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ESSAY / PINOCCHIO AND ART :

“Never trust people who promise to make you rich in a day. They are generally crazy
swindlers”
― Carlo Collodi, Pinocchio.

This quote is extracted from the moment when Pinocchio thought he would earn a lot of
money by putting his own four gold coins into the soil. Eventually, Pinocchio's money was
stolen and he never got this easy money that was promised to him by the fox and the cat.
Carlo Collodi's life story is connected to the story of Pinocchio. The book Pinocchio e
Collodi tells us more about how Pinocchio was written. Collodi had to write the episodes that
were eventually gathered in the one book that we all know, but he never really believed that
the book he wrote would become one of the best-selling books in the world, and also one of
the most translated (with more than 240 translations). He used to be badly paid and
sometimes he would quit writing the tale for some weeks, but it was so successful that he
always had to continue until he finished. He also thought of killing Pinocchio at one point,
like Arthur Conan Doyle with Sherlock Holmes : but they both couldn't kill their main
character and eventually they had to continue the story. Thus, even though Collodi considered
Pinocchio as a simple fairy tale, as well as a story for children, he never thought that at any
point his tale would become something so important for the entire world and that the story
could speak to anyone.
The point here is to see that creativity truly matters and Collodi just intended to do something
for Children, he was a journalist, he worked against the oppressor, but he truly wanted to do
something valuable with his skill. Thus, in a way, as it inspired this introduction, the book
Pinocchio in volo tra immagini e letterature (11) said something really true about
masterpieces : Pinocchio was compared to Harry Potter and it said that the latter saw its
popularity decreasing very fast. Comparatively, Pinocchio was originally published in 1881

2/10 and is still debated nowadays. even though a French student article (Relire Pinocchio. Anyway. producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power". . 37-47) tends to place Antonio Saura's work of Pinocchio's book on a pedestal saying that this is art. In the first part. Every year. relating to various artists from throughout the World. starting in 1997 with the publication of the book. In fact. including a Hollywood one starring Robert Downey Junior as Gepetto and Pinocchio . What does it all mean? It means that Pinocchio has known in its own way how to touch so many people that this dream-like tale is nowadays at the center of many productions : two new Pinocchio movies are in preparation. because first it is placed in the art section of the libraries and second because Antonio Saura is a very well-known Spanish painter. In the second part. Art is "The expression or application of human creative skill and imagination. as it's said in the book. the way that art can emphasize Pinocchio's impact will be discussed in the next sections. slowly decreases nowadays even though it certainly marked an entire generation. that allows us to make our minds up in order to know if illustration is art and if we are speaking about real artists or simply commercial designers. a lot of creations of human beings can be considered Art. a new illustrator want to make its own edition of Pinocchio because it left its mark on several generations. we'll look more precisely at the evolution of the illustration of Pinocchio in Italy and in much details at Roberto Innocenti. looking at some of the brilliant cover pages of Pinocchio and drawing conclusions about their different approaches. the success of Harry Potter. Pinocchio is therefore very real. we'll focus on a comparison between art and illustration and reflect if illustration can be a form of art. the generation of kids who could identify with him and his whole world. even though I'm sure that Disney certainly played some role in that. typically in a visual form such as painting or sculpture. to see if eventually the illustrators of Pinocchio are creating art. As defined in the Oxford online dictionary. thus. According to this definition.

The website http://joseph.pagesperso-orange. whether Television. and it allows us to discover more about all of the work that's done every year by Pinocchio's illustrators. Thus.fr/illust/illustr. to work on Pinocchio. all of what he says makes sense and he definitely knows what he is talking about. this has to be said because there is a Russian author that is rather unknown (http://joseph.fr/illust/burati/burati.cabioch. the diversity made a lot of different people take part in the adventure of designing Pinocchio's journey. cinema and also caricature.cabioch. for example the Roman Church who asked Michelangelo to paint the Sixtine chapel is basically the same as a magazine asking an artist to do a cover with the same kind of creativity.com/blog/is-illustration-art >.htm) and also not credited for his wonderful work : the cover and some images that can be seen inside are really cute. The website <http://www.ricochet-jeunes. he was into everything. What struck me among all of it was that Sto (Sergio Tofano) took part in the process. even though it has to have the top 20 percent relatively detail-free so that the T-I-M-E shows" attributed to Terrence Brown. They’re artists. among all these things that he had to do. the director of the society of illustrators shows us his vision of this job he defends. and they want to put themselves into everything they do.3/10 "People think illustrators are hired hands–[they're] anything but. art was also a form of trade because the rich families were asking for special paintings.htm shows 108 different covers from different countries.pagesperso-orange. art remains art if it is a creation. The first person to illustrate Pinocchio was Enrico Mazzanti. Whether it is sold or not. he live a full and meaningful life but he found time. It's extraordinary to see that every kind of person has worked on Pinocchio. On the blog where this quote was found : <http://thevirtualinstructor. the styles are completely different and vary a lot according to the country.org/articles-critiques/article/37-pinocchio-et-ses-illustrateurs> . this very debate takes place and it was interesting to realize that even during the Renaissance. even though it has to be a picture of George Bush. even though it has to be vertical because TIME magazine is published vertically. So illustration is art. proving what was said before. but in fact.

and most of the children. What is interesting here is that children are seen as very strong characters. the story of the puppet would be more powerful and insightful if it was seen as a Fairy Tale. when he tell a lie for the first time and his nose grows for example. there are ways to convey fear to children if they'd like to disobey what's good for them : if you lie. First of all. it's a good example for children and it can enhance their courage and reduce their fear about acting in the world. in this first image that we have of him. whether it is the snake or the blue fairy. a mere representation of himself. adventure. Pinocchio is thus. you lose yourself : that's what this shadow conveys. made of light and shadow. do you see what happened to Pinocchio. First of all. imposing himself as a symbol of youth. he is just a shadow. But as Pinocchio always succeeds and goes beyond fear. defying authority. and the shadow. it conveys fear. And in a certain ways. look what happens. we can see many of the different characters or major elements of the story.4/10 gives us a good insight about his choices in terms of representation. darkness conveys fear as well. because it puts children in a position where they are not in control . often used to represent Pinocchio at some moments of the book. are free and strong. Mazzanti understood that even though it can be considered as a moralizing story. we can see Pinocchio standing. Pinocchio becomes a real symbol of the power that lies within children . so he could get very interesting first-hand information. drawn with very rigid strokes. Mazzanti is a friend of Collodi. whereas the other characters have suppler designs. the work of . then if you lie. This first scene allows the parents and the children to see what kind of marvelous adventures Pinocchio is about to live in the book. Thus. very proud of himself. showing the solidity of his wood. the fox and the cat. That way. He could then create something much more valuable. cheekiness and freedom. before they become part of the society. and back to that time it's certainly a clever marketing move because the cover really matters and conveys a lot to the purchasers who are immediately attracted to what seems interesting to them. or the huge fish that some people think is a shark. he decided to create the image of Pinocchio that is the first representation people have (except for those who are influenced by Disney) . something that would have to be very close to what Collodi could have wanted to represent himself. In the background.

the illustrators used those colors in order to create some ambiance. it's up to Chiostri to reinvent Pinocchio's imaginary world with his own vision. So. a lot of difficulties await him on his way and he has trouble succeeding. At this point. usual world and it's difficult for him. this one is a lot more moralizing and also darker. After Mazzanti. like the puppet. extracted from imagination that lives in this very normal. For example. The vision of Carlo Chiostri is therefore a debilitating one : he shows us a Pinocchio that is always under reproving looks. according to the same French website. that's what would happen to them. and people wouldn't even take a look at them. This kind of vision can be seen this way : if children don't behave well. as if all the strange and unnatural things had to be put aside and would prevent life from continuing. the second and the fourth. The French article gives a good vision of this illustrator because he is the first one to draw with colors. previously. the same kind of drawing with ink. is the first illustrative work ever done on Pinocchio that has influenced and will influence other illustrators. when he faces the ocean that dominates him). they'd be discarded. in 1901. What matters now is to represent Pinocchio as an introverted puppet to whom bad luck falls upon. compared to the first adaptation. very important differences. the images didn't have that much color and the drawings were intended to be seen without color.5/10 Mazzanti. because of the representation of the puppet himself : he is always smaller than the other characters. he is also very jaded about what he lives and seems very unhappy most of the time. The last one of the three Italian illustrators of that section is called Attilio Mussino. he uses a lot of contrasts in order to lead the reader's eye to some important elements like the crowd in the drawing at the bottom of the page . and has to relate to the elements (for example. to which illustrations increased in number for every new edition of the book with the first. not understanding what's going on around him and why the entire world is against him. but there are. he is an abnormal element. he illustrated a version of The Adventures Of Pinocchio published in 1911 (and several other editions) and what's particularly notable in his work is the way that he uses colors to give life to his drawings. The style is very similar. as if he shouldn't be here. In fact.

really working to make colors fit exactly the moment. In this scene. Using Pinocchio : Entre texte et image as a book of reference. First. People in Italy really loved the way he renewed illustrated books and he did a lot of different illustrations for Pinocchio later on. and eventually we'll see how the blue fairy and Pinocchio relate to each other thanks to well placed images and we'll speak about the cover and back pages in the context of the story. secondly. which are very bright colors. they are always paired . scared. we'll deal with a gradation and the use of this structure to serve the purpose of the text. and also the presence of cooler colors to complete the landscape of the street and also state that no one would be against Pinocchio in the crowd that stays at the edge of the street like a big. The colors used here are very bright. the rectangular (whether horizontal or vertical) shapes that are used most of the time.6/10 (http://www. there is Roberto Innocenti's work. In fact. we'll try to understand the architecture of the book.brown. But Mussino is also one of the creators of the illustrated books in the way that he placed his images in the book.html). using for example dark blue and black in order to emphasize the idea of the night and then create a feeling of fear and oppression. Twelve different formats have been used all as a way of giving diverse tonalities to the images (127-129). Of course. Therefore. insurmountable wall that Pinocchio. because his style was famous. we'll try to understand more about how the drawing interacts with the writings and vice-versa. he changed the habits and created something new. here to attract the reader's eye. Mussino had a lot of liberty in the way he could put all of these vignettes. the puppet is very rigid. The way Mussino draws in very different and much more colourful ways. the illustrator decided to add those initial letters. But in a very different style. with no special color. with a dominance of red and yellow. like for Carnival and he can't do anything to change it at that very moment. doesn't seem to notice at all. because he was a creative person and because he was immensely effective in the way he was dealing with the work he had to do. indeed. but the use of initial letters is definitely more unusual.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/DP/projects/thewoods/Artists/Attilio %20Mussino. he is clearly not emphasized and he is the attraction of the moment. there is always the square.

there is a gradation and the format of the image and its disposition help reinforce the message. eventually. Those comic books. they are additions and pauses. common nowadays in illustrated books is also used in Asia. the book is not illustrated like it would normally be : it uses a lot of different image formats. made in Japan. in chapters 4. all of the shapes the images can take allows for many things to take place (129130). Then. it would be that a way to see them in daily life for example . allow some action to take place between the chapter. whereas the biggest images. a small image represents a moment that wouldn't need to be emphasized specifically but which is in the book and therefore has to be drawn. But those images are not extracted from the ongoing chapter. like for example the double page of the puppets theatre would represent something extraordinary and memorable as it is of course in the book. 5 and 6.7/10 with a drawing and it's certainly very attractive to children to see the characters being close to those letters : showing the way that reading is also fun and that the characters have an interrelated story with those letters that gave birth to those images. all of these different kinds of representations constitute an architecture. The images are at the top of the page and they are rectangular for the first two chapters. and they present new situations accomplished by the characters of the book : this process. but it has to be said that Innocenti really magnified and improved it by giving to the illustrated books its credentials. like a story within the story that can be followed by the people who read them : the little story that takes place can be short and simply be an image of the characters doing something. because it has to give light to the content of the book : as we've just said. But each of those serves a certain purpose. especially in Japan. in manga. For example. as we said. The second image represents Pinocchio who realizes that he won't be able to eat : this second one is slightly bigger and . or it's about a story that can be followed and covers a part of the real story that would normally be barely sensed. hugged in a corner of the house after having killed the talking cricket. Anyway. they represent a frustrated Pinocchio. Mussino is the one who invented in some ways these kinds of modern illustrated books. Pinocchio would follow the first type of story within the story with some little scenes related to some moments that couldn't be developed in a bigger image. Anyway. as it is easily understandable.

a big bird close to her. but the resourcefulness of the puppet will eventually allow him to meet the girl a bit later. This iconography of the blue will come back later on with the blue butterflies close to the tomb of the fairy. begs the little girl to accept him in the house . it places the characters of the story in a street of Pinocchio's village (141-142). The real purpose of this front page would be to make the reader think about what would happen in the story. This version of Pinocchio's first day of school would be an ideal version where the blue fairy would have protected Pinocchio. but who knows what could happen one day. after he got rained on.8/10 eventually in chapter six. and a second one. These two images relate to eachother and are a real dialogue. or two days after. showing the cycle of life and death and being reborn. showing the little girl looking to her left through a window. The gradation is the size of the images and the amplification of the format is proportional to Pinocchio's desire to have a good meal and eventually. There is an important scene where Pinocchio. The cover page of Innocenti's version of Pinocchio is presenting a version of the story as it could have taken place. the little girl claims to be dead and Pinocchio ends up hanged. Thus. Those are twin images representing basically the same scene : a house. and that way. She would have reacted if he would have been in any real kind of danger. as Pinocchio has to experience a lot during the book. those two are placed in the dark and some blue flowers are located where they would normally be. Pinocchio on his knees. whose "camera" shows Pinocchio looking from left to right in the direction of the fairy. a really wonderful one. But whereas Pinocchio would normally meet the fox and the cat. his will to feel warmth again only added to his hunger and precariousness. maybe he/she would like to acquire the book : leading a potential consumer to think. But this process of using images in order to create interesting effects is often used in the book (131-133). because she certainly knew that everything would be okay anyway. The blue is a sign of hope. there are two images that take two entire pages. imagine and eventually like a book for its cover is a good way to . two images can be set next to each other : the first one. followed by the thieves. imploring the little girl and her gazing at Pinocchio full of an explainable riddle.

Bibliography : Primary source : Collodi. a certain light and a very effective treatment that led a lot of people to like his work : which also explains why he is the only artist to have his entire section in Pinocchio : Entre texte et image. Carlo. like the back cover of Innocenti's book. the life in Tuscany has evolved but Pinocchio is still here like in this modern representation of the same places in this imaginary town . the work about Pinocchio slowly evolved until it reached climax with Innocenti who proposed a disproportionate work full of color. Because it's also the purpose of creating visuals : it's about selling a product and therefore making it interesting. Word count : excluding references : 3492 words. Eventually. The Adventures of Pinocchio. pleasant to the eye and make the reader want to enter this imaginary world. 2009.9/10 sell it. Starting by being functional and refined. the illustration of Pinocchio has evolved a lot since Mazzanti began to work. Thus. Oxford Paperbacks. . including references : 3642 words. a lot of things have changed but the puppet is still very popular and will remain this way as it's still equally entertaining for the children of our time.

brown. < http://www. 2002. Dedola.I. 2014.org/articles-critiques/article/37-pinocchio-et-sesillustrateurs>. Gasparini. thus it's not an article ) Despinette. .htm > ( This website is the one presenting the different Pinocchio book covers.ricochetjeunes. P. Bruno Mondadori. 12 Apr. Rossana & Casari.fr/illust/illustr. Peter Lang S. Mario.cabioch. pagina 117. Les articles critiques. Milano : Vita e Pensiero.html> . Rossana. 2003. Pinocchio in volo tra immagini e letterature. "Pinocchio et ses illustrateurs". 12 Apr. 1997. Giovanni.edu/Departments/Italian_Studies/DP/projects/thewoods/Ar tists/Attilio%20Mussino. Pinocchio e Collodi.E. Perrot. La corsa di Pinocchio. "Attilio Mussino". Jean. Janine. Artists.A.10/10 Secondary Sources : Dedola. ISBN 88-343-4889-3 < http://joseph. Pinocchio entre texte et image. 2014. 2008.pagesperso-orange. <http://www. Bruno Mondadori.

2014.pdf> . 11 Apr. Matt. The virtual instructor. "Relire Pinocchio".oxforddictionaries. 2014. <http://www. < http://ouvrelivres. "Is illustration art?". Ouvrelivres. Lydie. 13 Apr. Sep. 2010. 2012.com/definition/english/art> Fussell. Oxford dictionaries language matters.files. 14 Apr.wordpress. 2014.com/2013/01/pinocchiolydie-le-terme.com/blog/is-illustration-art > Le Terme. < http://thevirtualinstructor. 27 Dec.11/10 "Art".