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BRAIN AND PERSONALITY

D. CONSULTING PHYSICIAN TO HOSPITAL. NEW YORK DODD. PHYSICIAN TO THE ROOSEVELT HOSPirAL. MEAD & COMPANY 1907 . CONSULTING PHYSICIAN TO NEW YORK STATE MANHATTAN HOSPITALS FOR THE insane.L. JBTC. FORMERLY THJl NEW YORK RED CROSS PROFESSOR OF THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE AND OF DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. L. NEW YORK EX-PRESIDENT OF VNIVERSITY MEDICAL COLLEGE.. tHB NEW YORK ACADEMY OF MEDICINE.D. M.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY OR THE PHYSICAL RELATIONS OF THE BRAIN TO THE MIND BY WILLIAM HANNA THOMSON.

1906 Printed in America . September. by DODD. 1906. MEAD & COMPANY »^ Published.577y Copyright.

. . 278 . . . 173 Practical Applications .CONTENTS PAOa CHAPTER I II Historical Introduction . 234 . . . Account op the Physical Basis op THE Mind .32 III Brain Weight and Mental Faculty IV Significance of TUm ±3xvAIN V The VII VIII IX X Faculty of speech 48 Being a Double or Paih Organ VI 1 .75 The Faculty of Speech— Continued 104 Evolution of a Nervous System . 60 . 130 The Brain and Personality . . . The Significance of sleep V . . . .

org/details/brainpersonality1906thom .Digitized by the Internet Arcinive in 2010 with funding from Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School http://www.archive.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY CHAPTER I HISTOEICAL INTEODUCTION Theke is no more interesting subject in science than the physical conditions under which we become thinking beings. because the bodily organ of the mind however is Hence a thing of physics. discussion waived as pertaining about mind may to the province of be meta- physics this cannot be done with that collection of matter which is called the brain. it mind and matter come 1 together. science is concerned with the Though knowledge which comes from investigation and experi- ment in the physical world. In and there- . yet she cannot evade being questioned about the relations of matter to mind.

lowed up until a wire came to The passage of thought conduct them.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY fore is we cannot help asking how much the one dependent upon the other. As mind far as the is concerned. there are certain material seats of mental functions in the brain trated beyond mistake by the That purely now demonfact that when is these are physically disorganized their spe- 2 . be admitted that no study of its tions can give the least inkling tion. the one case how it in in the other are But the wire can be fol- connects with a mechanism which generates the words for the wire to transmit. Can any analogous result be ex- pected from an examination of the physical mechanism through which the mind acts? The answer seems to is that something of the kind be assured by modern discoveries of definite relations between particular portions of brain matter and thought. it own on must opera- this ques- any more than a study of the words of a telegram would reveal and of words equally invisible.

little would physiologists able to determine what special relations the brain held to thought.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION cial mental functions are forthwith abolished. the great faculty of speech. It should be remarked. unlike animals. though all other places in the brain remain intact. because. and the specific anatomical seats of speech have been found in the as the ticker graph is human found in brain as certainly its place in a tele- office. in distinction Restricted to the brains of animals which they could ex- periment been but with. however. with the brain of man it But has proved to be wholly different. that it was reserved for physicians and not for psychologists to light upon these great discoveries by their observing 3 what may be . that these dis- coveries relate in the first instance to the working of the brain of Man from the brains of animals. It is significant. however. possesses a faculty which have is man directly related to thought.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY termed the human effects of experiments with the brain which disease makes for them. A single very circumscribed injury to a place in the human brain may teach more on this subject than a survey of the whole domain of nervous physiology in animals. of the material seats of a whole series of other faculties both sensory and intellectual. While it has been a distinct gain for psy- chologists to leave metaphysics and turn their attention to the general physiology of the nervous system. These discoveries. however. so that taken together these findings give to the subject of the physical relations of the brain to the mind an entirely new aspect. again by medical men. This is well illus- trated by the fact that the identification of speech centers in the brain ere long led to the discovery. have made within the lifetime of our 4 all been own genera- . the criticism that apart psychology be from the human brain the is mind tion of may made field of very limited as far as the rela- to matter is concerned.

of that re- and hence an progress to be a fitting introduction to would our pres- ent discussion. On known to the general public. and mind was lo- tender emotions Thus. while the cated in the kidneys. With the Hebrews. the and another that ^' The heart and the kidneys.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION tion. that account tliey are scarcely and their impor- tant bearing on the old question of matter and mind is even less appreciated. for the good reason that during the centuries in which its different books were written scarcely any one in the world sus- pected that this most silent and secluded of organs had anything to do with thought or feeling. *' all was the His reins [kidneys] instruct him in the night seasons Lord trieth '^. one psalmist says that in the bowels. the heart chief seat of the soul. sons are aware how slow Few per- the progress of knowledge has been of the actual physical lations of the mind historical review seem to the body.'' 5 . Thus the word brain does not once occur in the Bible.

and the ^^ marrow is made out of such of the primary triangles as are adapted to produce all by their perfection the four elements. The foundation of these is the marrow which binds together body and soul.'' *' bowels of mer- survival of these conceptions found in our English phrase. who ^ ^ months. making as many kinds of marrow as there 6 .'' for a long time were the ideas of the Greeks on this subject much nearer the mark. bnt not in their kidneys. These God took and mingled them in due proportion. of the Nor Two ^' is fellows same kidney. but speculative were his views how purely is illustrated by the following quotation: *^The creation of bones and flesh was in this wise. ' ^ In keep- ing with similar expressions in the Old Testa- ment St.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY The prophet Jeremiah denounces the hypohad the Lord in their crites of his day. Paul speaks of A cies. It is true that Plato assigns the of the mind supreme seat to the brain.

.C. who was pp. 339 sq. pure earth and wetting first to He contrived sinews and give plasticity. so as to form pulpy flesh. intending that the vessel containing this sub- The bones were stance should be the head. etc. 335. 7 his younger con- B. the Creator mingled earth with water. * But circ. temporary. the it was then thrust alternately and water. Having this in view. . iii. Aristotle. It is evident that Plato in this ^ ' ' confounded the substance of the brain and of the spinal marrow of the bones. vol. Jowett's Translation. and thus got M^ conception of marrow as the foundacord with the tion of the living body. 362. As was the bone insolu- brittle and mortify and destroy the marrow by too great rigidity.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION were The to be hereafter kinds of souls. into fire ble by It either. and mixed with them a ferment with acid and salt. and called that portion of the marrow brain. ceptacle of the divine soul He made re- round. the second to guard against heat and cold. formed by sifting with marrow. and thus rendered liable to flesh.

but Aristotle rist. by He found the brain an apparently insensible and inexcitable organ. and himself the son of a physician. he had doing little difficulty in Aristotle examined the brain for so. the Father of Medicine. but that it was a cool organ which properly re- frigerated the blood for the heart We may conclusion. 8 recognizing . and as Plato evolved head. scouted vital farrago of Plato out of his it all own 's. while the heart tremely excitable. method from facts as he must put ourselves at this was no mere and he reasoned according scientific We now be tempted to smile to a theo- sound knew them. himself.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY the foremost physiologist of his day. He therefore was only exfol- lowed his great predecessor Hippocrates. in his place. all this and came to the conclusion that its function had nothing to do with mind. the explanation of which other facts was then unknown to him. with nothing to go by more than certain patent facts of life. who. without troubling himself about facts.

vessels it carried from the heart We air or to the rest shall see that nothing so contributed to delay for centuries ress as this mistake. from them. and hence that the heart. these beliefs held sway for fully five centuries. along with speculations how from the blood the different or- gans of the body. or is abolished by deranged by blood poisons. was itself the chief seat of the soul. as the arteries are found empty after death. 9 liver. as the central organ of the circulation. Another cause of misunderstanding was that. existence was con- by its all prog- suggesting the and all-pervading power of vital spirits. such as the stomach. Supported by such great names as Hippocrates and Aristotle. . inferred that the conscious mind resided in the blood. owing to their contractile walls expelling the blood cluded that these ethereal spirits of the body. or by the heated blood of fevers.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION how quickly consciousness loss of blood.

with its er- roneous suggestions. Meanwhile. Alcmseon.) 10 . who lived about B. and that at the brain arrived all sensation the nerves. intestmes. taught that the brain was the sole seat of the mind and the source of feeling and of movement. 500. continued to be applied to them for two thousand years. etc.C. until finally the great Descartes demonstrated the essential difference between tendons and nerves. elaborated each its share of the various appetites or emotions.. a man who was both an anatomist and an experimental physiologist. a term which.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY spleen. in this speculation. Unfortunately he called the nerves tendons. a voice wilderness of had been crying Greek in vain the true doctrine about the brain long before Plato or any of the rest. (Even Shakespeare when he spoke of nerves meant sinews. the Py- thagorean of Crotona. this It is evident that by means of he was led to do by noting that severing the optic nerves leading from the eyes to the brain produced total blindness.

300. '' who must Aristotle. both Plato and istotle. Erastistratus. taught that the spinal cord had nothing in evidently paid common with little the brain. In progress of time a great school of anatomists and experimental physiologists arose in Alexandria. of whom Herophilus.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION But whether from AlcmsBon's gin. They prepared the way. and his contemporary. who the brain and traced to carefully dissected it special senses.'' and apparently they could not wholly shake oft the authority of Aristotle as to the functions of the brain. as Alcmason went so far as the nerves of the had done. have read his works. were the chief.C. or because he was far in advance of his time. indeed. B. They to divide the nerves into those and of motion. alluded temptuously as colonial ori- somebody's them con- to '^ Ar- views. circ. for Gall . and attention to its ^^ ten- dons " or nerves. however. though they were hampered by Alcmaeon's term " ten- of sensation still don.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY len. crossed their tracts below in the of the letter X.D. which. while if they occurred in the spinal cord below the medulla. of its exclnsive and feeling. circ. to are chiefly in- debted for the overthrow of Aristotle's doctrine abont the brain. so that injuries in form one hemisphere of the brain paralyzed the muscles of the opposite side of the body. circ. 12 . advanced so far as to recognize correctly that the brain dominated the muscular movements of the body by nerves. whom we A. the resulting paralysis was on the same tseus side with the injury. To title and the demonstration as the seat of thought this great physician belongs the distinction of establishing this doctrine for all time. taens of A contemporary of Cappadocia. After Galen the progress of discovery of the true functions of the brain was extraor- From the middle of the second dinarily slow. his. Are- A. originating in the brain.D. 170. But even Are- held that the seat of the soul was in the heart. 160.

turies And all this or that part of the living the long way down we meet with examples the cen- of reasoning on these subjects not unlike that of the philosopher who admired 13 the benevolent wis- . and to find the causes in the purposes. geography. instead of being the was destined to be among the latest of first human achievements. if ^' to insig- know '' thyself It science. Thus we have seen that Plato's whole physiology originated in what he fancied the Creator and the gods intended when they made body. would seem as rather scientifically than metaphysically. or 1. the actual gains in this knowledge were relatively most nificant compared with the splendid advances in astronomy. One great cause for the persistent tions about this backwardness was sway of teleology Men were life.700 years. physical chemistry and geology. to the middle of the nineteenth century. plain the reasons of things in all ques- ever trying to ex- by the imagined purposes of things.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION century A.D.

that after another it is its flux. head of its It rids the humidity.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY dom of Providence in arranging that large rivers should flow past large towns. and to other writers in the nineteenth century. one authority attempted to represent the brain's secretion as a kind of subtle fluid termed ''animal the spirits. ' ' With this a gland. Cabanis. being white and soft like glands. years earlier who maintained of the that the brain secreted thought just as the liver secretes bile. It discharges the same glandu- lar offices as regards the head. One of the greatest of these hindrances was the conception of the brain as a secret- ing gland. Hippocrates writes that: ^' The brain resembles a gland. which had been generated in the brain. and returns to the ex- tremities the surplus of postulate. taught that the which permeated Thus Descartes left ventricle of the heart sep- arated these animal spirits. which dates from Hippocrates and continues down Karl Vogt. and distilled them out 14 .'' body through the blood.

effectually such concep- served to block science of life it vapors and humors that every variety of bodily disorder took To spirits.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION *^ of the blood into a pure and then flame. and passeth through the pores of the skin. very living and very were readily made to noxious Hence. tions illustrate how all progress in we may quote one from a ponderous volume the date 1618. thicke. Physician and Professor on Anatomy and Chirurgery His Majesty. James I. the a sooty. Speaking of the origin and growth of he says: haires is ^^ The immediate matter of hair.'' distributed These animal through the arteries." by Hilkiah Crooke. to account for everything. and earthy vapour. on its rise. normal and abnormal. therefore. which in the time of the third concoction tillation] to is [dis- elevated by the strength of the action of naturall heate. was due them ' ^ in the instance my library with Physiology and Anat- omy. which heate exiceateth or drieth this moysture of these sootie and 15 .

Crooke 's illustrious contemporary. where impacted by a succeeding vapour arising where the former did. drawne. formeth into a small roundness. Crooke perceived to be to lead off ^^ the vapours which otherwise would choke and make smoaky the braine. in the it is very if it selfe.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY tliicke vapours. of the passages of the skin where through the matter of the haires is auoyded. is and protruded thrust forward. the grossest. in his passage leaveth some part to wit. outlet. for the vapour being thicke. so that they are wrought to- The straightness gether in one body. Lord Ba- con. therefore. nor cause by its it to beat. but that contained spirits." of the hairs of the head. was done Even Harvey's dis- covery of the circulation of the blood did not 16 . held that the blood did not distend the heart.'' hopelessly choked the though how brains of all bald heads hence would be he does not mention. even as a them wyre re- ceyeth that proportion whereof the whole where through One great it is office is.

jective existence in fact in question before. and four years later Purkinje dem- onstrated that the gray matter of the cere17 . son Good. but ^' tissues animal Their ob- had often been it was difficult to ish these airy creations altogether until solid physical facts called ban- some could be found which would dispose of them. Ehrenberg made in 1833 the first discovery of a nerve cell in a spinal ganglion. nor after what fashion With the microscope it is constructed. for we pure nonentities from the find as late as 1824.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION dislodge these brain. was the introduction of the microscope of nervous the investigation into which first really spirits '' exorcised the from the medical world. uted by It its issues and is from it so distrib^ nerves. the nervous power or energy as a fluid of a peculiar kind. Dr. Without the microscope we could never have known what every living texture really is. in his '' Ma- Study of Medicine/^ men- tioning the fact that the brain being a gland. J.

is to be is. called ganglia. con- necting with nothing but nerves. acting and acted upon only through nerves or nervous masses. and least of The all like brain. It was not long before 18 this conception of . Nervous tissue especially is very peculiar and unlike anything else in the body. all and cells was followed lication cerebellum of the of Sclileiden which they proved that in vegetable and animal tissues are up of cells intimate and the products of structure of cells. and The brain a special and distinct organ. etc. nervous. which are distributed through the body. was thus shown no more a gland than a hand or foot that it instead never secretes anything. glandular tissue. whether bony. glandular. tendinous. by the pub- in the next year and Schwann. tissues all made The and or- gans was thus revealed. muscular. therefore. and each was found to be perfectly characteristic of its kind.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY brum and nervous of great the of their work made up is This fibers.

distinctive to each mental functions which he proceeded to identify. par- ticularly in the tracing of the course of the down through brain fibers longata —regarding conceived that mark it with its the brain as one organ. This so-called science of phren19 . began to give Gall of theories. could be explained by the development of their cor- responding convolutions. intellectual special and which his pupil increased to thirty-eight. in turn. Now or moral Spurzheim as all individ- uals have their personal peculiarities of and of mind disposition. convolutions its off into so served many compartments. con- structed after a rise to whom its own new batch pattern. a mathema- would have a highly developed mathe- matical convolution. these. —to brain anatomy owes a good deal. and a combative man would possess his brain seat of combativeness. a the medulla ob- He thus made out of twenty-four brain localities pos- list with sessed attributes. etc. tician Thus.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION the brain as a separate meclianism in us.

20 ." But as in the case of phrenology had to animal spirits. disappear before facts. while the brains of some eminent men had no specially developed con- volutions where they ought to have had them. owing to its further assumption that the outer contour of the head corresponded to the arrangements of the convolutions within. their mathematical convolutions were found as largely developed in the brains of paupers. and thus afforded a ready physical basis for estimating what manner man of or woman So popular became this each person was. supposed scientific standard of individuality. so It was shown that Gall and his followers did not study a sufficient number of brains. on the one hand.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY ology had great vogue for a time. dying in hospitals. as in the few mathematicians whose brains Gall had investigated. because. that I once heard a prominent clergyman remark that before he addressed a young wished he ^' could be man about his soul he allowed feel to his bumps.

The in the brain fibers in were traced France at that time took the lead in all branches of medical science. therefore. Longet. and of the in all nervous and many of the amazingly intricate paths of nerve the spinal cord is. Phrenology. and others like them will always rank high in the 21 . but also in the physiology of the brain and of the nervous system. great principle of reflex action. who illustrated its doctrines with plates of vari- ously labeled heads. it way with does not keep shape with any special convolution whatever while as respects the outer table of the skull there may be no correspondence at all. that afferent and efferent elements processes.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION On the other hand. while the inner table of the skull corresponds in a general the subjacent convolutions. gradually became the exclusive property of popular lecturers. Flourens. out. not only in gen- eral physiology. was established. and the names of Majendie. The period between 1845 and 1860 was marked by notable advances. Gratiolet.

day to appreciate was exerted It is not easy at this what a paramount in the medical influence world by this school of Paris. On an eminent French hospital 22 . any specific vibration initiated in each kind of sensory nerve thrills through- out the whole or greater part of the mass of the brain. The cerebral convolutions were regarded as the ^' senso- rium commune. while the opposite was strongly and no less erro- neous teaching was promulgated. settle ' ' down Thus medical opinion seemed to the conclusion that to our two brain hemispheres corresponded to our two lungs. But. whose lecture rooms were crowded by students from all countries." and. all separate localiza- tion of functions in the brain denied. April 14. 1861. partly as a reaction from the doctrines of phrenology.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY annals of neurology. as one of them expressed ^' it. But a great change was impending. in the respect that every part dis- charges the same functions with the rest. that the brain always acts as a whole.

by citing a mortem examinations by inju- subject. could only be demonstrated human ries to that part in the Broca showed. course.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION surgeon. found in a limited area in the lower and posterior part of the convolution called the third frontal ^^ Broca's and which convolution. that it began it much heated was not discus- until about to be generally admitted. in which Societe he adduced evidences to prove: That there brain which a definite locality in the is the sole seat of articulate is speech. number of and of post- of persons dying after paralysis of the right side of the body. usually due to apoplexy and who with the onset of the paralysis lost the in all such cases demonstrable. read a paper before the d ^Antliropologie of Paris." is now named This fact. first to ology. sion power of utterance damage As this —that to that locality was statement seemed at be a reversion to the tenets of phren- gave it and 1865 that What rise to so denial. Paul Broca. chiefly led to its final acceptance 23 was .

as well as ever. secondly. one place being found for the words we receive through the ear. and.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY the further discovery that the two other ele- ments of human speech besides articulate utterance also have each their distinct and separate brain localities. damage ness. damage see which causes the subject become wholly at once to may to and recognize sight. such as 24 Hitzig. all though he other objects of words. through the labors of both experimental physiologists and practicing physicians. even to which place causes word-deai- though there be no deafness to other sounds than words . one place for words received through the eye in reading. By 1870. constituting calization. what and is to a now termed cerebral lo- comparison of the results achieved with the effects of injury or of disease in the brain of man. The demonstration of these anatomical bases of the faculty of speech soon led to careful experimental investigation of the brain in animals for other seats of distinct functions. except illiterate. .

but they are relatively of sec- ondary importance compared with those which followed and which will cause the of Broca. or be made to contract group of muscles. as such. The anatomical seats of the and those of muscular movements. fer. are found equally in both hemispheres brain. as yet scarcely known by name the gen- eral public. These discoveries were great enough of themselves. as the brain It was thus natural is a double organ. senses. it Munk. so that each muscle. to rank in the history of science along with the names of Copernicus and of Isaac Newton. can by excitation of the cor- responding locality in the cortex or surface of the brain. and. Charcot and was shown that each of the has others. like our 25 to in- . of the and their functions. Luciani.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION Ferrier. are doubt- less congenital. special senses anatomical seat in the brain. in a centrally placed zone are to be found the seats governing the vol- untary movements of the muscles of the body. in its addition to that.

26 in the which proved that . But a most unexpected fact. so that life. simply because they never had anything to do with speech. for the corresponding localities in the other hemisphere. and word-blind. though not hurt at nevertheless are entirely word-deaf all.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY two eyes and our two ears. the he can speak no longer though the same convolution in the other same is hemisphere be wholly intact. which is Thus. But here again another new element problem presented itself. lution. and one of far- reaching significance. that the anatomical seats of the faculty of speech are found only in one of the two hemispheres. namely. each hemisphere being the duphcate of the other. be damaged in a person after middle loss is usually irremediable. The true as regards word-deafness or word-blindness from injury of their respective places. that both brains would equally participate in all brain work. was soon demonstrated. if the Broca convo- the seat of articulate speech.

The forth of the hand. first. while in left-handed per- found exclusively in the right brain. for then both hemispheres would have their speech centers and . equally good for speech. they are . Two conclusions these facts. as any one first is 27 . sons. that either of it something begins for that purpose. most commonly used child at the time when learning everything. if early enough in life to use That something is "the hand by the human is hemispheres the second. but solely because was the hemisphere related hand in childhood. as such. it is In all to the it most used right-handed per- in the left brain that the speech centers are located sons. for self -education ways begins it al- in our race with the stretching may note in the purposive actions of an infant. inevitably follow upon that brain matter.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION the endowment of one hemisphere with the great gift of speech was not owing to any original or special fitness of that hemisphere for such a function. does not originate speech.

statement. are quite distinct from the elementary functions of sensation and of motion. for This latter two brain hemispheres its wordless. as such. remain thoughtless. as such. is a function only of the hemisphere con- nected with the faculty of speech. is not congenital. to lar objects or know what the particu- meanings be of what our senses report. that thought.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY hand which it then most used to learn by de- termined which of should should know and which hemisphere speech. connected with the original anatomical seats of sight and of 28 . our speech is much ac- acquired Because. and upon a much surer basis than any metaphysical theories. These latter are congenital. but our ability to recog- nize and. but as quired by us as and not congenital. it was simply found as a physical fact that our mental faculties. and therefore life. Without any help from metaphysics. therefore. was deci- by the next revelation sively demonstrated which followed upon Broca's fruitful discovery.

though he see them. if hurt. renders the per- son unable to recognize members of his family. so that he cannot tell the bark of a dog from the song of a bird. while. one of which. are found only in the left hemisphere of the right- handed. because they are alike only noises to him. he loses all power of distinguishing sounds in general. And here again. in the hemi- sphere in which the seats of the faculty of speech are located. a place which. and own in the audi- tory area are places. anatomical areas of brain matter. The decisive bearing of these pure mat- 29 .HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION hearing were found certain physical. if what the eye is damaged. and in the right hemisphere of the left-handed. interpret- ing what sights or sounds mean. injury of which abolished all power to recognize In the visual area sees or the ear hears. causes the person to be no longer able to know his most familiar tunes when he hears them. by injury in another spot. in other words. these important brain areas in us.

As none of these wonderful mental faculties. We propose to avoid anything of the kind. as our subject deals pri30 .BRAIN AND PERSONALITY ters of fact upon our whole discussion of the to the Personality is plain Mind enough. we would have preferred not to have alluded to them so far in advance. enter upon the wide domain of metaphysics. were connected with brain matter at birth. That brain matter did not organize these physical areas of mental function is shown by their entire absence from the convolutions of the wordless hemisphere. but were created after- wards. in- Physical Relations of the Brain to the and cluding that of speech. therefore. and we have done so now only for Many persons may imagine this reason. As the these physical relations of the brain to mind are to be fully discussed in our suc- ceeding chapters. it follows that they were created by the individual himself anatomically modify- ing his itself own brain. that such a theme must involve a discussion of what the mind is. and.

these new additions to our infor- mation about the one organ in us which is re- lated to thought can be second to none in interest and importance. Regarded. n . namely. simply as matters of knowledge.HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION marily with a thing of physics. at least in comparison with the latest discoveries in the physical sciences. But the main facts about the structure and working of the brain are of such recent discovery that they scarcely yet have become generally known. the brain. however.

the question then becomes.CHAPTER ACCOUNT OF THE PHYSICAL Two fundamentally II BASIS OF opposed THE MIND conceptions have existed about the relations of the Brain to the Mind. Thus. be regarded as an organ from which thoughts proceed. which may be illustrated by com- paring the brain to either one of two different instruments or mechanisms for producing music. and its notes will then vary ac- 32 . Do thoughts arise in it as musical sounds flow from an ^olian harp or as they come from a violin? Both the ^olian harp and the violin are constructed by threads of catgut stretched over apertures in a wooden box. an ^olian harp or a the brain if may violin. of the ^olian harj) comes from The music it when it is placed where currents of air can flow through its threads.

as others.THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF MIND cording to the direction. but is like its no peall. due to the material component parts. On this view a man's brain may be regarded mechanism whose as a specially constructed individual peculiarities in shown in his daily life. rich. of threads. 33 harmonious from unhappy dis- .. the strength and the The velocity of the currents. own and while each harp has number peculiarities of size. air which gen- erates the music is a part of the whole outside atmosphere. adapted to receive impres- and these vibrations those responses among in turn the fibers awaken and of the brain which constitute feelings cells and ideas. lives give forth long. currents of thought are excited in the brain by the incoming sensations transmitted from without by the vibrations of the various nerve fibers which are specially sions. position. some hold. In manner. are all arrangement of Some its its . its function source has one and the same in culiarity. notes throughout working. etc.

give forth than prolonged discords.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY position of their fibers. resembles a violin in that. or so-called personal characteristics are matters of cerebral structure. as this is upon by the innumerable nerve acted stimuli proceeding More or from the outer world. and however carefully it has to be constructed in 34 . if likened to a musical instrument. logical conclusion of this position mind on the last analysis is is. and its reactions operations of whatever sort are among the brain elements to the play of external forces. bnt and all little else others a these indi- vidual. particularly who emphasize among those the influence of heredity in the genesis of individual or moral traits. kind less defined conceptions of this about the relation of the brain to the mind are quite prevalent. The other and essentially different concep- tion is that the brain. strange mixture of both. how- ever good it be as a musical instrument. The that the the product of the composition and properties of brain matter.

yet of itself note.THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF MIND all its parts to become such an instrument. But though mechanism be such an essential element in both. impossible to harmonize the makes analogies it to brain function drawn from these two instruments. the made wood out the of that extraordinary sums have been paid for a Stradivarius on that account alone. be noted that this theory requires mechanism. namely. the musician. much it cannot give forth a musical less take part in a complex sym- phony. of In the one we have only the effects external forces acting things. without a musician to use fore. and the complete integrity of the mechanism. quite as much In as the other. cal vibrations within the is musi- box depend so much for their qualities upon which the violin fact. the entrance of a wholly different factor in the case of the violin. it. while in the other 35 upon material we likewise have . There- though no musician can give us violin music without a no violin can be violin. so It should musical without a musician.

Metaphysicians. had any connection with thought it should center body. but the effects come from a source entirely distinct from and wholly inde- We pendent of them. the processes themselves of thought appeared to offer in their genesis and sequence the only elements for examination. 36 . was natural that the discussion first about the terms mind and As regards the mind. so so that. and hence the existence apart as wholly of from the brain. have labored at the problem for centuries. The other regards the brain as nothing more than the instrument of the mind. as already mentioned.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY material things. the brain itself gave not the least sign much of its activities. how far apart they The one regards the mind mind can have no the brain. and no instrument can possibly be identical with the agency which uses As it. therefore. the world for ages did not suspect that it or feeling. only need now to fol- low up each of these views to their inevitable conclusions to recognize are.

This was not possible so long as the brain was regarded as a single organ working as a unit. Looked at thus.THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF MIND but without coming to any agreement. for nothing could be 37 . they offer We jective for us to go by. with the same relations in all its parts and thought that the air cells wherever located in the lungs bear to res- to consciousness piration. one chief reason for their failure being that in their methods of investigation they have had to rely upon with introspection ing to lift But the introspection. that is it is a man own boot himself by his As our mental like difficulty try- straps. processes both begin and end within ourselves. Such a fulcrum seems ised to us by modern discoveries connected with the brain ganism prom- at last to be itself in its relations as to certain definite an or- mental functions. the physiologist with the brain before him was even worse off than the metaphysician. some external fulcrum little which is need instead draw upon for to ob- sat- isfactory inferences.

Likewise the voluntary movements of each group of muscles in the body have 38 . investigate to whether some parts were more connected with certain psy- chical functions than others. bit of it were obliged by bit. over. to find Physiologists. therefore. It is not the whole brain which sees or hears. now proven surface is in man means it is damage caused By these that the gray matter of the brain specially arranged to subserve cer- tain specific psychical functions only in certain localities in its substance. brain. certain these on the impor- demonstrated which have most direct bearings on the problem.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY more undemonstrative to mere inspection than healthy brain matter. extensive brains experiments of living tant facts were After the most were made animals. the More- experimental deductions have been further confirmed by observations of the effects of local brain by injuries or disease. but only particular limited areas to which the conscious- ness of sight and of hearing respectively are confined.

coveries we do seem is to Hence. On these grounds the inference seems prob- able that every special psychical function subserved by rial its own special seat in the mate- organ of the mind. therefore. by noting what muscles are implicated. to discuss in the following pages the bearing which these now demonstrated relations of brain structure to 39 . by that function becoming invariably impaired according as its brain place is dam- aged.THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF MIND been found to proceed from certain welldefined starting points on the brain surface. We propose. and these are so well demonstrated that the surgeon often knows. because nothing could partake more of the nature of an objective fact than the identification of an area of brain matter with a given brain function. just where to open the skull with his trephine so as to find the lesion or injury in the brain. by these dis- have come into pos- session of really objective facts where before everything was subjective.

This gray matter consists of a continuous layer. unfortunately cells." for they are not hollow. the essential facts bearing cussion can be is dis- and readily demonstrated easily understood. is the ultimate seat of all processes con- nected with sensation and thought. whose average thickness to one-eighth of an from one-twelfth is inch.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY mental operations have upon the two opposite views above stated of the relations of the brain to the mind. technically called the cortex. so that the sur40 . the gray matter of the brain surface. of a soft material of a very complex structure. in which are im- bedded immense numbers of of various shapes called ^^ sizes. Fortunately for the general reader. gray matter itself. Be- To save space is everywhere as one would crumple up a handkerchief in his hand. bodies. as the brain upon our present All are agreed that as far concerned. tween these numerable this and little cells ramifies fine layer folded upon of gray a network of in- fibers.

like that account of the surface. nerve fiber is fibers. which consists of of gray contained fibers within sheaths of apparently an insulating material and white ever. how- The function of a wholly that of a conductor to and from the gray matter. and these in turn serve to map out the different regions of the brain surface which are then named accordingly. of fur- The chief furrows. are quite definite in their main location. in color. On the white matter the gray matter is not. and constituting the greater part of the brain mass. however. the primary seat of any tal power. is bundles the white matter.THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF MIND face of the brain presents a rows or creases between the number folds. 41 . Underneath and within the gray layer. so that the lobes. folds are called and the smaller ones convolutions. though in fibers form important many links men- instances these between the vari- ous cortical areas which seem to promote associated actions between them. Some gray have no coating.

be wholly another particular cortical area intact. sub- though the eye itself in with the nervous tract leading therefrom to the brain. 42 for . therefore. hearing is abolished. though the ear with all its apparatus be uninjured.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY Here. this is the animal. form of matter is Regarded the most interest- ing and important substance in the world. as just stated. To use the phrase of an old anatomist. is neither in the eye nor ear respectively. in the gray matter of the we have a material surface of the brain stance which is scious mind. For. all its parts. is totally lost. the gray matter thus. The con- sciousness of sight or of hearing. for it is the only matter which is directly we know of that associated with mind. therefore. There can be no question also that upon the integrity of this gray matter depends the integrity of all mental processes. is If similarly injured. the definite seat of the con- ticular area of this sight if one par- gray layer be destroyed. but in these special localities on the brain surface.

" title of the ' ' Metaphysics Thus. In fact a curiously interesting treatise might be written with the of a Drug Store.THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF MIND these can be proportionately perverted by anything which interferes with the physical conditions of the gray tissue. sometimes including change in disposition or in moral character. He is own there- fore silent and solitary. and thus contrasts with the alcohol taker. ings and emotions so who has his feel- stimulated by that poison that he would fain share them with other persons. however. and which can be produced at will. opium powerfully stimulates those mental processes which are related to the imagination. and becomes both familiar 43 . so that the opium taker becomes intensely interested in his trains of suggested ideas. are furnished by the action of brain poisons. cal injuries of the brain in by agents Thus mechani- man often have been followed by peculiar mental disorders. or which derange its working. The most striking illustrations of this kind.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY and talkative. or. and was followed them doing the same thing. One on the mind When most singular of the fnlly is haschish or In- nnder the haschish smoker can be its influence. in words. while this drug. Arabs who. by merely introducing certain defi- nite substances into the blood stream. sensations. The leader of the party took the moonlight for a pool of water and forthwith drew up his trousers to wade carefully through by the rest of all it. Hence. we can produce well-defined mental processes characteristic of the operations of these agents. came to all an opening in an over-arched street in an Oriental town through which the moonlight streamed upon the pavement. in its effects dian hemp. feelings and ideas cally other specifi- generated by these wholly material 44 . as rapidly courses through the brain from it its four great arteries. made to entertain a most vivid sense of the objective reality of any suggestion which I once knew a party drunk together with is of made to his fancy.

a confirmed drunkard finally itself. and the thinker It is not surprising. therefore. that previous to the progress of discovery within the last twenty-five years. becomes more unlike his former self than an average European differs from an average Asiatic. But unfortunately for the facts adduced in its this conclusion. At first sight such facts as these seem to and mind are indicate that the brain Change the is state of the brain. all support can be ad- duced just as conclusively in support of the 45 .THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF MIND things. one. In time also the persistent nse of these agents seems to alter the personality Thus. seemed to correspond most naturally with the facts. changed accordingly. appeared as if it nothing could be postulated about mental phenomena apart from the material condition of the mind's organ. The ^olian harp theory that sensation and thought are the products of vibrations through a specially arranged mechanism.

just as a musician would deal with a disordered instrument. tor of thought Indeed. We just are thus left by these considerations where we were before. would draw skillful violinist forth nothing but crazy sounds from his in- strument if cords were smeared with its grease instead of with rosin. and hence we 46 . as the violin is the instrument of the musician who plays upon The most it. in certain states of insanity.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY opposite theory of the brain being but the in- strument of the thinker. the rightful direc- may often appear to be striv- ing to regulate the brain of a drunkard. performer. It then of his. and every mental disorder from delirium by paralleled to coma can be corresponding musical de- rangements due to purely structural conditions in the violin itself. and still more strikingly do we see something akin to this. but solely and not at all in the would be from no fault from conditions in his in- strument that every sound which he can get out of it is faulty.

47 .THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF MIND must go further and deeper than physical changes in brain matter can take us to arrive at satisfactory conceptions of the true rela- tions of the brain to the mind.

because if we hence should infer that consciousness in all its forms of sensation. 18 . depended wholly on the existence of so much gray matter. thought. feeling. perception. is some- But how far does this take us? Not very far. And as with the consciousness of sight. It one place only in the gray cortex which actually sees.. i. facts and series of material. etc. conditions which. we should soon encounter a physical.CHAPTEE III BEAIN WEIGHT AND MENTAL FACULTY What we have arrived at so far gray matter now is is tliat tlie the physical basis of the mind. so doubtless the seat of every other special where form of mind consciousness in this mysterious layer.. they did not actually con- if e. sees. The eye does not No one see any more than an opera glass is disputes this.

Thus. To begin with most physical the simplest as well as the In facts. animals there all is a close correspondence between the degree of development of any organ and power or activity.WEIGHT OF BRAIN tradict such inferences. or at least not an undersized one. But the exceptions are very numerous both ways. while many men dis- tinguished for their mental powers have had large and heavy brains. would at least seri- ously modify them. of many idiots little Thus the brains and of half-witted persons are usually smaller and weigh less than the aver- age of normal brains. or an undersized brain! at least not In other words. Is a powerful brain likewise a big brain. assum- ing the average weight of normal European 49 . only. does the actual size of brain in man bear any direct relation to mental capacity? This question ative. tions that may be answered in the affirm- however. with so it most qualifica- then becomes by itself of account in our discussion. A its functional powerful arm implies a big arm.

Anatomy and The Physiology. thirteen brains among nine hundred were found to weigh above sixty ounces.-.. ChalHi&!rr. pp. we bave of tbe brain weights of dis- given by Prof.y. 50 ..... 55. ..BRAIN AND PERSONALITY brains among men the following tinguished shall list men to be 49.4 last two.. 56.>^. a distinguished physiologist and a mineralogist. John Mar- :^ Abercrombie 64.5 ounces. in a large series of observations cited by Professor Marshall.<\. ^. iJour. 21-65. xxvii.7 Webstej^^rrTT . all among distinguished.^^..^ 47. .8 Whbwell Pr.. were below the normal.5 .4 -^rvrr'. vol."?.7 Lord Campbelh . 54. 51. Hansemann The 45. 1892-1893.. But just such variations are found people in general not at Even among paupers.2 Tiedma&n-.

June. Raymond Pearl give the results of an analysis of 2.100 adult male and 1. Bavarian. Dec. the English have the smallest mean brain weight. F. p. In the Journal of the Biometrical Society. Bohem- English—with the conclusion that no evidence that brain weight is is sensibly correlated with intellectual ability. Karl Pearson. less than the Bohemian ' the other hand. 65 grams less and 120 grams mean. Of the investigated by the bio- five races metricians. perfectly healthy brain a mechanic. 1905.R. belonging — Swedish. 1905. brain bulk as such varies according to racial peculiarities.034 adult female races brain weights. and Dr. with 1 Nature. On than the Swedish mean.WEIGHT OF BRAIN was that of heaviest.^ Prof. Englishman is The mean of the adult 27 grams less than the Bavar- ian mean. ian and a There to {ive Hessian. 28..S. 51 . 200. weighed which just above seventy ounces. 57 grams less than the Hessian mean.

pire of the Incas. who founded the em- must be regarded as an tellectual people. the eminent historian. Thus the ancient Peruvians. appointed to find that Helmholtz 's brain weighed barely 45 ounces. David Hansemann.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY little or no reference to mental faculty. weighed only 37.7 ounces.^ who made a most careful examination of the brain of the most remarkable man in modern times Hermann von Hansemann was much dis- for pure intellectual powers. Prof. Dollinger. But the brain of Dr. Band. Zeitschrift fiir Psychologic und Physiologic der Sinnesorgane. 20. Leipzig. Likewise the external Ueber das Gehirn von Hermann von Helmholtz von ProDavid Hansemann. that investigators agree that the weight of the brain bears no relation to the mental capacity of man. paper on all He concludes his elaborate this subject with the remark. One of the latest discussions on this sub- ject is by Prof. but they in- were remarkable both for the small size of their skulls and for brains which were on an average no larger than those of many idiots. Helmholtz. 1899 ^ fessor 52 .

Therefore if any conclusions can be drawn from these considerations if would seem as it brain organization was more important than mere size. however expensive than appear before a critical it was. whether the best-organized brain. Richard Wagner 's 600 millimetres. 53 made to . is of no account what- can be judged by intellect Johannes Muller's had the size of his hat. audience with the cheap product of a village artificer. No one can doubt that an originally well-organized brain is a good thing to have. would greatly prefer to A is helped by gifted violinist play upon a violin of standard make.WEIGHT OF BRAIN measure of the head No man's ever. or for that matter any other brain. Hence it follows that neither of our two opposing theories these anatomical facts. but Napoleon 's was only 564 and Darwin's 563 milli- metres. can be think without a thinker. the large circumference of 614 millimetres. but that does not affect the real point at issue. which is.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY We have. Karl Vogt and others. in reality are the conclusions which follow upon this single material fac- tor in the problem that take our bearings on it is well to pause and all sides to be sure of the full import of its significance. the is also the Bory Vincent. The question all all along has been are agreed that the gray matter material seat of thought. again to go further mere into the subject than the brain in man will carry ns. is it The dictum of As this. this anatomical fact appears to dis- pose of the ^olian harp theory altogether. source of thought? etc. indeed. Cabanis. St. size of the But onr very next step brings ns to an anatomical fact of primary importance. therefore. intelligible As enough. was that the brain secretes thought just as the liver secretes bile. which seems to make our previous discussion about the bulk of To some. brain matter quite superfluous. and 54 a statement this all writers who is ad- .. as far as a physical basis for So sweeping it is concerned.

if. in accordance with thought be conceived form of energy stored up by the gray matter. Now it is evident that such a premise in- volves one inevitable conclusion..WEIGHT OF BRAIN we have represented vocate what ^olian harp theory as the of the relation of the brain to the mind will be found on examination to hold essentially the however they may opinion. that the more gray matter you have thought. volition. But even on this hypothesis. the products of the material organization of the gray matter as responds it to its appropriate specific stimuli. and modern have. it you will of as a If more this be becomes then a question of quanti- gray matter. are. the conceptions. etc. differ in their statement Thought.. feeling. granted tative etc. according to any such view. namely. same on the last analysis. of details. An- . mere quantity of the mind generating material 55 is not enough. then the amount of this energy liber- ated will be proportionate to the quantity of the specific substance which stores it up.

and particularly these reasoners. will its various mental products be. matter which more there be is it is the gray organized. like most people. But the anatomical poses of this theory fact is which wholly dis- that we. the more. and never one brain. and so on for But for the present we each special sense. and hence the of this cerebral stuff. because special organization that one portion of this gray matter is endowed with the faculty of sight.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY other factor has to be taken fully into ac- how count. and re- vert to the original proposition. that how- ever complex the organizing be. namely. just as he has two eyes and two And ears. it is only by its it is organized.'' in a There when we use is the word no such thing as a brain human being. correspondingly. and another in a different place does not see but hear. may let this inconvenient factor pass. these two brains are just as perfectly matched and duplicates of each 56 . are quite '' inaccurate brain. He always has two brains.

Therefore the quantity of gray matter if the fact for us to found our superstructure is upon. it has been abundantly demonstrated that one of the two brains can do all the thinking necessary for the pur- poses of life. one-half of this matter being in the right brain brain. or half of the mental capacity will be gone. either half the mind. No addition of mental power.WEIGHT OF BRAIN other in all their two ears his parts as his two eyes and are. as we is increased in us by our having two This. whose existence in pairs is for quite other reasons than for in- crease in function. is only in accordance. it and the other half in the follows that if left one of the two brains be rendered useless by any chance. shall see. with the general law of all pair organs in the body. however. to see why our It is difficult. any more than the faculty of sight eyes. Is that so! Instead of being so. therefore. nor of mental endowment is secured by our having two brains. paired brains should consti57 .

Physiology. p. correctly speak of the eye ear in the singular.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY tute an exception and that they to this law. 58 . just as the liver is the only source of in fact. as long as of the function itself ' * But though we and of the we are talking —of sight or of hearing. while the constant use of the term brain unconsciously leads single to the conception of a organ as the source of thought. an illustration of the dominance of this conception that this identical compari- son of the brain to the liver occurs so often among writers may of this school. 5th Edition. bile. It is. as We the to reason possess two hemispheres. 872. do not do so in fact we shall show by anatomical evidence of the most convincing kind." mainly arises from completely are This certain why we difficulty assumptions about the relations of thought to matter. authority^ dark the in ^' remarks. Sir Michael Foster. We may observe here in passing that this pairing of the mind's organ a very per- is As one plexing problem to some reasoners.

the eye there is is no more the seat or a telescope or a micro- Whether. nothing but instruments. of thought. these pair organs certainly are. we will now proceed 59 to examine. our two per- fectly symmetrical brains are likewise not the sources. for we then are only referring to them as the instruments of For instruments. hearing. . and sight or of hearing.WEIGHT OF BRAIN such language is no longer correct when we speak of them in the plural. but rather the instruments. therefore. yet the eye source of sight than scope. would be no Though without and without the ear no sight.

with the 60 . if a man knows the two languages. As regards their left gray matter. the salient fact in the body is this: about other pair organs That either one of the pair can do the whole business of both necessary. It is not one of the if two eyes which sees red while the other sees green. should lose one eye. nor. and convolution for convolution. does one ear hear only English and the other only German. they correspond furrow for fnrrow. so that if What a man one eye sees.CHAPTEE IV SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BEAIN BEING A DOUBLE OR PAIR ORGAN Our brains consist of two perfectly matched organs technically called the right and hemispheres. Now with the partial exception of the hands and feet. the other sees. lobe for lobe.

there is one exception to this rule about pair organs. in a division of labor between the two hemi- spheres. therefore. just as a man will provide himself with two keys for the same lock. due to the body itself being generally two-sided. It was a similar mishap in the tube of the re- maining kidney which first defect was. for convenience. showed what why we have pair organs is. his It is evident. when he had an attack of kidney colic. to insure against emergencies. As regards our lest he lose one. in respect of the control of those 61 . was I once called in consultation to see a strong workingman who had lived for thirteen years wholly unaware that he had only one kidney. sons have been known to live for Some permany years with only one Inng to breathe with.THE BRAIN A PAIR ORGAN remaining eye he might become either an astronomer or a microscopist. brains. right and left. and. however. the other having been destroyed by a stone becoming impacted in the tube leading from it. that the chief reasons first. secondly.

the other having been virtually de- stroyed by disease but with the exception of . It has been repeatedly shown by post-mor- tem examinations that persons have lived for years with only one hemisphere in working order. tract in the while those of the left half of the body are correspondingly located in the right hemisphere. move in be- muscu- Thus the two eyes need to most perfect harmony. character. the centers of those governing the right half of the body occupying a gray cortex of the left brain. The most probable explanation of this arrangement that it insures a more perfect balance tween the two sides of the body in lar movements. such as those 62 .BRAIN AJND PERSONALITY muscular movements which are of a voluntary. is a special crossing of nerve side to side to secure this unity But with respect to thought itself the above mentioned law about pair organs holds perfectly. and on that account there fibers its is from of action. parts in one-half of their bodies being paralyzed for voluntary movements.

as others are able to use one eye for poses after losing its all pur- cite only for several years was mate. He gave no sign of mental weakness. but always intelligent. cheerful ticularly * good in Dr. patient.THE BRAIN A PAIR ORGAN of the arms and legs. Am. e. tliey have thought and acted and transacted business as well with one-half of the gray matter with which they started in life. Sciences.. attention. with only one hemisphere. his reading good and his memory unaffected. had always been and was forty-seven years of when he awoke one morning with left side numb and paralyzed. Pearce Bailey. 1889 63 . i. Of many such instances we need that of a man who under the observation of an expert neurologist. He was and parread the Jour.^ The and patient well. Med. thus paralyzed for ten years meantime strong his speech his age. but was perfectly normal. whole He remained till he died. a who published a history of his case with found in full description of the conditions his brain after death. March.

irritable nor apathetic. and impoverished in cellular constituents. with the whole tissue dis- organized and without any remains of gray matter. occupied the anterior part of the right hemisphere. and was neither depressed. and yet after death the whole of one hemisphere was found to be greatly lessened in size. emotional.'' is might give color 64 one anatomical to the supposi- . Dr. politics. Bailey concludes with saying: ting all together the man (during life) fested nothing to indicate that the *^ Put- mani- power of operations of his mind had been affected. while the posterior half of the hemi- sphere was everywhere atrophied. and the frontal lobes which some regard as the seat of the highest cerebral functions were almost totally annihilated On on one the other hand. Micro- scopical examination of the tissues showed the same destruction of the nerve elements. there fact which side. full of fluid. At the antopsy a large cyst.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY papers constantly. and liked to talk He bore his disability bravely.

four inches in length. It has been supposed that the function of this commissure. in cases of men- where the corpus callosum was found wanting. This surmise was apparently strengthened by the frequent absence. or only partial development. other organic 65 . is to make the various brain centers in the two hemispheres work together. tally defective For subjects. as some of its fibers have been down traced from certain areas of the cortex to this bridge and across it to corresponding areas in the opposite brain. But the progress of re- search has not confirmed the theory that the two hemispheres are functionally united by this connecting bridge. tom to the bot- of the cleft separating the two hemi- spheres there a large bridge is named the corpus callosum. as it is called.THE BRAIN A PAIR ORGAN tion that our two brains are constructed At operate virtually as one organ. of this commissure in the brains of idiots or of feeble minded subjects. and which is made up of bundles of white fibers which pass from one brain to the other.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY abnormalities which had were also invariably found to be taken into account as well. was no other abnormality present Most of these cases were only brain. Meantime numerous reports have been published post-mortem of examinations per- formed by distinguished neurologists on persons who during tal defect. capable f :^rty- who during peculiarities. ' but ' in whom absent. and could read and write. the in acci- dentally discovered in the bodies of persons dying from ordinary diseases. Thus Eichler reports the case of a man three years of age. but workman. the corpus callosum The eminent was entirely neurologist. Professor 66 . a good hus- band. and in every respect sober. corpus life and yet callosum showed no signs of men- whom in between was no there two the hemi- In each of these subjects also there spheres. quiet and well-behaved. life '' a laborer had showed no mental was a diligent. because nothing in their antecedent history suggested the existence of their anatomical peculiarity.

there may be no disturbance of motility. such cases may be quite common in the general popula- tion without anything in life betraying their existence.THE BRAIN A PAIR ORGAN Erb. in reporting two similar cases. one investigator of this subject remarks that the problem of the use of the corpus callosum is still absence appears to be so unsolved. 1889. general or special sensibility. * treated in an article 67 . Bruce. as little its missed. speech or intelligence. with absence of the corpus callosnm. in Brain. co- ordination. Prof. remarks *^ that when the brain is otherwise well-de- veloped. the two hemispheres are wholly independent of each other. Alex. 171-9.^ This subject of absence of the corpus callosum is fully by the well-known brain anatomist. Indeed. pp. ' ' Considering the rarity of autopsies in which careful ex- aminations of the brain are made. but these instances of its ab- sence only serve to prove that for perform- ing the ordinary functions of mental life. reflexes. Undoubtedly tween the two brains this connection be- may be of use in pro- viding against some accidents to either of the cerebral pairs.

it is not for the purpose of doubling. then the gray matter of the other hemisphere is not needed by us for the pur- pose of thinking. of our brains is gray matter distributed in one hemi- sphere. is halved. calculate. do not depend for our personality upon number of ounces of gray matter which the therefore. in short. We might lose one-half of our gray matter. but we Our gray matter as such ourselves are not only not 68 . be altogether our- selves mentally with only one-half of our We. If it is. without losing a idea thereby. argue. or even increasing our mental capacity. provided the loss is only on one side and the other side remains whole. gray matter left to us. we might reason. or.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY The inference from these facts is perfectly If one-half of the total obvious. In other words. single like or dislike. as per- our cranial cavity contains. love or hate. sons. and the other half in the second hemisphere. but rather on the fact whether the gray matter of one of our hemispheres be in good condition or not.

These undoubted just as facts.THE BRAIN A PAIR ORGAN halved into two half selves by this bilateral we remain distribution. for one has just as much gray 69 . lead to undoubted a conclusion. if it when one hemisphere originates in the two perfectly equal hemispheres. namely. hemispheres would be equally necessary to our complete personality. for if it then both were originated by gray matter. fall off one-half jured. only is related to. to put it conversely. therefore. but not originated by. stream of water comes from two sources. then both our hemispheres must share equally in producing thought. as we will see later. is the sole seat of thought. that everything involved in our conscious personality. while related to gray matter. gray matter originates thought. if is in- Or. the drying If a equal up of one stream will leave only half the quantity of water run- ning and just so must the stream of thought . but tal unit as ever only if the same men- we can keep intact that one of the two hemispheres which. gray matter .

and with just the same arrangement and organization of It is these it. as we have remarked before. I have been informed by watchmakers that they grow so accustomed to use only one of their eyes at their work. could not be made to produce more bile than one alone does. that in time they be- 70 . prove so embarrassing to those who hold the view that the brain makes the mind. So it would be if their principles were valid.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY matter as the other. however. If our brains are never anything more than the instruments of a thinker. is they cannot but regard on their principles the other hemisphere as quite superfluous. As one hemisphere qnite enough for all mental requirements. as bile is a secretion of the then the case with the brain if we had two is the liver. demonstrated truths which. the thinker might very well have two such instruments. If thought is actually a secretion or product of the brain. and use either one as he chooses. same as fully developed livers which.

So far we have been gradually approaching the central subject of all our discussion. the relation of the brain to thought. after it may give rise movement to. its reception. its it is fellow to formu- With which one of the pair he will choose to do his thinking for life de- pends upon a sort of accident. But none of these functions yet mentioned are necessarily identical with thinking or thought.THE BRAIN A PAIR ORGAN come unable to use the other eye for shall see further We it. on that the human thinker likewise becomes so accustomed to use only one of his brain pair for thought that doubtful if he ever uses late a single idea. A not thought. sensation like that of sight is however much of thought. Likewise a muscular in response to excitation of the corresponding area in the cortex 71 is not itself . namely. almost of the nature of a whim. Heretofore we have referred to certain ascertained localizations of brain functions in special places in the brain cortex. during the days of childhood.

is thinking.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY an act of thought. is it may follow thinking? We are precluded from asking metaphysics to answer this question because our subject deals only with the relations of a thing of physics. and sits down to write out his opinion. to mind. an author at thinking. we can only cite concrete its elements examples of human thinking done by or through an active brain. i. is work on a book is thinking. Now . Are there definite localities in the brain substance which have as close relations to acts of pure thinking as we have found to be the case in connection with acts of seeing or of hearing? Unlike the metaphysician. We are called upon instead to answer the question. however Now what upon thought. 72 and so on. A judge when he takes the briefs submitted to him. e.. a philosopher pondering a subject in philosophy is thinking. brain substance. who would begin with defining what thought and are. an orator making ready his oration to sway an assembly.

and we appreciate their significance.THE BRAIN A PAIR ORGAN is this ent mental faculty of thinking so depend- upon the material arrangement gray matter of brain in special localities thereof that. or the author to go on with his book? It is even and why so. We cannot ask to be led higher than to the very seats 73 . it is and the demonstration of how so furnishes more data for the correct estimation of the true relation of the brain to the mind than any we have heretofore been been discovered that of the facts which considering. so a similar injury in these special areas areas remaining intact — other brain all —would make it im- possible for the judge to write an opinion. certain It has well-defined areas of the brain cortex minister as directly to human thinking as others do to special when once sensations or to movements. we must admit that no greater discoveries than these have been achieved in science. just as physical injury in the cortical sight area may cause total blindness. the orator to compose his speech.

to ask what it We the have been for seeking whereabouts of mind. material such there be. not only in a physical stopping place. if and we articulate. are. but in a conscious perception. and nothing could be more important than to investigate the physical bases of the one transcendent ment which itself that without is human endow- so associated with thought no true thinking its exercise. U is possible in man . and hence the question whether we can come into the physical neighborhood of some great and purely mental faculty cannot but in- volve the solution of our whole problem.BRAIN' AND PERSONALITY where thought becomes may well pause when we find ourselves un- mistakably there. all means. We more than conscious selves only. far We are thinking selves. It was indeed a great step discover just to where a sensory stimulus traveling from the outside world along a nerve fiber ends. however.

because every member and organ of his body has its counterpart or analogue in the bodies of other animals. his bones and. 75 . the Man same kind his blood circulates through the same kind of heart and arteries and veins. with its varieties of parts and accessories. There is explanation nothing in his him physical frame which truly separates from other animals.CHAPTER Y THE FACULTY OF SPEECH Before entering upon the consideration of the Faculty of Speech and its the subject of our discussion bearing upon it is fitting to note the fact that no investigation of the hu- man body why man itself affords the least is man. shares with other mammalia of lungs to breathe with . he digests and assimilates food by the same kind of apparatus. his all his secreting glands. his muscles.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
in short, every other bodily thing in
like

unto theirs.

him

is

Also not only the anatomy,

but the physiology, that

is,

the working of

every physical element in man,
in keeping with that of other

is

so strictly

mammals

that

much the greater part of our knowledge of
human physiology is derived from investigations into the physiology of other animals.

We
how

even deduce from experiments on them
either medicines or poisons

may

affect

ourselves.

But there

is

one organ of his body which

immediately suggests
great exception to

what must

human
tional

its

itself as necessarily

a

The mind of man;

all this.

organ be!

How

could the

brain be other than a most excep-

brain in the whole

animal series?

This inference seemed so certain that the

most diligent search was long continued for
the physical counterpart in man's brain to
his

marvelous

intellect.

Nothing, therefore,

could have been more disappointing than to
discover that the brain of the chimpanzee,

76

THE FACULTY OF SPEECH
as far as structure goes, presents us with not

only every lobe, but with every convolution
of the

human

The

brain.

respecting

the

functions of the diiferent areas of our

own

chief

facts,

indeed,

brain cortex, so far determined by physiologists,

have been deduced from experiments

on the brains of anthropoid apes.

All at-

tempts to demonstrate a new, or superadded,
or special collection or arrangement of gray

matter in

man 's

brain, which no other animal

possesses, have failed.

Ever

since

showed, against Owen, that the

Huxley

human

brain

has not even one peculiarity not found in a

baboon ^s brain, no one expects that the

scal-

pel will reveal a single physical explanation

as to
of a

why the mind of
physiologist who

finitely apart.

a baboon and the mind
dissects

him are

so in-

If the similarity of brain for-

mation and mechanism, carried out to the
smallest details, be all that

is

needed, there

would be no reason why baboons could not

become

philosophers

77

or

mathematicians.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
Man's body,

therefore, including

man

leaves

wholly

himself

Professor Huxley puts the

''As

Ms

brain,

unexplained.
subject

thus:

to the convolutions, the brains of the

apes exhibit every stage of progress, from
the almost smooth brain of the

marmoset

to

the orang and chimpanzee, which fall but
little

And

below man.

it is

most remarkable

that as soon as all the principal sulci

appear,

sures]

the

pattern

which they are arranged

is

[fis-

according

to

identical with

that of the corresponding sulci of man.

.

.

.

So far as cerebral structure goes, therefore,
it

is

clear that

man

differs less

from the

chimpanzee and orang, than these do even

from the monkeys, and that the difference
between the brain of the chimpanzee and of

man

is

almost insignificant when compared

with that between the chimpanzee brain and
that of a lemur.''

But there
which

man

plies

to

is

one physiological standard by

can be truly measured, which ap-

him

alone,

and which rounds
78

his

THE FACULTY OF SPEECH
marvelous

whole

being

faculty

liis

of

speech.

The immeasurable distance between

man and

every other animal on earth

is fully

accounted for by the existence, the nature

and the

significance of

man's words.

we

sayings of Francis Bacon

By

the

find ourselves

in the presence of an intellect

which grasps

the principles of all knowledge.

In the words

of Shakespeare wellnigh every experience

of

human

vividly embodied.

life is

awed by the sublimity and
the thoughts of
in the

We

are

the solemnity of

him who expressed himself

words of the Ninetieth Psalm,

more we ponder

it,

So, the

more impassable

the

grows the gulf between the minds of those

who could speak thus and
animals.
in kind,

the minds of

dumb

They cannot be the same beings
however similar

tionships be, because the

their bodily rela-

more we recognize

man imreason why he

what the presence of the Logos
plies, the plainer

becomes the

in

stands alone in this world.

Professor Huxley remarks on this sub-

79

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
*^

ject:^

died

After passion and prejudice have

away

the

same

result will attend the

teachings of the naturalist respecting that

great Alps and Andes of the living world

Our reverence

Man.
hood
that

for the nobility of

by the knowledge

will not be lessened

Man is

in substance

man-

and

in structure one

with the brutes, for he alone possesses the

marvellous

endowment

rational speech.

mountain

by

from the

.

top, far

ble fellows,

nature,

.

.

of

intelligible

Thus he stands as on a

above the level of his hum-

and transfigured from
reflecting here

infinite

and

his lower

and there a ray

source of truth."

Regarded as a physiological study the

fac-

ulty of speech consists not in uttering words,

but in the power of word making.

mary truth about a word
from mind.

a personality which
it.

1

that

Apart from mind

Every word was

istence.

vented

is

No

first

comes only

it

has no ex-

made by

designed and

in-

making of a

in Nature, pp. 119, 132.

80

pri-

it

originally

personality, no

Man's Place

The

THE FACULTY OF SPEECH
word

is

Hence no word ever

forever true.

came, or can come, into existence sponta-

No human being was

neously.

a word.

man

ever born with

A word, therefore, is an artificial hu-

product, the outgrowth of a need, just

was

as a knife

wanted
tions,

made by some one who
Being purely human crea-

first

to cut.

words, like

all

man's works, sooner or

Some of the finest
languages ever spoken are now dead. Therelater

fore

grow

it

is

old and die.

not words as such which concern

the physiologist, but the capacity for

them, for this

is

making

the faculty of speech

it-

self.

This faculty has

the characters of a

all

fundamental physiological
absolutely generic.

man

No

fact,

because

it is

speechless race of

has yet been found, however low we go

in the scale of

human

intelligence, or

how-

ever isolated the race; and every speech of

savage

tribes

consists,

speech, not of so

many

like

other

sounds, but of verbs,

nouns, and partitives, that

81

every

is,

with

all

of

but Max in Miiller says of it : ^ ' ^ We this is what have before us in the Turkish a language of perfectly transparent structure.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY distinctively the mental elements of true language. the inner workings of which watching the building of An we can study cells in as if a beehive. and a grammar. if not the finest. Their language was wholly formed while they were so. its It any language has never had any literature of own worth mentioning. that we * Science of Language. 82 . p. least impressive fact about this Not the human exclusively power of faculty creation. It is one of the finest. Thus the Turks were originally a barbarous horde of High Asia. It has been the least modified by foreign influences or admixture of Europe. sounding languages in the world. First Series. 309. its limitless The remarkable lence of the languages of is is excel- many savage races a testimony to the innate power of this human endowment. eminent Orientalist remarked.

said:^ ^'The languages of Africa will express any idea. 66. in a paper read at the Anthropological Section of the British Association of Bantu Science." Mr. however esoteric. . 16. 83 a empha- They are masters art of destructive criticism. and will do it with extraor- dinary precision and often with great A who has acquired one leave his own language Bantu word. Crisp. incisive. 1905. because more aptly and it tersely. But no such devised what the mind of to itself in the steppes of only by society could have man produced left Tartary and guided innate laws. Nov. delicacy what it in the and their native Nature. August. » to use Bantu proverbs and much power and sizing with them conveys his thought metaphors are often most is of foreigner will often felicity. p. 1905. intended to say. or by an intuitive its power as wonderful as any within the realm of Nature.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH might imagine Turkish to be the result of the some famous society of deliberations of learned men.

one might as well trace a navi- gable river to a bottle of water. '^ meaning a dog.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY shrewdness. as to sup- pose that the inexhaustible stream of human speech has any other source than the limitless spirit of speech man. where most we which baby in if this to find them. case. observation and wit render them dangerous disputants. lish. wow. wow theory. some similarity should be found in words so derived. soon died after the recognition of the infinite human As natural capacity for making languages. owing to that fact. is for. view were correct. ' In the infancy of philology some theorists ascribed the beginning of words to phonetic imitations of natural sounds. sounds are the same the world over. human far richer than any one language 84 . Even would expect in all sound languages among the is by no means the talk. the words vary in sound between the different races as much as Thus the word 'bow- do the words of adults. ^ is found only in Eng- Indeed. as it But this bow- has been called.

We truth lest it need to emphasize escape us when we this primary find that all words have their material anatomical seats in the brain finger. is it is. that language makes man. which the philologist must come to from conscious all words facts. upon which we can put our index Otherwise we might infer that these material localities.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH possibly can be. The necessary conclusion. some reasoners loosely state. is that the source of all these is the mind or human personality itself. but makes language. it is The mind comes man who first and altogether the beginning and cause of the word. these speech areas of gray 85 . such as the Arabic. saying that a learns a There man is much truth in the doubles himself when he new language. therefore. as It is not. Whoever enters upon the study of one of the great languages of the East. soon notes not only how but that tions unlike any European tongue teems with words and construc- it and meanings which have no equiva- lents in any Western speech.

86 . if its a first in By de- so habitu- word instru- thought without not quite. violin. shall find in- stead that the material seats of words in the make those words than brain matter no more make the books ar- The ultimate fact is rather. because in all lips. mind becomes ated to think only by using ble. for the purpose of his defining Their relations to thought are just as definitely instrumental as the violinist's fingers are instrumental to the expression of his thoughts The and feelings with the violinist thinks first in time before finger moves. and the thinker thinks time before a word rises to his grees.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY matter. the ments that in adult life words becomes almost. as revealed by the physiological study of the faculty of speech. do themselves originate the words We which are located there. as such. that words are the instru- ments which the thinker invents or makes for himself thought. impossi- thinking. the shelves of a library ranged on them. the man whether he will talks to himself in words. however.

namely. may re- recognizable signs of thought are gone. but feelings do not need words to become true feelings . whether he be thinking this. will we all word complete. let him try to represent a true thought to his consciousness without accompanying words. and find words fail us. its It should be clearly recognized that this applies only to thought and not to feelings. the relations of 87 .THE FACULTY OF SPEECH later talk to others or any one doubt If alone. Having considered the to thoughts. relations of we now come words to a crucial point in all our discussion. what hap- an adult 's power of pure thinking upon actual material apparatus. any excursion for as We must again disclaim here into the field of metaphysics. we proceed with our will meet with pen to illustrations of discussion. Thoughts words need become to true thoughts. damage When to his brain such damage is though manifestations of feeling main. in fact we often vainly try to express our feelings in words.

Doctor." she ^^What said. link never That would have been guessed by meta- physicians. ^^that or newspaper is words of the reason.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY words to the brain. because they reveal the first terial recognizable link between the imma- and the material. I found her much old disturbed by a strange experience which she immediately detailed in the well-chosen an educated woman. and when the 88 girls came this morn- . yet demonstrated in science. "We can scarcely over- state the importance of certain modern dis- coveries on this subject. I was once hurriedly sent for by an patient of mine. between mind and matter. The simplest way illustrate this statement is to narrate to some experience of physicians which teach these lessons of such extreme interest. for it was only physicians who could have discovered such facts by their noting the effects of small and strictly localized brain injuries. everything in a book is illegible to me! Last even- ing I sent an advertisement to the Herald for a waitress.

and she could speak as fluently as ever. I was able to note that she had absolutely no other disorder of speech and none of vision. never saw a word. she In a moment of time she illiterate as an Australian savage. matter with me ! " What is the I at once recognized that she had been struck with word-blindness. and she remained so. and so also with my I then opened the crochet work. as this affection is technically termed. had become as two years and from later. All that which as yet her was that a little had happened to artery which supplies blood to a small area in the visual region of 89 . Bible. but could not read a word. At first I supposed my eyesight had failed. Having calmed her excitement as best I could. but no word could reach her consciousness through her eyes. but I could see everything around the room as well as ever. She heard every word that came to her ears.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH ing I could not read their references. that day to her death. I then took np the Herald and f onnd that I could not read a word in it.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY her brain had become plugged. with the result of totally disorganizing gray matter the The words. but in that him came through the came through the word-deafness. the brain gray matter. ' ' the blood thereof. which the life thereof. but words that which he could not ear. recognize. for diately dies if it imme- supply of of its dejDrived ' blood. is find their best illustration in that most living of things. where eye words are registered. termed intelli- a clerk in a mercantile establishment. was soon It found. so that to all questions that 90 . Another example of the total loss of the power of recognizing words occurred hospital patient. gent young was not words eye. so that he it in a had what He was man under is a naturally thirty. he talked only gibberish. and was supposed to have become insane. that he could read and write as well as ever. however. and moreover he did not seem able to under- stand what was said to him. because though he talked incessantly.

THE FACULTY OF SPEECH were put answers. in- cluding the tick of a watch and the notes of a canary bird. A third form of loss of words is still more common. Such cases of word-deafness are due to the same kind of damage to a small locality in the auditory area of the brain as that which causes word-blindness in the visual area. for he heard and recognized all other sounds. also It was words only that he could not hear. A man retires to bed in good health. to him in writing he wrote correct The reason why he talked so inco- herently was because he could not hear his own words. but were otherwise as unintelligible to him as the words of a lan- guage which he had never heard. and that he has no word91 . for he evidently understands everything that is spoken to him. It is soon ascer- tained that he has no word-deafness. and for the same reason all words addressed to his ears reached his consciousness only as sounds. but is found in the morning utterly unable to speak a word.

not be able to utter a word. the precision of well-devised experi- By this means we we could The to first us. kind consists of words which come and these are words which arrive through the ear. In his distress. but even ally lie signs he can it is usu- found that he cannot find the words to express himself by writing any more than he can by speaking. and the second consists of words which come to us through the eye in reading. he But may make hold a pen well and begin to write. tence. that speech is of two kinds. because he can read. as otherwise not. if may a sen- still less that he would like to write. Thus it is that processes of disease enable us to analyze our brain mechanism of speech with all ments.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY blindness. which called the first temporal is in the cortical area of hearing. and then go to a particular locality in what is convolution. where they are received as words. learn. and which go to an entirely different place from the ear words. for they are received as words in a 92 .

because 93 it and distinct involves . bered that there is It is to be remem- no resemblance whatever between the sound of the word man. The second kind of speech consists of words which go from utter. and the written word man.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH special locality called the angular gyrus in the cortical visual area. is we ourselves This division of the faculty of speech wholly different from the that we first. by which the blind are enabled to read. active We mouth or by word do this either by word of hand to thus express ourselves mechanism is and ourselves give in writing. for sound and sight are two wholly separate things. while in this we are forth the words. for exampie. vention has doubtless added a third word in- reg- istry connected with the sense of touch. but its special locality has not yet been identi- fied. and hence sound words and sight words have each Modern their different brain registries. an entirely required. of or which us. because in are passive and receive the words.

: 94 . 1901. It is therefore called motor speech. and proceeds from an alto- gether different place in the brain cortex.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY muscular movements. not larger than a hazel nut. quoted by Sir Wm. in a region from which muscular movements are initiated. 2d Edition. and the consciousness is utterly unable to find a to express itself. to receive all It still word with which may have its power words from others through the ear or eye. from the French surgeon who first identified its connection with speech. Here motor areas govern- in a small patch of gray matter. vol. p.. particularly in those regions which govern the movements of the tongue and other muscles of articulation. as it often is by a gush of blood from a ruptured artery. 115. Gowers Diseases of the Nervous System.^ located Broca 's con- in a part of a convolution called volution. but not a word can it communicate Rosenstein. and which are also in proximity to the ing the hands. ii. resides every word that can be spoken! Let this remarkable piece of matter be separately destroyed.

words is actually demonstrated by facts such as When a man sets about to learn a language new to him. he has to add another brain shelf for that purpose. when eye or ear words are deranged. and that something very similar to this the case. the gray matter of no one of these three seats of words originates or They are makes any words. or on a wax phonograph. because the old many books on it row of entirely new shelf has too to allow room words. simply registered there for use. speech.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH These different derangements of in return. as we have remarked damaged. is ar- volumes. for a 95 any Pro- . or motor aphasia. as they would be on a printed page. are technically called aphasias. due to organic changes in the word mechanism. and divided into the sensory forms. and how that done we is leaf of a will learn further on. with ranged thereon like so many these. when Broca's convolution is Now. before. We have already likened those speech areas to the shelves of a library.

Also his book. Letter. of tt^e injury to his brain matter nearly ruined the English shelf. Hinshelwood was told scarcely at all. he could far better than he could English. Latin and French. read it Then testing his Latin. Thucydides and Xenophon. The only course. 1901. he tested first the patient him with Greek. and words in writing As Dr. 1902. and * Lancet. 96 Word and . London. while in French he made more mistakes than read it in Latin. He could read his native English in print only with the greatest difficulty. Mind 8. then damaged to a less extent the French. when was surprised and delighted find that he could read to Greek perfectly. but not as perfectly as Greek.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY fessor Hinslielwood/ of the University of Glasgow. as he did paragraphs in Homer. of this case is that explanation. Blindness. publishes the case of a highly educated man who was brought to him for an attack of ordinary word-blindness. that the patient had learned Greek. Feb. but still a great deal better than he could his native English.

After returning to his native country he had a stroke of apoplexy. These cerebral library shelves partially. wood reports made the case of a his living in also in Dr. after it does not belong. during which he learned English. while the Greek shelf escaped entirely. when the house-cleaning season ar- and women invade his study for a gen- For days eral dusting of his books. The same arrangement holds true the auditory word mechanism. because it has been put back where So. with results not unlike those which often disturb the equanimity of a student rives. Hinshel- Frenchman who Glasgow as a teacher of French for a number of years. may also be damaged by accidents to the brain. after- wards he picks up the wrong book.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH still less the Latin shelf. from which he became word-deaf in French. some brain shock. a person may be 97 . but only in English. instead of completely. while his English shelf remained intact so that his wife could speak to him.

publisbed tbe records of a number of patients wbo bad lost tbe power of reading music. condition tbe term paraphasia may Tbere libraries. bowever. is Broca tbis given. tbey became music-note-blind instead of wordblind. wbo could read Greek but not Englisb. because of tbe tbree speech it of tbese As apparatus often registry. but the wrong word often vexa- tiously conies to bis lips. In Dr.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY able to speak. Hinsbelwood^s patient men- tioned above. is to tbe speecb more tban one ing record of a case in of interest. tbe reverse took place. tbougb be could not read a sentence in Englisb. tbe follow- my own experience proves tbat if is only one mecbanisms remain un98 . Tbe most interesting. separate registries tbe damage involves tbat for figures. for otber tbings tban Professor Edgren of Stockbolm bas words. tbat still is. tbougb tbey could read words. be sbelves in tbese cerebral bowever. for be could still read music as well as ever. jnst as if bis sbelves To bad become badly jumbled.

each very definitely mentioned. yet made him both word- and wholly unable blind remained in to utter this condition for a word. while causing no muscular paralysis. that his son-in-law was Learning dissatisfied with this arrangement. His lawyer produced one in which the patient devised a certain amount of property. He seven years.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH injured. A gentleman who during a long. consisting of pieces of real estate and of other items. the personality can use that one sufficiently well for all practical purposes. active busi- ness career had accumulated a fortune. His manufacturing business. however. he devised exclusively to his son. was that my but what brought him to with his lawyer and opinion was sought as to his competence to make a will. and might induce his wife to contest her father's will after his death 99 by a . a very fair division of his property between his two chil- dren. in company only son. my office. to his married daughter. in the testator's opinion. which was. had an attack of apoplexy which.

as his utterance speech mechanism was wholly ruined. and like- do so. yet he could both read and write figures as well as ever. he came to made that a as written opinion on the was naturally felt by his son his lawyer that a very plausible case be me and might out to the jury by the other side. man who could not himself read a of his will. all Meantime nothing could persuade him to retire from business. nor utter a sound word by which he could express what he wanted. might easily be imposed upon by the persons interested to my it was found that though he could not read. in fact that he was unusually adept in arithmetical calculations. In examination of him wise could not write.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY claim to a share in the profits of the factory. for he wrote transactions and pointing to the figures with his pencil. and so for seven years he continued and sell as he always the sums for all to buy had done. on the ground that in his condition he was incapable of making a an expert subject. to give It my will. the bargain had 100 .

In illustration he produced a memorandum book of his. and then read item. I took the will and looked it fore him. furious at my it The was actually in favor old gentleman was supposed mistake. to each of which he carefully over beit aloud. and in which he had entered on that attention all payments correctly sums varying according basis. item nodded by assent. particularly directing to one of them interest in in my by his finger which he had bought a third a business enterprise. however minor in importance they 101 . quite a literature has grown up on this subject. in which were entered numerous such accounts. the the year's profits.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH to be forthwith concluded. until I designedly misread one stipulation as in favor of the son when of the daughter. and was quick to correct any other inaccuracies in my reading. and I proceeded to test this par- ticular case according to its accepted rules. As to questions relating to the testamentary capacity of aphasics have come up in many courts of both Europe and America.

was entirely competent to devise and I was glad to learn afterwards that this precautionary measure on his part prevented any trouble in settling the estate when he died some months afterwards. figures is doubtless but in his case so removed from the eye- word registry that it escaped damage as completely as his ear-word mechanism had done. but though he endeavored with characteristic perseverance to get back some of the lost parts of his speech. but those particular chords of the instrument were irretrievably broken.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY were. was just the same. Why he could not substitute another set of precisely similar 102 . I therefore could give a decided opin- ion that he a will. all its peculiarities and Mentally he his personality with remained the same. The place for registering somewhere in the visual area of the cortex. Meantime this patient to learn to speak and to had repeatedly tried read again after the sudden onset of his calamity. yet he failed altogether.

and which also were perfectly intact. because that explanation covers the whole subject of at all. we will explain in the next chapter. 103 how we talk .THE FACULTY OF SPEECH chords which he had in his brain.

in both hemispheres. for not only has the chimpanzee just the same convolutions man has for speech. man has the same convolutions in pairs. that is.CHAPTEE VI THE FACULTY OF SPEECH It should be noted the human first — CONTINUED of all that no part of brain has any original. for no one ever was born with no place or sphere. that is. native connection with the gift of speech. And yet man uses only one of these pairs for speech. but like the chimpanzee. which 1*04 . it. this is man is that not owing to the structure of his brain. The material seat or region in the brain of comes always as an this great faculty ac- quired change in the brain. Hence locality whatever in either hemi- We may even go so far as to say that if the distinguishing fact he is at birth speech has about a speaking animal.

Instead of this being the case. part of the It is a rior temporal convolution it is sees a part of the words and . left it is left supe- which hears words angular gyrus which the left Broca's convolu- tion which utters words.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH while the same set of convolutions in his other hemisphere than either pair the chimpanzee. then both hemi- spheres would be used for speech. the fac- endowment of those original man. word therefore. on account of their par- ticular construction. those areas being just alike in each hemisphere. the entire word mechan- ism in all its parts is found only in one of the two hemispheres. while the other hemisphere remains wordless for With life. In all such persons the corresponding places in the right hemi- sphere are not speech areas at It would be natural to infer 105 all. from all this . was an ulty word areas in no more used for speech is is used for that purpose by If. the great majority of persons the speech centers are located exclusively in the left hemisphere.

nor brain nor any similar thing which cause of word making. here to receive utter words. which visits these brain localities. nor or fibers. or rather agent. locality. namely. again. an agency. That cells the is first cause something wholly different. which are the word- Moreover such persons are not a whit inferior to the others in everything which language demands.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY that the left brain is organized differently from the right brain as far as endowment is this Bnt concerned. and it is their left brains less ones. Therefore. for the good reason that in supreme it is not so. it is nor organization. How to do what he pro- words and there he manages to do this to is revealed by his original reason for choosing 106 . proceeds word of any by a long and incessant repe- tition process of teaching. to fashion those particles of gray matter poses. some persons the speech centers are in the right brain alone. and finding them originally entirely unfamiliar with a single kind. first is not brain structure.

A powerful spurt of blood from a ruptured cerebral artery may so tear the brain tissue as to involve these motor centers or the fibers leading from them. fully confirm 107 Post-mortem exthis statement. . which contains the center for motor speech.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH the left brain in most persons. as already explained. because from that area proceed those excitations of muscular movements which are of a voluntary kind. is was noted that it paralysis occurs on one side paralyzed. and in so doing frequently involves Broca's con- volution among aminations the rest. but in others not the left but the right brain. the side which left word mech- is The reason for also this that Broca^s convolution. is of the cortex which is called we have situated in that part the motor area. The first facts which led to the discovery of the steps in the formation of the anism in man were that when sudden of the body. be the right side which if it is governed by the is brain motor or uttering speech very commonly affected.

including the found right Broca's convolution. loss of speech is it is plain that the due exclusively to the injury to the left hemisphere. in patients who. while loss of speech or- accompanies dinarily left-sided paralysis. tion.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY Meantime as the right hemisphere is then to be quite unaffected. On the other hand. ing had life. along with the significant post-mortem findings of damage to the right instead of the left Broca ^s convo- In other instances. some cases have been accompanied and not right-sided paralysis. lution. ported in which it but right-sided. 108 . also showed word-blindness dur- not only the right Broca's convolu- but the region of the right angular gyrus was likewise found damaged. not re- left-sided. In time more of these cases were published. with left-sided paralysis and loss of motor speech. corresponding places in the were left As the hemisphere intact. it followed that in these persons the speech centers were in the right brain and not in the left.

was the first to Gesture lanlanguage. are physiologically connected.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH It was not long before seemingly this curious anomaly which that right-sided paralysis with loss is found its explanation. Hand and speech. by one personality longing to with others. as every human being when endeavoring communicate with those to still does whose vocal speech he does not know. therefore. therefore. was make gestures with his hands. particularly noticeable 109 among all This peoples . and left-sided paralysis with loss of speech occurs in persons who have been left-handed in life. to the very beginning of this wonder- ful faculty of expression in man. the faculty of speech is located in the hemisphere which governs the hand which is most used. and few persons are aware how much gesture language is still continues in living use. In other words. and the thing which he first It began communicate did then. of speech occurs in right-handed people. This remarkable fact brings us back to the origin. guage.

The important place which gesture guage holds among primitive peoples illustrated lan- well is by the following anecdote: Dr. for nothing can exceed the expressiveness and piquancy of those gestures the by which they often more than double meaning of their words. whole races are characterized by the number and variety of their gestures while speaking.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY who have no written language. in the preface cal Studies of the to his Ethnologi- Northwestern Queensland (Australia) Aborigines. among as non-gesticulating to learn as a taciturn two languages the Arabs. says: ** I was out on horseback with some blacks. rently to As side suddenly asked his in front was of a hen bird after and her there had been appa- me no communication whatsoever 110 . consisting young progeny. but even among the most civilized. Walter Roth. quite as much A as by their vocabulary. when one of the boys riding me to halt. Frenchman is uncommon One has Frenchman. as a by my mate of some emus.

that after certain mutual recriminations. separated as they were by a distance of quite one hundred and concluded that falsehood. I afterwards found that there is an actual well-defined sign language which extends through the entire Northwestern districts of Queensland. my fifty yards.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH between the boy in front and tlie one close to me.. his in his at the effect His voice certainly could not account for the whole difference. the statement to be shortly afterwards con- firmed by the arrival of the lad himself with the dead bird and tion. on his hands. he explained.. with the result. and by the words he we have we wonder they had on his hearers.'' Among our staid Anglo-Saxons a preacher like Whitfield moved his audience more by what they saw him do with the muscles of face and of his hands than uttered. how he had received his information. some of the young in ques- . Ill . I naturally informant was uttering a and told him so in pretty plain terms. for those words printed sermons.

is indispensable. 112 As soon means as other . therefore. would seek the co-operation of and tongue for vocal sounds. and those of the leg. We for example.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY An inspection of the accompanying plate shows in what close proximity to the area governing the movements of the hand in the motor region of the brain are the centers which preside over the movements of the muscles of the face. so is the oftenest used is it of the two hands the oftenest used for gesture. then see how can readily facial expression. common and associated action of these parts. But as the right hand for every purpose. of the lips and of the A tongue. which of course for language. lend- ing itself to gesture in attempts at communication. because other- wise the sounds would have remained forever only like those of an anthropoid ape. as we will note later. would be much more natural than between the muscles of the face. soon to lips become words because of the human mind back of the sounds. This last element of mind.

right-handedness and left-handedness comes down to us from ancient times and is ever renewed. Whence. the appeal would necessarily be to the neighboring centers in the and not by crossing the corpus left brain. But the primary connection of the hand with the fashioning of the word mechanism in the human brain settled is conclusively by the location of that mechanism in the right hemisphere in left-handed persons. the impulses mostly proceed for using the particular hand in ques- 113 . callosum bridge to the corresponding centers in the other hemisphere. some people are left-handed we do The discussion on the origin of not know. until finally the habit became Why fixed for life. therefore. therefore. Scarcely a month passes without being threshed out again in our medical it all journals.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH parts were sougtit for to co-operate with gesture in language. before the habit became set- tled to use only parts in the left brain for this specialized work. It would not be long.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY tion settles words are both to what cerebral places to go. and If they are appear that these anatom- changes cannot possibly be of automatic 114 . This question. is not best answered in children Many and noting reasoners go astray here. cause is. which really concerns the origin of human speech. they are wholly ignore the anatomical brain changes which are necessary what it studied ical is it to make which causes them. So far we have been led by anatomical ThnSj Broca's convolution facts. which children supposed to learn by imitation. will then speech. is Broca's convolution. are to come. because with preconceived views about the automatic origin of words. because there it is another Broca's convolution within the same cranium which does not talk. a theory than a finger it is a definite Evidently not simply be- convolution talk? is for no more But what makes Broca's material thing. and from what place they. by studying speech how they begin.

of Perth. and no human race has yet been found which cannot be taught to read enough W. Adams. (in his ^* tions that to wife a if the attempt be made early Thus Bishop Hale. has taken native woman. from reading and writing to mathematics. In other words always and everywhere man. Aborigines of Australia).THE FACULTY OF SPEECH must be the origin. who had been brought up at some settler's station and was partially educated. and the black wife taught the white husband to read. for starting this investigation is when the subject begins to learn to read. and finitely distant in mind from every ape. therefore. A. philos- ophy and man is political economy. men- A shepherd." It is man no longer doubtful that every race of can be educated to know anything. in life. but rather The sults of purpose. Adams could not read. in- Some early anthropologists were mistaken enough 115 . effects and re- best age. The ability to read constitutes an impor- tant department of language.

past eleven of in years. several occasions of examination On by a gov- ernment inspector.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY to say that certain races of men were too low in the scale to be able to count above five. the percentage of the 116 . the number tribes of their fingers. records the following remarkable evidence: *^The inspection at Eamahyuck. as to the actual facts. gets a school during the percentage of results higher than the other state (white) schools in Victoria. James Dawson. and to zeal of the gentlemen the skill and them. and while no doubt this excellence is largely due to the regularity with which the children attend school. in Australian his Aborigines. fairly it who teach shows that aboriginal children are at least equal to others in power of learn- ing those branches of education which are taught in the state schools of Victoria. published in Melbourne in 1881. Mr. and they some cited among the Australian savages as ex- We need only quote the following amples. the aboriginal Gippsland.

in the Nineteenth Century Magazine. or layer by some persons become word- layer. a ' no one can imagine that learning to It requires instead read can be automatic. The it is call will. Mildred Creed. J. But the most pregnant Position Human of than But a less this can not wholly the then what is it? fact about this prothe Australian Aborigines by the Hon. was a hundred. doing of what we If ^See article. has to be done piece by piece. so that blind without being letter-blind. 1905. spontaneous cerebral act scarcely be conceived. in the Scale of Intelligence. Over and over again the pictures of the separate letter have to be identified so as to be distinguished another.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH Eamahyuck school ^ ' Now result by any other school in the unparalleled colony. the most persevering attention and application for many months. January. from one and then their combination words successively mastered symbol and its till the into word meaning are simultaneously This process of brain shaping recognized. 117 .

—see and recognize words. surely. namely. that by constant repetition of a given stimulus. therefore. Here. and which. in one both languages. we come upon a most im- pressive fact. so that it can do what no other gray matter anywhere can do. be.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY by the con- cess of learning to read is that stant repetition of the will-directed effort to see the letter modification and word of pictures. came only by laborious and long 118 con- . it. This material change must be though no microscope will ever detect or identify the English reading from the French reading cells. but yet there a blood material rather it clot could who can read it not destroy must it. or But this change was not effected easily. we can effect a permanent anatomical change in our brain stuff. could not have had either originally or spontaneously. there. which will add a and remarka- specific which it never had before. an actual gray matter results in a limited portion of the visual area. it ble cerebral function to that place.

Latin and French. in later years. a student learns to read Greek. as did Dr. and work by something which mnst be wholly extraneons to the gray matter itself. It is the conscious per- sonality alone which does this work. in addition to his childhood's speech. When that man separately studied those three languages. one for Greek. until wholly distinct portions of his gray matter were fashioned. better proof of this is and no needed to show that such must be the process than when. are the teachers of the cells in the angnlar gyrus which do the reading. his consciousness and his will certainly co-operated in pro- longed exercise. that they were respectively 119 differently . another for Latin.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH tinned work spent on that collection of gray matter. It is absnrd to snppose that any other areas of the cortex which cannot of themselves recognize a letter or word. and another for French words. Hinshelwood's patient above cited. each so divided from each other and from the earlier English stratum.

"We must here pause in our discussion. with its following specific reaction. that is. because we have come which goes to a great principle to the foundation of everything nervous.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY affected word by the damage which involved this area. This change be exceedingly slight after the first may stimulus. of We will find this principle constantly illustrated many ways as we proceed what concerns us now is that already. which produces a fixed habitual way of working in In other words. by way habit. the it. and operative but from the in facts which we have been 120 review- . ciple is this: That a stimulus That prinnervous to matter effects a change in that matter by calling forth a reaction in it. until by constant repetition a perma- nent alteration in the nervous matter stimulated occurs. nervous matter acquires a special working. of function. but each repetition of the stimulus increases the change. from the nervous system of a polyp up to the brain of a philosopher.

This well-demonstrated truth reaching significance. but which can be stamped upon it as so many physical altera- tions in its proplasmic substance. 121 But . namely. left which Nature gives can be fashioned education.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH ing. we arrive at one of the most important of all conclusions. is demonstrated beyond cavil. layer of our brains that the gray actually plastic is capable of being fashioned. so that new need not be It with only the slender equipment of func- tions it and it it at birth. because tirely new aspect to the of Education. acquire very functions or capacities which never many come by birth nor by inheritance. with small thought that it involves physical changes in the brain itself ere it can become real and permanent. All this by the textural brain changes which the acquired and not congenital function of speech depends upon. may Instead. that artificially. a training of the mind as such. by is. it is of far- gives an en- momentous subject Most persons conceive of edu- cation vaguely as only mental.

power may to read music. Thus to read music requires a great deal of education. and an apoplectic clot may instantly deprive a person of a laboriously gained such an accident of reading. So writing. Or. but in those same days figures were deeply engraved in some part of the angular gyrus. again. which heretofore has been regarded as a form of Broca's convolution work. they may be spoiled while the reading of music notes remains. Wliat a burden of school days arithmetic was every one remembers. as perfect forms of educa- examples of education as can be named.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY we have seen tliat different tion. or spoil every other kind and yet leave the music-reading place unharmed. they remained as clear as ever for their owner's use. as in the case mentioned on page 99. are ultimately dependent upon the sound condition of certain portions of the '' gray matter which have been " educated for each work. because usually when this convolution 122 is damaged . when all other reading cells were ruined. so that.

by the same laborious iteration of exercise of those particular brain cells. who after an apoplec- have had their right hand sudMills. as reading cells are fashioned. very probably has a center of its own. 123 Med. complishment? ac- Without doubt by actually fashioning a special violin center in his brain.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH speech by mouth and speech by hand are both abolished. until they violin craft. And ^ to become so with every handi- Instances which prove this have been reported of mechanics.^ From all this it follows that the brain must be modified by every process of true special education. tic had Prof. A skilled violinist can play upon his instrument as easily as another can read But how did he acquire such an a book. Some investigators claim to have identified the writing center in a part of the motor area above Broca's convolution. K. September. Jour. since cases are reported where the in- dividual could not speak but could write. . Am. C. Sciences. music cells. 1904. attack.

Children under ten years of age acquire languages by the ear very easily. But what is gained easily lost easily. where he no longer hears the language cases is On reported which he has it totally in less the other hand. the gray matter of their word centers very plastic and can soon be fashioned for that purpose. and yet they gradu124 . but is particu- larly the case with the acquisition of lan- guage. its progressively with age. for if a child at that moved to learned. of children many becoming aphasic just as adults do.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY denly but permanently lose but Meantime one lost. while or nothing seemed to be little else other words. he generally forgets than two years. in that this plas- its educability. evident with certain brain functions than with others. fact about the plasticity of the matter of the human brain cortex. are age be re- another country. that is is. by the onset of right-sided paralysis with destruction of the left Broca's convolution. is ticity diminishes This much more is cnnning.

THE FACULTY OF SPEECH much ally learn to talk again in the fashion in which they acquired speech at That they do this when aphasia. by educating the centers in the right brain is of same afterwards left-sided paralysis of total was added former right-sided paralysis. e. aphasia if so. In a few weeks they recover their ability to read or speak as the case and it is may be. therefore argued that they do so by help from the centers in the unaffected hemisphere. chief argument for their the transitory character of loss of position is speech in certain persons affected with aphasia. by a second injury involving the right centers.. to their proved by parallel cases supervention the first. those of the other hemisphere can come to the The patient's help. so that if the word centers of one side are injured. But it does not seem to occur to these reasoners that. from injury 125 in then every case of one hemisphere . Facts of this kind have led some writers to draw the erroneous conclusion that both hemispheres are concerned in speech. i.

and yet he never got back a word in his left angular gyrus. facts are that in the great majority of cases in adults. nor of course in the right word The most probable centers. ex- planation of temporary aphasia and recovery or improvement from it is. certainly within a year. if the aphasia does not improve within a few months. but not complete disorgan- ization of them. simply . patient —which had not more hopeless 126 The older the the case. that the sudden injury causes a shock. so that in time they regain their functions. the of English any —should in a few weeks be able to read or speak. My shrewd patient who proves. arithmetic so well took years with all many it never im- retained his a lesson for six the assiduity of an industrious schoolboy.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY should soon be recovered from by the aid of But the the other hemisphere. rather than that the struc- tures in the other hemisphere for years been taught a more than of Chinese word is. and thus paralysis of the word centers. nor in his left Broca's convolution.

Our study years to get and who would expect him at or sixty to become a fifty many civil engineer? of the cerebral relations of the faculty of speech serves one purpose at least. after fifty such in- stances are of the rarest . . We need not dwell further this subject. after forty scarcely ever learns new language well. physician needs his education. for it is simply in keeping with the facts connected with any other mental acquirement which comes only by educa- A tion. best that can be expected and is at seventy the the mastery of a very few foreign phrases. that of revealing the great fact that man self can be educated and does educate him- by modifying It is this fact man. namely. which makes man what But for the purpose of our 127 he is discussion. and badly pro- nounced at on that. his brain for that purpose.THE FACULTY OF SPEECH because the unaffected word areas in the other hemisphere have passed the time of when the gray matter is plastic enough to be fashioned for any healthy a life man new complex A function.

We. to the end. 128 We will . means that from the beginning. and according clearly to what fundamental principles of nervous physiology it does so. modern science is indebted to the recog- nition of the principle of evolution as the chief guide to the deeper problems of understanding of the life. in turn. can best unravel the most complex forms by studying the com- mencement sured that tinuity it in the simplest forms. By this is meant that all life development. however low. that we must for the present diverge from the subject of education to that of the great laws governing all nervous else Above everything development. and certainly all nervous development. certain fundamental laws continuously operate.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY it is so important to be able to recognize how onr brain matter can be made to acquire wholly new functions. however high. therefore. which. well asif we never drop will be our clue the line of con- through the most intricate passages of our search. been has orderly.

THE FACULTY OF SPEECH then find that as the brain of we approach man the subject of in its relation to thought by another route entirely than that which we have been following. with all the added confirmation given by the con- vergence of independent lines of research. namely. 129 . in the next chapter to the consideration of the great preside laws which over the evolution of a nervous system. by the route which leads from below upwards. We proceed. therefore. we rive all the more will ar- certainly at the conclusions to which we have been so far tending.

CHAPTEE VII EVOLUTION. The inner struc- ture of that cell itself has certain invariable elements which are equally present in the vegetable and in the first animal cell. a towering oak or an immense whale.OF A ITEEVOUS SYSTEM Ceetain^ fundamental principles are always fonnd underlying the essential phenomena of life. greatest growths. in either the vegetable or animal kingdoms. which. prove afterwards to be just as The operative in the most developed forms. specific. be- cause they can take a dye. for example. first Thus every species of plant or animal contains in its first cell number a fixed. and always even of bodies called chromosomes. and this number 130 . have to begin like every other living thing as veritable microbes in a single microscopic cell. first recognizable in the most primitive.

Thus in the cells of the mouse. therefore. that the eminent was led to say that the steady sway of funda- Naegeli. man and in guinea pig. the chromosomes always number twenty-four. though they be millions. But nowhere is mental principles so illustrated as in the de- velopment of a nervous system. and so facts. in the onion. first From the beginnings of a nervous system in a polyp up to the marvelous brain of man. Von sixteen. the trout and the lily. .NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION regularly recurs in the subsequent cells all of the future body. the like on. is thirty-six hopper twelve. all life is one. with- out their ever being afterwards repealed or superseded. In the ox. the salaman- der. well assured that what is illustrated by it will continue recognizable 131 . certain primary laws are always operative. we we first are to under- must study the simplest organization. stand the complex. the chro- mosomes always number shark the number and others naturalist. In the in the grass- It is from such them. If.

no way represses is central that dis- activity. ^^ discipline '' is '' Webster of subjection to submission to order and control. or manifold. 132 put . energy. but by means of regulated restraint. In studying the development of a nervous system from a physiological point of view. Without activity there could be no discipline. The word. by The severe systematic training. for there would be nothing then to discipline. which it therefore. '' idea conveyed by this definition cipline in directs it. implies made to subserve would not some kind of some purpose effect unless it be under control. the first principle discernible as governing that development is what in any other con- we would term Discipline. and we cannot do better than to note how the conceptions suggested by that word are applicable nection to our subject.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY however great in every further development. One the of the definitions given in word rule.

but the it is dancer or the fingers of not the muscles in these motor nerves of the muscles. when you have made purpose by putting engine. you have disciplined the energy of steam. which have been so wonderfully disciplined. For neither of these instances of supposed muscle training can be compared for com133 . nervous system word. But cases. will regulate if it Nor can you properly say it. it it subserve your under control in an It must always be something nerv- is disciplined. an exclusively You cannot properly say that you will discipline your watch goes too that though you can say that you fast. word which can be applied It is force. so that even in the ous that bodies of the highest animals. This may seem a singular statement to some.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION But discipline is not a to and most correct in its usual any inanimate sense. as they think of the highly trained muscles of the legs of a a pianist. nothing but that which is nervous can be either disci- plined or trained.

for the move- An ments necessary for articulate speech. to make his tongue work out a word in any one of the three languages? What was the matter with his tongue? Nothing. shall from an attack of right hemiplegia. not talk? Why. animated orator has to make a greater num- ber of rapidly succeeding and yet perfectly adjusted contractions and relaxations of his muscles of articulation. could its and mastication it swallowing. while its nervous direction for the movements of mastication was re- 134 . Solely because nervous direction for the movements in speaking was lost. In fact ing it could work as well as ever in assist- therefore.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY plexity and difficulty with the training of the muscular organ. French and German. But how we explain the authenticated case of a man who could speak English. and who suddenly became unable. or paralysis on the right side of his body. as a muscle or muscular organ. than any famous per- former on a musical instrument. the tongue.

It is a mistake. is other things nervous. can be taught except that which This among principle far-reaching. just as the accident which had caused his hemiplegia had severed the connection with the higher brain centers. rank tissue of the body. as Nothing such. cell.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION tained. therefore. namely. is any more than one brick of a higher or in a build- more important grade than another brick. 135 . then the tongue would have failed equally to assist in mastication and in deglutition. has but one dead cell one bone or bone has any higher rank than another bone or bone ing No level of function. But were also if its pair of hypoglossal nerves cut. to say that muscles. is because introduces us to a sec- it ond element of fundamental importance and which tem in is characteristic of the nervous sys- alone. that of gradation of work or Every function. simply because above or below. can be taught to do anything. else And it is put so muscles are little than duplicates of each other in function. except the nervous tissue.

there- no such thing in the muscles as one set by virtue of pure in- governing another set nate superiority. namely. then. 136 Very ' ^ well. to the brain. because he does all the going. just this difference meets us in the case of the gray motor cells of the spinal cord and the gray motor cells of the The gray motor brain. and so he might if his he were and not a broken-in horse. wherever they are. surface of the cells of the cord do the going of the body. contract and relax. as the rider is superior to his horse. its motor nerves really belong to Not a muscle of the body is directly under the control of those aristocratic motor The cord might say brain. but don 't you . and -nothing more.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY because. they will be found to do but one thing. you wish ask do me ' it. fore. ' ' If or foot you have to ' '' ' the brain 's answer. for even the so- all called cranial system. There is. But like his rider. The horse might claim against rider the greater importance. topmost layer of the cells in the ' to is to do move hand it for you.

You were the original nervous system." Rank. so that my you would act according to orders. I am it is. you have lost your senseless independence and must obey me.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION move hand or foot till I tell you. but since I have above and you are below. it took were horses before to ride them. always implies an ultimate from which everything below. consist of three parts : (1) it which show a is proved to A nerve filament which receives and transmits a stimulus (2) a nerve center of soft gray fibers. just as there there were men come. in the lowest animals trace of a nervous system. 137 cells to and and which . and so we will all starts as a subsequent grada- begin now with the simplest illustration of what a nervous sys- tem as Reduced is. as me long patient training and a my great deal of trouble to break you in to service. common foundation for tions. it is to its most primitive form. and. for since I have been evoluted np here. however. to be sure. which receive this stimulus.

power do A fair illustration of to in ourselves in You can abolish the wink in one of three ways. never on the nerve which brought it. this mechanism can be found the act of winking. first Afferent^ because it trans- and the second Efferent. by cutting the branch of the fifth cranial nerve. Or you may to be done. and that has been abolish winking cut. that it This center then does not know any winking ought depends for sensory all because news of that kind on the fifth nerve. Hence these two filaments are accordingly named. You may it. which transmits sensation to the nerve center for winking at the top of the spinal cord. the mits to. by cutting the proper branch of the seventh pair of cranial 138 . but on (3) a nerve filament which proceeds from the center. the center One vibration. first. of the it some nervous commonest examples of efferent excitation is when muscles con- tract in response to the efferent excitation of their motor nerves. because transmits from.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY center reacts to this stimulus.

step by step. the fifth nerve onght to wink hard. because the efferent or is motor nerve that works the mnscles of the eyelids. is cut. but with one important addition. each with its afferent and efferent nerves. then. with both the fifth no winking will intact. From that simple beginning of a real nerv- ous system. occur because the nerve center itself has been deadened by some narcotic poison. no matter tells the center that the center answers. with animals still utterly brainless. one can proceed. " Or and seventh nerves lastly. finds in these tems is and eif er- What one more organized nervous sys- a greater number of these centers. centric ent elements can be discovered.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION nerves. which are for the purpose of enabling the centers to 139 work . and yet in them no other mode of working than by afferent. that the separate nerve centers in them are con- nected by short nerve fibers. which it. but which have more developed and complicated nervous systems . it * ^ how I cannot do the seventh nerve. namely.

forming a whose functions never change or abolish the original afferent and efferent mode of working. or in the direction of movement.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY togetlier. harmony of action new results in this movement. to the we find that the mutual co-operation of the centers begins to be plainly more frequent in certain directions than in others. that it seems easier for the centers to act together to execute some movements than other movements. are secured. but instead show a more and more perfect harmony of By action between the several parts. this is so. that is. according scale of the animal's development. it to execute When we examine why proves to be because of the more 140 . something as the jars of a Leyden battery are connected by short chains. After a certain number of nerve centers have become associated. which would be impracticable were the separate centers to work independently. A still further development shows a regu- lar chain of such nerve centers distinctly ascending series.

NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION frequent repetition of certain afferent stimuli than of the other afferent stimuli. effect. and which we have alluded to in the previous chapter. Habit. be the movements executed by muscles in the order to produce a given movements of the contracting strongly. Repeat one afferent excitation a hundred times and another only once. g. organized by habit. eyeballs.. e. and the movements conse- quent on the first much more are clearly readily caused than those following on the unusual excitation. is first However complex. in the organization of a nervous system. others again relaxing just enough to allow their opponents to contract just so no more. namely. some muscles others most gently. Therefore we have come now to the second and most important principle of all. — all these perfectly much and associated movements are nevertheless explicable only as the slowly acquired habits of the centers 141 . for example. man included. The whole nervous system indeed in any animal.

question. in habituating the efferent or motor nerves of the eye muscles to act together. did these habits? centers come The answer is.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY which supply those muscles with their motor Hence the important nerves. mean. Physiologists. or that which is acted upon by stimuli from the outside world. Habit. which is the ultimate source of this great fashioner of the nervous system. therefore. But the important principle here is that it is to bear in mind the afferent segment of the nervous system. but that habit has so organized them. and not the nerve center itself. acquire to how these from a thousand thousand times repeated afferent impressions along the optic. not that the nerve centers have been created so from the beginning. when they speak of nerve centers being organized to perform such and such functions. This principle well nigh overshadows all others in its bearing upon the question of the origin 142 . or sense of sight nerve. nor the efferent segment.

second to none in importance. Upon the Afferent the nerve center wholly depends. Here. we start with the fact that it is the Afferent only which connects with the Environment. about our own mental operations. But that explosion would be an explosion and nothing more. not only for the primary source of ity. but for that one great fact 143 .NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION and development of a nervons meclianism. The re- action of a nerve center to an afferent stimulus has been likened to set free an explosion of energy by the lighted fuse of the Afferent. its activ- but for the organization of that activity so that it can ever become uniform. however. We will gain no insight into the deeper prob- lems of nervous organization if we relax onr hold on the continuous presence and operation of afferent excitation all the the swaying arms of a Hydra Fusca up successive trains of thought in a We we thus speak of it to the human brain. now. because further on have to refer repeatedly will way from of the Afferent in discussing to the place some subjects.

to react in the to afferent stimuli. Science.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY about the afferent nerve it itself. Assoc. Section of Physiology. that always causes the explosion to be in one Over and over again direction only. ^ Presidential Address. 144 . it expresses does. same way receive it. does it and thus trains the nerve center to react only in one fashion. because these stimuli are never mixed or confused with others. namely. exactly the same thing as at first. Brit. It con- path exclusive private generated at its own to therefore. 1904. All this is due to the great law that an afferent nerve never varies in As Professor Sherrington afferent nerve.^ ^^ sole ated at its stitutes a impulses points. avenue which impulses gener- receptive point can use." The nerve become accustomed the receptive and other receptive points than own cannot the extending from the recep- tive surface to the central forms the what its centers. it. nervous organ.

It uncommonly or other requires it what the particular cause may be a bean in a child's in the intestine. in nervous evolution. is act of coughing executed by a whole group of motor nerves But this may be used acting together in a regular way. in the succession of ideas in human 145 thinking.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION It is quite otherwise with either a single efferent nerve. larynx. organs. ear. or a worm brain stomach. pleura. on the other hand. for these may be used in response to a great variety Thus the of afferent stimuli. An afferent stimulus. namely. is that . Another peculiarity of afferent to of excita- which we shall have excitation. or with any organized ner- vous path for efferent impulses. same efferent path for coughing by a number of very different afferent stimuli starting bronchi. to allude again in the very highest connection. pharynx. never breaks its rule of using none but its tion. so that not some search to find of the cough is. from the nose. and hence it is own path the source of sources of this great factor. Habit.

This efferent center then sends this excitation to fiftyfive pairs of efferent centers to to call their one into one cause them hundred and ten muscles combined and well-regulated sneeze performance. 1902. whatever This view of its form. that spread from center to center.^ A on nervous disorders seem to regard an attack of epilepsy as due to a spontaneous discharge of nervous energy in some cortical brain centers. though always single. always due to the excitation of a minute twig in the sensory or afferent nerve of the to nostril. as I explain in an article on the Pathology and Treatment of Epilepsy in the N. Med. efferent actions can be cited. the nature of this serious nervous disease has an important bearing upon its treatment. like explosions. which then transmits it an efferent center in the medulla oblon- gata at the top of the spinal cord. once it excites nerve an efferent act in a may have center. 8 and 15. I would ascribe the true beginning of an epileptic paroxysm. ^ number of writers 146 .BRAIN AND PERSONALITY an afferent stimulus. such always follow upon a preceding afferent stimulus. to an abnormal afferent excitation. as many so successive Thus a sneeze is itself efferent excitation it were. Journal. Nov. the motor area being especially involved when the attack is accompaAs no other examples of spontaneous nied by convulsions. but on the contrary. Y.

consists of a great number of nerve centers. however great be the additions afterwards of brain centers or functions. no or function in the nervous system is ever superseded by any later developments. . and as constantly joined together by tracts of communicating fibers. The spinal all verte- cord. until finally the body trol. one above the other. as is it the first to appear in its embryonic devel- opment. you wish to show the cunning of your right hand in any work of 147 skill. which is the origi- nal nervous system in every vertebrate. man If. yet the spinal nerve centers retain rogatives. quite as their original pre- all much in the rest of the animal world. is found whole muscular system of the under to be As remarked its exclusive con- primary law before.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION we have All that said heretofore finds a complete illustration in the structure and functions of the spinal cord in brates. all receiving and giving their afferent off their efferent nerves on each side. and so. or the fluency. as in any of as remarked above.

he to help scratch the 148 same .BRAIN AND PERSONALITY of your speech with your tongue. jump up and assume on the a perfectly natural. the headless frog gravely and deliberately raises his hind leg off the brings and brings up acid. if not somewhat will forthwith plate impertinent attitude. down If the more arm his foot to scratch acid be applied. is begins to irritate the skin. of acetic acid as soon as it If now a small drop applied on the frog's side. if a vigorous frog be suddenly decapitated with a sharp knife. your de- signing and talking brain has to ask the spinal nerve centers for the muscles of the hand and for those of the tongue work for those muscles to do the Meanwhile this wonderfully it. it and his headless body be put on a plate. organizing power of afferent habit works out creating special functions or to direct results in modes of work- ing in the spinal cord which actually startle us with their close resemblance to what we are accustomed to regard as manifestations Thus of design or purpose.

my till he could Finally. ment it when dropped the to tur- our astonish- straightway walked some two yards 149 . he natural dive for the An amusing occurred to me to bring makes a most floor. My in companion's luck had been poor. by trying up the until at last. only to find at last that turtle he was drawing up a great mud which had swallowed the hook beyond In vain mistake. and if the irritation continues.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION spot. Down at last tle's headless body. other hook. my friend tried to per- suade the turtle when he landed him to put his head out from under his get the hook free. he be- gins to lose balance other leg also had become . as he had no friend shell hung the turtle over a branch and sawed his head off with his jack-knife. with a pull which bent his pole nearly double. as if the itching intolerable. while fish- ing in a western stream with a classmate. illustration of this kind once my college days. promising pool he became greatly excited by a powerful bite. when at a deep.

and all stimuli. they acting alike to their afferent proceed with such uniform and rigid habits of action that. Wliile sojourning in Syria I was told that the whole country round Mt. went up as the locusts fire hoping thus rampart of heath and on coming stone walls. The governor of the east- district ordered a regiment of soldiers to aid the people to construct a great bushes to be set on up to it. the nervous system being composed of fewer series of centers. of Beyrout. over 150 it to a house and down it. jnst as extra head nnder if the creatnre kept an its shell to put on in an emergency In animals below the vertebrates. Lebanon was dismayed one year by the news that a vast army of marching locusts was coming from the ern desert.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY right into the water and dove off into the deep pool. its to save the came gardens These locusts always hopped straight ahead. . like other ex- amples of unmitigated consistency. it occa- sionally leads to inconvenient results.

injurious And surf to so they did. when like all good true locusts. nor did the scene end until the last of the rear guard. until the locusts in a brief time they put the bonfires com- pletely out. Just as certain crowds among us can political always be depended upon to march up to the polls and vote the straight ticket. in they hopped. As the sea was not far off every- body hoped that they would take bathing. until in an incredi- bly short time not a green thing could be seen. vanguard reached the waves. and in such incon- numbers that an American resident described the noise of the great host passing over the roof as like to that of a tremendous At every green hailstorm. followed by the rest. marched on without pausing. V^en they reached the prepared heaps of heath and these were set on fire. till the all the billows seemed to roll only grasshoppers. way leaf on the and then went on for the next one to take his bite. faithful to the 151 .NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION as if it were a ceivable level place. each took a bite.

There arrangement. more or of a less rounded shape. of its cells is a special according as they subserve an afferent or efferent function.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY great law of Afferent. the afferent cells. Centric and Efferent. had skipped over the heaps of rades to make his jump his last dead com- into the bine waters of the Mediterranean. however. that center in which a small injury would 152 . and the efferent functions. developed the is supreme center of the Medulla Oblongata entire —that fit final —the system and most re- sponsible ruler of the whole wonderful and beautifully regulated spinal mechanism. and like all its centers ganglionic matter they are of a gray color. as enters the skull. it with cells At the top of the spinal cord. usually larger stellate shape. being grouped more toward the posterior segment of the cord where the afferent nerves enter. In strncture the spinal cord has located within. terior and of a being grouped toward the an- segment whence the motor nerves emerge.

while at the same time it acts as the intermediary between the various re- gions of the brain above and those of the spinal cord beneath. the spinal cord. workings are all organized by the steady. for the medulla holds the reins of the pulse and of the breath in its hands. nally nothing could be afferent stimuli. Origi- more haphazard than and thus at first the centric change would be correspondingly so. so the most complicated and combined movements are executed. but 153 . enough as we have seen to wear all the aspects of designed or purposive muscular last its This is operations because its acts. But the ble chief feature about this remarka- nervous apparatus.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION threaten as life more than may cause it it would in the brain. first of affer- Without that there would be no centric change. instant death. that however intricate that by it its is adjustments be. and without centric change there would be no efferent impulse. yet are from to purely automatic. unvarying operation ent stimulus.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY when the same ai^erent stimulus recurs over and over again. pulse follows working. The the of afferent stimulus in form of the sensation of the want of air. a special nerve A established. and then of expiration. could not be a mechanism than The becomes is watch or a clock. in is till and the efferent ima special mode of other words. the regularity of the swing of a pen- Now let the habit of checking the re- turn swing of the pendulum during expiration be contracted. leads to the successive efferent muscular move- ments of inspiration. or. especially in childhood. at the risk of being tedious. 154 . more automatic a spinal nerve center. with all dulum. desirability of distinctly recognizing the part taken by afferent habit in the organization of nervous functions leads me. function suit. therefore. to cite another illustra- The nervous mechanism tion of the kind. coming up by the afferent vagus nerve. the fixed by centric change this repetition. a primary example of the act of breathing is such organization.

the air enters easily in inspiration. ing. the respiratory center may be at the mercy of a great variety of afferent stimuli. but is checked in expiration. ' ' is called because the mere entrance of a cat into the room will start the patient wheezing. bad habit lasting for years. may in asthma be ^ve times as long. The son of a medical ac- quaintance of mine knew immediately by his breathing that some buckwheat was in the 155 . as in there is by prolonged cough- whooping cough or danger of this in measles. in breathing in the the wretched disease. thus interrupting the regular rhythm of expiration quickly following spiration. or for life. as in health. asthma. so that this latter. and form of It should be noted that the act of coughing always occurs in expiration. Once the normal habits of breathing become deranged. in- In asthma. though wholly ignorant that the animal is near. which are never perceived in health. ' ^ Thus one form of asthma cat asthma.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION the habit-forming age. instead of being equal to inspiration.

tliongh top floor. The constant coughing of chronic bronchitis will frequently induce its adults . Other asthmatics have their attacks induced by the most trivial derangements of digestion. only to illustrate that there is always risk in in- terfering with old normal nervous habits. Such whimsicalities of this com- plaint might be multiplied indefinitely. generally subsides in if the bronchitis be cured. but who would be sure to be awakened by an attack of asthma in if they spent a night Brooklyn across the East River. and but few of them can safely eat a hearty meal at night. But it is special in the medulla that illustrations we meet with of a third great law of nervous development. however. it with water I have had more than one patient who could sleep well in New York. form of asthma which. and lie it was in his own room on the was found that the cook had surreptitiously brought the forbidden article into the kitchen to make cakes and was mixing for herself. 156 To return for a .BRAIN AND PERSONALITY house.

implies some source or sources of authoritative restraint. By stimu- lating another nerve which also descends from the medulla to the heart. of active centers in the nervous sys- tems of the higher animals. one ranking the other. Nowhere any instance in this great principle of discipline so is impres- sively demonstrated as in the army. A constantly re- curring word in books on nervous physiology is '' Inhibition. that organ at once begins to beat nerve still slowly . stimulate that further and the heart beats very still more again and 157 it comes to a full . more slowly. anything in whether applied in armies or else. generally a regular hierarchy of commanders.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION moment That to onr first principle of discipline. One example refers By to. so to call them. beat more powerfully and rapidly. will illustrate what this word stimulating with an electric down from you make the latter current one nerve which comes the medulla to the heart. principle." as descriptive of the work- ings of certain nerves or nerve centers.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY stop. up to 120. Now this great system. the difference between these two The What men? difference lies in the cardiac branches of their vagi nerves. man or has he a sees a street and is is he a weak weak heart! Another man boy preparing at once his pulse runs to snowball him. that nerve which makes the heart a strong heart by governing it. their influence not only in new powers 158 is shown or functions super- . Now cut that same nerve and the heart bounds oi¥ to the most rapid. For this nerve is the infor hibitory or governing nerve of the heart. we as investigate the functions of law of inhibition in the nervous we find that as higher centers are de- veloped in the series. tumultuous As an eminent beating. If you suddenly tell a man a dreadful piece of news. physiologist char- This nerve bridles the heart. acterizes it: when it is severed the heart behaves like a horse who throws its rider and straightway takes to racing. and his pulse scarcely quickens or quivers.

Now as long as these lobes are connected with the spinal cord. control Thus the action of the lower centers. causing in fact the afferent segment to take the 159 .NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION added to the older ones. and which are found to be altogether new or differently constructed masses of gray matter. how- and thus free the cord from the control of these higher centers. but that they con- stantly inhibit. or ganglia as they are called. and the then slightest tickling of the skin will make the frog kick actively. you may stimulate the afferent spinal nerves of the frog. no reflex movement and but will result. After we pass the medulla oblongata. the connecting tract. These new ganglia prove to be chiefly portentous developments of the afferent system. in other words. ever. little or Cut. we find ourselves proceeding along large tracts of nerve fibers which soon present us with a series of considerable swellings along their course. in the frog a mass of centers called the optic lobes are developed just above the medulla. or.

which are proportionately de- veloped in them according to their However even in life habits. when defini- to saying that sen- sensation. to announce that the thing which feels.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY lead in nervous life. makes Something called Con- its first appearance in ver- tebrates after the whole mechanism of the sciousness spinal cord and medulla has been completed. This feels. them two other swellings appear. for they are no less than the centers of the special senses of sight. All tions of sensation amount sation is is. But what sensation itself! Nobody knows. and the lower vertebrates seem little else to need but for their world than these special sense ganglia. smell and hearing. larger or smaller accord- ing to the needs of the animal for each sense respectively. a form of sensation. which are small in many relatively wonderfully of these animals considering 160 . for to call consciousness is it an act of the translated into Anglo- Saxon. Now when we we mean nse the term special senses.

repre- sent his olfactory lobes. sensory ganglia and the brain of a lamprey. or what we call the brain in ourselves. a small fish his form. 1 — ^The Brain of a Lamprey. often mistaken for an eel Those rounded masses from 01. 161 Then the . for his habits re- quire him to be good at smelling. as tliey are no less than the beginnings of the cerebral hemispheres. The accompanying their evolution.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION their great import. figures tell the story of In Figure 1 we have the Ol Fig.

marked C. Fig. 2 —Brain of a Carp. so he has no olfactory lobes. but his optic lobes are large compared with mental equipment. brains. spheres be- tween. 3 represents the ap- paratus of that old friend of the physiolo162 . his brain or Fig. He does not smell at all. or all that he has to cogitate with.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY two large swellings below are his optic while those two insignificant lobes. 2 shows the sensory and intellectual ap- paratus of a carp. are his cerebral lobes or Ou Fig.

in each of these figures represents the medulla. is scarcely Fig. in which his thinking. 3 M.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION gist. In some fishes. when the ganglia which correspond to the cerebral hemispheres are experimentally they do not seem to mind then there is little. removed. such as the carp. though larger than that of fishes. mechanism larger than his optic lobes. for even anything. —Brain of a Frog. to distinguish 163 . if it at all. for the poor frog.

maintain their natural attitude. they are able to detect the difference. they immediately pounce upon them. dis- when some red and some white wafers are thrown into the water. or bury themselves in the earth at the beginning of winter. If worms are thrown into the water where they are swimming. brainless frogs will behave just like full-brained frogs under like circumstances. and they drop seized it. see but are able to find their food. If care be taken to keep the frogs alive after the re- moval of their cerebral lobes until they quite recovered from the have injury.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY They them from perfectly normal animals. They even. a If a piece of string similar in size to worm is thrown in. the fish almost invariably select the red in pref- erence to the white. for it some after having extent. and use their and tails fins swimming with the same in They not only vigor and precision as before. 164 and after the . It is much the same with the frog. They will crawl under stones. to tinguish colors.

But Fig. 4. illustrates scale birds The of a Pigeon. are completely overshadowed by the cerebral 165 . we have beginning now to be original basal ganglia which been considering. 4 —Brain pigeon. which shows the brain of a C- o^ Fig. they will is out and diligently catch the flies come which are buzzing about in the vessels in which they are kept. how much higher in the are than fishes and amphibia.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION period of hibernation over.

that 166 we are . belongs to a level. their removal. In man these original centers at the base of the skull are relatively so insignificant. the development of the cerebral ganglia or lobes grows from mere bulbous swellings into great masses which cover more and more the sensory ganglia.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY lobes. avoiding obstacles it will fly from one place and alight securely on another. always preferring a perch floor. feathers and shows fight. and if to the placed on a swinging cord. and hence after show much greater havior. birds alterations in their be- Memory and volition seem annihi- lated. as physiologists lower express it. In the ascent from birds to mammals. it balances itself perfectly with the to and fro movements. and the birds do not seek their food. thus illustrating that pugnacity antedates brains. But if the optic lobes are uninjured. it ruffles its If placed in a special attitude. the bird will walk round the room. or. until in the monkey these are wholly buried under their mass.

these original nerve centers of their old relations. so speak. the first conclusion to is that we come an unmistakable promotion. like the history of a still hold much The case instead is prosperous firm which 167 . it is fishes. This does not prove that the cerebral ganglia have entirely superseded the original basal ganglia.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION accustomed to leave them out of consideration. amphibia to the great cerebral ganglia Eemove these from a mammal. for facts of disease at the base of the brain in man show that even in him. and to speak of his cerebral hemi- spheres aa his brain. As regards the functions of the brain and their relations. and then far from acting as if it still had the same degree of consciousness or power of movement left which those lower in the scale possess. has occurred in the to mammalian brain of the great functions of sensation. conscious- ness and the power of directing movement. from the basal ganglia of and birds up above.

Simple. is now for consciousness is quite enough while go up higher where the far wider operations of mind have to be carried on. while the original routine work yet done. We may not unnaturally think that in selves. branched out from its of the upper is an undreamed of extent to lowly start. though they are now handling millions where they used only to deal with a few dollars. routine work the basal needed to ganglia. in the stories below. as of old. imagi- nations. the far range of our memories. the highly trained heads company are found to large had it to have moved up and commodious apartments on the floors. Nevertheless it is the same old will find that its principles firm. for we and modes of doing business by the heads of the establish- ment have not changed. feelings different genesis different laws our- and ideas must have a very and be according to very from the simple unconscious 168 .BRAIN AND PERSONALITY began business in a very small way and in and then when humble quarters.

169 it can learn to . for it evidently under- stands words some time before stammer them on its tongue.NERVOUS SYSTEM EVOLUTION functions of tlie first example of a nervous system which we have described. slowly. show a quite unmistakable correspond- ence to the old original methods of nervous work. Thus even with that unique mental faculty of speech. will Httle and sequence of our attention to the source ideas. and of words which go from us by the efferent Broca convolution. for the child first heard the words addressed to its ear. But a even when taking their widest sweep. which length. in the order of time. and then slowly taught Broca 's convolution to respond. the afferent pre- ceded and created the efferent. Moreover. words which come to us through the afferent channels of the ear and of the eye. as any function of the spinal consists of cord. we we have been considering are met at the outset with our old familiar terms Afferent plainly as in Our speech at and Efferent.

how one made by retracing step by idea has been suggested by a 170 . all tled and experi- scenes. yourself so star- You deeply that single afferent coming through the auditory nerve In fact any analysis of our ordinary mental step processes. will suffice. of faces not seen for years. pictures of places and crowd upon you ences. can often be traced to a single afferent excitation which the whole process. in acts of was the origin One familiar of illustration While you are in your reclining perhaps with your eyes shut. with their events by tears welling up spring up at finding —what! moved by impression By in till you are your eyes. which in A throng gone by. some friend casually plays on the piano in the adjoining room an you were fond of old well-known tune. your father's house years of memories of long ago. chair.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY But likewise many of the longest and most minds intricate workings of our thinking. of some that will never be seen here again.

just the old is way in which the Afferent works. until it seems difficult to deny that our thoughts are but the products of 171 . whom we have seen way of our old to be such a multiform organizer of spinal ganglia and spinal functions. and that in turn by another. each one of which can start a sensation. that our think- with some sensation first then experienced. seems our brains also! He to have organized has thousands of pri- vate afferent wires with which to reach our consciousness from every part of our bodies. and that an idea. as we showed. how in the spinal We cutes a sneeze. friend. need not be metaphysi- ing so often begins find that it it take long to of our trains of thought. us at last to some one will usually bring from our afferent excitation coming to us That outside world. as if thinking we have thus.SYSTEM EVOLUTION NERVOUS previous idea. Nor does many exe-. fallen into the In other words. Habit. cians to make mechanism this discovery. as they are well termed. on page 146. are somehow habitual to us.

172 brain . one to protoplasm is whom as clay to the potter. and have maintained that we men and women are mentally sults of our environment. that side world creating us by its is. the re- of our out- afferent excita- The nervous system of a polyp is cer- tainly a pure mechanism. but the principles of mechanism its continue just the same through every step in the long series of Evolution. Many. a most mechanical tions. Some may infer from these considerations that we have come to the end. we till at last find those virtually mechanical principles accounting for But —Man! in our next chapter selves face to face with we will find our- an entirely new fash- ioner of nervous matter. affair. have thought so. indeed. that we need not go further in explaining the '^ how ^' of our thinking selves.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY this great afferent creator of nervous opera- tions. that is.

from the outer world or environ- the affected till receptive nerve elements are they in turn excite an outflow along the efferent channel. regarded as a specific guided last analy- nervous By means action to environment. and when the same aferent stimulus is repeated often enough. is re- of the un- deviating inflow along the afferent channels of stimuli ment.CHAPTER VIII THE BKAIN AND PEKSOITALITY In the preceding chapter we have seen that the evolution of a nervous system by a great sis may be which on the principle. a nervous function. or. the consequent efferent effect be- comes so uniform as mode to constitute a special of nervous action. fashioning one system of 173 . It is thus that this affer- ent agency coming from without continu- ously proceeds. in other words.

his all little mind should advance in degree. yet illustrate the same automatic principles which govern the functions of the This inference seems medulla oblongata. out of the is all its human brain virtually a pure previous mechan- and whose operations. it thinking machine like isms. There a gap here which no facts of animal evolu- tion account for. simply because the brain of man and the is mind this not of enough! man do not correspond. though more complex. We can- not allow at this point any confusion in 174 . because in so ties the human plify just the of its activi- brain appears fully to exem- same order of reactions which at lower levels. we have met before Why is many It is in no sense enough. according to show but precedents.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY nervous centers after another. legitimate. and none in kind. until at last it begins to look as if constructs what itself. Man's brain in physical and anatomical respects corresponds quite closely to that of the chimpanzee. and hence. over the mind of this ape.

existed down to the smallest detail in their engineers V minds before they existed on earth. On the one side is Homo. It is by his mind that a man is en- abled with a glass prism to calculate to a mile the distance between two fixed stars.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY reasoning to obscure this fundamental fact. mind another his draws the map of a country as Silurian period. cited to By his it mind a was in the third is ex- enthusiasm over the^ interesting deduction of the equations for the infinitesi- mal motion of a rigid body from the invari- ance of the expression dx^ + dy^ + d22. 175 vol. stu- pendous works. such illustrations. the bridge across the Firth of Forth and the Simplon tunnel through the Alps. So infinity. Works. because in his he clearly belongs to that class of animals. properly placed zoology among body as in his brain in the Primates. . 34.. i. of p. But it is Those thus as to his mind. multiplied to > Prof. which not the greatest telescope can show as By other than one star. Sylvester.

This statement of ours brings us to the great issue which sharply draws the lines be- tween the partisans of two opposing doctrines. art. we claim. their difference as beings corre- sponds to the distance of the earth from the nearest fixed star. which would account for everything. lead to the single conclusion that while the gap between the brain of an anthro- poid ape and the brain of man is too insignifi- cant to connt. philosophy. poetry. On the one side the contention 176 is that . Personality. statesmanship. religion. finance and the rest. What by our premises to seek for does? does not ac- We are bound an answer to this question only by searching the brain itself.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY hTiman mental activity in science. why capacities its Ego or the human from any That something. the the Human is. to note the whether in presence of it there are evidences of something whose agency affords the sole explanation brain differs so in other animal brain. Therefore the brain of man count for Man.

of the personality as an entity independent or separate from the material organ of the mind they pronounce ^^ as the conception of mer times. in The conception man. the statements of the other side are to be rejected because they are purely meta- physical assumptions which are wholly con- 177 . and the Ego in us is nothing tional result of the more than the func- arrangement for the time being of the molecules or ions of our brain matter. The organization of cere- bral matter accounts for everything mental and moral human of. As to the Ego. and relative to personal consciousness. All other phienomena are contingent upon. personality to be the is affirmed most certain reality of the universe. On the other side.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY there is no such thing as personality apart from the brain. ticism To speak to be as unreal vital spirits '' of for- of the soul is pure mys- and should be rejected as unscientific. Our consciousness instead represents only a passing phase of our cerebral activities.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
by

tradicted

tlie

physical and material facts

which show that brain matter has

no

itself

properties of mind, and becomes related to

mental processes only in certain

becoming there

artificially,

localities

and not

by

origi-

nally nor congenitally endowed with such
It is not with his

functions.

a

man

whole brain that

knows, thinks or devises, but he does

so in limited areas of one hemisphere thereof,

which he himself has educated for the purpose.

The question then

follows,

how came

these brain places to be thus chosen and not

others precisely like
ization ?

That

them

in original organ-

this great creative choice pro-

ceeds from no source in the brain itself

is

demonstrated by the following considerations.

we have already shown,
speech centers in the brain are as much
Thus,

as

the
the

creations of the individual himself to store

the words in

withal as

if

them for clothing

his thoughts

he made a wardrobe in which to

store garments for clothing his body.

178

The

THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
speech centers no more generate the words
in the one case than the

wardrobe manufac-

tures the articles which

it

men supply

Hence

contains.

themselves with as

many

differ-

ent languages as they invent different cos-

tumes, though no one ever started in
either of these equipments.

In fact he might

inherit clothes but never words, for

centers in the brain
ally

in

word

must always be person-

made, because no brain of

made a word.
As we stated

with

life

Chapter VI,

ever

itself

this is

proved

beyond mistake by the human faculty of
learning to read, which rules out the error of

some

theorists,

observing

who, confining themselves to

how

little

children

first

learn

speech through the ear, ascribe the faculty
to automatic imitation.

But a reading

cen-

ter in the angular gyrus has nothing to

with the ear, and moreover
only at the age

it

do

can be made

when purposive prolonged

intention takes the place of echo-like imitation.

179

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
But we are now about
important series of

to

enumerate a most
which

facts,

like those

previously mentioned, came to light by medi-

and which go even further

cal experience,

than the discovery of the speech centers in

demonstrating how the brain
related

We

thought.

to

with an actual occurrence

is

physically

begin as before

—this time in sur-

gery.

Sir William

MacEwen,

the eminent Pro-

fessor of Surgery of the University of Glas-

gow, gives the particulars of the case of a

mechanic who received a severe injury
head.^

was

to his

Immediately after the accident he

in a peculiar

mental condition.

cally he could see, but

no impression
presented

make

what he saw conveyed

to his mind.

itself

Physi-

Thus an object

before him which he could

when this object emitted
sounds of the human voice, he at once recognized it to be a man who was one of his

not

out,

but

William MacEwen; Address before the British Medion the Surgery of the Brain and Spinal Cord,
Brit. Med. Jour., 1888, vol. ii., p. 307.
*

Sir

cal Association

180

THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
He was

fellow-workers.

eqnally unable to

By

recognize his wife and children.

eye-

how many fingers he
up when he placed his own hand before

sight he could not tell

held

his face

he became cognizant of the num-

till

ber by the sense of touch.

These symptoms

gave the key to the hidden lesion in his brain

and therefore where

On

operation

it

to trephine his

skull.

was found that a portion of

the inner table of the skull

had been detached

from the outer and had become imbedded

in

The bone

the gray matter of that locality.

was removed from the brain and reimplanted
in

proper position, upon which he recovered

and returned

to his work.

It is evident

from

fragment

this that that

of bone interfered with an important mental

function located in just that brain spot which
it

penetrated, because so soon as

moved from
returned.
It

was not

it

was

re-

that place the mental function

What was

that mental function?

sight, for the

man saw

his wife

and friends as well as before, but he did not
181

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
hnow what he saw. Hence, seeing and knowing what

is

seen are not the same thing, be-

cause each of these mental processes has
separate seat in the brain.

But as knowing

appears to be so much higher as an
tual

its

intellec-

performance than the simple sensation

of sight, writers have inaccurately termed
this special

form of

abolition of intelligence

mind-blindness, to distinguish
blindness, which follows

word center

it

from word-

upon damage

in the angular gyrus.

to the

But word-

blindness

which renders a person wholly

illiterate,

because he no longer recognizes

printed or written words

when he

sees them,

though he knew them perfectly before,

much an example

of mind-blindness as

is

as

was

this patient's mind-blindness, the only dif-

ference between the two being in the things

which were seen.
are seen but not

In word-blindness words

known

;

in this so-called mind-

blindness objects are seen but not known. In
both, therefore, the blindness is the

nature, namely, mental blindness.

182

same

in

O
O O

W O

12;

o
O

o S

^

H^ p^

.

and that directly related to sight is 183 it is proved by the fact ' . is found equally in both hemispheres.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY As this inability to recognize visual objects has been frequently observed after localized damage to the brain disease.) that the (See Plate This convolution. of course. it is we we see discovering where this act of knowing and secondly. I. and also is so. by establishing the learn to by first done. That is to know how we know what say. with the same important deductions about the comes way by which this mental function to be so localized as in the case of the eye word center. is fact that no other place in the whole brain save this why this knows anything by sight. the local- where things perceived by sight ity itself are then from known has become fied as is the word center as well identiin the angular gyrus. In explanation we shall primary center of sight is first state in the occipital lobe in the neighborhood of a wedge-shaped convolution called the cuneus.

Thus in the temporal lobe is found the original center of hearing. 184 . not is afterwards by the cuneus. But a whole group of centers becomes developed afterwards around the original ^Some writers attach this term to a different portion of the sight object area. which we ourselves for the purpose of convenience will hereafter How this locality call the comes precuneus. in front of the cuneus. just as the cuneus in the occipital lobe is the original center of sight. but by an adja- cent area of brain cells.^ to acquire this im- portant mind function of knowing what visual objects are. of sight in the cuneus but the child it is doubtless congenital. when born does not know what That particular power sees. acquired.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY tliat it is only when tlie region of tliis convo- lution is destroyed in both hemispheres that That function total blindness is produced. equally facts we interesting connected will discuss after those and with still the more varied recognition of sounds.

after having been very fond of music. because more than the speech of the soul as communion with the great harmonies of the non-material universe. suddenly experi- ence the sad misfortune technically termed amusia. and in vain they try a violin or piano to bring back to them their departed joy. is that for music. and able to were listening ssohn. tune. just as another place in the 185 .THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY auditory one each center. true musician must have a A richly furnished shrine for the goddess of Music in his tem- poral lobe. of whicli has learned what different kinds of sound mean. the reason being that material damage has happened to the center in the temporal lobe which has been separately educated for music. No longer can they recognize any however familiar. They know no music thereafter. or one at once tell whether they to a composition by Mendel- by Wagner. and that he has is proved by some persons. who. One of the greatest of these and a divine faculty anything else it awakens it is to a it is.

are alike indistinguishable noises to him. and the unfortunate then cannot tell the sound of a loco- motive whistle from that of a church All sounds. his friends. BRAIN AND PERSONALITY same lobe has been separately educated for words. We have already described what by word-deafness. the auditory area of the tem- poral lobe has a place where the meaning of sounds in general is recognized. its place for recog- Let this auditory area be separately damaged. including the voices of bell. as well as how is it is meant caused.. as the visual area just mentioned has nizing objects of sight. 186 An . To this condition the term mind-deaf- ness has been given. Therefore while the ability to know great attribute of the human mind. signifying sound-mean- ing deafness. But besides the center for words and the center for music. is a yet these facts prove that there are actual physical bases in the brain on whose integrity as such this faculty can alone be exercised.

In both cases a highly developed mental capacity is lost brain injury. so that the inference that they are all created is certain by the same agency. . he as music. and in that hem- isphere only. and the splinter driven into a convolution of his 187 was left brain. that these knowing areas are found in the same brain hemisphere that contains the speech centers.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY artist may be lost in admiration while gazing An at the Sistine Madonna. may entranced be symphony few hours. immediately after a local How are we to explain this sudden abolition of superior mental endow- ments by such physical changes'? The explanation is as conclusive as it is important. Thus Professor MacEwen's patient was a right-handed man. may make him the next day. but still may be wholly unable to still no longer able to see that great picture. distinguish apoplectic clot able to hear recognize it it. though musician it listening to a in a A from a wall paper. namely. though able to trained one time at of Beethoven.

or his right angular gyrus to read a word. same and not into the Now. when it first comes into existing in an adult man they had never been taught the meaning of visual objects. that those right hemisphere cells. therefore. technically termed lesions.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY that is. he had just the collection of cells in the corresponding region in front of the right cuneus. into the speaking wordless hemisphere. yet did not know what they saw. poral lobe cells any more than his right tem- had ever been taught to hear a word. Likewise it has been found that the juries. occur only in the 188 left hemi- . and more- over they were not injured at cident . though they could see. because they be- longed to the visual area. all in the ac- him nevertheless they could not help more recognize his wife and children any than those cells could read Latin ! It is evi- dent. any more than an infant knows what it sees Though the world. in- which pro- duce the various forms of mind-deafness above described.

or in the right hemispheres of left-handed persons. its little it is hand looking at. tions into infant psychology first Investiga- show that the training of the sight object center oc- curs only a little earlier than the time the cells in the temporal lobe trained to hear the fant begins tion So its first it is back in our are being words. for the in- lessons of sight interpreta- by stretching forth out what when which lives. and for that purpose we register our word memories in their laboriously prepared brain places. show how these mental in other words.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY spheres of right-handed persons. Hence we learn to think. to find So far however. just as the speech centers do. did this process 189 . also we register the memories of what we see and of what we hear the in their prepared places. they functions strictly follow the hand most nsed in childhood. preparation in both instances having originally been begun by the most active hand in response to personal intent. We to know jnst as we learn think in words.

refers to the inscription on its made by precuneus that a flame is the child not like some other attractively shining thing. and purpose sys- tematically repeats the same stimulus to the same cells. and that had better not try again to seize hold of it it. in which layer after layer of its delicate receptive found covered with all wax may be kinds of sentences. There nothing incomprehensible in this. "a burnt child dreads the fire/' begin that the . there 190 . the phonograph. According to the physiological laws which we have already mentioned.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY we have forgotten all about it but saying. they become arranged there in a library of records. memories of all kinds are doubtless registered in our brain cells by the original stimulus of when an agency like conscious each. as we have shown case in the speech centers. while by a de- similar to Broca's convolution. thing quite analogous to it all is is the really for someis accom- plished in that remarkable mechanism. or entire songs with their tunes vice leaves .

hemisphere is in As long as the educated sound condition 191 two hemi- it matters . But it also follows on anatomical grounds that the ceives. conceives. which of produces it all that nor Satan but a it utters. brazen throat all else uninstructed spoken Moslem sheikh from Arabia might regard this as an unholy invention of Satan. per- knows. by which information coming by the The brain thus comes to have places where memories are stored for the understanding of each special sensation. human being when he thinks. purposes and speaks has these powers physically located in only one of the spheres of his brain.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY come back again through its the words. tones. itself whereas neither human person is the source of every one of its uncanny performances. tunes. reasons. From these considerations there can be no doubt that the exercise of every separate mental faculty is conditioned by acquired cerebral changes similar to those is interpreted all eye and the ear. remembers. and An into the machine.

as far as the happens Thus the man mentioned who had 63. while to the untaught hemiis left only what it had word or an idea or a at birth. lost acteristics. with- single acquired accomplishment.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY little. mained himself concerned. his speaking and therefore he his in medical literature powers hemisphere. happily for hemisphere is uneducated the to mind is quite is quite enough player. which implies that one of the two human brain hemispheres mally unintelligent and thoughtless. just as one violin sphere out a in its But for that purpose one hemisphere of the brain matter its like until the personality within takes it hand for re- mental and moral char- brain matter does not become in p. This statement. enough. acceptable to some reasoners because pels the admission that the thinker 192 is is it nor- un- com- and his . in in all Hence his story and others prove that human human to fashion it. Chapter IV. what one of his hemispheres by disease. him had left intact.

being only the instrument of the Therefore they search for indica- thinker. so that the to it is not impossible for fifties. like the hand. But the age when new languages may be learned varies in different individuals.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY brain are two separate things. If. in childhood both hemi- spheres are equally teachable. as we have remarked before in Chapter VI. the kind have yet been published. and. it to be an adult done in is found have recovered from aphasia after a time. and speech lost by damage to one can soon be made up by the education of the speech convolutions in the other. the brain. Thus can easily be otherwise so. tions that the silent hemisphere sometimes does come to the help of its partner when the latter is speaking power by disease being that it does so by its highly endowed disabled in —the its inference inherent capacity But no unmistakable cases of for speech. for speech 193 is never . those which seem to be explained. therefore. this does not prove that he had two speech centers all the while.

Meanwhile before the advent of this per- sonal agency which deals so remarkably with 194 . for the question then it ^' is '' hemi- what makes drive " so wondrously to the utmost human thought. stroke this them men who sensory after a or motor aphasia. never regained their lost powers. marvelous training only one hemisphere is practically limited to is shown by the positive and not hypothetical evidence of cases of individuals. while its fellow is unable to know a life companion by sight ranges of left or to distinguish strains of music from mere noises. however long they lived afterwards with an uninjured hemisphere in their heads. Nor is the problem changed or lessened by referring to the speaking and knowing hemi- sphere as somehow the '^ driving sphere. but must always be the result of the That special training of brain cells.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY an original endowment nor a spontaneous power. many causing either hundreds in of distinguished for mental gifts.

But the more we study the processes which result in these mind-linked changes in Man with the same attention which has been bestowed upon the operations of the Afferent. the plainer it becomes that come not from with- their formative stimuli out but from within.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY portions of to human brain matter as to impart them transcendent properties which they did not have before. and are essentially unlike the workings of the Afferent. bringing stimuli from the environment or outside world. have any musical to the *^ airs '' of a Instead of that the centers organized by the Afferent for work perform that work with no more design than does a watch pur195 . Nothing savoring of purpose or design enters into the play of the Afferent as it flows into the nerve centers with its sensations. nor ever could have spontaneously. any more than the currents of air causing the threads of an ^olian harp to vibrate meaning comparable Verdi. the only organizer of nervous sue which we have met was tis- the Afferent.

over this afferent mechanism entering Automatism. and hence can triumph over the most serious deprivations possible of its afferent mechan- isms for communication with the world in which it lives. without it. and yet make good is important their loss because the personality independent and self-determining. needing mind to work More- its relations. way most which. We tradiction in terms. because we now meet with another strong line of evi- dence that the personality can dispense with the most stimuli means of afferent which Nature furnishes. to purposes and wills as automatic. inseparable from the is Afferent in every one of the world But is congenital. constitute in a 196 life. speak of a personality which thinks. up. a self-con- is need not appeal to metaphysics for our argument.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY posely go when wound it is pure and simple. instruc- . members This has been shown in some of our race who have suffered from certain great misfortunes in early however. ready-made.

prived of. A series of impressions. as so therefore. are made upon defi- the brain vis- ual area. then of distance. until by repetition a vast store of picture memories are there laid life. we ciate the force of these demonstrations must first take into account how much in each case was lost of life's equipment for mental Thus development. to the first news which the from the outer world by sight. first of color. child de- becomes blind before great afferent teacher could give it this a single lesson But for the education and thought and feeling the ent human direction of being. then of form. gains more by 197 . and lastly of nite objects. child gets requires some effort it single afferent chan- this at all adequately.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY To appre- tive physiological experiments. many is if the it up for How object lessons. to estimate mind how much receives To do we must go back human education the from the nel of the eye. differ- from the lower animals. mind of a young much.

sealed 1113 law to this Mr. Sclater the ears of newly hatched chicks.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY the afferent channel of the The only exception of the Eye. words soon have some meaning. when first its only a relief to the cannot hear its because loving looks and touch tones and words. Hence. The chicks were then placed where they could not see her. Besides being at appeal to others. until a few months afterwards they are surprised that their children 198 know . and not one of them could be induced to the that come to mother hen who was excitedly clucking to them. human infant the loss of hearing ble calamity. own cry. more than parents may then suppose. seems Ear than by to be in the case of birds. must not forget that however young. human it a terri- becomes the more disturbed by only imperfectly to a it is itself is ear. child to cry. when as quickly as they heard her they ran round to where she was and But for the were soon under her wings. and their ears were unstopped. it its feelings. make up We for kindly voice.

eye. We see with in- difference a fish in its dying writhings. so If words once begin reach to through the ear. of a child. the mind springs forward to its limitless inheritance of thought. not the especially of feelings. a friend's voice when it a mile brings. the intellect informing eye But makes more mis- takes than all the afferent channels put to- gether in the information which Its news has always rected to be revised by the other senses before accepted. and Close the it remains more a mere animal than when any other 199 . ear. but we cannot listen to emotion. Thus it reports that a a foot high when he ear is is always accurate. and which moves the heart. It is the ear. The seeing intellect cries of pain without of the eye supplies the with more ideas than do sounds (not words) which come through the ear.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY much. cor- can be is only But the I have recognized came over four hun- dred miles on a telephone wire as plainly as if he had been in the next room. therefore. it and it man off.

how- ever unusual or roundabout. survive the complete wreck of both.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY avenue with the outer world cause If it is dumb. the Afferent has nothing to do with the personality except to inform it. and go on with nothing but the keel to cling to for the rest of the voyage*? The answer would cer- tainly be no. if only some mes- sages could reach him by any route. we should liken our apparatus for training to a boat which sea of be- is closed. its own If. on the other hand. The personality would then be simply like one condemned to solitary confinement. life. not only for origin. That being so. is to mind take us over the the great afferent mechanisms of the eye and of the ear might then be regarded as corresponding to the hull and to the frame respectively. Can the personality. but also for upon its afferent mechanisms. its development. the personality 200 . the loss of the Afferent will have no other effect it on the personality than that of leaving in ignorance. if the personality depended. therefore.

The conclusiveness of this demonstration needs a trained physiologist to appreciate fully. by her story. that we do so. but two.^ So important and decisive in their bearing upon the subject of our discussion are the facts illustrated in justified length. regarded purely from a physiological point of view. Double- . The Story day. that we dwelling upon them at It is not friends 1 many men and women among her personal and correspondents. by Helen Co. of the of a is chiefest life of instructors simultaneously lost. and. Page some on account of her becoming such an accomplished woman. the It is this mind are which makes the autobiography of the celebrated Helen Keller of such intense interest. because he well knows how much it each special sense contributes to the mental equip- ment much human being. 1903. with so eminent feel & of My Life. how lost when not one. 201 Keller. therefore.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY' would be found as complete and individual as ever.

for he has nothing do with sympathy. invited Miss Sullivan and one Sunday afternoon. (I do not mean. therefore. that physicians have their capacity for sympathy lessened by their pursuits. of course. was Professor Dr." Physicians get into the way patients *^ looking of cases " of Helen Keller gist not to at this as so many or that disease. 135): ^^I Helen Keller thus writes remember well (Life. ing. p. Oliver Wendell Holmes of Anatomy at the Harvard Medical School. but for what it is Noth- from her for the sake of is implies about brain matter. Oliver Wendell Holmes. spring. which we will quote published autobiography anecdote. and a trained physiologist as well. but because she a first-class scientific demonstration. just after I me It He had to call was early had learned 202 time I the first on him in the to speak.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY but because to a physiologist she such an is instructive " case. saw Dr. and so fixes the attention of a physiolo- from sympathy. We .

which left her totally 203 and perma- .") When had an nineteen months old. presumably of cerebro-spinal meningitis. But I stopped suddenly. ' which glowed and crackled on the of other days.' I suggested. Helen Keller attack. break. listening to the Charles.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY were shown at once to his library. ^ the Charles has me. ' in the Yes. my My fingers it was hand full of instinc- lighted upon a beautiful volume of Tennyson's poems. where we found him seated in a big arm-chair by an open fire And he thinking. break.' he replied. On thy cold gray stones. I had made my C Sea! I felt tears on my beloved poet weep. ' many dear associations for There was an odor of print and leather room which told me that books. hearth. and I stretched out tively to find them. and I was greatly disturbed. and when Miss Sullivan began told me what it was. hand. murmur of the River said. I to recite ' Break.

We can imagine. therefore. therefore. what to this child to it have scarcely any way plain her wants except by throwing was to ex- things. while she was equally deprived of direction from others. or herself. she was Till wholly dependent upon her senses of smell. she all her information.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY nently blind and deaf. with like return of the from our same fellows. also. and tonch for taste Hence. are yet apt to be impatient at the slowness of others in understanding us. and hence dumb also. ges- ture and glance. to her inner feelings having such imper- fect outlets for expression. though equipped with every of communication by speech. communicate her could wants or feelings to others only actions which she had learned in her mind with On pain. If the Afferent is the origin of mental en- 204 . on the ground. tone. her seventh year. subject to due to associate states of pleasure or of this account she fits by bodily was perpetually of great excitement or anger. The best means of us.

without knowing. they meant. On April 5. and as mug and ran on her hand. the teacher traced anew the letters w-a-t-e-r on the palm of her free hand. however. the Miss Sullivan had her awakening came. arrived. not to were in better condition for On March development than she was. 1887. her father's pet dog and cat with full possession of sight mention voice. and hearing. hold a mug in her hand the cold water filled the at a pump. and her first endeavor was to begin teaching by tracing on the palm of her hand the letters spelling the words ^^ doll " and ^^ cake. Miss Sullivan.'' Repetitions of these the child language word tracings continued make them until for herself. 205 A new mug light She spelled water . what hardly a month from the beginning of her education. came into her face. Miss She dropped the Sullivan writes: '' and stood as one transfixed. 6. and Helen could by March 31 she could trace on her hand eighteen nouns and three verbs.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY dowments. Helen's teacher.

geography. like in possession of . which she could learn on her palm. She has object. and for its physiological interest in showing how a shut-in mind. was rapid. It is of everything. will work when once 206 to speak. zoology and botany. so hers. first paws. for now that everything for had a name. and reading general literature. moment her that free. Mean- time she was asking questions about everything. deaf and dumb girl suddenly understood that the symbol traced in her palm meant From —water. ' ' to kiss- time in her glad- touching to read that she tried to teach her dog by tracing the its a radi- from object flitted name like From this word water on beginning her progress In two years and a half she was studying arithmetic. * ^ The next morning Helen got up ant fairy.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY The great step was gained several times. a'sking the ing her teacher for the ness.'' when this blind. like a prisoner dungeon She had got a word! personality was set allowed to leave a dark go wherever he to knew the first time she lists.

370: ^* Early in May.. earth. extract.e.' Tell me am I never that way. but I sure people do not grow saw a Little birds child plant. blind persons the it i. What human being does not ask this question? 207 Does this univer- . was fall. this p. it is something that '' There was no stopping her now.) an egg'l so large What was Why the egg before does not the earth and heavy? Father Nature does.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY the Logos we make faculty. (All of eye- meaning thereby correctly enough mental sight. perceiving. She must know the origin of things. come out of eggs: I have seen them. and chickens who have no memory sight constantly speak of seeing. she wrote on her tablet the follow- ing list of questions: ^I wish to write about Who made things I do not understand. What and the seas and everything! Wliere was I before I makes the sun hot? came to Mother? I from seeds which are know that plants grow in the ground. 1890 (fourth year of her training).

God?' ^ Where is Did you ever see God? I told her that God was everywhere. Helen.) ^'I shall this how work. she soon asked. and to that power they gave the name God. 371) told her to believe that all forces were manifestations of one power. On account of their complete illustration of physiological fact. three years after she began with her first word. she commenced to take lessons in articulate speech. and they cannot me: ^Everything The rocks have not life. the mind. 1890. but as the life. the soul of everything. or from the free Personality? When her teacher in reply that ^^men came (p. This pantheistic talk did not suit She does not have interrupted life. 60. never forget the sur- 208 .BRAIN AND PERSONALITY sal human come from any function of trait the automatic Afferent. '' think. and that she must not think of Him as a per- son. p.' In March. we will quote a few passages in which she relates her experience in learning to make Broca's convolution do (Life.

late each it to combine all Even now she every day to mispro- All teachers of the deaf means. deaf child who has earnestly tried to speak the words which he has never heard. my my attention nounced words. Only such an one can appreciate the eagerness with which my toys. first ^to can forget came over him the thrill of surprise which when he uttered his — word. . ^It is warm. I talked to at my Mildred [her call me. know what all this efforts to articu- and sounds in a thousand ways. . . when . . come out of the prison of silence. No . or or the delight I felt my dogs obeyed ran to little sister] my voice. syllables. and only they can at appreciate the peculiar 209 difficulties with . tliey were sentence. conscious of of bondage. new strength.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY when prise and deliglit I felt True. But must not be supposed that I could really assistance constantly in sound clearly.' first broken and stammering were human speech. calls talk I needed Miss Sullivan's in this short time. My came out my I uttered but they soul.

and often this sense was at fault. Helen Keller 's story of her life begins with a child in her seventh year. ^I ' me I used am not dumb nowM" are the mind 's wings.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY which I had er 's lips. with each of the avenues of incoming and of outgoing speech closed to her. practice. ^My lit- but the next tle sister will understand thought stronger than ' Words to Dr. moment the thought that I should soon be at home and show my loved ones what I had accomplished spurred me on. ment and weariness My me down frequently. sometimes for hours. I was wholly dependent had my teachon my fin- In reading to contend. ' ' as she wrote Holmes. After two months language 210 .' was a all obstacles. cast work Discourage- practice. now. the movements of the mouth. to repeat ecstatically. until I felt the proper ring in was my own voice. In such cases I was forced to repeat the words or sentences. and the expression of the face. practice. to use the sense of touch in catching the vibrations of the throat. I gers.

a writer of the style. great as To a physiologist it is an example of a living brain. No word for reading could ever 211 . as we have already remarked. as is sufficiently illustrated remark of hers (p. and a thinker of no order. because that is what happens to those textural cerebral elements in cases of her kind. French. Greek.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY begins with one word lodged in her consciousness by a most circuitous brain path. with the cells of the great visual area entirely and forever atrophied or wasted away.'' But. the phy- siological interest of her story is quite apart from the that is. a graduate with honors of Eadcliffe College. greatest gift of the 295) mind ''Toleration : . The book ends with a young woman. passionately history. Ger- man and English of poetry and of purest English mean fond classics. versed in the sciences taught there. along with ex- tensive reading in Latin. effort of the brain that it it by a is requires the the same takes to balance one's self on a bicycle. interest of her biography.

till it becomes do what Helen purposes. Now it happens that the sense of touch the most diffused of all is the senses at the sur- face of the body. so that not one was to catch the same in her left there sound of a word any more than that of any other sound. whether to speak. could not have had a single to from it ^^ telephone" wire coming either of these two great afferent centers. nor in any neighboring visual And cells. the center of the ^^ sense of touch. After a while Broca's convolution began be rung up by thousands of reiter- to ated messages coming from a wholly unusual quarter in the brain. ' ' by the hour Practice. therefore. namely. so that 212 it is not localized in . prac- at a time indomitable personal will — —the work of an finally makes that convolution submit to this perpetual stimulation from the ready to tactile area. practice. tice. Broca's convolu- tion for uttering speech. extinction of hearing cells just the was present temporal lobes. to read aloud or to write.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY be registered in her angular gyrus.

he would instantly toss out either a defective or a fraudulent coin. account eye or the ear. On therefore. even yet not fully itself. because for such detection his touch was infallible. so so that its anatomical seat in the brain center is By demonstrated. In normal individuals Broca's convolution is in constant communication with the affer- ent speech centers. This is proved by the occurrence of many in- stances of word-deafness or word-blindness. during life. mind much this definite But personality with a purpose can specialize anything nervous.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY one organ. The United States Treasury paid a high salary to a man on account of the one fact that while he could count gold pieces by the hundred thousand with great rapidity. like the that the least specialized of any of it is much the senses. sense could not afford the information. those of the ear and eye respectively by numerous nerve fibers pass- ing between them with just that function. in which after death the injury 213 .

therefore. however. for the effects would be same in either case. A nerve we fiber is really a prolongation or part of the nerve cell from which it originates. that in Helen Keller's case the afferent speech which she learned through the sense of touch made such abundant con- nections with the speech-uttering center. 214 and is itself . How are we to sup- pose. much the Normally. there can be but very few if any nerve fibers connecting Broca 's convolution with the area of the sense of touch. that she could talk to others in all acteristic of the function of the ways char- Broca 's center in ordinary persons! We have to mention now in explanation certain facts about nerve fibers which have not alluded to before. on that It is difficult ac- count to decide in some patients with aphasia whether the damage has occurred in the gray cortex or in the subjacent conducting white matter. but in the track of the white fibers leading from them.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY was found not in the gray matter of the con- volutions.

in a new nerve end nearest the source of gap is bridged. if a nerve be cut so that the two severed ends remain at from each that few weeks it is found fibers sprout out of the stump other. Hence true that such regeneration does not occur apparently in the conducting fibers of the brain itself. new from one cerebral convolution to another. yet there bility in the no improba- is surmise that repeated currents of stimuli will in time project. some distance its origin until the This property is taken ad- vantage of in surgery to restore the sensibility been while and mobility of a part when that has lost by severance of it is its nerves. as tracts of fibers it were. as tlie cell to which it one of the most important gray matter is and that they grow in facts about these fibrils of that they can grow. the direction of the stimulus which courses through them. Thus.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITT as much gray matter Now belongs. for that would be only in keeping with facts already ascertained of the devel- opment of great and important 215 tracts of ner- .

to go motor center of the make connections with the motor centers Such. and by which are executed. in . or the word hear- ing temporal convolution on the other. must be of the spinal cord. is all voluntary movements far less developed than As will be four years later. which connects the motor area of the cerebral cortex with the spinal cord. had no fibers developed with their convolution. the case in the down and organizing of the speech centers in the speaking hemisphere of the brain. in the infant at birth. If either the reading angular con- volution. nerve fibers by the thousand grow from the cortex. the person might read or hear words. human Thus. as it is called. but could not speak at monstrated by all. tice learns to use its the child hands and it by prac- new feet. connecting for corresponding speech well with each as as them uttering other. the great pyramidal tract. on the one hand. a fact clearly de- post-mortem 216 findings. moreover.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY vous fibers as a child grows.

practice. so far as special mental functions or aptitudes are concerned. is is no up to longer available.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY which the brain injury has been limited to the conducting fibers of Broca's convolution only. Another important conclusion by these own facts. the we have By Miss Kel- Will stimulus will not only organize brain centers to perform 217 new func- . the loss of speech is almost invariably per- manent. fibers to this capacity for sending forth new make connections diminishes rapidly with age hence. but the power to generate fibers new connecting between the convolutions. because the corresponding speech convolutions in the other hemisphere not only are unable separately to learn their words. which equally necessary for perfect speech. the speech centers after sixty years of age. the speech centers themselves being in- But tact. that we can make our brains. when an apoplectic clot ruins . as in ler's case. wills strong enough if only to take the trouble. practice. led is namely. practice.

acquires new brain by acquiring new anatomical bases in the form both of brain cells. who makes the vehicle turn any number of street corners. because noth- ing but the prolonged exertion of the personal will can fashion anything of the kind. that the driver. But nothing could show better than these facts the complete antithesis sonality and automatism. Each such self-created brain center requires great labor to make it. which he has himself virtually created. which he has trained. as to say that a per- son who educates his brain 218 is himself the . new but will project connecting. A person. work together centers as they conld not without being thus associated. between per- One might as well insist that because an automobile carriage goes along smoothly and mechanic- ally. and of actively working brain fibers. capacities for them therefore. association which make nerve will fibers.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY tions. or. must also be an automaton. as they are technically called.

But what does he come 1 is that teacher. This series of facts which reviewing demonstrates how we have been the different places in one hemisphere come to subserve their mental functions tion carried same by a process of educa- on throughout by one and the teacher.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY automatic product of the brain which he educates. It is not any part of the brain and whence easy to suppose that itself can act as such a general teacher. for the process itself never varies. nor can the cuneus. because no cortical area ever interchanges If the ear not help its grows it capacities with any other. Moreover it is plain that these highly educated areas in the cortex are not self- taughtj because they would not exist only in one hemisphere when the capacity for such education was certainly originally equal in both. while indispensable for the education of the word seeing angular gyrus which is a part of the visual area. dull of hearing the eye can- hear better. furnish a damaged music 219 .

any other brain. so that shows no signs of anything in particular when experimented upon. and equally none it to sensory functions. since the rest of the cortex shown to subserve functions. it has been merely sensory and motor has been suggested that the limited portion called the prefrontal lobe (see Plate I) As is the special mind this region differs seat in the brain. It is also in the The chief reliance for the support of this theory. has rested in man effects of accidents. from the rest of the frontal lobe in having no relation to motor. or such like damage tions. or of tumors. upon reports of the to this locality.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY center in the temporal lobe with a single note. mised that it is related in it its has been sur- function to pure thinking. however. Bnt so persistent has been the hunt for some cerebral place which created the personality that. upon the mental func- It is alleged that those who have suf- fered from lesions of this sort often change 220 . or to the mind claimed that more developed human than it in is itself.

772-77a . along with consequent apathy or mental dullness amounting sometimes to dementia. and all symptoms often ac- to other parts than this of are equally susceptible of interpretation on the supposition of conse- quent derangements of the cerebral circula- But tion.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY in disposition.. they should uniformly accom- pany such physical changes. fol- it is clinical evi- pp. 221 ii. But just such mental company damage the brain. vol. to demonstrate that injury to the prefrontal region directly causes these mental symptoms. from being the case as This is so far to lead Professor Schafer to remark:^ ^^So much has been made of certain clinical cases in which an ex- tensive lesion of the frontal lobes was lowed by diminution of the intellectual ties. that important to ascertain what the 1 Textbook of Physiology. and by a change for the worse facul- in the gen- eral disposition of the individual. with a special enfeeblement of power of attention and of thought con- the centration.

without Fortunately for and not dowed hemisphere which was wise a great difference is man his word en- involved.. forty-seven. 222 For we might . it was at by all. destroyed mind affecting his him. whether they occur in the wordless hemisphere.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY dence on this point really amounts to. them. his wordless particularly its disease. Welt has collected fifty-nine cases of lesions confined to the frontal region in man. or about 80 per cent. total number. when often there are no mental symptoms at all. therefore. that the doc- trine of special localization of the intellectual faculties in this portion of the frontal lobes rests on no sufficient basis. of these showed no changes in intellectual capacity or character and only twelve of the per cent. of our argument. or 20 had such changes recorded against It is clear. Like- found in the ac- companying mental derangements of frontal lesions. and frontal part. 63 is given the particulars of the who had one hemisphere.'' On p. the purposes or in the educated half.

probable that the prefrontal convolutions of the educated hemisphere do play an important part in mental operations. string struck oftener than string music. but string strings play. A much G to make does not make the other less is it itself the mu- sician. just as areas in the occipital and in the tem- poral convolutions are thus taught. that is.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY readily admit that the frontal convolutions can be taught important mental functions. that the frontal lobes of both hemispheres work the thinker. but that does not show that they are a whit less instru- ments than the angular gyrus is in its reading function. A is strings of a violin. it But until can be shown that the frontal convolutions think at whether they have been taught all. or not. or Broca^s convolution in its func- Of the four tion. From some examples in my own experience I would infer that one of the functions of the prefrontal convolutions in the speech hemi- 223 . lations about them are all these specu- It is not im- vain.

Am I here 11 Am I in the body or out These remarks confirmed me in my suspicions that the probable seat of the lesion was in the left frontal lobe. afterwards my at the autopsy. was affected in the least. but the most careful examination failed to show that any one of his special senses. gentleman once consulted me about some nervous symptoms. in my office For reasons unnecessary to detail here I began to suspect that he might be suffering from the effects of a brain tumor. We may remark here that the facts about the marvelous processes of education of the speech endowed hemisphere naturally suggest the question. Some months surmise was proved correct when a tumor was found in that very place. nor could I find motor derangements. on being separately tested. articulated. : ^ ^ or somewhere else ? of it?" His speech was well and he expressed himself Suddenly he said any Where am clearly. whether the elaboration of 224 .BRAIN AND PERSONALITY sphere A is the recognition of personal identity.

difficult to demonstrate by our present imperfect methods of physical inspection of nervous matter. wonld not in time increase the actual amount of gray matter and localities where special work has been spent upon them by the This those its fibers in may be individual. Though tionally the difference is wide func- enough be- tween a purely sensory and a purely motor nerve. About the only physical sign of the kind yet demonstrated is the presence in the motor area of the cortex of relatively large and stellate- shaped cells which resemble in these particu- lar respects the cells at the origin of the 225 . with their consequent maze of association fibers. so far which.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY many so interpreting or association areas. and we are unable to see which we have to irritate or to cut ter of the speech centers tells us their very special any other reveals them So no inspection of the gray mat- to find out. of is what any more of powers than the inspection locality in a given cortical area it does or how it does it.

though with some exceptions. 226 . with greater depth of the fissures. more developed. A few investigations of the kind have been made of the brains of men distinguished for varied mental acquisitions during life.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY motor nerves of the spinal cord. But all analogy with other living textures would lead us to infer that the more a part was exer- more cised. they seem to show. The which such increased brain growth could occur in the cranial cavity would be by increased folding of the gray cortex. with multiplication of its associating fibers. sharing fully in tivities of modern in would be quantitatively. the it would grow in its special components. that in the speech centers especially. even only all Papuan savage. and hence that the cortical layers of a man. the present brains of highly cultivated much men greater complexity in the con- volutions. than the thoughtless brains of a way the mental ac- civilized life. and when compared with the brains of savages or of men of low or abnormal intellectual grade.

yet the fact remains that the special mental capacities for which certain eminent were all men have become acquired and were not con- genital. this would not prove at all that their became eminent because they were subjects born with such convoluted brains. there single one would not have been found a of the complicated brain folds which he had when he was 227 sixty. but nothing because however apt a man may more be in learn- ing languages or in mastering mathematics. because he .THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY But though further iuvestigations may demonstrate constant post-mortem fairly evi- dences in the form of increased cortical convolutions of a long life of exceptional mental activity. nor could he count two when he was born. and sible to years if it had been pos- examine his brain when he was four old. he did not know a word. Hence the utmost which can be conceded is quiring that the greater aptitude for ac- may be congenital. While doubtless true that all it is individuals of our race are not born with equally good brains.

it is no sense in a speculative subject. because anatomical details are neither speculative nor theoretical. a great person- exercise. anatomy of the faculty of speech. and we have been concerned with the anatomimental cal seats of the physical We began with faculties. which demonstrates that the reception.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY made these latter himself by persistent all In other words. subject deals primarily Our Hence with material facts. But much more than that^ the particular anatomical seats of human intelligence are just as palpably demonstrable as the seats of human language. and that the it is human being knows what 228 by them to think . the understanding and the expression of words depend as absolutely upon a special brain mechanism as the movements of the hands of a watch depend upon the spring inside. These so-called ^ ^ mind ' ' areas of brain matter are found grouped around the congenital sense areas. To sum np. ality may make a great possibly brain. bnt no brain can make a great personality.

229 be. congenital. to the brain as But no human being ever brought with him a single one of these wondrous places herited them. nor ever in- Yet their existence must some- how be accounted physical life tal faculty No question about equals this question for surpass- ing significance. it Not being native.THE BRAIN AND PEHSONALITY about the information which his senses bring. be- all found . Cut out any one of those areas. follows that these seats of men- must all be artificially acquired. with their matchless endowments. however different their functions cause as an anatomical fact they are in only one of the two hemispheres. in his brain. materialistic theory of the rela- tion of thought to brain substance could not ask for more solid facts to support tention. were as native its sensory centers are. if only it its con- could be demonstrated that these brain localities. It is equally plain that the process by which they are acquired must be the same for them all. for. and forthwith its kind of intelligence The most is gone. that is.

while both members of the eye and ear organs are at all times just alike in their work. one ear be stopped for experiment in a person after fifty. because if in a young person one eye be covered. No longer can we suppose that the pair of symmetrical brain hemispheres in our skulls hold just the same relations to the functions of thought that the two eyes do to the function of sight. or the two ears to that of hearing. therefore.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY This feature. Hence. does its companion ear then prove to be totally deaf. it is surely significant that with the two brain hemispheres ferent it is entirely different indeed that no contrast — so could dif- be greater than that existing between them in their capacity for mental work. A man who was one 230 of the strongest . puts an entirely new aspect on the whole matter. Physicians frequently meet with striking illustrations of this one-sided habitat of the mind. the other eye does not have to wait for months before nor if it can learn to see as its fellow did.

because this exceptional musician had never played with that right violin. had his mind totally apoplectic months wrecked one morning by an But though he clot. yet he could not recognize the dearly loved mem- bers of his family either by sight or by their His intelligence was simply suddenly voices. which makes the brain human. By a human we mean one which has been slowly fashioned into an instrument by which the personality can recognize and physical. The fact that his right hemisphere remained uninjured availed nothing. know all things from the composition of a pebble 231 . annihilated by the injury in his left hemisphere. Therefore because it is it is a Power not the masterful personal Will. and seventy years old it now that it was was no longer mu- sical.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY thinkers and one of the greatest masters of English style that I have ever known. brain of the brain. afterwards with lived brain right his for hemisphere apparently as sound as ever.

though he cannot one hair of his head white or black." as potters would exvaried faculty. In fact they are the only examples of the kind in his physical make frame. he fashion it. this clay itself does make Considering that How this peerless it is vase? not brain which makes man.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY to tlie elements of a fixed star. he deals with his cortical ercise gray matter by the purposive ex- of memorizing habit. he can and does make speech centers inside of his head. and when made they are the most personal things in a man's body. to say nothing of other centers of most So long as his brain matter has not become " set. but man who makes one brain hemispheres human 232 could in of his mental faculties . press it. because. And wondrously deals with wet clay. by the lapse of years. until as the potter it no more resembles the same gray matter on the other head in mental side of his capacities. alone which can It is the will make material for seats mind. than unfashioned clay resembles a Portland vase.

233 grow into . that ape could then a true inventor or philosopher.THE BRAIN AND PERSONALITY we might even say ality that if a human person- would enter a young chimpanzee 's brain where it would find all the required cerebral convolutions.

As already demonstrated.CHAPTEE IX PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS We have definitely concluded that the facts both of brain anatomy and of brain physiology indicate that this organ of the personality is never other than while the personality itself as separate from it as the is its instrument. and not the product of his violin. by which the brain acquires. as different and violinist is separate from. entirely powers or functions not possible animal brain. and by it alone. fice in new any other This great truth would suf- of itself to prove that the Will is a new thing. one of the properties of the personal human will is that of being a specific brain stimulus. for the only other fashioner of nerve 234 . more potent than all the afferent stimuli together in pro- ducing changes in brain matter.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS tissue is the Afferent. perfect freedom. namely. is so slowly organized by the mechanically acting Afferent —evidently tion of heredity for it will other. on account of a profound principle underlying Will by virtue of its own Having nature. life —that and no act. ordinarily called a not often just the same thing The variety of voluntary acts is practically unlimited. nothing could exceed the importance 235 . and have no relationship to each other. and we have shown that in their fashioning processes the Affer- ent and the Will are generically distinct. we may say that the Afferent can do nothing new any more than a watch can. is the result of pre-arrangement in its mech- Likewise a nervous center anism. is repeated. as a final contrast. Whatever a watch does Indeed. recognized what a portentous change comes over the whole situation by the entrance of this highest attribute of personality. many generations do only one thing during But a Will voluntary when requiring the co-opera- act.

according to physiology. as by physiologists from its technical is term atis. 157-9 about It is well for the ordinary reader appreciate the importance which tached to inhibition. Approaching this subject. it is only in a nervous system that the element of rank has any place. before. This question of rank an is actual and not a theoretical one in the consideration of any subject in nervous physi- As we have remarked ology. is the rightful place and rank of the Will in a human being. the side of physiology. therefore. But there portant. ferring to what Inhibition. to is we must begin by re- said on pp. in their interpretation of 236 .BRAIN AND PERSONALITY of showing what. what is power Therefore and always should be the governing in our living selves is a proper subject of physiology as well as of philosophy. because no principle is it is all im- more funda- mental than that of control of the working of the lower nerve centers all by the centers which are higher than they in the scale and in the time of their development.

restrained. the De- Ludwig and Cyon . instead of being allowed to go on independently. Ever since 237 title. that and therefore we may explain again by this term meant that the operations is of nervous centers. called the heart accelerators. are constantly conaltogether or checked. or- ganization of a nervous system would be possible. by the direct intervention. which make plies beat faster. ^ ' inhibition ' ' of other nerve centers. under the pressor Nerve. and make it beat slowly and But the reader may consult a modern text-book of physiology to find an- other striking illustration of nervous regulation of the heart. that is. there cited in illustration how the me- dulla oblongata sends a bundle of nerve fibers to the heart. or even sometimes by nerves specially en- dowed with We this restraining power. according to time needs. trolled.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Without inhibition no nervous functions. suspended from moment to moment. while it it also sup- an important strand of nerves which bridle the heart deliberately.

one being. for without their con- 238 . medulla the center governing the and most extensive system of special nerves which ramify on the coats of the arteries. this it should be stated that in the oblongata there been unique properties. Thus. as they are ies dilate the arteries to contract be.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY first discovered the function of this small nerve in greatly interested in its its first dis- can quickly lower the pres- it sure of the blood in the arteries body from 30 to 50 all entire is over the To understand per cent. of its arter- bring more blood. as the need may of these nerves. and the vaso- motor nerves. and whose business it is to regulate the caliber of the arteries so that their diameter becomes large or small according to whether the part which the arteries supply needs or less blood. as demonstrated by coverers. of prime importance. or it off. that have physiologists 1866. is them more to shut The function called. the stomach needs nine times more blood contents than when when it is actively digesting its empty. therefore.

. we may is Nerve instantly comes to Ignoring its automatic nature. during violent muscular exercise or under excitement. as sometimes happens with quickly fatal results. the blood may be driven to the heart so fast that its cavities become dangerously distended. an extra turn to its brakes ' ! ' The medulla obeys. and the over-full heart immediately relieves itself by a general widening of arterial channels.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS stricting action the vessels of the abdominal organs alone might relax enough to contain most of the blood of the body. on the other hand. But. Thus we 239 its find this single . figuratively represent the medulla thus: gency! it Heart overfilling your vaso-constrictor center arteries the Emer- and distending so may all its addressing ^VMake haste! with blood that a valve order it give way ! Tell instantly to nerves to relax their grip on the body over. to the degree which Order the accelerator center to sus- pend operations and the vagus center to give I direct. Then that the Depressor the rescue.

and likewise the neys are flushed red with blood. unlike cannot be fatigued or ex- hausted by prolonged stimulation.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY nerve afferent capable of mechanism action of the whole vast artery constrictors. other nerves. so to speak. so that in every respect it a sleepless. so that the inhibiting when of the this nerve has been experimentally stimulated by an tongue swells from electric current. of the spinal centers disciplinary special shape of specific we If in the array find at every turn arrangements in the appointments. the arteries being dilated. it its kid- Also. of nerve centers with their special nerves to act as checks or controls over the whole sys- tem. These are only illustrations of the nervous mechanism before there is added to it a sin- gle one of the great brain ganglia with their high and complex functions. we will find still plainer illustrations of the function of Inhibition or control in the 240 . tireless is like posted at the great gate of the sentinel heart's outflow.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS great army of cerebral of nerve fibers descend centers. Whole from the brain. are called Association fibers. These. and from convolution to convolution. spinal nerve cell absolutely. but every such movement behest of the brain But is subject to the fiber. it is to act and do cells move a spinal nerve fiber rules the by directing how this or that according to commands coming from motor till all above. from lobule to lobule. conrs- tracts ing along the nervons strands of the cord each fiber ends at. That these extremely numerous connections between the cortical centers with each other are for the purpose of bringing the different functions of each into communication and re- 241 . as we have stated before. The spinal bones of the body by the muscles attached to them. but not in. so from all cere- bral collections of gray matter have fibers coursing between them. as they pass from lobe to lobe. just as there are fibers passing the brain above to the cord below. as we have said. Forthwith that nerve cell.

which then run fancies or ideas. vons system. the absurdity of dreams. is not doubted According to one. acting by Each itself.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY by any lation with the others. it precedent in the ner- all follows that this anatomical law of inhibition fact indicates that the great mnst be the necessary law governing the mental operations of the brain thinking center. and thus start ideas without trol or correction which are . stop. ing controlled by other centers. without be- itself. awake would also true still any con- and which them: tell I think with ^^ you if they were That is not ' ! facts of delirium are also best ex- plained as a result of the suspension. the reason of is In dreams some nerve centers happen to awaken by themselves. would in- This evitably act foolishly. through paralysis of their inhibitory nerves. The till from other nerve centers asleep. by the riot with their unchecked That this is true is proven fact that just such disorders can be 242 . of the control of higher centers over lower ones.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
imitated by administering agents like opium

and

wMch, as we know by experi-

alcohol,

ments on animals, have

same property

this

of paralyzing nerve inhibition, whether in the

A well-balanced

brain or in the spinal cord.

when some one

brain, therefore, is one which,

center starts an idea, waits

comes from

all

the other nerve centers which

have communicating

fibers

with that center

as to what they also think about

One other
bial

it.

fact also should be

^^As quick as thought"

here.

the answer

till

is

mentioned
a prover-

phrase which a physiologist would not

care to use, for he has ingeniously devised

means by which

to

measure the rate of trans-

mission of a nerve impulse both up a sensory

nerve and down a motor one, with the result
that
first,

it

averages about 180 feet a second in the

and 160

in the second instance.

Now

some have imagined that nerve currents are

somehow

allied

to

electrical

currents, but

while the nerve current vibration travels not

more than 200

feet,

an

electrical current dur-

243

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
ing the same time traverses a copper wire at
the rate of 180,000 miles a second.
the two, therefore, there

is

Between

a greater dis-

parity than between the fastest of express
trains

and the slowest crawl of a

snail.

More

than that, when an afferent stimulus reaches
a nerve center a marked delay occurs before

an efferent response emerges from that cen-

As

ter.
*^

Sir Michael Foster expresses

it:

The advent of an afferent impression by

the afferent nerve
ter,

during which

we have very

what

a busy time for the cen-

many

little

ing carried on in
deliberate

is

exact knowledge, are be-

it.''

it

processes, of which

It takes

will

some time

to

The shortest

do.

period of a reflex act has also been measured
in a

few simple

reflex arcs, only to

show that

the delay at the center exceeds in time both
afferent inflow

when

and efferent

outflow.

Hence

several nerve centers have to adjust

themselves to

know what they

are

all to

do

about some afferent excitation, one center

sometimes inhibiting the other during the
244

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
process,

tlie final

very deliberate

outcome

in his exclamation,

But

^

*

to

be a

Without knowing

affair.

man may have good

therefore, a

to think!

may seem

it,

physiology

had stopped

If only I

'^

to return to the subject of the physio-

rank of the Will.

logical

As we have

ex-

plained before, the higher centers do not suppress or abolish the functions of the lower

but

centers,

them

instead.

restrain,

They, in

regulate

and direct

fact, establish their

and

prerogative to govern by governing,

when needful they soon prove
doing

their title

so.

We have

already demonstrated the mighty

work of the

will in dealing with brain

matter

as the potter does with clay, and that
the will alone that has that power.

that

by

same account we are now

in thus

to

it is

But on

show that

making an instrument for the mind

to use, the Will is higher than the

hence that

its

Mind, and

rightful prerogative is to gov-

ern and to direct the mind, just as

245

it is

the

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
prerogative of the mind to govern and direct
the body.

No

teaching of physiology

important than
sized

this,

by the great

and

its

facts of

truth

human

is

is

empha-

life

themselves both illustrate and confirm

Thus the rule

more
which
it.

universal that the higher

is

in rank is responsible for the behavior of the

Hence

lower.

the

human

it is

that with the advent of

Will there enters a principle into

the living world which

cause nothing like

it is

is

entirely new, be-

recognizable anywhere

This principle pertains, and

else.

ble, to

man

alone,

and not

to

may

is

applica-

any other crea-

ture on earth. So transcendent in

and applications

is

its

bearings

this principle, that

well pause to note

what

it

human

the real nature of the

owing solely to what his

will

is,

we

implies about
will,

on

because,

man

alone

rests the weight of Personal Responsibility.

man

himself cannot possibly be a

living machine,

however much his mind may

Therefore

answer

to that description, for

no machine

can be responsible for anything, because a
246

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
machine can do only what
for.

it is

constructed

Nor can a mere animal be held

ble for anything, for even

enough

in the scale to

though

responsi-

it

be high

have a mind, and some

animals certainly do have minds, yet they
are virtually so fully the creatures of the

mechanical Afferent that they have no true

power of

choice.

But man can always do or

not do as he chooses,

or, in

other words, wills.

Therefore this very different thing, his

him

makes

earthly living thing.
is

every

other

Therefore something

expected and taken for granted about him,

which
fact
is

from

different

will,

is

not expected of any other being.

man

reigns here below only because he

responsible,

makes him

Human

and

his will alone

it is

which

responsible.

responsibility,

on account of man's

possession of a virtually all-controlling
if

In

he chooses to exercise

many
effort has been made to
come doctrine
of the will.

it, is

will,

such an unwel-

reasoners that every

to

disprove the freedom

We, however, cannot follow
247

this

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
when

contention

travels off into the far

it

metaphysics^ except just enough to

fields of

enable us to bring the disputant back to our

province of physiology.

Thus
is

it is

contended that the

not free because

motives.

it is itself

human

will

the product of

As Spinoza expressed

men

it,

are

free as to their acts, but not free as to the

which

motives

motiveless will

determine

is

no

these

will at all,

acts.

A

because a will

can act only as

it

has a motive or motives,

and, therefore,

it

cannot exist apart from

motives.

make

Hence, as

it is

the will, man's will

because

it

the motives which
is

not free, simply

has to submit to the strongest

motive.

The

fatal flaw in this reasoning is that

it

confounds a thing with the conditions of a
thing.

One might

steam, because
out

first

its

power of

cannot do anything with-

being confined within the sides of a

boiler, as to

cause

it

as well deny the

deny the power of the

will be-

operations are always conditioned

248

of all. in Turkey or in China. into any court of law on in America. illustration of this truth will suffice.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS A steam engine may be a perfect by motives. but it not because of lack of motives. but may weep. never doubted the fact responsibility. But. you should not punish me. In our concluding chapter we will allude to a great physiological reason for this too fre- quent lament. man is nor the reason why responsible. all the motives for a given line of conduct. and see there the criminal and the judge. may work very feebly if it has not enough steam. human every One Go the practical experience of the best test of the truth of and especially of metaphysical Men have theories. So a man may have and may appreciate to the utmost. but from lack of will power to act upon those motives. after human any life is theories. engine. in earth. ^^ O Judge. whether Europe. a poor machine. Can in the criminal in effect say anywhere or any language. whose efferent 249 .

If am here you did not have that power. you would . and so have the '* ever strong and however numerous or sud- den the impulses of passion or the cravings of nature may be. were a mere animal.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY my acts are the necessary result of Think in impulses! my case how afferent how old. a noble ning ape. is fact It upon which all assumes that there a central power in every man which must be stronger than impulse. there- You are power of choice. men must be punished not thus stronger. whether single or multiform. you still have within you the ability to choose not to yield to those impulses. or anything like 250 If you lion or a cun- them. The judge. in order to eat I any judge the world of over to such a plea would have to be the same. I could have no jurisdiction over you. How- to such pleading: answers a man. and on that account alone I to judge you. I was The reply stole." and starving. for there human law is one is human based. hereditary and natural the afferent impulse was. and that if it is fore.

" This illustration is enough to once that the power of choice. Therefore it to rule must be free from the tyranny of the Afferent.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS not be brought here before me whatever you But because you are a man. because hungry you did not find when you were man but like a shall be punished act like a hungry animal. in other words. because else it it is plainly above impulse or would not be expected always impulse. and you you now because you did act like an animal. prove at or. there would be no responsibility. for if it were not thus free. Law's very existence depends upon the responsi251 . and if there be no responsibility. the Will. To admit that this principle can ever have an exception in law. in man. cannot possibly be mechanical or the product of afferent impulse. would law. fully whereby impulse could ever law- become stronger than the be forthwith the abrogation of all will. man have the power of choice. then there can be no human law whatever. yourself in court. and as a did.

speech. imagina- tion. still less the product of afferent im. physiology emphatically states. But in the order of de- velopment. these splendid to think that there can be nothing higher in us than the mind.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY bility of men. because they have a which will always ought to be the master and not the slave. Reason. judgment. Such being the presumption of law about the rank of the duct. and the whole world proves the mind is it to be true. that not only the subordinate. what do the all human will as regards con- facts of human life in gen- eral testify as to the relative station of the among mind and the will! ties of the human mind are memory. but well nigh invariably the merest servant in the will. the facul- conception this last leading to and the mind's No wonder that endowments should lead many highest attribute. and as the mind by it man of often as despotically ruled in turn often despotically rules the body. pulse. Chief knowledge. 252 .

The will refuses from the personality by any- thing on earth. mind the is is easily detached is by often the fact that from the per- sonality. But it is this subject wears a grave aspect when recognized that. After a lawyer has ac- cepted a retainer. he commands forthwith to busy itself with all its his mind resources of reasoning and of persuasion for the party who pays him. from the extremes of pathos to those of indignation. The mind is can be made to work as its it like any other machine. out his will for hire. A prominent body of men among us live by letting owner sees professional so detachable that fit. may be pressed no man can let lies into the service as well. Even his emotions. owing to 253 its original pre- . or sometimes in heaven.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS One proof of the secondary place held the mind. out the entire equipment of their mental faculties for hire. while such is never the case with the will. and he when he pretends to be displaced But to. the significance of which not sufficiently appreciated.

" It is this fact ^^ rea- which explains why opinions. do have well-defined geographical rather than mental Calais is like boundaries. after two surveyors. called. not only geographically but politically. of between the English and French views. The is to the Strait of Gi- much farther in every belief But one tion of this truth away from and principle than especial historical illustra- we had in America. intellectually withstanding all and morally. The Reason may sometimes timidly propose to series of arguments which it its master a knows will not be welcome. while as all Strait a rivulet compared to the his- torical separation braltar. Morocco Europe Japan. divided the United States. Not- the sophistries about other issues. Before the year 1861 a boundary. as Lincoln said in his im- 254 . can and.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY rogative. the Will always holds a retainer on the Reason in practical life. either political or religious. there lay. Mason's and Dixon's line. only to be ordered to come back again with a more acceptable line of sons.

owing to their unfamiliarity with the constitution of this court. that slavery was the sum of other side. 255 Eeason undoubt- . and so supposed that they believed. If men's minds were but enlightened.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS mortal second Inaugural. they supposed that they believed. Some would-be reformers or philanthropists appear to rely upon increase of knowl- edge or of information in the world as the cure for the world's evils. institution. men and women on the reasoned. if not a divine. Was it because the reason- ing faculties differed so between these two sections of the same English-born race! On one side of the line most men and women reasoned. Nor was the dispute settled by reasoning. most till all evil. as the chief cause of all the fierce antagonism between the two geographical sections of the country. are ad- dressing the wrong official. then everything would go well ! The physiologist can only point out that such people. that slavery was a good. a difference of opinion about the institution of African slavery.

the influence of with the power which actually rules Eeason is at all times uncertain. is still promoted with But as the world constituted. and physiologi- improve. One phase Though the of this subject deserves notice. mind is so detachable 256 from the . as this master improves in motives. otherwise to be importunate. but by an increase among its in- habitants of people with benevolent wills. this official will doubtless be an increase of authority. follows. meets with the summary answer of the Roman Sic volo. so I For a reason let command: the wish stand) Therefore gain the ear of the Will everything naturally. future. is to first.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY edly does hold a high position at this court which no one can justly disparage. sic jubeo. stet pro CsBsar: ratione voluntas (So I will. because The world cally. not by an increase of knowing people (desirable as that is). because the effect depends on how the ruler is Should the Reason venture it disposed. but at best it is only an adviser of its In the sovereign.

liable to take men nevertheless are constantly confound will is directed to all with the self. would lead out a horse to much show his as they fine points. for the creditable showing virtuous declamation makes. proceed to display their own gifts of eloquence about goodness. Nero's Thus reason and to talk volnbly righteousness. eulogize must Both Seneca and Lord themselves be good. Another important aspect of the relation of the Will to the Mind is that just as with the creation of speech centers. but Rome by man who hardened cynics even the scandalized his their The Roman's Moral Maxims are bad times. is when on occasion on it this retained lawyer of the men are deceived into who can talk believing that those so well Bacon were among the meanest men of he was the to this day. men may be observed who. admired mis- rising in the of Senate to Nero for ripping open the body of mother to see the Indeed some womb that bore him.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS real self. the will like- 257 . No greater and yet so common.

one could pronounce weak. is less it generally But as the and less free and dis- in proportion to their intensity and Those will elements. as indeed proves to be if left free to act. likes duration. seem no more able to change their opinions than they could As a learn readily Turkish or Chinese. Some strong bnt elderly men my of whose reasoning powers no acquaintance.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY wise so alters the brain that in time the brain thinks only according to certain habitual ways. that men's minds ^^ converted of opinion. likes. Instead. only in the third or fourth decennials of it is life be rule. years pass. have steadily been fashioning the mind's physical instrument to work out only opinions to match. '' show any capacity to on any important matter The cause for this is not from any enfeeblement of judgment attendant on the advent of middle age. The . the judg- ment as a faculty should then be much stronger than in youth. until to have they need to have literally 258 new new opinions brains. the judgment to act.

wind carries with it in and the This subservience of reason to the will is simply physiological. Why this is so we now not be supposed that see clearly.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS utmost that reason at any time can do persuade by master its adducing man who motives. that is. Men's interests come to them from such sources as their parentage. all and very well does this servant furnish its master with most cogent arguments show the great to ^^reasonableness'' of his views. Their wills take good care that their reasoning servant should always supply them with the reasons which they want. but an adult vinced against his will is is to other can be con- well nigh a physi- ological impossibility. are strongly enlisted. men It must ever really hold opinions which to them appear unreasonable. if wishes. life and the influences of these factors sway their reasoning as naturally irresistibly. birthplace. party or sect. 259 and there- . especially his master's interests. as the dust of a road.

not the opportunities for knowing of an eternity will avail. and the longest affected. once for all. it is in no sense hypo- however some may won- der at the intellectual feats in reasoning of those who have differed from them. the world has yet to learn. and will follow suit. not in mental faculty. In short. One of our race the best promises for the future of is the fact that men are always touched. that men are not to be justified nor con- demned by such superficial things about as their opinions. but in their native environment. men's opinions Set the will right them first. itself due to a will attribute. No one should wonder at or resent any reasoning as man such.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY fore so unconscious that critical or insincere. Influence is an exclusively 260 . by the spectacle life among their fellows of an individual of consistent goodness. but with the will remaining perverted. as soon as they have opportunities for knowing better. for this subordinate in has to do as he is bidden by his master.

no subject should so commend serious attention of all educators itself to the and tors. We are not responsible for the 261 . responding mechanically to a thousand thousand afferent excita- tions pouring in upon it. but influence of measured not alone by Judged its duration. as only mind-produced words can utterly die away into empty space. a simple-minded its thus. thinking brain when left will The to itself is the seat of the play of the Afferent. as those physiological facts plain acts. east and west.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS human word. Passing from the general to the individual. field in number as countwhich come down south. on a Gennesaret to catch away the seed of the sower. to be it is by extent. all how the mind acts. in this world of changes by death. instruc- which ex- and how the Every teacher and parent ought to learn that they can about this subject. in less as the birds of the air from the north. and. the but loving mother may be perpetuated long after the eloquence of a score of famous orators has died away died away .

can say to the thinking brain. command the spinal cord to stop acting reflexly to and afferent excitations.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY tliouglits No man which enter our minds. because we have a kingly power within us which can command this mechanically thinkthe thoughts which ing brain to do its thinking according to behest just as the brain in turn can . those other thoughts are purposeless and hence unprofitable. Discipline. The Will. We official of all in it is man. and a well-disciplined mind will obey. therefore keep them. ever was. physiological. its its to act only accord- ing to the brain's behests. With what result? Here we come to the highest illustration of that great principle in nervous development. inhibitory power. by its lawful. for the Will. Wliat we are responsible for is we allow to stay there. step forward to take the com- cannot overestimate the priceless 262 . as the ranking who should now mand. these thoughts are good thoughts and valuable. therefore dismiss them at once .

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS value of such direction when completely ef- fective. will then speak according to purpose. Teach a and you are directly de- veloping thereby his will power. Soon he will himself learn the next lesson in will development. But the important practical truth to apply here is that no so grows in us by exercise. as the child self-restraint. and therefore thinking according to will. A mind always broken in to the sway of the will. and win Carlyle's great equip- ment for life. and measure strength with such a will care to man 1 Such who a man or woman is the very em- bodiment of living power. A man who habitually thinks according to purpose. 263 which creates the . and not according tion. for the life of the individual in this world. It is the will man. now adds But that the will then alters by creating new places for the mind with. power weakens and will. physiology the brain to work the ability to take trouble. constitutes a purposive to reflex suggeslife. or so atrophies by disuse.

though they not care to refer to their own. whom to be outstripped perhaps few suspected at the start would reach the first them. have vanished. the partial exception of Ulysses. Will direction explains it machine in all. were worshipped for their bodily strength and beauty. But one by one they lagged and suffered themselves by others. give the best opinions about because most of its illusions life. The same 264 is still true . so far as mental gifts and opportunities of education and of social position could enable them to go far and ascend high. those whom may Not a few of they have known started out apparently well equipped. with the body. What is the finest mental this life without will In a former age power! men worshipped Homer 's heroes.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY Wlien the age of three score men can is reached. and well can they then comment on many a fellow traveler's course. because they appeared so rior in mental powers to the rank before much infe- men whom ulti- mately they wholly distanced.

if he self -direction live . discipline of the will saves the obliging it mind not only to lessen the 265 also by number of . are living in an age in which mental gifts are estimated above all else. That majestic endowment constitutes the man high privilege granted to each ently to test himself. But the finest will is little else the Afferent. The great poet. can have any The steady other possession that he wants. Self-possession implies the capacity for self-restraint. enable It is clothed him sessions how much the man will appar- make of with powers which will to obtain the greatest of all pos- — self-possession. self- compulsion and these.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS everywhere among savage But we tribes. while there no end twaddle about genius. the great writer. is mental machine without the than a machine worked by But we are not here any being It is a responsibility for the universe to have what to be affer- man has —the in Will. are to the onr Goliaths. the great orator. the great artist. and he who has long enough. ent.

A rapid flow of ideas. be- cause each of these are soon displaced by some other thought or purpose. but to improve their quality. and rarely does that dreadful calamity occur except after long antecedent. is the sign often of ruin. of plan. in which the mind has been allowed to roam with progressively tion by the less and less inhibi- will. afferently working mind.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY its thoughts. and of action. It is a weak. as in the impending approach of maniacal insanity. 266 man . often a diseased mind which thinks hurriedly. vicious mental habits. man Let a be enfeebled by a fever. indeed. and he has hard work to keep his mental machine from turning out thoughts which run to the end of the earth. less but ever harmful degree men are everywhere exposed to the depredations of To a that great thief of life —Desultoriness —for desultoriness of thought leads to desultori- ness of purpose. wakes up at last to find his life till the wasted by his ever roving. or by any other cause of exhaustion.

but by confidential statements what millionaires they were. not only by the physical signs in their eliciting of from them eye pupils. society. when indulged tal habits. is one reason infested with so is because This it is many dreamers.. so interesting to imagine an ideal state. etc. why our an ideal or an ideal church with personally owned air castles included. All these are examples of mental processes which.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Mental waste from too is tlie little will greatest waste of the world. I have thus recognized paupers in almshouses as affected with paresis. but without direction "Will direc- mind the it can easily saunter among attractive scenes of its own world creation. may end in till they become men- in true mental diseases. It is therefore one of the healthiest 267 symp- . and what great things they were going to do. tion calls for effort. During the usually gradual onset of that form of insanity which ends paralysis. the mind teristically occupied in of the patient is fatal general charac- with exalted day dreams.

as he himself had. mankind has been abundantly lectured about wisdom. Greek and Roman worthies. out the man to find Mm always able to This the mind will never do with- command of the will. wrote a book which has been found in an Egyptian tomb. because facing facts has to be a deliberate. because their talk 268 is so monoto- . by studying the books of the ancients. Chinese. requiring much thought and no . often a disagree- able process. Sanscrit. the time of the prince who. Some people find these sages rather tiresome.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY toms in a face facts. but another term for pro- longed thought. mental machine can think long on any subject unless it has learned to think by Deep thought is will. Without at first proposing anything of the sort. Per- through a long line of sian. in which he counsels his grandson how he could profit. Hebrew. the physiologist self now begins to find him- appearing in public in the conventional From garb of an old sage. centuries before Moses was born.

according to his recognition of the wide difference between the first half. The greatest easily Everyfool of one's acquaintance has his sage moments. done exclusively by so well hand at and it. the mind and the it does is it that any one can try his body is wise The appreciation of the relative importance of things. —by fits.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS nously one alike. and act- The physiologist divides ing accordingly. the mind. practical purposes might be defined as a correct appreciation of the relative importance of things. had better not venture ologist to the while to add himself number. now is. but without being as well informed about the grounds for them as he Thus as it to For wisdom. this definition into two very distinct halves. and will. lias known substance nearly every its Therefore the physi- before. unless he can show cause by having something new to say. can claim is certain facts All that he that his calling has made and principles entering clear into the question which his predecessors might have suspected. 269 .

any of the following facts which have so much bearing upon every speculation about man. First. But when comes falls to the to acting accordingly. which can be used for speech. final chapter.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY and. can deliver correct judgments about what others onglit to do. moreover. none of them knew what a nervous system was. It is only one half of this organ. that the conscious personality has a material organ to think with. As we have stated in Chapter I. therefore. such a is needed that but few are it. They did not know. and to keep on steadily doing what mind recognizes store of will power found who have it it as the wise thing. will alone the . The ancient sages long bewailed this failure of the will to do the behest of the wise mind but though they clearly recognized the fact. however. know the physiological reason which we are yet to allude to in our they did not for it. nor what the brain was for. which exists in two symmetrical halves. or for recog270 .

not a single place in it for them. man endowments. any more than fellow hemisphere has to the end of They are stamped. men the old wise this.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS nizing or knowing anything which either is seen or heard or touched. by a single creative agency. as all it its life. are acquired by a modification of the material comprising the speaking half of the brain. how Had any one of or philosophers been told eagerly would he have asked or what that creative agency was well imagine that the purposive when told that it ! We who can was alone human will which first endowed that hemisphere with the great faculty of speech. the Will is the greatest fact in man The physiologist has something new 271 ! ' to say . therefore. were. in the sense of the tonch which is All acquired hu- educated. each in its respective place in the speaking hemisphere. This speaking half of the brain did not originally have a single one of these great functions. and then with all the rest of these great powers. he would have exclaimed: ''If so.

physiologist. as Carlyle says of him. Long ago sages said that our habits But they said so after their obser- vation of external The life. until the Will steps in fashioning of the human But has the Will here Habit? in its work on the brain in hand.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY even on the oldest subjects of the moralist. and act accordingly. means that our habits make our brains talk inside of us. excellent teacher. which Then comes is the mere creature to the man an of its habits. mechanically thinking thing. example. for with such emphasis on the great subject of Habit f make us. entirely displaced The Will Alas! no. brain. Who. Experience. and always accord- ingly. ^ ' a teacher good and true. only. using the same words. and takes the As is it very partial began by dis- carding one of the two brains altogether. can speak like himself. so by analogous neglect it also leaves every man with a great part of his mental apparatus only a purposeless. so that we think. but he demands such dreadful high wages!'' 272 From Experience .

been said. as has Nature does nothing but give from . the old she does nothing but take away. men If did not become used to the progressive losses of old age so-called natural little else by sheer compulsion. but only after its fashion when making anything new in the brain ^by reiterlike so many fetters. and of his men- hamper him What can he do abont it! It is the physiologist who can now tell him. — ating this same resolution stimulus every single day after New at least. To the young. Brain Year's for the whole year you learn by cells it and brain a new lan- fibers cannot learn better ways from preachers. only your own untiring Will can do anything with them. Do not expect mnch from a New Year Day's resolutions. One other thing the Will can do which is of welcome import.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS the man learns in time that tal habits many are very injurions. just as guage. Your will can make a new man of you. life With would be for old age every- thing physical about us becomes progress- 273 . the term of than sorrow.

and the undying ambition of many a statesman has kept his brain as after three score and ten as fore. as ively less usable Age : ' You must were But the Will says decaying by disease. Do what you like with bone. he would faint But dead away. more waste the they become till childish than children. a man expended the lar exertion sawing ' ' to If same amount of muscu- wood which he does climb- ing rocks or wading streams after trout. 274 in all its This was not . muscle. but remained still powers which it the was same mind at sixty.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY and enjoyable. but the brain where I work This logical is all power shall due of always remain young!'' to the what is remarkable physiocalled ^ ' interest resist either bodily exhaustion or decay. or anything else about may likewise your victims. ^ if it to spare whatever brain there be where I remain in force. and you brains of ordinary people. The mind it of Gladstone strong ever was be- when he was over eighty was not like his body at that age. interest is the soul of the Will.

Even man's body shares for whereas the ass is one Man. but con- it more than twenty years younger than the rest of his frame. throughout life by a A miser is sustained special development of that incapacity for satisfaction which of the characteristics of that creature. because every region and every climate of the globe generally contributes something to that dinner. But a Power working on that ment. take is it would more knowledge than most people have to state correctly where each article on a workingman's table comes from. contented with the same diet at his master's crib all his days. which prevents 275 will ele- man from knowing . in this insatiability. old misers. which tinued to the end never was. for if that were his all.PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS simply because Gladstone had an exceptional mind. mind would have been relatively older at eighty and after than it was at sixty. The importance ciple will excuse of demonstrating this prin- our delaying a moment in accounting for those interesting physiological objects.

the desire to have.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY what is enough. all because that mas- ter's voice ever sounds in the miser's ear to him that hath shall be given and he shall have more abundantly. and to the claims not only of his kindred. and that money market has known more than one octogenarian who was as well able to acquire from others when he was past eighty as he was half a century before. human Wall Street is no place for dotards or simpletons. for the for to hate their sake of their master. to an indifference to the scorn of his fellows at his conduct or at his raiment . as miser of is is exempli- my acquaintance him betrays 276 that he : is close while upon . the unceasingly stimulated by one of the most living and powerful of motives. as to and die of starvation. but even of his have been known so rich misers own own body. calls the miser to a lifelong mortification of the flesh. miser's will is In other words. lives. window through which long as the brain fied in a rich the rest of is There a bodily the light streams as yet young.

PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS ninety. 277 man should never power of the will . hand. change his brain as fast as changes the color of his hair. No it lesson for advancing years does physiology emphasize more strongly than that a lose that great motive interest. the quick. to lead thereafter a motiveless and age will yet life. searching glance of his eye reveals that every faculty of his fully at the disposal of his will. let a man retire mind On is the other from business in his prime.

instead of calls for more of it. Eegarded simply as a phenomenon. We should not allow the term mystery. whatever else may be. however. because always something about which we know a good mystery. Thus I have heard a fourth dimen- sion of space spoken of. further discussion.CHAPTEE X THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP No consideration of the physical relations of the brain to the mind would be complete with- out including the separation of the one from the other which occurs in sleep. and have not found 278 any . deal or else it would be no we know nothing about a sub- a mystery to us. as is done by some persons. a signal for cessation of its all own nature a ending discussion a mystery is If ject it is not it From true mystery. to be- come. but as I know nothing of such a dimension. sleep has been well termed the great mystery of life.

all you know on thoroughly as possi- that you do not pass to the consideration of the unknown. therefore. when we are convinced from what we know about it that there The history is more still to know. A mystery. makes no mystery. we can know the rest or not differ- would remain only an unsolved It then ence. Do ble. Meantime the process which science follows in dealing with mysteries is First. 279 He cannot . of science is a record of many a long-standing mystery finally solved. this process In all essentials corresponds to that of the as- tronomer who is trying to find out his dis- tance from a heavenly body.SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP TPIE one who does. it can be no mystery to me. except along lines definitely connected with that which is certainly known. but in no sense the less a mystery. is unfinished knowledge Whether rather than complete ignorance. Wliat constitutes a mystery which is is the unknown certainly connected with the known. begin by finding out the subject. this as Then be sure always the same.

because recognizes that ^' we '' appears is it a very easily are gone then. absence. in order that the other thing be absent from ent here is it . by selecting for our base most fundamental in a question often put we go to when we go fact. geometry. Its understanding has already grasped the central fact about sleep That being so. he until sure is of that does he begin as carefully to measure the angles of the lines which leave this earth from either end of his base line on their way to the object in the sky. In the first place. and the pres- the living body. Therefore we begin our investigation of the mystery of line its sleep. we must now take our time in considering this first fact.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY leave this and therefore he begins with eartli. not only complete in all its parts. but also in its living attributes 280 . our base line for subsequent proceedings. and with ures his base meas- infinite patience Not line. something must be present. as it by a child to sleep —where do This ! natural question for a child.

may It return gradually and partially as in dreams. light is. 281 whatever on what . the secretions flow the same. the lungs go on exchanging carbonic acid for oxygen. body does not living That it is still a warm. but that then not sleep. as devoid as a bronze or stone statue of either consciousness or mind. the conscious personality in us takes its departure from the body without leaving a trace behind. cells are changed or gone. and all the processes of nutrition are as active as ever. But the completeness of that which is pres- ent only accentuates the disappearance of that which tions may truth is is "Whatever other ques- absent. be raised. living alter the case. is healthy. because while a body can be awakened and a statue cannot. awakening is and hence throws no sleep itself the opposite of sleep. its component The blood circu- lates the same. the primary and certain that in natural sleep.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP Not one of and functions. sound sleep the body is In true.

but whose ordinary conscious life is continuous. not occur to us to wonder at it all means. But the greatest perturbation of 282 all which . he would with amazement. who could them To all our fashion. if not their minds. and picture another world whose to our imagiin- habitants are mentally just like ourselves. certain and regular as sunset itself.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY The marvel of sleep upon ns owing is lost to the unfortunate peculiarity that our ability to wonder is soon abolished by mere repeti- Because the recurrence of sleep tion. would be about as uncanny and alarming an object as the apparition of an unmistakable ghost would be to us. and sleep therefore wholly unknown Now pen to them. we may have recourse nation. should a single one of their fellows hapto fall asleep in certainly fill with terror. it. an individual virtually go out of existence for some hours. is it as does or to ask what Really to appreciate what a strange thing sleep is in a race of intelligent beings. and then return just as if noth- ing had happened.

Science of Being. could both be and not be by turns To return now to our own earth. who always uneasy when sleep is mentioned. namely. and whose Ego. we may to the theme which has long their attention. therefore. because he tute a would consti- phenomenon which contradicted With whole science of the Eeal. and utterly non- conscious at another. ence is which But is this As with us. and to our body of philosophers. less their diffi- own philosophers. their culty than our feel philosophers had long demonstrated that the one certainty of certainties among them was their own conscious selves. or the In their discussions on the nature of Being two great terms are con283 . based upon personal consciousness. Ego which is every other exist- only relative to this first certainty. new a specimen of among them would be a being who can be alternately sleeper vividly conscious at one time.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP this sleeper would occasion would be among their philosophers. first allude chiefly occupied Ontology. that always there.

the external and the Object being essentially Non-Ego. while the Object also is feels that which the occasion of feeling and of perceiv- is ing by the The longest debate Subject. has been on the relations of these two ele- ments of our being One to each other. school relies The first upon the immediate perception by the Subject that the Object. beginning with the sound and of pain as things which have no objective. Object being but a phase of Subject. then goes on to demonstrate that 284 . . or that which The Subject thought about. Subject. never was and never school. illustrations of it. is and perceives. but only subjective. and Object. no part of a stone. Meantime the appeal on both sides is ex- clusively to facts of consciousness. The other school maintains that the two are really identical. to denote that which thinks. the Subject being the central Ego. is can The other be.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY tinually employed namely. existence. school of philosophers maintains that they are absolutely distinct. for example.

has any real existence in or of was Bishop Berkeley's celebrated It may B. his in famous saying: plunged in a world of lives illusion and of deceptive forms which the vulgar take for reality. although apparently diverse. is a result the greater minds which have question in the right way (namely. ^^ of all subsequent speculations of the enunciated Man was the doctrinal His teaching contains ancestor of Berkeley. To anything. kind.. This view. which. but which studied all this its re- own words. be remarked here that Democritus of Abdera. are really identical. in Clifford's way) have gradually been approximating for a long time. though not 285 . to use his ** Is not to merely a speculation.'' tell The the truth. nothing ness.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP everything exists only as a state of conscious- Apart from a conscious mind. circa 430 the This itself. germ doctrine.C." theory cal is that mental This phenomena and physi- phenomena. late we do not know Professor Clifford maintained a theory about mind and lations to matter.

for in his sleep he he had ever doubted. it is because being an object drunk it exists only in must then be his consciousness. it But would not know that Doubting is a fact of so is every other fact which metaphysicians go by. ex- cept as standing in relation to mind. the moon. he ally a special phase of him- intellectu- I It is related of German a certain that his cogitations led him into such a sea of doubts. consciousness. that there can be no existence possible of matter or of motion. unfortu- nately for this reassurance. 286 They all con- . comes through philosophiz- ing to believe that self. that he began to doubt his istence. All a man we can say to this is that by the time who. : That he could not doubt that he doubted! But.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY in all its aspects the same. At last his feet one unquestionable thinker own ex- touched bottom on fact. while looking at that interesting body. viz. also when he lay his would go head upon his pillow at night. yet approximates to the doctrine of Hegel.

and along with them every other thing that he has talked about. Sleep. a wise A philosopher and a simpleton. or rather really quite different to what is from absence. Does sleep tes- tify to the absence of the conscious personality from the body. This undoubted accompaniment of sleep. therefore. then. and likewise an inno- cent child and a murderer. and so completely that all contrasts and dis- tinctions belonging to conscious life equally disappear.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP sist of But mental processes in the waking state. is a something which abolishes both the Subject and the Object of the metaphysician before his very eyes . man and a fool. are all alike when they are all fast asleep. with every- thing pertaining to them. to extinction of the personality? 287 Instead of . a saint and a criminal. whether principles of thought or principles of ethics. apparently cease. namely. raises the question whether our base line itself be correct or not. in sleep all mental processes.

which is the analogue of the body. Starting. we will follow our lines of inference therefrom to note whether they will converge to some definite conclusion. therefore. 288 . also times asked by a child. it gives oif its light at the expense of the body. fitful flashes in its socket. our base line we have the less true. it final darkness. from being burned up too fast. with Extinction as our base. go Where do we go when we to sleep? the other question. At one end which is of doubt- to a physical bodily necessity or condition. Every time this candle is lit. so that in time the candle itself and after a few ends in is used up. mark. that sleep is due fact.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY the child 's question. Moreover we have more than one example of purely physical conditions inducing the chief element in sleep. such as in apoplexy. namely. unconsciousness. Where does the We may out? may fire some- be nearer the go when goes it then liken our conscious to the light of a candle which is life periodically extinguished to prevent the candle.

this line of inference based upon extinction cannot be made to pass in the neighborhood of demonstrated facts. which either subjectively thinks or rec- ognizes objects. sys- and in turn not the whole brain but only the one of the two hemispheres in which speech when awake is located. To begin with. namely. or else physical agents would not sever The it. the nervous system. not the whole body. so physical conditions there create But unfortunately it. or from brain poisoning. by chloroform. inference. therefore. which personality.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP or from a blow on the head. but it is only a part of the body. and need not waste 289 over this any more . yet they link from particulars suffice to show that the between consciousness and the brain is a physical one. is connected with the conscious and not the whole nervous tem but only the brain. seems probable that as physical conditions of the brain extinguish consciousness. We have gone all subject before. and though as these states differ in many natural sleep.

many books like so on their brain shelves by the brain's Where he goes rian. then be an- and then come into active existence again. certain is libra- : we do that not or put itself itself is. knowledge are put in the brain. But the inferences drawn at the other end of this base line are worse yet for going all astray. for our being nitely more than a ties of being cannot actively nihilated. The surest reali- exist. one of where when he to. nap our whole conscious made re-lit all candle The com- altogether too is the case. therefore. much ries is infi- of our conscious life consists in and the use of memories 290 ! How memo- Every word . and all arranged there for use. makes a word nor forms an and neither itself All words idea. Extinction after the shortest selves have to be parison to a simple to fit is extinction. library not up and leaves for the know but one thing . anew! flame. its books made properly it locks this night. like passing flashes of light.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY words upon The brain it.

are certain of anything. all too deeply seated come by day and go by to night. all It is these live. being To admit that them can be and not be between of waking and sleeping would be the end of reality. else have gained in our years settled convictions. nor and cannot wipe out anything We the brain has acquired. therefore I all it is cogito. exists as symbols in the and cells of memorized our speech centers. took a long time to put them there. ergo am—is not to be disproved by brief lapses into unthinking sleep. 1 think. But this theory runs counter also to one of the most striking facts about personality. it A night 's sleep certainly does not obliterate them. word descriptive of Change is the great this strange life of ours. read or utter. that we If we are. strong motives and living sentiments.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP we hear. namely. The old saying sum. 291 . or ever ap- proach extinction while we abiding elements in our conscious which make us true persons. Continuity.

in youth and in each year thereafter. it is the province of physiology to occupy itself with the question. because in matters connected with bodily life. than what That I has never been other it is. in early childhood. achieved? Sleep is What is the purpose a great factor in 292 to human . with changes upon changes in everything Through them all. Let us. —except in one thing. therefore. memory can bring back picture after picture of our former selves. and certainly never yet Hence the tinct.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY As old age approaches. was I who is now. in other words. ex- extinction theory of sleep leads us to absurdity as its conclusion . and it is the same I or about us. It who was a child. whether taking place in us we were never anybody else. or. all That is eminently proper. tails What for? All other de- about structure or place are considered by the physiologist as simply contributing solving his question. to a mental Nowhere. in our quest now turn and ask what physiology has to say on the subject.

Therefore it is plain that muscles cannot be worked forever. With another an exciting day ends in a sense of weariness in all his nerves. about one-third of its allotted being spent in sleep but what . as to the muscles. farmer and mechanic know that their Another who fatigued muscles need rest.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP life. 293 Sleep is needed . the demonstration of what the particular mistake in this answer is will way toward take us a long recognizing what in truth is the real significance of sleep. has been working his brain for hours finds that his thoughts are growing dull and sleepy. nor brain nor nerves be exercised unceasingly and hence that . a fact. work. those of the eye and of the ear especially. Many swer persons may sleep for? think that they can an- this question off-hand. from the is duration without any help After a hard day's physiologist. But such an answer is mistake because part of none the it is less In true. First. is what the rest of sleep is for.

Indeed. which contract in the direction of their attachments. muscle produce the and by shortening the pull. but for years. and constructed and does its muscle in arm or leg does it work its is both just as any work. the diaphragm is a great muscle. does not ing work. But so tired It is the it by in the limbs ever does or could would be disastrous its same work that it if ever it got called for rest. though they have to work unin- terruptedly not for hours only. Muscular work consists in pulling at something. muscles which are at- tached to bones are composed of lines of muscle cells. tire muscles. and always Now perform just the same kind of work. For and then relaxing so as this purpose all to pull again. in the powerful array of the other chest and abdominal muscles which 294 . All such muscles under the microscope have just the same appearance.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY by muscles not because they are muscles doMuscular work. are constructed alike. as such. has to perform more muscular work than any muscle do.

and essentially different from it. which 295 tires and exhausts . namely. has been erroneously supposed It that these muscles get all the rest in breath- ing which they need. none of them ever need sleep.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP carry on our respiration. twenty-four times a minute. while standing. But let any one try to move his arms up and down sawing wood. fortunately. and he will find that his pauses between in that rhyth- mical process did not amount to any rest at all. in which. because they rhythmi- between inspiration and expira- cally rest tion. The conclusion from these physiological facts is important. is that most of our power-making food consumed all work performed by these mus- the their in is unceasing exercise. that it is some- thing else beside their work. So great cles. which is the pace of ordinary breathing. for the combined muscular work spent in breathing has been estimated as equal to raising five hundred pounds an inch with each deep inspiration.

Take a powerful muscle and motor nerve. or by stimulating these with various irri- tants. We can judge what their action is only by cutting the nerve fiber or excising the cell.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY muscles to the degree sometimes of destroying them. or of the transfer of energy in nervous tissue much more than any manifestations of the kind in muscular tissue. Still nerve more cells significant are the facts about and the expenditure of their way to the energy. the action of and of is their prolongations in both invisible and extraordi- narily multiform. So the . In contrast with the action of muscles which is visible nerve cells nerve fibers and uniform. and the muscle simply sever its hangs and paralyzed. But the result of such experiments conveys the impression of power. work flaccid in the muscle of energy coming was down 296 All that strong elicited by a current that nerve. which is equivalent in its expenditure of power by muscles in their work.

nor need rest in their work and as with muscles. beating heart as well. to regulate all with a grip These are ex- which they must ever obey. down to the them smallest. No one can fail. when it only the play upon signifi- clearly appears that it of the conscious- and especially the highest function of 297 . Hence neither nerve as such. nerve fibers. therefore.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP whole powerful mechanism of the muscles of respiration would instantly and forever cease to work if a small nail were driven into the respiratory center in the medulla oblon- But the medulla has gata. thing other than their cells it must be some- work which can fatigue them. . amples of only a part of the work which the power centers in the medulla are constantly performing without cessation throughout A life. and to follow to regulate the sends it its nerves every secondary artery. moment's sleep by them would mean the sleep of death. is. to be deeply im- pressed by the revelation of what the cance of sleep it is ness.

Therefore it is not natural work. that Ere long they cry for labor. . does this remarkable fact mean? Be- cause instead of missing the presence of this law of being itself. either in size or in power. In proportion to the continu- ousness with which the conscious will enters into any bodily action What is the resultant fatigue. whether nervous or muscular. but often both the nerves of these muscles and the muscles themselves are wholly ruined in writer's palsy by too continuous work done by them command at the of the will. compared with the diaphragm.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY consciousness. but only conscious work which wears. that fatigues or ex- hausts with weariness any part of the living body. The muscles of the thumb and fore- finger are small indeed. As soon as the will orders the muscles of the and legs to work under work becomes rest direction. and must have its arms or fatal exhaustion will it follow. in the operations of the brain when thoughts are passing through 298 it. the Will.

as. in flower to flower. namely. * ^ and think exclusively as I sense of effort gins. but they cannot even think long atf erently by will. But will calls the putting its mind from its bridle on.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP we then meet with some Allow the brain illustrations. to from fact. from thought to thought. is It so. afferent form of men- 299 . If they listen at all. as lightly as the butterfly passes Mental butterflying. in the passive mental exercise of listening. direct you. that is. a good descriptive term of the thinking of many men and women. think efferently. indeed. says. they must have a constant variety of sensation. and. It roves and from fancy fancy. This constitutes one of the signs of mental degeneracy of our day." the immediate and fatigue be- persons. for example. and pleases. enjoys all of its most striking it is to think as it much pleased to do the afferent impressions of the senses and thinks fast and easily. Now go my way. the craving for that low. Many is the moment the pasturing. not only cannot think long by will.

Owing to its direct relations to life. a pinch with a forceps an irritating acid or their most com. and foreign to this living tis- prick of a pin. cartilage is electrical current a nerve. are none of them the natural stimuli of either nerve or muscle. ter conductor of In an fact. by the most exhaustive experiments with numerous ingenious devices to to ascertain and measure how muscles are acted upon by and how they are exhausted by them. Natural stimuli are 300 like those . an electrical current. because they are un- natural to it. But it should be noted that the only stimuli with which they can experiment are themselves unnatural sue A itself. But the inference uli is a bet- than is that these stim- can exhaust a muscle.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY tality which is ministered to by what is prop- erly termed the sensational. physi- have labored long in their researches ologists the genesis of fatiguOo into school especially has The Leipzic almost subordinated other themes of physiology to this investigation. stimuli. monly used agent. .

But a stimulus. and particularly vivid form. Such being the case.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP wMcli descend from the medulla to the dia- phragm muscle. exercise would not cause must be something super- body as an extra burden for the to carry. because they have the char- all acter of being spontaneous. the conclusion follows 301 . and which never exhaust it. including the brain If the conscious will itself. but were natural. Here. therefore. the active will. therefore. Nor do any other stimuli from the medulla cause fatigue. is the secret of the inevitable fatigue which so-called volun- tary activity sooner or later occasions. and from automatic hence distinctly different stimulus. fatigue. added body Hence to the its it were not foreign. The inference. seems certain that the consciousness. or what is termed automatic. called a voluntary necessarily not automatic. will is stimulus. is its most essentially for- eign both to the muscular and to the nervous systems of the body.

that out. its But the separate fatigue means. but so different his from him that added weight which wears the animal and makes mount it and leave the horse This horse can get along per- wholly alone. necessary for this rider to dis- at stated intervals know what it is is so far no other provision is from being possible than complete withdrawal from brain and body until they are both sufficiently rested. and activity the purposive will. because ness attains to is its in him conscious- highest level. but more than all man. But what becomes when it of the personality itself thus withdraws! 302 We have seen that .BRAIN AND PERSONALITY from the that the necessity for sleep arises fact that the consciousness bears the relation body of the rider to the to his horse. load of the consciousness light. require sleep in proportion to their possession of consciousness. All animals. the rider directs the horse in is all his While ways. therefore. he neither the horse nor a constant part of the horse. and then not fectly well without this rider.

shows no more evidence of the mind which there than does any other is bodily thing. its is when relation to the a window which Whole makes the it we can say to is that our mind seems is but rarely trains of thoughts may go on within us with the light of this window scarcely falling conclusions. this kind of thinking of consciousness at the final go on while the wholly closed dur- There are some facts of experi- ence which seem to point that way. is inherent in the problem.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP it must exist in its entirety during sleep still One as well as before sleep. and then 303 . upon them. The nearest we ever come seeing this Indweller eye All that flash. difficulty. consciousness in somewhat like opened wide. of course. when exposed. though it then be conscious. except Unconscious what physiologists But does window call this cerebration ing sleep? is is kind of thinking. that the personality itself A living brain is always invisible. namely. often go to bed in a state of People much perplexity or indecision about certain matters.

sat up with him by a fellow named late one night Childs. Others say that they want to sleep over a question before they will decide nothing like sleep for On ness. solve Childs rubbed his slate clean. and retired to bed in tion. how- any general to establish principle. Long after 304 . told student that his room-mate. and then having the mental machine makes work even more it the waking estate.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY rise in the morning mncli as if they had taken some friend's advice while they were asleep. which appear told it. much vexamidnight his chum was the light. some anecdotes are show that occasionally the personality does steal behind the closed window of consciousness in sleep. ever. effectively than in Such occurrences. to There is promoting judicious- the other hand. working at a Failing to difficult problem in mathematics. are too few all to itself. put out it. which puts things in an entirely new light. Two such instances I can personally vouch While at college I was for.

The next morning while both were dressing. not surprised. when. glancing at the table. Childs complained that his night's rest had not refreshed him.'' replied his friend. I *^ when you got up about three o'clock and went that problem again at Childs answered that ' ' ! am *' he had done nothing of the kind. turned over to sleep. gent student of Arabic. but not receiving any answer. The other instance was that of a British consul in Syria. when lie busy with his called to Childs to desist saw CMlds He slate. he was astonished to find his slate covered with the worked problem all correctly out. Arabic etiquette requires that such letters should testify to the accomplishments of the writer in the selection of a multitude of con- 305 . to compose a letter rose high He had been a dilifit himself for the when one night he to tried a Lebanon Emir. to duties of his position. in then from such untimely work.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP awakened by a his nightdress. who afterwards in the diplomatic service. light.

inquire or to reason about we it. as was in his handwriting. and so well worded. Be- cease either to But why cannot we carry on all the activities of our conscious life. as we do those of our bodily life. nerve or brain be used in them. lead to such exhaustion that sleep sary? plies becomes neces- Eegarded by itself human fatigue supone of the strongest foundation facts for a philosophy of pessimism. the ilae When. to revert to the subject of fatigue.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY ventional compliments corresponding to rank of the person addressed. these. and went to bed blessing all Arabic composition in general. that he forthwith dispatched But it. The next morning he found on his desk a fresh letter which he must have penned. the consul did little that evening but tear up one letter after another which he had written. without fatigue ? Why do all voluntary acts. as unsatisfactory. beside matter in hand had to be dealt with very diplomatically. whether muscle. finally till he stopped in despair. cause a thing is as it it is. 306 It is all very .

to But produce it. as with the great majority of our race. because it more costly. truth. 307 more work so difficult is this form of labor is owing to the . can really The other great man a worse curse. pay its is low. does not alter the fact that labor remains the heavy. can do no other work for man this is animal work Muscle life. is so hateful. in modern democratic communities when manual labor hide rhetorical halo cast its intrinsic spoken is odiousness. simply to get enough to is harder because the will yet. it is cheap. that nothing but stern compulsion keeps him at it. weary burden of work is the human commonest and the simplest. that idleness is for of. and Therefore and the man who But always poor.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP But well to speak of the dignity of labor. Eeally active brain workers are few. eat. more engaged. that costs it But brain work is then so much The only compensation is commands higher wages. and hence is more often that no shirked. labor is about it No a curse. hence can be done also by the ox.

it with Therefore much of its it is failure and While the sun carries its pathetic burden night comes with its sleep. a chemical result of the chemical processes consume the candle of 308 life if which would kept too con- . or moral. we repeat that it is no answer to say that fatigue is the simple result of the expenditure of our bodily forces. life retro- all its which woes. for a space to forget this equivalent to this curse human sorrow can be ascribed. spects so commonly bring come from the recognition that the best course not followed because another But human easier.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY steadiness of purpose which such labor re- The self-reproaches which quires. was never made easy of attainment is We may for us. of was excellence. be pay for in grievous toil. temporary oblivion any other physiological purpose than to permit the bur- den to be lifted again? Once more. shines. if we will only of labor that so mankind work allows till it But has so often at the time it mental have every such excellence.

that this Heart and lungs with their work- ing muscles and energizing nerves burn up more in their work than any other bodily things do. for noth- ing could witness more plainly to the separate and external nature of the consciousness and of the purposive will.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP we have seen tinuously burning. for is not true. but particularly against the will. the living storer till body we must not itself sleep forget that never needs Something different from this reit begins to stir the brain with its activities. We have dealt with because of its this subject of fatigue physiological import. sleep may be termed Nature's great anesthetic for the pain of labor. need not be wondered at. but fatigue never interferes with nor follows upon their active chemical proc- Hence esses. just as chloro- form is a blessing for what otherwise would be unendurable. than this virtual protest of the physical frame against them both. But while we speak of as our sweet restorer.. therefore. and re- garded as a great blessing. 309 It that to .

Magnetism and iron are is associ- ated for mighty working in a dynamo. sleep has appeared as one of the strongest of evidences that the sonl from and sonl can from each the sleeping state the body tirely to itself.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY many minds both thouglitful modern in ancient and times. a thing of physical or chemical origin? the man which is sense. In seen left en- Compared with the waking state the difference is marvelons. it. the iron is Does the iron the magnetism every time the connection only iron. itself make recurs ? Sleep and awakening have always mankind doubt the fact of 310 human made extinction . in that Conld the body create moment? Common sense. in a twinkling. snm of all the safe and balanced answers that such a supposition nonsense. but only while the electrical current is coursing through the iron. bnt distinct exist apart is other. is not Both body of the body. Is that succeeding amazing diiference which comes at the instant of waking. Then.

dead. had never seen any one sleep. their lie to every have already world whose inhabitants. by giving the doctrine A to ascribe say and to ask. little toys. like ourselves. But the sight of one among dead would be them unspeakably awful. food and food and even for the children their minority of which and merely in all times. when the by death.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP In the remotest past. Yet for us the only serious difference as 311 . because. they had never been prepared beforehand by any example of a real going away. tried to picture a We dead. unlike to us. weapons for the chase. race was represented by the primitive cave dwellers. followed by a real coming back. when loved ones but utensils. human heart has much to lie of extinction. It is true that the to is it is found everywhere human aspiration. makes the sure fact of sleep which hope so reasonable. men may now attempt this conviction. and what a number of though otherwise questions such a sight would occasion them. they with buried.

cared world than this. How came the priest to have such power to scare him? fact. The men who nearly sixty centuries ago built those tremendous tombs.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY regards personality between sleep and death. that after death there is no return. but does the failure to return the it same absence then mean No never did so in sleep! lieves is it. the Pyramids. unaided by foreign teaching or by inheritance from the past. disbelief in the As an historical unseen world does not 312 . more about the other To judge him by what he ac- complished in every direction. belief in a here- after is as generic as mankind. as the faculty of speech itself. What generic cannot be got out of us by logic. the old Egyptian of the Fourth Dynasty no fool. though one may extinction is make when one really be- say he does. but then the question im- mediately arises. or by anything and a else. Some would say about the future life was that his solicitude was because his priest frightened him. is In both states the absence of the personality complete.

with the dark grave as tion of its On the other hand. and the American Indian. the Greek. but in the slavish days of a Tiberius and a Domitian. Eoman was a devout man. or of Aristides.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP prevail rot. caused primitive and ancient peoples to picture selves. but in the wretched times when and sophists only rhetoricians When Eome was all iron. portal. of any returning traveler to tell of the world beyond. that such infidels abounded. Homer depicts the wise Ulysses descending 313 . The brain does not work the blood reaching gangrenous The lack it well with after coursing through tissues. so the Egyptian had another Egypt. Elysian fields. happy hunting grounds. the flourished. among nations until they begin to In Greece it was not in the age of Marathon. he became an Epicurean. it each for them- But as the imagination can do noth- ing but reproduce earthly scenes. an associa- gloom often remained inseparable from thoughts of the abode of the dead.

as here. where even the greatest departed heroes live only as weak. life. quite different trains you please. a body of power which need not shrink. can be wholly subordinated now to questions about states of being. when duly pondered.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY tliere and finding it a cheerless place. impoverished man. so that Achilles tells his old friend. conceive of a body no longer We can now made of the most temporary forms of that matter which itself is passing away. of mental pic- of thought. working for another poor. The mental and moral equipment seem sufficient for any future limitless its conditions. which held such an exclusive place in ancient conceptions. or. too. of man however Locality. mournful specters. but fashioned to be a dynamic body. from the heavy burden 314 . if tures of another life than this awaiting us. than to rule all the shades of the dead! " But the light which modern science has shed upon the facts of life can suggest. ^^ would rather be one I of earth's plowmen.

powers and by cloud- At such times appear as a physical process. not weary nor to the its mind we know that : Enough Then as exercise fatigue. for of will. otherwise it it is quite be an excep- as regards mind. but not experi- is by man. marked by progressive enf eeblement of the bodily ing of the mind. altogether leaves us in an instant. wasting disease. But above all rises conception of a perfection of being. when purpose does sleep will not be needed. knowledge in a universe would not be too many for his desires. at present the word only understood. that there could be no conflict with lower motives forever Often we implies fail to when it appreciate all which death comes at the end of a long.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP There should be no night there. How are we then stunned at being thus confronted with the whole 315 mys- . and the opportunities for enced. it may may simply like a candle But slowly burning itself out. will so when a the responds to the highest motives alone. tional man when a man.

One event of this kind. and ever it How- gone from us forever. fixed institutions justs the relations and society as of 316 individuals it to ad- one . was then agi- by the discussion of the great human question. but however small it testifies to ideas of value utterly beyond the comprehension of any other animal than man. because in that material thing are represented the existence of law. to the Pacific. which a public occasion in New happened on York. country. the Here and the Hereafter cannot now be divided in our minds. What is Money? A coin may be one of the smallest things that man makes. in another may have been with us before. will not be forgotten to the end of his days by any one who witnessed from the Atlantic tated Our whole great it. a living embodiment of personal mental power before us one moment. for the one follows too quickly upon the other to let us believe that there is no link between them.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY There tery of our being! nothing so im- is pressive as this.

everything goes. money. however it is. value to money. ence outside of agreement between men. outward form. therefore. because men no longer other. entirely however. ideal. to be its It requires. is it must always represent human Nothing but that labor. law that every may social tie in a be endangered by a loss what purports money. so good faith in that agreement So sure is this great country of faith in is its sole basis. credit gone. A know how country's to deal minister 317 with each of finance. its Coin or paper pro- duced without that costly antecedent cannot much men may insist that But because money itself has no exist- be money. .THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP So another. great mental grasp to perceive clearly through complex relations of all civilized life mentous meaning attaches With the incalculably to the what a mo- word Credit. that on a piece of paper which may burnt with a match would make it equivalent in gives its may be be printed what more valuable than any other But whatever money's one thing on earth.

1891. Board of Trade and its annual dinner.BRAIN AND PERSONALITY therefore. as it did. holding many After public positions in his own western State of Minnesota. that of Ways and Means. where for ten years he held the responsible position of Chairman of the Financial Com- mittee of the House. an object which had strongly 318 . it stirred by the invited the then Secre- tary of the Treasury of the United States to address it on that occasion. won. should be above all others one can quickly see what imperils credit. does it its who public so. Every one was eagerly waiting for what he would then say. because he was a statesman long and widely known as a man not only of great ability. but of the highest personal character. and how just On January 29th. In that position he actively contended and finally for. the greatest business interests of the land. the New York of Transportation held Representing. he was elected to the national House of Representatives. and with the whole country financial question.

bill by Govern- their dealing with the Indian then served for ten years in the United States Senate. as did leaders in his State. Nor were as his hearers now disappointed with what he had to say. As poison 319 in the blood . * * when the time came. then served twice as a Cabinet Secretary of the Treasury. After a masterly review of the whole subject of what money be to make it brushed aside is and always must money.THE SIGNIFICANCE OF SLEEP by a enlisted his Christian sympathies. The words which he then spoke were printed day after day on the front pages of many of the most prominent newspapers in the country. directed against the great abuses ment agents in He tribes. and served to determine thousands of men how to vote These words were . he characteristically all other issues to insist on the moral aspects of good faith as the one principle underlying everything vital financial. once losing his seat in that body because he would not convictions on the others He money among his party ^s sacrifice his question. officer.

BRAIN AND PERSONALITY
permeates arteries, veins, nerves, brain and

and speedily brings paralysis or death,

heart,

so does a debased or fluctuating currency per-

meate

the arteries of trade, paralyze all

all

kinds of business, and bring disaster to
classes of people.

all

It is as impossible for

commerce to flourish with such an instrument,
as it is for the human body to grow strong
and vigorous with a deadly poison lurking in
the blood."

As he

uttered these last words

blood

''

floor,

and

^his

^^

in the

tongue faltered, he sank to the

in a

moment

of time he

was gone

What was it that happened to "William Windom, the man who had always been a leader
wherever he was an

influential legislator,

;

active philanthropist,

and an eminent

man, whose great services
most

critical

Human

an

states-

to his country at a

time will never be forgotten?

philosophy

and human science

A higher

hardly know what to say in reply.
voice than either of theirs answers

^
:

'

He

fell

asleep! for after sleep cometh awakening!

320

''

4'*!^