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CHAPTER-3

SYSTEM DESIGN

Systems design is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules,
interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements. Systems design
could be seen as the application of systems theory to product development. There is
some overlap the disciplines of system analysis, system architecture and systems
engineering.
LOGICAL DESIGN
The logical design of a system pertains to an abstract representation of the data flows,
inputs and outputs of the system. This is often conducted via modelling, using an
over-abstract (and sometimes graphical) model of the actual system. In the context of
systems design are included. Logical design includes ER Diagrams i.e. Entity
Relationship Diagrams.

PHYSICAL DESIGN
The physical design relates to the actual input and output processes of the system.
This is laid down in terms of how data is input into a system, how it is
verified/authenticated, how it is processed, and how it is displayed as In Physical
design, following requirements about the system are decided.
1. Input requirement,
2. Output requirements,
3. Storage requirements,
4. Processing Requirements.

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Double Arrow – Incoming and outgoing to a table. PHYSICAL DESIGN 1. Arrow – Shows the Flow of system. Figure 3.1.Shows the entity or activity.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM Block diagram is a pictorial representation which depicts the flow of activities within a system.1 Block Diagram of Bookstore Management System 22 . Symbols of Block Diagram:   Square .

USECASE DIAGRAM AUsecase is a collection of all those activities perform in a system which depicts who is performing.2. Figure 3.2 USECASE Diagram of Bookstore Management System 23 .

Miracle :A processing step may have output flows but now input flows. Rule For DFD » » » » No two table can be directly connected.g. This situation is sometimes referred to as a grey hole.This situation is sometimes called a black hole 2. 3. DFD DFD stands for Data Flow Diagram iy is a pictorial representation which demonstrate the flow of inputs and outputs through the process into a data source. 24 . GreyHole : A processing step may have outputs that are greater than the sum of its inputs . Double Arrow – Incoming and outgoing to a table.3. There should be no input directly to the table.. Black Hole : A processing step may have input flows but no output flows.e. Symbols » » » » Circle – Stands for system Rectangle – Stands For Entity Arrow – Shows the Flow of system. No two process not should be connected. This situation is sometimes called a miracle. There can be no output without input. its inputs could not produce the output shown. Commonly made Mistakes 1.

DFD “Level 0” Fig 3.3 Level “0”of Bookstore Management System 25 .

4 Level “1”of Bookstore Management System 26 .“Level 1” Fig 3.

5 Level “2”of Bookstore Management System 27 .“Level 2” Fig 3.

28 . Any to Many (M:N) –An occurrence of object ‘A’ can relate to one or more occurrences of ‘B’ while an occurrence of ‘B’ can relate to one or more occurrence of ‘A’. One to One (1:1) – An occurrence of object ‘A’ can relate to one and only on occurrence of object ‘B’ and the occurrence of ‘B’ can relate to only one occurrence of ‘A’. The cardinalities of an objectrelationship are: 1. Relationship: Data objects are connected to one another in a variety of different ways. 3. 2. Cardinality: The data model must be capable of representing the number of occurrences of objects in a given relationship. By composite information we mean something that has a number of different properties or attributes. The primary purpose of an ER Diagram is to represent data objects and their relationships.4. They can be used to name an instance of the data object. describe the instances or make reference to another instance in another table. Data Objects. A set of primary components is identified for the ER Diagram: Data Objects. ENTITY RELATIONSHIP DIAGRAM:An ER diagram depicts the relationship between data objects. Attributes: They define the properties of a data object and take on one of the three different characteristics. relationships and various type of indicators. We can define a set of objects-relationships pairs that define the relevant relationship. Object-relationship pairs are bi-directional. One to Many (1:N) – One occurrence of object ‘A’ can relate to one or many occurrences of object ‘B’ but an occurrence of ‘B’ can relate to only one occurrence of ‘B’. attributes. Different data objects and their attributes are described in the data dictionary and the relationship between these data objects are given in the ER diagram in the next section. The object-relationship pair can be represented graphically using the Entity-Relationship Diagram. Attributes and Relationships Data Objects: A data object is a representation of almost any composite information that must be understood by s\oftware.

NO Field Name Field Type Field Size Constraint Description . Detailed descriptions of the various databases included in the information systems are tabulated as follows: User Table S.1 29 .Fig 3.6 Entity Relational Diagram of Bookstore Management System 5. DATABASE DESIGN:- The information system of “Bookstore Management System “performs its function with the help of the data store in certain repositories called Databases of the system. 1 u_id Int 4 Primary Key User ID 2 u_fnm Varchar 35 NOT NULL First Name 3 u_unm Varchar 25 NOT NULL Username 4 u_pwd Varchar 20 NOT NULL Password 5 u_email Varchar 35 NOT NULL Email Table 3.

3 30 .NO Field Name Field Type Field Size Constraint Description .Admin Table S. 1 a_id Int 4 Primary Key User ID 2 a_fnm Varchar 35 NOT NULL First Name 3 a_unm Varchar 25 NOT NULL Username 4 a_pwd Varchar 20 NOT NULL Password 5 a_email Varchar 35 NOT NULL Email 6 a_contact Varchar 12 NOT NULL Contact 7 a_city Varchar 20 NOT NULL City Table 3.2 Book Table 6. Table 3.

6 31 .4 Category Table Table 3.Bill Details Table 3.5 Contact Table Table 3.

type. For example. mobile. 7 Site Map of Bookstore Management System 32 . Fig 3. SITE MAP:A site map (or sitemap) is a list of pages of a web site accessible to crawlers or users. including video. an image Sitemap entry can provide information about an image’s subject matter. and family-friendly status of a video. You can also use a Sitemap to provide additional information about your site. and license.6. a video Sitemap entry can specify the running time. category. Sitemaps to provide site with metadata about specific types of content on your site. images. and News.

8 Homepage 33 . INTERFACE DESIGN The interface design consists of the input and output source layouts.1 INPUT DESIGN The input specifications of the existing information system include the illustration of the detailed characteristics of contents included in each Input Screen and documents. i.3. Home Page Fig 3. EXISTING SYSTEM DESIGN (Graphical User Interface) 1.e. the input forms and screens and the report layouts that form as a source of outcome and income in the design and implementation of the information system under study 3. The description for each graphical user interface has been mentioned.

9 Login Page 3. Login Fig 3. 10 Registration Page 34 . Registration Fig 3.2.

4. Books Detail Fig 3. Books Categories Fig 3. 12 Book Detail Page 35 . 11 Book Categories Page 5.

View Cart Fig 3. 14 View Cart Page 36 . View Cart Fig 3.6. 13 View Cart Page 7.

ADMIN: 8. 16 Admin Delete Book category 10. 15 Admin Homepage 9. Homepage Fig 3. Add Book Category 37 . Delete Book Category Fig 3.

Feedback Fig 3. 18 Admin Feedback Page 38 .Fig 3. 17 Admin Add Book Category 11.