sleep comes. 44 irregular hour desired. The ed as reservoirs of react brain-cells can not be regard- vital energy. their energizing effi- dependent upon nutrition as occasions de- mand. and has been it to be so intense that a foot has known been burnt to a cinder without realization of the fact until after- ward Sleep (5). be due simply less exhaustion of the cells having an inherent demand for the restoration of their reacting power.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. and so interrupting or enfeebling the circuits of vitality between motor and sensory action is caused by an overloading of waste matter resulting from fatigue is quite unlikely. BASAL GANGLIA. sleep would rather seem more or to activity. normal sleep the circulation volume and tion of is force. the optic thalamus and the corpus quadrigeminum e Lesions of the corpus striatum produce paralysis of . indicating a greatly reduced in corresponding reduc- metabolism and general functional Normal to the That such an cells.

lesions of the optic thalamus produce loss or Fig 6 — Diagram illustrating the general plan of distribution of the nerve fibers of the brain to the spinal cord and between the hemispheres and parts thereof. (3) optic thalamus. sensory-motor fibers passing through the of the opposite side believes every part of of the it is con- .THEORY OF SENSORY AND MOTOR CENTERS. spinal cord. impaired sensation body Monokow (6). (5) claustrum. (7) pons. (9) (6) from the cortex of the brain to the spinal cord. internal capsule (8) medulla. (2) corpus callosum. the opposite side of the 45 body without mental symp- toms. (4) corpus striatum.

and accord- contains numerous in the brains of cell lower animals. 46 nected with some part of the cortex ing to the same authority bundles not found it (7). Lesions of the corpus quadrigeminum commonly produce blindness.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. and of of it produce movement. Sterling and Landois regard as a coordinating center. as functionally mains Each ed. side. Lesions defects of muscular it its contain numer- regarded as internodes. which are peculiar to the human brain. while sensation instinct half controls and re- intellect are unaffect- mainly the muscles of The pons and medulla ous gray-matter bodies some The cerebellum appears homogeneous. own intact. .

THEORY OF MIND LOCALIZATION. left frontal says Dr. Taylor: "When saw him the whole impression was that clear-headed vigorous but neurasthenic.CHAPTER IV. 36 years of age. But that such conditions are neither peculiar to diseases of the frontal lobes nor necessarily connected with them. most subservient of the brain development is to in- yet a matter of specula- although the frontal lobes have been regarded by many some way as being in the psychic center. W. Disease of these lobes has been charged with causing intellectual perversions. can be clearly shown. Taylor reports a man. few days before his a responsible position. character debasements and even delusions of grandeur. Dr. last and yet. The region tellectual tion. and (47 lobe ) death making . E. he was filling A man I of a of exceptional intellect. with extensive destruction of the of the brain.

" Fig. and possession of his mental faculties. his left his in to the Shaded area indicates the Disease extended through corpus callosum. peculiarities had . afterwards lived twelve years. The celebrated case of — Illustrating Dr. dispositions and cynocephalus. the hemisphere and Gage need full him He imme- wagon and rode home. 48 importance with accuracy and judg- decisions of ment. diately climbed into a the doctor found apparently in He as a not Taylor's case of diseased frontal lobes of the brain with complete mental integrity. (i) i. down be overlooked. where sitting upright in a chair.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. In this connection one of Bianchi's later experi- ments on monkeys An whose adult will be of interest: domesticated female habits. which a crow-bar was driven into cheek and passed out through the crown of forehead while engaged at blasting. earning his living coachman and barnhand (2). location and extent as seen from the outside.

: ) THEORY OF MIND LOCALIZATION. has become stupid and less — Illustrating the Gage case. 3. but in room she the same . Two mental change in the main as follows "Her physiognomy Fig. (After Biglow. was deprived of her pre-frontal lobes as indicated in Fig. curiosity. expression of eyes uncertain and cruel and devoid of any flashes of intelligence. rest. mobile. gnashing of She shows terror even by shrieks and teeth. months and more her is described in after this the 2. when threatened and never reacts aggressively. 49 been carefelly noted for a long time. or sociability. When placed in She is in a state of un- a large closed walks aimlessly around. and always hurt.

does not play. seems less regular fests of unsociable with the other monkeys. unfinished. action done with apparent purpose re- mains incomplete. She picks up nor recover what she has forgotten. and so on several times. but the periods are and abundant. but finding the other unable to . cannot She None to be present. any object or per- if she runs towards goes back. She at once mani- fested her desire. The sexual however. overcome the least difficulties in her adaptations. Whenever to are ever ready to attend approached for a caress she shows When fear.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. and takes is. instinct to her mouth whatever she comes across. her former friends can She is now way by new caress her any longer. runs it. somewhat cleaner. 50 I direction. though they to her wants. a door she stops near again.A . She occasionally mani- impulses of cruelty quite foreign to her kind. the attendant brings food or fruit she comes near and violently seizes the object with avidity. nor learn anything new. she does not know them. One day while she was menstruating another female cynocephalus came near her. tion or gratefulness to people to the She shows no whom door affec- she previously loaded with caresses as these animals are wont to seem do. without stopping near Any son.

by Drs. satisfy it. She walks sits. The (4) She has no sensory and discrimination somewhat improves" case reported (3). looks for parasites all armed about. and yet neither of the subjects exhibited any mental aber- LIBRAE Tf ' AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION . and no longer expresses desires peculiar Fig. had each exten- sive destruction of both pre-frontal lobes. over the body. and re- mains indifferent to everything except the sight of her food. had not killed her at if the keeper. defects.1 THEORY OF MIND LOCALIZATION. Later her movements became stereotyped. to the time of menstruation. Operation made its in front of the roots of the frontal convolutions. nearly corresponding to the pre-frontal sulcus. once interfered. and one reported by myself (5). after ablation of pre-frontal convolutions. 3 — The brain of Prof Bianchi's monkey. Starr and VanGieson. that she with a 5 she attacked her companion so furiously would have stick.

viz. show- of the association Horizontal black line below the front knee of the corpus callosum indicates the largest hemorrhagic area. of a double-sided disease of the pre-frontal lobes o" the brain with mental integrity Diagram of a longitudinal section of the left cerebral hemisphere. as manifested by slow replies to questions. interest. brain substance.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. some things or less. . 52 ration aside from slow ideation. It is on the tumors least left side. as indicated by Starr. and some by (5). and a consequent more ference. Both were women In the normal brained pre-frontal lobes (the Fig. to of natural alike in ages. ing the antero-posterior extent of the tumor fibers involved. and (b) a sense of loss of balance in the head from mass disproportion. (a) shock great amount of energizing sion which did not exist in the from a sudden to to). 4. monkey deprived same Illustrating case reported indif- of both as those occupied by the author. in the two women referred two factors contributing loss of a its we have at mental perver- women. In the mass proportion remained just women about the same while .

FO. Olfactory bulbs. monkey gradually and sense of /. a pre-existing brain inefficiency which made the development of & J3 Fig. BB. 5. Olfactory We see. It occupies almost the whole of the white matter of the frontal lobes lying in front of the The darker areas are soft. she more and more approaches women who by the mental condition of the disease had gradually and almost entirely lost the functional power of the lobes of . fissure. 53 the functional disturbance in the brain from invasion by the tumors was produced gradually. Corpus callosum. cross- 4.THEORY OF MIND LOCALIZATION. the tumors possible. CC. section vertically through a point one inch in front of the fissure of Sylvius. Gyrus fornicatus. that as tho loses the peculiar effect of shock mass disproportion. tumor area extends about The 1 mouth of the inch behind the and to the borders of the lateral ventricles. same case Illustrating the as Figure Front view. dark-blue on reddish-brown and section. Calloso-marginal fissure. //. CM. In the women there was also. however. presumably. section rotten tissue with hemorrhagic marks. III. Frontal convolutions. GF.

ing They more than all MINI). A W. with a of a girl. 13 years of age. had only attained at the observes "she Spiller age of 13 the mental de- velopment of three years" (6). are reported by all observers as usually being mentally superior to neighboring who do not practice this deformity tribes men of great intellectual ability. (7). Of late the trend of opinion favors the posterior lobes of the brain as being those chiefly involved with the higher mental processes. Newton and Charles Darwin. Yet Dr. or neu- rasthenia. had e. This view is based upon the following claims: First: As Gratiolet had pointed out. left by in- but her frontal lobes were normal and well developed. y Many Sir Isaac either low or re- ceding foreheads. is considerable portion of the middle area of the cerebral hemisphere rendered functionless duration. Spiller. reported by Dr. the posterior lobes are of later . g. It is also worth noting that those tribes of Indians found ent parts of the world and known in differ- as "flat-heads" from their practice of severely compressing the forehead in infancy. case of negative evidence G. three practically exhibit noth- a loss of energizing power.BRAIN IN RELATION TO 54 the brain.

the Dr. 52.15. they are the (In apes. Garson are said same disproportion in of the lower races.000 heads. especially of 4.30(8). all fol- insane. needed inferred they are the least animal functions. mental grades w ithin the lines of civilization. higher vertebrates. Crochley Clapham found ment the average percentage of the frontal to the segment of the by measure- head (ear to ear) whole circumference. develop. first to Second: more developed in and they only man They than exist in and thus it is for the purely however. to have found the measurement of the skulls Clapham gives the aver- age proportion by weight of the frontal lobe as lows: 35. 52. Third: In intellectually lower races the posterior lobes have been observed to be proportionately smaller. imbeciles. insane. the r posterior fail lobes are the among idiots.) 55 the are proportionately in the lower animals. development in the individual man. 37. Professor 52. and 183 were sane. Dr. Fowler and Dr. These observations are certainly sug- . in some of the bushmen they to cover Fourth: In some of the lowest the cerebellum. 37.99 Idiots. From an examination smallest.11.16. of so which 1944 were insane. (8).27. to be as follows: sane. idiots.THEORY OF MIND LOCALIZATION.

. Beevor. and contents parts of the cerebral cortex together with tricate association all backward of its in- fibers. dogs the removal of lobes produced the their parie- same consecutive disturb- ances as does the removal of the frontal lobes This observation is in harmony with (10). of it.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. sums up the evidence regarding tumors as follows: "Tu- . when tal in capable of func- and also that only a small part intact. Goltz and Flourens find every area reason to believe that the brain tional substitution. indicates that have one function in com- that of contributing to the general supply of vital or nerve energy. in a recent symposium in Brain. the fact that a very large proportion of cases operated on for brain tumors had no tumors or lesions at the areas indicated by the symptoms presented. is Goltz found that is required for mental integrity. viz. 56 gestive. while some had no brain lesions whatever as disclosed by post- mortem examinations (11). and yet it appears that some monkeys in the Loosterior lobes of the brain extend over the cerebellum farther than they do The great all similarity in structure in man parts mon. must systems of at least (9). while at the same time may be more or less specialized in a co- operative arrangement.

but Goltz was not certain that any of its movements were guided by . bral hemispheres. would close its eyes when a bright light shone upon them.THEORY OF MIND LOCALIZATION. first. ger and would thirst its learned to eat it nose in contact Taste to some extent seemed to remain. but exhib- ited defects only in the manifestations of intelli- gence. although situ- ated in parts of the brain whose functions are con- known" sidered to be (12). it was necessary directly into its to feed it with the food. memory. and tumors may symptoms which give rise to other parts of the are associated with and tumors may occur brain. mors may occur without giving 57 symp- rise to the toms which would be expected. not abolish mental action moved both hemispheres. It by restlessness of food mixed with showed signs after of hun- prolonged inter- vals of privation. and then eagerly eating the food when given It it. yet it a does dog he not only lived eighteen months afterwards. reflection. for after a it At by placing the food throat. without giving any symptoms at all. and until killed. Goltz has even found that removal of both cere- accomplished by stages. but later and drink by simply bringing quinine. re- little reject chewing it. and understanding. From (13).

the following illustrations being forcibly pertinent: Case I. and others deny that there are any motor or sensory areas in the brain. and even to to when caressed. He remarks that the had ''marked mental defects. 58 visual impressions. It and seemed dream and could be awakened by loud noises Strong. the skin caused it snap and turn in it maintain its equilibrium falling door. W. walk. Case II. and of From of threats. — Dr. to slept naturally. Flourens definite direction the did not distinctly bite. Charles Phelps reports a man who . painful stimulations of and by handling. nor it any fear such and other evidence Goltz." which leaves the inference that its mental manifestations were human. though imperfect. — Dr. but It exhibited no pleasure Golgi. and run. although upon a bark or growl. three legs. While such experiments cannot be performed on human beings. It when one it could the irritant.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. Taylor reports (14) a two year old child with complete absence of both cerebral hemispheres. was able foot to was placed move around on could stand. formed and child of though the cerebellum was w ell r normal size. E. disease and accident in a measure supply the want.



died at the age of 25 years with a large abscess in
the middle area of

the left cerebral hemisphere,

while a large proportion of both hemispheres was
either softened


or invaded with punctate hemor-

Yet Dr. Phelps reports

absolute integrity of



that this

man "had

mental faculties and

special senses without either having aberration or

decadence, and was cheerful and slept well"




— Illustrating Drs. Putnam and Richardson's case of complete

mental integrity with an enormous tumor occupying the



hemisphere as indicated by the shaded area.

Putnam and M. H. Richardbusiness-man, 30 years of age, whose

Case III.— Drs.
son report a

entire left cerebral

J. J.

hemisphere (except the


lobe and the lower portions of the frontal and temporal lobes)

was occupied by

a diseased growth,

"which everywhere compressed the adjoining brain


to a great extent destroyed

them," and



yet in this

man "no


notable mental changes were

"His mind was


and he read

and understood with pleasure, and enjoyed the society of his family and friends," and although "he

he walked well, going to

his right leg

church and back half a mile


and he drove


horse to town eight miles away, four days before


Case IV.


— Dr. Pierce Bailey reports a carpenter

died at the age of 57 years, whose right cere-


bral cortex


was bereft


of those that could






cellular elements,

be identified were greatly

the large pyramidal cells


almost entirely gone, and the lumen of the cortical
vessels being almost obliterated.

A large

cyst con-

taining a straw-colored fluid occupied the frontal

lobes of the




to the last his


died from pneumonia;

speech was perfectly normal,

reading was not interfered with, and


He was

memory was

courteous and intelligent and

he was cheerful and attentive, and

of attention


read the


and was

was very good.

papers constantly, liked to talk


interested in the affairs of the hospital.

He was

singularly free from periods of depression, of


tional excitement, of irritability,


of apathy,

any other mental manifestation so common
brain diseases.

He was



or of



in the three

years of daily observation upon him there was nothing whatever at any time to indicate that his character or mental capacity


in the

slightest af-

fected" (17).



— Illustrating

Dr. Bailey's case of complete mental integrity

with destruction of the right cerebral hemisphere and a large cyst


the frontal lobes.

Case V.

— Dr.




reports a man, 21

years of age, with an enormous tumor occupying
the left cerebral hemisphere,

pressing adjacent structures.

had an



and severely comYet, although he oc-

and stammered

from childhood, he had no paralysis.


He was

somewhat opinionated, but evinced no moral


the time of his death (in a



he was



a clerk in the Steward's office of St.

Thomas' Hos-

London, and a few days

he would have



entered the government examination for a second








which he was pronounced by experts

be exceptionally proficient





— Illustrating

Dr. Haddon's case of an expert draughtsman
with complete mental integrity up to his death, yet possessed of an
enormous tumor occupying the left cerebral hemisphere and compressing


adjacent organs.


Case VI.

Front view, cross-section

of his brain.

— Andral reports a man who died

age of 28 years with the whole of

his right cerebral

hemisphere so completely atrophied that



was not a

the cyst

(pia mater)

trace of brain tissue.



formed a cyst

was formed by the

at the




floor of

optic thalamus,


corpus striatum, and the parts on a level with these

although a man character. and was totally without a "motor" center paralyzed on the left side being affected. he Fig. He lost his was not at last affected. the frontal lobes of his brain appearing to be in any way disturbed (20). became irritable of excellent and forgetful without — Illustrating Drs. 9. became to sense of smell without the brain center for smell being affected. aged 46 years. who had a tumor occupying the entire breadth of the posterior part of the occipital lobe. Boland and Whitney's case of tumor of the left occipital lobes (visual center) with mental integrity. and much intelligence as most men" (19). And. yet his vision as would be expected. Whit- exhibited as ney report a man. T.— Drs. Boland and W. says Andral. S. Case VII. Yet.THEORY OF MIND LOCALIZATION. E. In regard to the posterior (occipital) lobes (cen- . this 63 man "had re- ceived a good education. had a good memory. though he tally blind. two bodies.

regard to the visual center Ferrier says. in slight- This fact. 64 Henchen has collected eleven cases existed more or less extensive disease ters for vision).— BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. markable monkey " Though the occipital lobes are in the visual centers cluded in the fact that in- nevertheless a re- it is they can be injured or cut off bodily almost up to the parieto-occipital fissure on one or both sides simultaneously without the est appreciable which I impairment of have already observed vision. has been completely confirmed by Professor Yeo and myself and and Schaefer" also by Professors Horsley (22). In regard to the psychic value of congenital mal- formations of the brain. of no less we find that even an organ importance than the corpus callosum that great thick bridge of fibers extending between the two hemispheres of the brain and believed to connect all parts of both in direct relationship — is not an essential for mental or moral integrity. in which there of these lobes without vision being affected. as the following cases will show: . my former experi- ments. while he found fourteen cases recorded in which the same lobes were diseased without hemianopsia (half vision) being produced In (21).

Case III. Middle P. the corpus callosum (23). married. man ON. a good husband. Optic chiasma. . — Dr. aged 30 of ordinary intelligence. Albicantia. Anterior commissure. Posterior commissure. did the of a porter with perfect satisfaction. 65 Alexander Bruce reports a man of ordinary intelligence and good character.THEORY OF MIND LOCALIZATION Case I. and exhibited no notable pecu- Yet liarities. — Illustrating with moral and commissure. Optic nerve. Bruce's case of absent corpus callosum mental integrity. A. in this completely absent 10. and who. Case years. — Malinverni reports a soldier. but with a slight tendency to melancholia. who had complete absence of the corpus callosum (24). was jyip Dr. 43 years of age. — Eichler reports a laborer. Corpora M. A II. work for thirteen years. QC Fig. diligent and capable. OC. CA.

and of whose corpus callosum was only one and one-quarter inch length (normally in it is about half the length of the brain). aged 2 years. and the fornix and psalterium were absent (27). (26). and could read and write.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. and organic structure are correlated as engineer. and had other important malformations of the brain Case IV. a capacity that could not exist identical. From will the evidence thus far presented. energy and engine. mind and brain were have seen that even with both sides of the brain considerably its if damaged. whose corpus callosum was only one inch in length. of fairly good — Paget character. (25). aged 58 years. Before closing this review a glance at mind and . yet he had no corpus callosum. mind may Thus while mutually mind. girl. retain vitality. reports a normal mind. trusty. I think it be admitted without argument that the brain possesses the capacity for functional substitution. 1 competent. We integrity. of normal mind. the slips and wrecks only go to prove the provisional relationship existing between the two as cause and effect. —Jolly reports a railway employe. 66 sober and quiet. while the fornix and psalterium were absent Case V.

nor organs reacts to light. move- (d) ments calculated either to approach the object and seize it or to flee from special sense organs of smell. and yet it variety of acts (29). (28). its relations in the lower animals will And general conception. with no cortex to lution ears. and yet pugnacity. Humble in the vertebrate the amphioxus with nothing but an undiffer- is entiated bulbous ending to a brain. no it and probably odor The earth-worm has no it. first. and yet scale — no eyes. sound.THEORY OF MIND LOCALIZATION. it 67 perception of the external ob- (a) made between a number in space. jealousy. for it is we are found that am- phibians possess a brain cortex which has two lay- . scale we the trout. mental action by (c) choice (b) enhance our may be observed micro-organisms exhibit something of that even ject. perception of position and of objects. much fishes social. for brain. find fishes. sexual and parental feeling months old spinal cord in lieu of possesses will to do a great example. its "fishes (30). the alert its Higher up the and discriminating display anger. fear. as a child four Professor Mcintosh declares that show great and acute memory and tion" (31). touch. affec- In the next step along the line of evo- (according to Hceckel and others) brought to another jump.

— BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. so more complex the means the more plied are the avenues for giving mind as executive. the complex environment. nor even on the possession of a brain. in that anatomy goes histology one point comparative farther and de- clares that the possession of a variety of mental faculties —functions or modes of activity— not only does not depend upon a specialized brain cortex. for bral cortex of layers of it is mammals found that the cere- there are no less than four Thus we see cells. . the range of the mind's action depends upon the fitness and efficiency of its subservient organs in the pro- cess of gathering from a that. but does not depend upon any cortex whatever. 68 we continue along the same line (phantom evolution) we must take another jump in ers of cells. But as power corresponds to the means as well as the motive. multi- and receiving and brain as environment. and if cerebral structure.

right hemisphere. in comparative numerin both Parker has shown that they develop an orderly manner (i).CHAPTER V. (After anatomy shows ous. i. his face features.) that no animal brain has so deep and unsymmetrical convolutions hemispheres. BRAIN FORM IN RELATION TO MIND. — Human deepest fissures. showing the depth of the Cunningham. while brain. while (69) in their early stages . In man the convolutions of the brain differ even more than do Fig.



they seem



some way

of the sense

be related to the devel-




ruminants and apes, they are

both hemispheres, while







some cetacea


whales) they are more numerous, but the fissures


are only a few lines deep in

places (Bischoff).

They apparently bear no relation to mental status,
for some of the most stupid creatures known to us,
as the ass, sheep and ox, are rich in convolutions,

Fig. 2
human embryo.

of a

and they even


— Brain of a two-month

human embryo.
exist quite distinctly in animals of a

much lower grade


echidna and macropus

animals which

Fig. 3


the biologic scale,

as the

while they are absent in

other respects are more highly

organized, as birds, bats, castors, squirrels, beavers

and marmoset apes.

According to Turner,



may have


brains, while in another species of the

same order

natural orders, one species

there are no convolutions



4.— Brain


of a cat;


top view, frontal lobes facing upwards.

(After Ferrier.)






(After Ferrier).

of a


top view, frontal lobes facing upwards.





— Brain

of a

Monk monkey, showing symmetry

top view, frontal lobes facing upwards.




— Brain of a Howler
(After Ferrier.)



(After Ferrier.)

monkey; top view, frontal lobes facing

of a horse. left side view. (After Turner.) view. 9 8. io.BRAIN FORM IN RELATION TO MIND.) —Brain convolutions. showing the fissures and (After Turner. — Brain of a sheep. Fig.) left side view. showing the fissures and . (After Turner. Fig. — Brain convolutions. Fig. left side 73 of an ox.

strangely example.g. although they are ab- exist in the spider sent in most of the higher apes. 74 Mivart states that forms zoologically distinct are found to resemble each other while closely allied forms in brain characters. while. the bridging convolutions in For differ. whereas in man they are the first. also monkeys. e.. squirrel much monkeys 3 mm. In the gibbon. The same is the case . larger brain of the According (2). in the small brain of the hedgehog broad. observes Mivart. and in the embryos of these animals they are the last to develop. in the the occipital convolutions extend backwards beyond the cerebellum much more than they do in man. extend- ing between the parietal and occipital lobes. so echidna and homo. This con- (2). man. the gyrus dentatus far apart as has a denticulated appearance while in most mammals it is in its smooth gray matter. it is to Mivart. volution does not increase in size with the brain. while in the very horse little it is 6 mm. "two species of sapajou (cebus) so closely have been treated as one species allied as to strangely from each other Turner observes that in this in the brains of differ respect" mammals (3).BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. chim- panzee and orang the third frontal convolutions are very slightly developed.

(After Turner.BRAIN FORM IN RELATION TO MIND. left side it will be observed from ~/A Fig. — Brain of a beaver. IV. 12. — Brain of a marmoset ape. but in apes they are among the first 75 man are to appear.) the figures presented that the brain of Gauss. fundamental defect. is described by Wilder .) development there But is a con- which he regards as a fissures. n. is decidedly excessive in while the brain of Chauncey Wright. the eminent mathematician. which in late. with the temporal convolutions. (After Cassel's Natural History. fissures. Vol. an- other eminent mathematician. lutions are deficient in sequent excess of view. right side view. Benedict of Vienna claims that when the convo- Fig.

frontal lobes facing upwards. 76 Fig. 13. the cerebrum facing upwards and the cerebellum downwards. (After Turner. top view.) . 14. — Brain of a macropus. (After Turner.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND.) Fig. — Brain of an echidna.

— Brain /N its fissures. Wilder.) . prcccntral of of its 77 supcrcentral /!s central /-V central f. prcsylvian f. convolu- the central being completely interrupted (5).-Ti suhfrontal f. Prof. as beine remarkable for the flatness of and the simplicity tions. basisylvian f. Wagner. 15. Gauss. Frontal lobes facing excess of fissures. — Brain of Chauncey Wright. and philosopher. crhlal /. Dwight (Harvard) describes this brain as being simpler in convo(After lutions than that of a Venus Hottentot (a form of African idiot). the eminent mathematician. showing unusual simplicity of convolutions and an interruption of the central fissure which existed on both hemispheres. 16. fissure (Rolandic) Fig. olfactory f.LIBRARY Of American Medical Associatioh BRAIN FORM IN RELATION TO MIND.) to the left. the eminent mathematician Fig. showing an (After R.

Hungarian carpenter. the appearance of simplicity of Fig. as " broad. showing excessive con- (After Wilder. 1886 Fig. Chud17. the brain of Fuchs the phy- Marshall describes the convolutions of — Brain of Gambetta. 18. left side view. Tiedeman and Liebig are reported have had small convolutions. zinski in ) the brain of Grote. M. volutions. to .) Asseline. and Duval.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. — Brain of a making markings " (7). (After M. 78 as was also the case sician (6). Bulletin De La Societie Anthropologie de Paris. the historian.

in Wilder normal says. Eichler reports a laborer. in reference to interruption of the occipital fissure in brains. have shown that similar anomalies exist though frequently. 43 years of age. Occasionally there on both sides or only a vadum. these animals the cen- much longer than it is in (18).BRAIN FORM IN RELATION TO MIND. combination vadum on is is an isthmus The most common an isthmus on the right side with a the left" (8). while two hundred Eberstaller twice found it The same convolutional interruptions are observed in the higher apes. When all in six. whom the calloso-marginal. the human less "In brain: brains of moral and eigfht educated persons the isthmus (paroccipital) plete on the right side one. parieto-occipital in and . and an additional convolution the in But Giacomini of Turin and others frontal lobe. 79 Benedict has also stated that he has observed frequent confluence of the fissures among some lower races. while tral man fissure is relatively in in brains. and on the is left in comonly classes are included. In 2174 hemispheres Heschl found complete in- terruption of the central fissure in six (17). of the twenty- complete interruptions twenty-one are right six and only five left.

a good husband. of Gambetta. this Top man was married. view. Fig. his cerebral In hemispheres were asymmetrical.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. and capable. addition to all that. and the corpus callosum was totally Yet Eichler says absent. sober and and could read and write (9). — Brain diligent quiet. 8o calcarine fissures were indistinguishable and the gyrus fornicatus absent or indistinguishable. ''The convolutions and sulci on the brain of a microcephalic idiot may assume an arrangement which approaches more . According to Cunningham. 19.

widely from that seen but to any one ape. presents certain features which are peculiar it Fig. in the brain of differ — Brain of a chimpanzee. From this we conclude that in rangement concerned the brain has reverted is so far as the convolutionary ar- part to a condition which existed pre- wholly or in viously an early stem form" in (10). The tence assumes that the theory of atavism last senis a fact. wards. 20.BRAIN FORM IN RELATION TO MIND. frontal lobes facing np- ) an anthropoid and others which are character- istic of. . say a baboon or a macaque. Turner (After top view. and the significant point is that in these cases there is a mixture of these characters which are distinctive of a high ape with those which are characteristic of a The general arrangement may low ape. 81 closely to the ape-type than the man-type.

in the size." seven and a half years of age. from a brain Royal College of Physicians. London. 82 Krause of Berlin has described the brain of an "ape-like boy. top view.) Fig. human (After Gratiolet. — but differed from the side view. (After Bastian. 22. as being of "normal Fig 21 — Brain of an orang.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. .) Brain of an orang.

in every respect and approached in its whole 83 struc- ture to the simian rather than the human type. 24. ma when ma.) Fig. (After Turner. — Brain of an elephant. 23. ) to play He and dance.BRAIN FORM IN RELATION TO MIND. could only say His parents had neglected him." teased. left side view. — Brain of a Narwhal. . (After Bastian boy was cheerful and inclined but passionate "pa pa. " The Fig.

— Base of the brain of a microsmatic seal. 84 Virchow and Hartman made a careful and close study of this boy. who . yet both these authorities concur in the decision that "in these ab- IF' ffr*' Fig. as they likewise did of Margaret Becker.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. another "ape-like" idiot. woman. 48 years of age. while every human being Luciani reports a Turner is present" (n). (After normal creatures the positive psychologic and qualities of the characteristic of a ) faculties ape are wanting. 25.

optic tract. 13. olfactory nerve.3 3 Fig. 19. the occipital portion of median 7. 14 anterior pyramids. (After Hirschfeld. glosso-phar'yngeal. 26. 24. 22'. oculi. is lodged. 34. 30. 27. 37. pons Varolii. it 32. section of the olfactory nerve. 10 an- anterior extremity of the posterior extremity of the same. anterior perforated space. and nerve of Wrisberg. perforated medulla oblongata. 29. tuber cinereum and pituitary body. 8. 12. 6. 17. trigeminus. 31. fissure. olivary body. terior lobe of the 3. 17. — The base of the human brain. 20. fissure of Sylvius. first and second convolutions of the inferior these hemispheres. fissure separating 19. 26. 11. 1 hemispheres of the cerebellum. . aspect of the frontal lobe with the intervening sulcus. cerebrum. interpeduncular space space). 5. 6. theticus. 16. 25. spinal accessory. 2. trunk has been raised to showing its triangular prismatic shape: the show the sulcus in which glion of the olfactory nerve. abducens. i. 15. 3.) same lobe. restiform body (only partially visible). crura cerebri. 23. external convolutions of the frontal lobe. sphenoidal portion of the posterior lobe. (posterior 9. i. 18. 21. optic chiasm. gan- motor facial. 4. hypoglossal. pa- auditory nerve pneumogastric. 22. corpora albicantia. 28.

Fig. middle. o. 3-T. S. . 2-t. etc. 27. Fig. and showing the location of the convolutions as middle and inferior frontals. the cerebrum. middle. inferior temporal convolutions. superior. showing the fissures (After Diebierre). — b superior. &f. P. 3 o. inner side of one half. and parietal or and post- angular. named. a P— ascending — supra-marginal. 3 indicate the superior. 1 pre-central. or parietal. — Diagram 2 A — ascending central. 1.BRA IX IN RELATION TO MIND. 28 jf — Human brain. i-t. frontal — superior posterior parietal. 2 o. c — inferior occipital.

It was defective mentally. eight with a brain entirely devoid of convo- lutions. refers to two cases of good R. " which Yet "her be a rare abnormality. and with "marked abnormality of the convolutions. From the foregoing facts it is quite evident that while brain convolutions have in psychic value of some kind in the all way probability a of "charac- ter" qualities other than moral. Occasionally infants are born without convolutions in the brain. with- out attracting any peculiar attention until shortly before she died of pneumonia (12). Wagner intelligence with few convolutions (13). Taylor describes one.BRAIN FORM IN RELATION TO MIND." inferior pre-central fissure ran into the ramus was average. months old. . they bear no direct relation to mental status in either the biologic scale or class peculiarities.. ascending second temporal of the sylvian fissure. 87 had a brain weighing only 900 gm. the fissure ran into the occipital fissure." to "The is said intelligence and she had lived a regular life. Otherwise "it had no marked gross defects. while the surface of the brain had the ap- pearance of being covered with plaster. and had frequent convulsive seizures of a peculiar character" (14). On the one hand we see the.

in a particular tribe.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. 88 resourceful beavers skilfully co-operating in adaptation of complicated means for social poses. the pur- and even under exceptional conditions. while the natives of the intermediate coast from Coppermine River eastwards have mesocephalic heads (intermediate shape). all forms. The Andamanese. are said to be remarkable for the uniformity and smallness of their skulls (16). are. those in- habiting Greenland are extremely dolichocephalic. John neighborhood of Behring Straits are brachycephalic (short-headed) . the sheep. of creatures is rich in one of the most helpless and stupid under any unusual circumstances. In regard to the shape of the head. Among found scat- the less civilized frequently the case that a particular form universal. Eskimos in the According to Dr. with a brain convolutions. even a race with Rae (15). a race of small people in the Indian Ocean. HEAD FORMS. in the shape . while on the other hand. most tered races in seems that of our race types are dolichocephalic (long- headed). while is it among it is forms all all races. as a rule. or almost so.

England. Vol. From — Chinook " flat-head " skull. (In the Museum of the artificially deformed in Royal College of Surgeons. 30 infancy.BRAIN FORM IN RELATION TO MIND. Fig. VI. Cassel's Natural History. artificially deformed 89 in infancy. — "Flat-head" skull from Mallecollo. ) .) Fig. 29.

32 — Andamanese skull.go BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. r.':. (After Flower. of skull. any <>y All their skulls are remarkabl) race. — An Andamanese and about the smallest Fig. similar."-v '•}-:- Fig.) .) (17. 31.

are designated microcephalic. whose She never spoke. brain only weighed 224 gm. BRAIN SIZE IN RELATION TO MIND. is practically a Brains weighing than 1000 gm. to shake 12 years of age. and all other parts of the body are normally developed.CHAPTER VI. Very few brains are microcephalic. play well on the cym238 gm. and according to Dr. bellum are not proportionately diminished. Ireland reports a girl. was and her highest accomplishment was hands (1). and the brains of these are Their basal ganglia and cere- in structure.) idiot. always fed. Prof. Adriani of Perujia report the case of Antonio. human idiots only one per cent. less the average male brain weighing about 1400 gm. Dr. Cardova and Dr. (91 ) . We have seen that brain weight measure of brain size (page 30). Ireland are even among microcephalic. an Italian whose brain only weighed 284 gm. (cerebrum She could dance.

memory opposite sex. 92 bals. and all brachycephaiic with ''the posterior part of the head ill-developed. as a rule. to by the of being noticed.. especially was fond and energetic. Negroid. according to their general characteristics. both physical and mental. Mongolian type. Few to fly into passions. and were of the (d) the (b) the Malay. can. some microcephales are But. are restless. straight and sparse. the Mongolian. thick They had always large and eyes more than thick. and broad. although active names She learned places and persons. and roundish and destitute of prominence. nose and rugous. a special system of education they improve. had a good for do easy work provisions of house and go out to buy in the (2). skin tawny. lips small. tongue large. Langdon Down observes four types among feeble-minded children.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. while their sense impressions are They lively. and inclined Under can speak. obliquely placed. imitative." Their hair face flat cheeks is usually brown. widened laterally.. and . they have little power of con- tinuous attention. great powers of imitation. but none for time. (c) He viz. Dr. (a) the North Ameri- found 10 per cent. and the internal canthi normally separated.

Another boy could build model ships from drawings. prominent eyes.BRAIN SIZE IN RELATION TO MIND. the skin. and carve . prominent cheeks. The Negroid type has characteristic malar bones. Down tells of a boy who was a marvelous crayon-drawer. 93 became extremely good mimics and had a strong sense of the ridiculous. while well developed. but a comparative blank in all his exquisite higher faculties. They could usually be taught to speak. but not black. as they feeble-minded children. and seldom forget them. curly hair. but neither passionate nor strongly affectionate. are possessed of remarable talent in nar- row channels. black. puffy woolly hair. as in the South Sea Islanders. faculty of in lips. The North American Indian type has shortened forehead. deep-set eyes and slightly apish nose. though indistinctly and harshly. They were always amiable both to their companions and animals. and capacious mouths. promi- nent upper jaws. and without pigment in The same authority observes that the number is usually but slightly developed memory is fairly memory for tune. The Malay type has soft. and retreating chin. especially readily acquire simple Some few airs.

negro youth them can explain how they do Dr. lost. was as wonderful Blind of at rapid who numerical computations as Tom was at reproducing musical which he had only once heard. Dr. although he had daily for two and a could not remember the doctor's Another boy had a perfect appreciation passing time. being able to at any part of the tell day and half name. ed for him. and had to have his food dissect- Another boy. this Down boy. could 12 years of age. S. He was tested on numberless occasions.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. but gradually his responses became less ready. multiply three figures by three figures with perfect accuracy. of past or the time to a minute in any situation. and so quickly that the listener could hardly write the six figures on paper before the result talked with Dr. compositions Also another boy . stand a sentence. E. Yet was given. He was and the autopsy revealed 17 years of his brain to be an ordinary one except that he had two well marked and distinct soft commissures. 94 with a great deal of but he could not under- skill. and remarks that none their feat (3). Boland reports a blind at the Perkins Institute. his health became enfeebled and the faculty age at death. years. Boston. Down mentions a number of other similar cases.

the fects are due to arrest or abortive the tissues of the cells and fibers. K. soul and spirit. the mental de- fects are due to positive disease of the brain tissue rather than an arrest of development. of which the following case "An stature. In a considerable proportion of idiots and imbeciles. of these idiot prodi- been males. of normal pneumonia. resulting in less complete. including the paralytic forms. more or of the intellectual. marberg brains of is development The late of Ham- Sweden most thoroughly studied the some idiots. who could answer questions his past Down Dr. while in cases. showed any She never learned to attention to things go- . beino> who possesses the tripartite nature of man. of the brain. and life. died of sit mental de- of illustrative of his findings in of idiocy: many or walk. have any all been found in their Bateman Sir F. an extreme degree 14 years of age. including the microcephales. gies. which have faculties in two none in the future (25). as to calendar dates in for a year or observes that 95 family relatives defines an idiot as "a like (3). but who is the subject of an infirmity consisting anatomically of a defective organization and want an development of inability.BRAIN SIZE IN RELATION TO MIND. for the exercise moral and sensitive faculties" (4). nor idiot. body.

per o. cells in the brain never more than ten mm. 442 gm. ability to help her- All of things or brain weighed the hemispheres were unsymmetrical. the corpus cal- losum was membranous and the fornix defective. or four. the cortex Thus.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. In anything like the The power to form . were two layers— a grown into the In other parts there superficial layer of cells partially pyramidal shape. 96 She had no ing on about her. and these were simply spindles or granules.. while other areas ap- parently developed for a no place had the month or two cells attained adult normal in size and form. numbered two. the cerebellum showed no abnormality. longer. for ex- had not developed beyond the embryonic sixth month. . 1 cubic The three. tensive areas. and a deeper layer of simple spindle-shaped cells" (5). a number of the important fissures were not repre- sented and considerable areas were unconvoluted. to cry and the recognition traces of speech Her persons were totally wanting. but the pons was unsymmetrical. the was lacking or represented on the surface by insula two accessory frontal convolutions. any way except self in when hungry. The cortex in several regions had only a single layer of embryonic cells with no trace of the ordinary differentiation.

The peculiar talents sometimes observed in those otherwise backward or idiotic would seem to have their only explanation in the carries with it law that an endowment a corresponding demand for exercise. and frequently In this case (5). and thus as a correlative to the favored organs attention will become more and more exclusive or and so perceptiveness along special specialized. port of this view that we have becomes In sup- the occasional observation boys who had wonderful special talents have . whereas . so that a disproportion in the capacity for exercise among organs existing of the brain may beget an exclusiveness at the expense of the defective organs. lines exceptionally keen but intuitive in form. was cells two markedly also deficient.BRAIN SIZE IN RELATION TO MIND. there to four cells per cubic mal number much more is 97 being only mm. the nor- from ten to twenty. we see that the de- fective structure clearly accounts for the defective mental manifestation. yet the relatively more advanced organs upon in will be functionally called excess of their normal share by way of compensating for those organs defective. ment Even assuming of some that the defective develop- parts of the brain does not imply a positive advantage to other parts.

77 Hauseman. 40 Harless. 80 Grant. Chemist. H15 . I403 Babbage. 62 Bertillion. Statesman. Whewell. Political writer. 7i Herman. 50 63 7i 7° Coudereau. WEIGHING LESS THAN I4OO GRAMS. Physician. H52 45 78 59 73 63 79 Assazat. 71 Dollinger. General. Tallymerayer. H. but have invariably been reduced to mental mediocrity. J. Physicist. Dupuytren. Na me. 57 79 Tiedeman. Occupation. Physician. Lasauix. Anatomist. Lamarque. Weight. Surgeon. Hughes Historian. Mineralogist. 1207 1226 1238 1250 1254 1290 1294 Age. Poet. Ch. Liebig. Anthropologist. Historian. 43 Gambetta. WEIGHING LESS THAN I3OO GRAMS. 1410 62(?) Meyer. Physiologist. Anatomist. H03 75 Grote. Bischoff. 98 not only lost them by the process of a liberal education. 1436 1440 1449 Physician. Philosopher. 1312 1332 1344 1352 1358 1390 1398 WEIGHING MORE THAN I4OO GRAMS.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. BRAIN WEIGHTS OF EMINENT MEN. 52 Philologist. or even lower still. Anatomist. Bennet. Helmholtz. Mathematician. Physician.

Cuvier. 64 46 63 Schiller. 54 66 (7) Knight. 54 De Morney. Physician. 66 Schleich. Pathologist.BRAIN SIZE IN RELATION TO MIND. Simpson. General. Occupation. Theologian. Gauss. Mathematician. Spurzheim. "• !5 l6 1520 1520 1533 1559 1590 WEIGHING MORE THAN l600 GRAMS. Agassiz. 45 70 1502 I503 1512 1516 1516 55 Derichlet. 1629 1644 1785 1785 1830 WEIGHING MORE THAN I9OO GRAMS. Phrenologist. Huber. Lord Chancellor Statesman. 57 73 Y. Fuchs. Broca. Mathematician. C. Mathematician. Naturalist. 82 Daniel Webster. 60 J. Wright. General. Naturalist. 52 CONTINUED. Statesman. Thackeray. Anatomist. Herman. Writer. 39 49 56 78 65 99 Weight. Physician. De Morgan. Mathematician. Novelist. Economist. WEIGHING MORE THAN I4OO GRAMS Name. General. 67 Chalmers. Skobiloff. H57 1468 1485 1492 1498 1499 WEIGHING MORE THAN I5OO GRAMS. 1984 1922 1922 . Anthropologist. Philosopher. Poet. Abercrombie. Campbell. Age. WEIGHING MORE THAN I7OO GRAMS. Butler Mechanician. 54 53 Goodsir. (8) Abercrombie 75(8) Benj. J. F.

Italian. Scotch. Thus it is evident that other things are equal brain mass is in when proportion . Nationality. Bavarian. of Cases.) Av. French. weights I If in the we divide preceding we per capita average for eminent men 1479 gm. 141 157 1375 1359 1358 !343 1331 460 167 244 J 3 141 that Scotland. Here we see ' (10) No. with the following table. Turgenieff. 65 (9) Russian novelist. Bastian's sum the table find of it most which of and Donaldson's total of the brain men which more than I have taken from tables. of persons represented. Occupation.7 BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. Name. Weight. Age. which is noted for its high intellectual average. IOO WEIGHING MORE THAN 2000 GRAMS. is seen to be considerably higher than the average of the general population of any country. (Havelocque and Harve. shows the highest aver- age in brain weights.. TABLE OF AVERAGE BRAIN WEIGHTS. which. Chinese. These are not selected far found. when compared by the number gives a 2012 cases. Negroes. as they are all the recorded brain weights of eminent have so Weight.

Subject. Museum. LARGE BRAINS Observer. Rustan (18). Dement.Wilson of the Morningside Asylum. Laborer. 2278 2356 nothing has been reported about the mental and moral characters of most of these cases. (16). (15). Workman. ine the brain weights of scure persons. Middlemas 1861 1872 Mulatto. G. Edin- burgh. K. (12).BRAIN blZE IN RELATION TO MIND. Oberstiner Wilson PERSONS. Little or 2028 2048 2077 2096 2164 2222 2256 Carpenter. Hevinge (19). also I some imbeciles and ob- becomes evident mass are by The following cases which IOI list far the that the more impor- comprises some of the have met with in the course of my reading. D. (i i). Rudolphi Laborer. Grant (17). Army Med. Washington. it other things than tant. Woman. (14). Dr. (2a). Rustan Morris Weight. C. Wagner — COMMON Imbecile. Squaw. Workman. has preceding made list. Bricklayer. a study of the fourth case in the and which demonstrates that a brain of very large size is not incompatible with an ordi- nary character and even long life. (13). The subject died . But when we come to exam- to intellectual status.

however. also to and while yet seasoning stage he may have in the molding and lacked the opportuni- . Wilson describes him as weighed 172 pounds. tall. follows: 10 inches 5 feet was a sawyer all his life until His education was poor. He took getic. and did a hasty temper to bouts of drinking at one time. no interest beyond no part He and was given work in social questions. pathological. aphasia. He wood and of lacked ambition. otherwise he was a good husband and father. 102 at 75 years of age. and The mental was very kind-hearted. and Dr. some may extent. politics. the of functional inefficiency moral by virtue vironment. While the cause have been.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. a good judge a fair amateur cabinetmaker. for disturbance which he was sent to the asylum was ture of a premature senile of the na- breakdown with marked confusion. but his a few intelli- gence seems to have been above the level required He was for his work. or religion. of the size of his brain strictly speaking. perhaps. read very He had not care for amusements. his little. was "He years ago. and impulsive violence" (14). and was neither original nor very ener- He had almost and family. He may have been not cause psychic or of fettering factors in his early en- lacked incentive.

From the tables of Dr. (21) In comparing Europeans with the other races of the world. and containing the scattered groups. which is is no less than by 1460 gm.BRAIN SIZE IN RELATION TO MIND. could neither read nor write. (24) MALES. IO3 5 feet 9 inches tall. while in the table following that one. James Morris re- through their environment. for ties he was mentally above his social times appears that children are made it seems It somesimply idiotic Dr. " 1293 Average of Average of Heaviest. as indicated the capacities of 56 skulls. Oceanic. as in the following table. 12 12 1192 . it will be noticed that the average weight of the brain of the ancient Briton. of Mean Cases. Davis. 1364 1369 Lightest. higher than the highest of any living race as yet reported. B. No. but was fond of and not very sober. AVERAGE BRAIN WEIGHTS OF DIFFERENT RACES. best fitting to his brain capabilities.. politics memory and He had a good brain weighing a well-proportioned 2077 gm.R. robust and who level.S. Average. ported a bricklayer. mean average that the the most it brain weight again appears is highest in intellectual or civilized. F. J. 299 210 1340 gm. European.

Australian. 1 180 gm. of Cases. Average. 25 Ancient Britons. 86 II7I African. 17 I330 II74 " " 5 1371 5 1369 " " 1482 1638 1604 I363 1230 1296 1228 1241 1330 1460 " 7 12 1482 Arancarians. Hindoos. Oceanic. Esquimaux. Average of Average of Average. 10 HIS " 67 Australians. 53 European. Asiatic. Kanakas. Heaviest. gm Average of Heaviest 1500 gm. Mussulman. Dahomans. " 1185 American. 60 H87 American. 30 1393 1312 Madurans. MALES CONTINUED.) Kafirs. 9 35 H Chinese. 966 52 124 24 1 ' 64 1089 (Same ' " " " 1 165 authority. IS!? 1569 1545 Malays. Australian. African. 3i I 1 Asiatic. Lightest. " (Greenland. " 1278 " 1268 il 1 190 FEMALES. 94 95 1282 gm.) AVERAGE OF MALES.1 io4 * BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. Cases. 1209 1155 1338 1397 1306 I HI3 1027 1278 1239 1263 1276 I220 1099 1139 1087 1042 I IOO 194 SOME SMALLER GROUPS. 6 Javans. Mean No. 56 " " 1500 1397 (i H3I " 1466 1585 1585 4< " . Negroes.

in modern Switzerland. Swiss. Such data are not very healthy for the delu- sional idea of evolution. the lowest possibility possibility.BRAIN SIZE IN RELATION TO MIND. idiots. IO5 "In 1886. gorillas 12 cubic inches (23)." He than found to be case with the skulls of the ancient lake-dwellers skulls of Romans in the forehead. is in proportion to the highest Monstrosities. differences to be in He finds these modern Germans 40 cubic inches. Joseph Simms." says Dr. Dr. in every way. but especially the skulls of the same of this century. in other words. compared with the In the catacombs of Paris he found the skulls to average nearly an inch more in circumference than the skulls of modern Parisians (22). while they strongly point to a modern degeneracy. epilep- . lunatics. Gaston Le Bon has pointed out that the dif- ferences in the average capacities of the largest and smallest skulls of a race varies directly with the relative intellectual rank of the race. in Australians 20 cubic inches. "we meas- many of the skulls unearthed at Pompeii. or. the remains of Romans who lived nearly two thousand and we found them on an average larger ured years ago. Thus and among the highest and lowest possibilities are proportional to the intel- lectual level of a race or species.

man surpasses it can only be said that other animals in the proportional of his cerebral hemispheres. etc. greenfinch. whale. 4960-3968.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. in so far as these animals are known. possess a man. . and some animals with that of of the smaller apes (sajou and saimiri). such as the canary. glance at the brain weights of the lower we will relationship to observe that they bear no fixed any one psychic quality or combina- tion of such qualities. • If we animals. other animals relatively heavier brain than (as the whale and elephant) possess brains which are absolutely heavier. development their all In fact. 2248-1984. are said to be comparatively rare beyond the borders of civilization.. and correlatives in and causes operating in brain weight and form can only be arrived at by a thorough comparison features with the habits and of those characteristics of men and the lower animals. 106 tics. which as yet have been very imperfectly studied. From the works of Bischoff and on comparative anatomy (in I Chauvau take the following figures grams) of the brain weights in average-sized animals: Elephant. The psychic complexity. When we compare the brain weights of the lower man we find that while some animals.

lion. 130. 1- dog. bear. as will be seen from the following figures of comparative weights of brain to body. 1-248. 1-42. 160. 160. elephant. sheep and goat. 1-2240. lemur. ox. 1-700-400. 1-31. 1-2496. 1-36. tiger. taken from the same authorities: Sajou (monkey). orang and chimpanzee. canary and greenfinch. 1-3300. gorilla. (monkeys) 1-24. > 1- I_ 347! 1-1000-800. 160. 1-14. 180. eagle. 680—600. lizards. saimiri man. land sea turtle. 1-265. Nor does brain weight bear any regular relationship to body weight. 291. 1-250.BRAIN SIZE IN RELATION TO MIND. carp. 250-200. 1-500. cat. 30. 360. ass. 1-5680. 500—400. . ox. 400-350. pig. ostrich. shark. 107 500-400. dog. nen horse. 1-35-37. turtle. rat. whale. horse. 1— 1 3 . 1-1200. mole.


It has no reference to knowledge in the numerical sense.CHAPTER VII. and yet the faculties of feeling. but simply that mind which enables the individual state of best in any given to do his relation. But these eight will differ one from another to such an extent may meet his opposite in views and disposition in one way or another. 109) Between the com- . Of ten business or professional men selected random. NORMAL MIND. as the at least eight normal in the at would commonly be regarded sense of being representative of community standard of free agency. GENERAL ASPECT. nor capacity in the geometrical sense. By the term normal mind coordinate action of all I mean the prompt and the mental faculties coexist- ing with pacific disposition or temper. reason and will may be regarded that each in all as in good working ( order.

dent they are not only true or false. But the equivalent of tone of mind. This is evidence that the common normal is not the complete. and that feeling. is must be due originally the product of an idea. barring harmonious difference of language. means to an end — the scope of purpose. whatever that it is evi- but vary importance or value as measured by their final instinct- in utility as their application to may be. condition which. reason and will are somehow defective. precludes tion on any question of common the ac- without interest. this difference and ive to difference in ideas and as every act not naturally habits. the question of cause is resolved into: When we What ideas conduce to mind or approximately perfect? the really normal consider the nature of ideas. directly is or indirectly. or have an opposite as tone of brain owing to effect. essential difference But as there naturally no is between man and man viewed from both psychologic and physiologic standpoints. IO mon types of different races and nations the same condition a exists. mutual dependence. a wasteful expenditure of both time and energy.I BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. it is evident that a . Ideas of pur- pose being both the product of elaboration and motive to acts are either conservative of energy.

that the dispositions of and fear were seldom rarely existed. the ques- environment begins — the relationship of at the germinal stage the chromatic elements the differentiating entity of the protoplasmic nidus or environment. is finally Excluding maternal accidents. malice ever manifested. and powders. its the question arises: en- What harmony with nature advantage— be serene ideas of final purpose are in that in we may mind live to the best — coordinate with natural or necessary en- To this end we might take the characgreat men who have been universally loved vironment. analysis. ters of and respected. the principles. as they All mental reactions depend upon experience and the habits of the thought of the individual and purpose in some extend no on careful in life. EVOLUTION OF CHARACTER. if egotism.NORMAL MIND. purpose false which Ill induce a dissipation of energy will reduce the intellectual range by will Thus feebling effect. and which entity manifested as mind. . far more for our well-being than We would find. and which have done have pills find their actuating principles. which farther than self-preservation. When we tion of of life to its consider mind as an entity.

conscience may be as it per- verted or clouded by criminal career or criminal influence — crimes against truth. for the apprehension of those great which lasting impressions or intuitions upon the reason and Thus action. is stir pave the and ever- later dawn the powers to greater that eternal monitor. . a fixed of the fixed laws or operations and therefore of necessary experience the inherent disposition against tions.— BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. new environment with its the birth. stimuli to the senses. if the evils of inher- ited bent and environment are not too strong for the healthy remnant. 112 prevail under prenatal laws the formative forces At with the minima of impediments. evolved alike in all human Though beings. must go to the wall" Otherwise "the weakest — the wall of dissolution. is to a result that will always ensue all aberrant condi- assume the normal. into manifest consciousness. gives mental motions to a potential basis which is gradually cradled. of which is the exclusive product. justice and econo- my. unalterable as the fixed laws of nature. so to speak. as ever present of the infant mind. The cosmic factors in the way molding conditions. physical is and mental. the conscience. For the same reason that conscience quality —the product of nature.

racial must necessarily give the bearing toward its external child a environment (trans- somatic) which will vary with the differences of transmitted impress. so uncommonly a child of criminal ancestry. by early training. having a potential or instinctive Thus. or hereditary defect. and consequently inclination and intuition will powerful is have different bents. cumulative effect of and ancestral. mind In the infant. reforming. though for a time systematically educated under good influences. the and habits being the most last- ing and forming the basis for future disposition. restriction it is evident that mental must follow with conscience crowded out of notice. just as sometimes the young Indian from college does Of to his racial habits. the civilizing influences have only been conforming tion is due in effect. As the evil habits and conditions which contributed to its may protoplasmic impress. will revert to the criminal class. not to the Such disposi- irksomeness of inaptness. earliest impressions is in its I 1 most plastic stage. all Heredity. the normal tions of the mind may be displaced by purely intui- selfish . course. as the experiences cosmic. transmitted bent that not Indeed. or pointing in vain. a sort of intuitive leaning basis. still rule the nursery.3 NORMAL MIND.

with the faculties of recollection. instinct and intuition lose their official and questions of conservative rational consideration. naturally treated. I may distinct.— J BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. experi- ences and intuitions have given sufficient assurance that certain things are right until intelligence makes duty and purpose more definite and Here. such as the character of the burglar or the political or knave. so that when they arrive at the age of reason. by suggestion gradually dis- pose the mind to analysis. judgment and reason slowly evolved in due order. and though it cannot be logically solved by it. then synthesis. all The experiences children. cial anew" It such cases that must be "born is — radically can be brought in commer- changed in views harmony with — before they natural economy with the great final purpose in nature. which can only be correctly apprehended. observe that the child of the country — of . by the free. even normal mind The tuition first — the fully stage of infancy almost entirely ideas associated in part. of are essentially the same. is by ruled and instinct in- At in the acquisitive form. final importance interest arise for Later on the question of purpose dawns upon the youthful mind. 14 ideas and criminal character be formed.

freedom which of discernment truth. and the power at their highest degrees. characteristic of the tion of the greatest of attention with power normal mind. likely to untutored of the peasant. by it is principles or of choice are at all times ruled Full self-possession contains no egotism. Self-control. malice. for The good to it is the necessary product of logical living. One of the first great impressions which naturally . in harmony with first the self-evident truths in nature. justice the It is of the will is and are and economy. or fear. STATES OF MIND.NORMAL MIND." peace because of living in more harmony with wisdom and evince great in line intuition with a final and common purpose sense. essential the condi- and power The commensurate. 5 artificial is more profoundly imbued with the results of cosmic impressions. acquire mind and thus prophetic later in life is Thus the insight. great and self-evident fact that the highest self is de- pendent on the attainment of the same by others is an ever present thought as a dictate of conscience. pastoral surroundings — being I I from freer distraction than the child of a metropolis. as illustrated in the "Cottar's may Saturday Night.

malice and fear as neces- sary conditions. came City Workhouse. efficiency along all and works progressive for charity. to the is human mind the sense of absolute so gravitation. and by pro- He had served several . whether of wealth or poverty. lute dependence. Thus gather guiding principles which with growing we knowledge lead to a fuller recognition of our rela- tionship to time. to this. harmony lines. the mag- nanimity and the self-sacrifice of true greatness. and while we perceive our high dignity natural economy. when logically exercised. But these great and guiding principles which work for harmony and progress may be their birth by the inculcation stifled in morbid or of false teaching and example. we in carry the conviction of abso- Witness the modesty.I BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. in the — the law psychologic the fact of inherited envi- many and varied misfortunes. gives basis to which. and thus the selfish character develop with egotism. 16 comes dom. eternity. years of age. A typical under case of undiluted selfish character my notice He was a fession a in the New York man about 30 bank burglar. after the sense of free- ronment with its dependence speak. and an Infinite Personality. of Following world.

' ' Thus who I am more than I am. 1 As liberty during their engaged him was then acting-surgeon room. terms in the penitentiary. with a delusional basis. that 7 but was committed to the one year on a minor offense. and that it was reasonable to get every- thing now. " is quite a different thing from the positiveness of decision. It is an exhibition of personal importance with disrespect for others without just cause. facts his history of early After discussing all sorts of questions with him at different times. an unusually fellow. prisoners were allowed last I I He was and clever seemed incompatible with and continued crime. no matter about the rights of others possessed whatever he wanted. the assertion of a truth. It is very and conspicuous among the insane and tially from a an abnormal product. workhouse for (I month's service.NORMAL MIND. as the his niceness policy. was simply habit or Egotism. or heroic action. I more I 'nice looking." shapely that me my to shave to the prison) in might have the opportunity of finding the roots of his character. common is essen- . selfish disposition to and arises be esteemed more than our merit. the fact was revealed that he firmly held the belief there was no future state.

and with no disposition considerations. mental principles a telescopic view of bring no fears.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. It curaself- to apologetic lack of the sense of dependence. The fear of imperfect understanding Fear from guilty and is as transient as the cause. innocent. can childhood is have no the fear of fears. as egotism. which. though it tive in its tendency." less exists in all acts therefrom. Fear its own viz. correction springs directly from ishness as an attitude for chosen of "getting even. and scurity ineffectual. or in some cowardly is indirect quite a different method thing from wrong. acts is the fear of conscious desert of punishment . Il8 Malice. whether To live in the light of funda(common sense) is to have such of guilt or disease. more or The less uncertainty of result. life Not that consistent action can to so live is to live in shade or obscurity. in view of the final result in the light of final purpose. as the disposition to injure others purely for the sake of inflicting pain or antagonism. so that acts must carry with them and fears arise. states of mind and — a necessary comes from the ob- which necessarily more or abnormal is a protection along the product of uncertainty is for has the same delusional basis condition of selfishness.. It may be lines.

works to the disadvantage of the subject. and consequently of mind. mal dispositions and its all relations — conditions / full view with com- depending on a Anger is a product of all abnorof mind and brain. like fear. has a disturbing action on the mind because of the element of uncertainty of result or personal responsibility.NORMAL MIND. be distinguished from active self-protection. and anxiety. It must . it is in its nature it is a the least aberrant of abnormal dispositions of the mind. Grief. and while symptom not a normal state precluded by a clear and plete self-possession full is of imperfection. Complete immunity from solute perfection — a somatic it would imply ab- impossibility. and is thereby mingled with fear. though not always manifested. as the effect of unavoidable or unintentional evils or social loss which cannot be replaced. It is simply a disturbance of temper or co-ordinate mental action. and has reference to I unknown remote 19 results with indefinite persistence. therefore is It is form or degree a of frequently associated with personal misgivings of our own real or fancied delinquency in relation to the object. Anger. of the It whole is situation acting brain.

manifested as an eccentricity. 120 Love the outflow of the sense or realization of is mutual dependence. in conflict Sociability. energy. ac- or reason pre- Love begotten serving the cause. of is dissipation of result. while sociability means may ence normally a pro- it can be claimed only by the fitness to an end and therefore an exclusiveness duct of love.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. in intuition the most intense. intuition forms. in habits from the conventional Differ- (eccentricity) . that of reason lasting. and thus cording to whether dominate most is it may have many instinct. As social disposi- general or promiscuous. tion which in — Man normally has a childhood is just as talents carry with use. intuition and reason. required for the attainment of a particu- otherwise there would be Thus. is therefore the normal product of instinct. them a desire for their years increase this disposition becomes more and more select for specific purpose of mutual advantage and for that purpose systematic exclusiveness is lar end. mutual need of reciprocity. is It It the sacrifice of present personal desires which are with natural economy. It is is is of the harmony and the assurance of coordination with nature and the root of all con- servation of energy in the line of true advance.

if any.NORMAL MIND. but other- intensity of character wise eccentricity symptom a is the delusional of state (disease). Principles. j Joy. By murder I mean either a violent or slow process of destruction to others. (Charity. MORAL DISPOSITIONS.. (2) By suicide I mean either a violent or slow process of self destruction. THE FACULTIES. MANIFESTATIONS. 12 1 due to exclusiveness for a rational purpose indicates above the common. MANIFESTATIONS. ] Kindness. etc. but they embrace mental process. The one may wear the appearance of the other and thus have failure or success accordingly. By all reason. ' ' SELFNESS (A unsocial) etc. the other. Few. . (Courtesy. benevolence \ — (1) Peace. (Deception. viewed from the standpoint of funda- mental principles. l/ serenity feab. Fatuity. So keen can in special lines.) (Social) v \ ) etc. i Suicide. ' ) ( modesty. Vanity. individuals are exclusively the one or the other. feeling and will The one cannot of mental action. ) K etc' (Hatred. j Sacrifice. (Simplicity. but usually vacillate between the two principles owing to weakness. EtESCLTS. j Bravado.. BE3ULT3. ] Theft. that disciplined hundreds of objects exam- observers can accurately note in a room by a glance on pass- . By fatuity 1 mean that state of mind which has such a mixture of both these dispositions that more stupor than impulse results. Primary actuating malice. acquisitive faculty of receiving impressions is power become the power the mind has through the organs of the body and translating them this we commonly into ideas. vision for ple. [ ) (Forgiveness. (Cowardice. as seen lytic table The exist without distinctive in the include modes of accompanying ana- (page 129). Notes. >Gaio. \ Truth. NORMAL. ) V Progress. ] Pride. _. etc. (Anger ) { EGOTISM. ) V (Courage ) Power. ) etc.^- ) yj ' I LOVE ->• I (Suspicion. ABNORMAL. Murder.

early student days. or the power of holding impressions or ideas subconsciously for future use. according habits of associating ideas. or about as quickly as I now That the mind do a word. I In my own detail experience in acquired the faculty of read- ing a whole line at a glance. preserves all experiences and thoughts. but is reproduce ideas is . The conservative facility. and which she neither understood nor gave attention to at the time of hearing them.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. 122 ing its door and afterward describe every which was within view. classified according to one relationship or another. of goes to show the imperishability mental acquisitions and the vast amount acquired unconsciously. and therefore made more or less available for use when needed. ordinarily is also constantly receiving impressions which are not consciously perceived at the time is evidenced by som- nambulistic feats and the doings of persons preoccupied. The commonly known as properly the power of the mind to from memory. The who delirium of fever repeated whole pas- in the case of an ordinary female servant sages of Greek and within Hebrew which had been recited her hearing years before. It is either volun- representative faculty memory.

This faculty improved the careful retracing of thoughts a mass of times at I of the ideas. and appears to be exclu- Voluntary reproduction. strictly speaking.NORMAL MIND. when a student in London. I practiced as an experiment for a number of weeks the habit of daily reviewing my experiences in minute detail. only to be brought in view when the mind is fully emancipated from somatic conditions (perversions). This faculty habitually exercised can perform wonders compared to the degree in which exists. . I 16 years at Edinburgh. tary or involuntary. but also page and setting containing them faculties of perception fifty in pictorial by practicing by sequence. Indeed. but in in the purely voluntary form sively a human faculty. When a lad of wading through the ponTurner and Liebig's chemistry. some persons can it commonly instantly recall almost any forgotten experiences. Later on. derous tomes of systematically tested five hours' my recollection after four or consecutive study. The and recollection show what mental material exists subconsciously. and found that many could not only recall the representation. is man it I 23 usually both. a process of exclusion in favor groups of of certain lines of association or ideas. covering forty to pages of new matter.

I found that by directing tion to a given point ideas would within a space of time less and then holding it my atten- passively. so that . was the But the most remarkable revelation rapidity with which a large territory and only partly by recollection. instantly cluster about the central one by the natural law would have a of association pictorial — suggestion. 124 beginning with the tween and 6 5 p. is faculty of does upon a conven- system or predetermined of ideas The line of association one of the veloped and highest faculties of the latest de- intellect. tional sometimes could cover — many thousands of perceptions within a few moments. last my At eyes. but the task first required considerable effort to connect recline all the per- soon acquired the power I of reviewing the experiences (subconscious perceptions) of many months than an hour. The review seemed complete. ceptions of a day. depending as it by the individual. tion I It was mostly by sugges- recollection. I representation in natural order and seemed to again experience something of the original feelings that accompanied them.— BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. although some fields of experience required more effort than others to complete them. would comfortably I upon a sofa and close Be- sensation or thought. m.

and as the creature of weaken in self-discipline it is the first most brain degenerations. strictly speaking. when degenerative changes it is one of the The first to of the brain take place. but with than is delegated by faculties. which calls in service every is Reason mental process.NORMAL MIND. weaken. the faculty of recollection chiefly is dependent on —the faculty of recalling anything wished through a system preestablished by the This enables reason to advance individual. to relate things according to highest form 25 I Its reason. upon the ties Its its power no more power of action constituents. beyond intuition and also produce certainty for Reason pure and simple mise. the subsidiary strength of action (the will) depends relative efficiency of all the governed by fundamental or first mental faculprinciples dis- cerned by intuition and reason from necessary or . elaboratly e faculty the is power mind of the purpose or plan. reason. The regulative faculty of the intellect. I doubt if is possessed by any other is the presidential creature than man. faculty to This is why fixed delu- sions usually appear long before the simpler faculties show any marked enfeeblement. is sur- the last and most complex faculty evolved.

—for The the preserva- instinct of —for the preservation of the sexual species. the expression of elaborative efforts of organization and parts for conservative ends. or 2. is the first action. instead of a propensity. poetic Such a condition is when only approxi- . It is higher animals and them. If the state normal and the related subconscious data are correct. — to the As advantage of the a propensity. are the principles progress. and known as common sense universal experiences common (not that work Instinct harmony and for is They notions). i. Cosmical such as the sucking of the babe. or the pecking of chicks tion of the individual. but bearing a concept as a product. The instinct oi preponderating talent.126 BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. Intuition is also a subconscious action of the mind. instinct manifestation of subconscious elaborative which is a necessary condition of growth and experience. or the desire to ex- an inherited power ercise species for final purpose. mind of the It is the a faculty is mind is to all the often mistaken for reason in power as distinguished common of the from the natural or logical. There are three principal forms: the instinct of first acts. 3. intuition must be accurate pronounced. attraction instinct.

NORMAL MIND. minds can as few consciously calculate to a conclusion with sess the more naturally than men. of the will the and is the first appreciation of an faculties. who commonly 27 well informed live and conditioned. In weakened and the sub- less passive. so Attention. more it is reliable than the exercise of reason in the imperfect form common. complete sub- . so that incomplete. I But our great motive ideas are mately attainable. as in infancy. together with object is exhibited. mostly intuitional. and if the favoring circumstances remain undiminished. Attention pro side than the con side is given more of the thing pre- sented or the quality suggested. then the impression or notion received of the object will accord with the measure of attention given mental fault the attention ject is more or perception to the is is it. more or less. poshigher degree. if —The power of attention If it is power the condition required for object by the perceptive equals the measure of scrutiny and the measure of scrutiny equals the nature and number of ideas engaged and the order we bring them to bear on the manner in which the which in the object. data involved even in everyday problems. and in those who are in a it all Women.

BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. which subjectivity of the mind. and thus they are more or less subjective to external direction. self-possession which mind of the will to exclude or substitute ideas as directed. is a normal condition. 128 jection (hypnotism) will result. is mani- its the product of suggestion on subcon- scious factors in the found Arrest of attention because of greater equivalent to a higher tone It is most manifest in those a poetic habit of mind rather than a scien- —systematic or logical. and thus hypnotism or mesmerism may be induced by an clusive direction of attention instituted person. ex- by a second Voluntary exclusive direction of attention to a negative object will induce auto-hypnotism. who have intellectual accord with the law of In normal the association of ideas. but in proportional to inversely mind controlled by the in power in the intellectual Emotion is of the nervous system. No one can be . tific it can be is most pro- but least manifest as there less physiologic excitement. Ordinary manifested emotion sion of confusion is largely an expres- and weakness. is palsy of the Emotion festation range. is is It is will. jective state of mind is The sub- equivalent to passive atten- tion or the taking cognizance of nothing but evi- dence supporting the idea suggested.

of well-being is the expression of satisfied claims for physiologic requirements. Per- versions of different organs have different effects or suggestions on the ence. like hunger..) causal disSub-conscious ideational coherence by the law of Association operating in inverse. The 6ub-conscious action of the mind in a conscious relation bearing a concept Reason.ratio to the time. or misery. Suggestion. A mental faculty is an inter-dependent mode of activity. Separation by affinities or qualities or structural tion. Instinct is the first manifestation of mind. BEOULATIVE. new and faculty. t Memory. and Reason the last or highest. The mind by their sensory influ- different mental effects of drugs is thus . the Will is dependent on Reason and Reason on the efficiency of the subsidiary faculties. I 29 hypnotized without submitting (consciously or unconsciously) and many cannot resist.of lower and undeveloped organ izations operating in lieu of reason or experience for con The inherent 6ervative ends.) External Perception. i rela- or The between two things a Affirming dissimilarity things. Judgment. I | ELABORATIV (Relational Analysis. Active Attention or the power of voluntary direction and exclusion is a measure of the freedom or power of the Will. or gaining passive by direction or attention control. Intuition. Internal Perception. Intuition the later. The voluntary reproduction of ideas to consciousness accordThe involuntary return of ideas to consciousness through ing to individual habit or system. the secret is (feeling) largely is the product of the actual state of the bodily organs which are more or by thought. to all (Common natural rtural or association affinity. similarity comparison of two with each other through a third. Consciousness of externals through their effect on the senses Consciousness of Self through contrast with externals in —Sensation translation— Perception proper. and the feeling is the expression of a need. space and tance between things (ideas). It is the "heart" or storehouse of the intellect REPRESENTATIVE. Instinct. less influenced Pain SYNOPTIC ANALYSIS OF THE COGNITIVE FACULTIES. Conjoining by affinities qualities or structural I or rela- tion. [Imagination. It is this ren- dering an audience subjective.) animals.NORMAL MIND.— (1) (2) (3) (4) priori or First Principles— the product of necessary or common experience— in action with new relations. I CONSERVATIVE. (Exclusively human.) Common sense—a Notes. Synthesis. ACQUISITIVE. The mind being ever active is always in a new relation. {Reason and Will. that Emotion of the orator's success.) Recollection. {Perception.

NORMAL DECADENCE." is ''there it my in is to childhood pictures as I an immense makes us more sym- . other organs the brain all commonly is the normal disposition of the mind As to recur to early experiences I in would powers much its of the bodily frame. and girlhood. 130 probably due to their action on one or other of the various vegetative organs by the selective affinities of their different cell elements which each possess. rather than to any direct action on the brain. and at present preparing her reminiscences. it indicating advanced age present the follow- ing extracts from letters of distinguished persons who up ployed to the date of writing one way or another. Elizabeth Cady Stanton. as strong and She says: "I love think over the joys and sorrows of looked then.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. and to see myself advantage in She thinks doing this. appear that the mind should retain beyond those re- of old age. in From were actively em- Mrs. now over 80 years of age. I glean the fact that her mind active with a vivid memory. Dotage or second childhood garded as a normal terminal over by general waste or affected But as much the least is starvation.

though profoundly interested in and preoccu- pied by current affairs. Joseph Medill." Miss Frances Willard. President of the National for some time W. the may be goes. and more desirous trials. more tender with pathetic with the young. past that I says: "I have observed was growing inclined to think of that which had been of especial interest to me my in The same childhood and youth. says: "I can discover no further change J2> years in .T. on the other hand.. The more backward looking over. ency was clearly manifested in my tend- dear mother who was with me until the 88th year of her and who retained every faculty until the end. all that is persons must more Those who active interest in the questions T retain an and reforms day. far as my observation marked more they people in all years.NORMAL MIND. 56 years of age. and President of the of age. So strongly to me.C." 1 I3I 'with a vivid. I childhood from suffering what did from restrictions.U. this tendency who are known is age. or less dwell in the past. be of their more occupied with the living present. would fain save to their make them happy. keen But her opinion memory. editor Chicago Tribune Chicago Press Club." The Hon. would.

Emeritus Pro- . it did formerly in younger I have always delighted upon and remembrances I suppose this is quite of my child- common with rational beings." From N. less accurate. I32 my mind the action of than can be accounted for by experience. As a matter of fact in reflection hood all days. the experience of most elderly per- judgment or reasoning powers do not advancing years." Ex-Governor Oglesby. M. My mind recurs to youthful events and dwells on pleasurable or painful matters which then took place. writes me: "I cannot say that my mind recurs more frequently to early experiences in advancing age than years. marked change of the is topics... 72 years of age. now thrice governor of Illinois. especially in dates.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. seem I my teens in is or the first decade thereafter. S. though to be impaired with cannot think or conclude as rapidly as years. and The most more recent occurrences seems weaker. further study on many men and that memory wider observation of things. Davis.D. the mem- ory being quite vivid and accurate of things which happened I believe this My sons.D. but consume more time in past in arriving at fixed conclusions. LL. names and sequences of events.

Northwestern University. finally.NORMAL MIND. facts think this "There life. Early experiences are the more profound and enduring "the child is in their influences father to the on life as man. and things of recent date become less impressive. pinnacle of experience templation begins. 82 years of age: my own mind and therapeutic applications earlier years of professional made from 60 life. press forward . ex president and founder of the American Medical Association. I and men- tally active people. Thus. Certain of the it is that more durable than those early impressions are far years onward to the end of easily traced in all educated is clearly in is a distinct tendency to revert back to principles. is until. and the punctuation points of early which lie at the basis of all life. the reached and historic con- The acquisitive faculty wanes with the decline of the sensory and motor powers." It is the thus evident that the normal dispositions of mind in advanced age are retrospective and contemplative." and they sink to obscurity by the calls of an ever changing environ- ment of necessity and ambition. character. I 33 and fessor of Medicine. the disposition to retrospection is born of the growing retirement from the daily cares of active combat.

fails to furnish the degree of energy requisite for co-operative cease to be factors in the vidual. It seem thus would that dotage is not a normal or necessary condition of old age. through strain of ambition. may is observe that for the same indestructible. differing from normal decadence. 134 consideration of for the the wisdom that comes with maturity of decadence as a blessing to rising But the process of degeneration. as the servile mechan- ism of the mind. the highest type of the individual. and because similar similar conditions. but a product of degeneration as differing from normal or natural decline. effort and the veil of — remains labor. may forget the inexorable exactions of nature and thus trespass the conservative limits. Also. time and space evolution of the indi- mystery —the occasion of all as ever. At last the brain. as generations. for it is and environment part.BRAIN IX RELATION TO MIND. must play a though ever so that heredity slight. to solicit the attention of the living and spur the strong to thought and conquest. mind is immor- results can only follow character cannot change post- . not to be presumed any will leave indi- vidual untainted with the effects of their evils. In conclusion I reason that matter tal.

shocks. and is relative to individu U capacity. Crim- Malice. NORMAL MIND. inality. so in the exit from this must life Thus the mind most next.— (1) (2) (3) <l) (5) 0.isis. Fatuity. THE PHILOSOPHY OF DEGENERATION. By Insanity I mean a defect of reason. Illusion. poisons. Fault of Blood. Moral Delusion. MORAL BESULTS. any condition of brain which does not successfully react to normal mental demands. but normal sentiments of relationship are absent or By criminality inoperative. Acts of innocence.| Notes. Insomnia is deficiency of brain rest in any decree. "5 a £ "§. a theory which some evolutionists hold. strains. Premise—The power Discernment with the power of Choice implies commensurate personal responsibility therefore degradation has primarily a moral cause and finally a mental result. pathogenic germs. and not atavism. nil decrees and combinations arc found. Potential evil (negativo impress) of protoplasmic l>. 1 Insanity. : deficient food. mortem any way possible ante-mortem. Quantity. Fault of Blood. are unrecognized. external pressure on them. justice and economy are totally disregarded when in conrtict with desire. J/ Insomnia. mechanical obstruction to their supplies . the Intel lect is clear. £-^ Egotism. the result of registrations of ancestral fault PHYSICAL ASPECT. 135 most ciples will gain in that an entrance of the fit subjective to First Prin- time and eternity. Depression. As each condition tends to beget the other. Current. condition against our best welfaro or final purpose. truth. Remorse. degeneration of blood vessels. Moral paresis in one form or another is almost universal. ment. Hallucination. Moral Fault Def. g *. (?i Moral palsy or paresis is a defect of will. A nxiety. BRAIN . or reduced capacity for enjoyment. IRrinH 0/ moral /nuW. no grief follows wrongdoing. poisons. Excite- Moral obliquity. and implies the possession of normal sentiments with abnormal habits—a succumbing to temptations—a defect of self control in one or more ways. embolism. . dissipations. etc. no delusion exists fixed against reason. a delusional state of mind rtxed Brain atony is > against reason or evidence.—Aay Acts of guilt. accidents. Vasomotor disturbances Reduced power of secretory Defective 6ecrelion or elimination of glands perverted secretion organic or inorganic glands . indolence. (free functiuoiog of ) MENTAL ASPECT. Stupor. MENTAL RESULTS. Despair. ' t ' Fault of blood. Irritation. Loss. <: Shame.. § EXHAUSTION. • -Aoh of ftniocnce. Privations. etc Acta of gvilt. = Crimina- 5' s— lity. Defeat. OB CAUSATIONAL ANALYSIS OF MIND FAULT. etc OrieJ. Quality. gpATONY. thrombus. grief follows wrong-doing. first principles 1 mean a defect of feeling or conscience. By degeneracy I simply mean disease. f . Injustice. . £ Fear j 1^ £33• "~i Mental obliquity. STARVATION. ^ Congestion Anemia palsy. Causes and effects operate in a circle and run parallel t each other.


p. . Hist. N. Luys. r Ayers. 135 and CHAPTER 1) I 141. iv p.Chirurgical Rev. Jan. 9) Herrick.. From an examination of brains ranging in age up to 25 years. and Foreign Medico. . Jan.. Oct. 7) Huxley Lecture. Brain. Med. Editorial Feb. Jour.. ed. p. 15) Balfour. Dec. Le Bon. 8. 13) 6) Ayers. . pp. 7'he Senile Heart. 1893. 1. Oct. Sem . 1899. Comfiar A re urology.. 8) Virchow. 3) Morison. T Proceedings of the Cincinnati Soc. "The 2) 3) 4) 5) Physical Basis of Thought. Jour. Westphail. Jour. (16) Vierordt Edin. Oct . p. 11) Schiifer. Tuke's Diet. Sankey. 9. The Crozvd (sec. of A at. vol. Jour. 6) 5) 4. Die Allen's /dis- positions. II. 1898. 10) Phelps. Med. 3.. 4) Medical Record (New York). The Brain atid Lts Functions. 1898. i.TEXT REFERENCES. 31. Quoted by Donaldson.) p. Gustave. 1894. vol. p. CHAPTER Hughlings. i. Med. Jour. Morison Lecture. Mar. xi. '. of Psycho. Ment. 158. . A eurology. Sci July. Tuke's Diet. Brit. p. Sci Oct. i) Jackson. 1890. Lancet. Text Book of Physiology vol. 14) Morison. (137) 415 males' and 424 females' Quoted by Burke. Jour. 1899. 1898. . 282.." 1899.. 1. Morison. Compar. Jour.. 1898. 146. vol. Foster. J. also Oberstiner and others Turner. 1899. Ment. Med.. Lancet. of Pscho. Med. Pedagog . Beneke. 225. J.. 1896. Donaldson. 1898. Jan. V. Americayi Text Book of Physiology. 12) Thudichum.. Simpson. Edin.

Dis Nov ( . Dr. (17) (18) (19) CHAPTER p. Jour. Sci..... Arch. 75. III. 1898. Text Book of Physiology. Die Localization des Geistigen 1'organge Imbersondise der sinnisum Pfinderngen... Dr. 1894 (4) Kaiser. S. furr de Gesemontes Physiologie. Dr. Oberstiner. Chrochley. Oct. smell injury. Dis. bd. Starr and Van Gieson. 51. 53. Nerv. Jour. Sci. Groiuth of the Brain. xix. Prof. Bianchi. Rome. Quoted by Barker.. April. 1896. Prof W. Jour. and speech are the most constant to respond lo marked on either side of the middl Chapter IV show: the brain are merely hypothetical. Med. 1895.. Jan. 1895. 1895. Spiller. Beevor. 138 Boyd. (2) Donaldson. Quoted by Gowers. 21. Philadelphia Med. Am. p.. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Taylor. winter. 1898. The to some centers for vision. (3) Kaes Am. 1899. (12) (13) 1.. H. E. (9) Mivart. Monokow. Jour. (8) Clapham. also vol. . Anthro. Codrington. (Epitome) July 16. Christison. Inst. 1898. and Ment. (5) Carpenter. Me?it. 1898. Royal Society. ii. Oct. Brain. Biglow (Gage case). Foster and Hickson. 1898. CHAPTER W IV. JVerv. 1850. Archives de Physiologie. 247. Jour. Jan. G. Quoted by Burke in Ped. Brain.. Med. 1898. Jour. Record.. Principles of Hinnan Physiology. Jour. p. Sci. Proceedings International Med. 20. 1891. Philos. Donaldson.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIND. Prof. Sent. Cong. Man and (10) Goltz. of Med. arm and extent as to the leg centers. and Edinger in 1896. Feb. Jour. Knapp.. June. while all the areas third of that no centers are absolutely defined or essential. Apes. Am. 27. Trans. (1) Flechsig. St. Pfluger's Archiv. . 549 H C Lea and Verger. (11) Starr. Jour. hearing. and Surg. . Harvard University Boston Aled. George. ) (6) Sellier (7) . 1896. in 1893. Oct. . (7) Instructor in Neurology. July. vol. (4) Racudrip. 1898. (8) This diagram shows the conflict of views Brain Centers. p. 1886. Med. Brit. . Die Functiojien der Ga?iglienzellen des Halsmack. vol. J. and Ment. 1861. Goltz. autumn. Francis.



Taylor, E.








Bailey, Dr. Pierce.

Jour. Xeri>.


and Ment.


Dis., Jan., 1898.

Med. Jour., Oct., 1898.
Boston Med. and Surg. Jour., Feb.
J. J.

Am. Jour. Med



Hadden, Dr. W. B.


Andral, Prof. M., University of Paris.



Mar., 1S99.

Brain, Jan., 1889.

Quoted ReJ. Hand-Book
Med. Sci. vol. 4 p 97.
Boland and Whitney. Bostoti Med. and Surg-. Jour., April 7, 1898.
Henchen. Brain. Vol. xvi, p. 177.
The Tu?ictions of the Brain, 1886, p. 273.
Brain, July, 1889.
Giornal del R. Acad, di Torino, 1874.




Eichler, Arch. J. Psychiatrie, vol. viii, 1878.
Med. Chir. Trans., 1846, p. 55.





Zcitschrijt J. Rationelle Medidicin Bd. 36, 1869.
Schafer, Prof. A. E.
Brain, 1893, p. 154.




Mcintosh, Prof. W.


An. Un. Med.






Jour. Ment.


Parker, Dr. A.


Sci., April, 1898.


Jour. Acad. Nat.

Sci., Philadelphia, vol. x, part


Wm. Jour, of Anatomy,
Man and Apes.
G. ReJ. //and Book Med


Turner, Prof. Sir


Mivart, Prof St. G.


Wilder, Prof. B.

Oct., 1S90.

Sci., vol. viii.

Varstudien einer zvissenschajllichen Morphologic
und Physiologie des Menschlichen GeJiirns als Sedemorgans
2 Abh., 1862, Tab. i, S. 14.
Jour. Nerv. and Ment. Dis., vol. xx.
oj the Ass'n oj American Anatomists, 1895.
vol. viii, 1S78.
Jour. Anat. and Physiology, Oct., 1898.
(10) Cunningham.
(n) Krause, quoted by Hartman. Anthropoid Apes.
(12) Luciani, quoted An. Un. Med. Sci
Jour. Nerv. and Ment. Dis Jan 1898.
(14) Taylor.
Jour. Anthro. Inst., Nov 1877, p. 142.
(15) Rae, J.
Jour. Anthro. Inst., vol. 9
Wochenschrift, 1877, No. 41.

Wagner, R.

















Tuke's Diet. Psych. Med.

Takes Diet. Psycho.
Quoted by Ireland.
Cordova and Adrian.
Down, Langdon. Brit. Med. Jour., Jan. 8, 1887.
Bateman. Jour. Ment. Sci., April, 1897.
Hommarberg. Studieyi ilber Klinik u Pathologie den Idiots nebsi
tintersuche7iger iiber den Normales Ban der Hirnrinde, 189.
Simms. Pop. Sci. Monthly, Dec, 1898.
Med. Times and Gazette, Nov. 17, 1883, p 580.
Quoted by Diebierre. Trait Ele??ientaire D'A?iatomie De L' Homme.
Wagner. Am. U. Med. Scs. 1891, vol. v, g 15







Edin. Med. Jour ., Jan., 1891, p. 650.
Med. Record, June 22, 1895.

Lancet, June 20, 1895, p 149.
Jour. Me?it. Sci., Jan., 1895, p. 150.
Med. Record, June 22, 1895, p 791.
Grundries der Physiologie, Berlin, 1823,
Grant, Cowie.




Med. Jour., Oct. 26, 1872,
Pop. Sci. Monthly, Dec 1898.

p. 465.


Riverside ATat. Hist., vol.
Jour. Acad. Sci Phila., vol. vi, 1869.

Le Bon, Gustave.






iVeurologist, Jan.j 1888.


p. 22.


p. 11.

Ahon — A


used in place of neuron when neuron

the cell and




to signify

parts as a complete anatomical unit.

Anthropoid— Man-like.
Ambiguous — Difficult to


Assymetrical Not in proportion with its opposite side
Atrophy Wasting from lack of nourishment.

or half.

Axiom — A

self-evident truth.

Capsule — A

membranous covering

or sack.

— Lined o ermeated with lime salts, usually from rheumatism
Cerebrum — The upper and larger hemispheres of the brain and known

as the fore-bra in in lower animals.


— The

under and smaller hemispheres of the brain and conhind-brain in lower animals

stituting part of the

— Existing from birth.
— Rounded projections formed
Correlative — Working in harmony with.



— A false idea,

by depressions or


the result of defective reasoning or the improper

association of ideas.

Dendron — A


tree-like figure.

species or thing special in



and character.

Fissure — A narrow cleft or separation.
Function The purpose of an organ or part.

— Resembling a spindle.
— Gram — 15 .434 grains troy.



Ganglia — Bundles of
Gyri Convolutions.
Glia — A bindweb cell


Hallucination — A

— web-like substance of

the brain

— neuroglia.

suggestion or imagination originating from a disturb-

ance in some part of a sensory organ.


all . Psychic — — Mental pertaining to mind. — Pertaining to tubes. Microcephalic — Small head. Stereotyped— Fixed or habitual. Micro-organism — A germ mm. Reacting Responding to conditions. within a nucleus. — Millimetre. Somatic Body or physical organism — — — Specific — A definite or fitting quality or quantity. Toxic — Irritant — poisonous. Pyramidal — Shape of a pyramid. I42 Histologic — Relating to the minute structure of tissues. Neural — Pertaining to a nerve or nerves. Neuroglia Pertaining to the web-like substance — — of the brain. Pigmeyited— Containing coloring matter.BRAIN IN RELATION TO MIX P. Sulci — Grooves. Metabolism — The natural chemistry or necessary changes tissues — supply and demand operating in the cell. weighing less than 1000 grams. blood-vessels. Homogeneous — The same composition throughout. — A cell within a Nucleolus — A cell cell. . Motor Having to do with motion. its vital center. Lesion An injury or abnormal change. — — Polymorphic Many shaped. Molecule — The minutest particle of a substance. Physiognomy — Facial expression. but differing in form. — — Menstruation — A periodical and natural condition in living of sexual disturbance in females. Pathologic Relating to disease. representing a possible isthmus. Sensory Pertaining to sensation and sense organ impressions. Pathology — Abnormal process disease. ^g inch. Homologous — Similar in function. = through the microscope. sometimes used to mean the nerve cell with off-shoots.u=. Neuron — A nerve its Nucleus visible only xooo metre fibre.ooi mm. Vadum — A Vascular shallow in a fissure. Illusion — A wrong perception of an object.

paralysis. Tumor with mental integrity reported by Dr. quiet than she used to be. Age 20. Case 11. Absolutely no mental symptoms. Enormous gliomatous tumor destroying the greater part of the left frontal lobes and a large part of the left occipital lobe. Two sarcomatous tumors in the left frontal Cases of Brain Bramwell lobe.SUPPLEMENT TO CHAPTER IV. involving and and temporo-sphenoidal No no deafness. no speech symptoms and no motor symptoms. The black areas on the figures indicate the location and surface extent of the tumors. Sarcomatous tumor on the right side. The case numbers are the same as in Dr. widow. mental symptoms existed before operation except that the patient was much more Case 10. at no aphasia. Byron Brain. psychical blindness. Age 41. 1S99. Case 4. shop-girl. excise officer. Nodulated tumor involving the right angular gyrus and the adjacent parts of the parietal and occipital lobes Mental imwith extensive softening of the subjacent white matter. chemist. Age 34. Casey. Illustration middle of the brain. laborer. CASE 7 CASE- (143) 15 . Cyst in right temporo-sphenoidal lobe and a tumoj (glioma) the size of a large walnut in the posterior end second left frontal convolution. but marked mental impairment and. Bramwell's article. Age 32. The in posterior third of the second left frontal convolution (Exner's writing-speech center) was entirely destroyed and up to the time of the symptoms and no agraphia shows cross section through the operation there were absolutely no mental (loss of power to write). times. Age 63. The speech center and a very large portion of motor area were completely No destroyed. of the pairment and loss of memory. Case 13. yet there was absolutely no paralysis and no speech defect. Spring.

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