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Scale deposition

Scale problems in production
Wells producing water are likely to develop deposits of inorganic scales. Scales can
and do coat perforations, casing, production tubulars, valves, pumps, and downhole
completion equipment, such as safety equipment and gas lift mandrels. If allowed to
proceed, this scaling will limit production, eventually requiring abandonment of the
Scale deposits usually form as a result of crystallization and precipitation of minerals
from water.

Scales: crystallisation of salts from fluids
Occurrence: Scale is deposited in formation matrix and fractures, wellbore,
downhole pumps, tubing, casing, flowlines, heater treaters, tanks, and salt water
disposal and water flood systems.
Causes: Primary factors affecting scale precipitation, deposition, and crystal growth

Mingling of two unlike waters having incompatible compounds in
solution; change of temperature

Supersaturation- Supersaturation is the most important reason behind mineral
precipitation. A supersaturated is the primary cause of scale formation and
occurs when a solution contains dissolved materials which are at higher
concentrations than their equilibrium concentration. The degree of
supersaturation, also known as the scaling index, is the driving force for the
precipitation reaction and a high supersaturation, therefore, implies high
possibilities for salt precipitation.

Effect of temperature –
calcium sulfate is less soluble
at higher temperatures.

Change of pressure on
solution- The sulfates of calcium, barium and strontium are more soluble at
higher pressures. Consequently, formation water will often precipitate a
sulfate scale when pressure is reduced during production. The scale may

at the perforations. During the production.  Evaporation (affects concentration)  Agitation  Long exposure time (crystal growth)  Change of pH-The amount of CO 2 present in the water affects the pH of the water and the solubility of calcium carbonate. and be easy to remove with acid. Conversely. Two waters are called incompatible if they interact chemically and precipitate minerals when mixed. The lower the pH. scale deposition is possible. A typical example of incompatible waters are -2 +2 +2 +2 sea water with high concentration of SO4 and low concentrations of Ca . Mixing of these waters. BaSO4. . by very porous. causes precipitation of CaSO4. the higher pH. The successive pressure drops lead to release of the carbon dioxide with an increase in pH value of the produced water and precipitation of calcium carbonate. or in the downhole pump (if used). Zinc sulfide scale is more likely when zinc ion source mixes with the hydrogen sulfiderich source within the near wellbore or the production tubing during fluid extraction. Ba and Sr . Nature: Scale deposited very rapidly may have gas channels.deposit round the wellbore. gypsum (CaS04 • 2HP). barium sulfate (BaS04) and sodium chloride (NaCl). -2 and formation waters with very low concentrations of SO4 but high concentrations of +2 +2 +2 Ca . the more likely that precipitation will occur Source of Oil Field Scale: The chief source of oilfield scale is mixing of incompatible waters. Calcium sulfate (CaS04) or anhydrite does not usually deposit downhole but may be deposited in boilers and heater treaters. Field produced water (disposal water) can also be incompatible with seawater. Lead and zinc sulfide scales have recently become a concern in a number oil and gas fields. and/or SrSO4. However it really does not matter what causes the acidity or alkalinity of the water. the water is drained to the surface and suffers from significant pressure drop and temperature variations. These deposits have occurred within the production tubing and topside process facilities Composition: The composition of scales is as variable as the nature of the waters that produce them. Ba /Sr . Scale deposited slowly may be very hard and dense. The most common oil field scale deposits are calcium carbonate (CaC03). A less common deposit is strontium sulfate ( SrSO 4) . therefore. In cases where disposal water is mixed with seawater for re-injection. the less likely is CaCO 3 precipitation.

the solution is not supersaturated.and may be difficult to remove with acid or other chemicals. we have to be in the labile regime of figure 1. Mechanism of scaling 1. this is given by the difference between the chemical potential of a given substance in the stable and metastable/labile region. a thermodynamic driving force for precipitation is established and formation of solids may take place. Now. In the metastable region of figure 1. the driving force is not . Nucleation sites: Although a driving force is established.g. At point A. the term supersaturation is often used. By changing either the temperature or the concentration e. there must be a thermodynamic driving force. For precipitation. To represent this driving force. 2. by evaporation some solute) one can exceed the solubility concentration (point B and D) and cross into the supersaturated regime. there is no thermodynamic driving force and therefore no precipitation. Supersaturation: Behind every chemical process. a solution can be supersaturated without solid formation occurring. The short explanation to this is that the supersaturation has tobe sufficiently high.

as seen by reaction 7. dissolved CO2 escaped from produced water and caused water pH as well as the saturation index of carbonate minerals to increase. the surface free energy required is lowered. Spontaneous precipitation will therefore not take place. There follows a brief description of each scale. 2001). CO2− 3 (aq) + Ca2+ (aq) CaCO3 (s) (6) Since produced water usually contains a carbonic acid and calcium ions. Finally. as seen in reaction 4 and 5. Ca (HCO3)2 (aq) CO2 (g) + H2O(l) + CaCO3 (s) (7) Calcium and carbonic acid together in liquid form will be in equilibrium with water. so it is the most common form of calcium carbonate encountered in oilfield production operation.large enough to overcome the energy amount required to form a surface. when a surface is present. especially near the wellhead where. a solid particle. gypsum). H2CO3 (aq) + H2O(l) H3O+ (aq) + HCO−3 (aq) (4) HCO−3 (aq) + H2O(l) H3O+ (aq) + CO2− 3 (aq) (5) In the water mixture there will be a mixture of the species H2CO3. Carbonate scale formation occurs when connate water or aquifer water passes through the bubble point and carbon dioxide is evolved. Carbonates -Calcium carbonate or calcite scale has the greatest stability in oilfield circumstances. creating new deprotonated species of carbonic acid. Lead and zinc sulfide scale has recently become a concern in a number of North Sea oil and gas fields (Collins and Jordan. Other less common scales have also been reported such as iron oxides. HCO−3 and CO2− 3 . Precipitation – nucleation is followed by precipitation and adherence. However. solid calcium carbonate and CO2 gas. iron sulfides and iron carbonate. carbon dioxide reacts with water to produce carbonic acid as seen by reaction CO2 (g) + H2O(l ) H2CO3 (aq) (3) This carbonic acid will continue to dissociate hydrogen. a recombination of these reactions will give a better representation of the situation. in the presence of calcium and carbonic acid. 3. and Strontium sulfate (celestite) and calcium carbonate. . allowing solid particles to form and grow even in the metastable regime. calcium carbonate will precipitate out as seen by reaction 6. By this. because of pressure drop. Carbonate scales frequently appear in the wellbore. 1. barium sulfate (barite). Oilfield Scale Types The most common scales encountered in oilfield operations are sulfates such as calcium sulfate (anhydrite. already existing defects at the surface can act as nucleation sites. First.

then there would be an equilibrium shift towards the right and more precipitation of calcium carbonate. Because CO2 is the only gaseous specie. temperature. A decrease in pressure will then result in more precipitation of calcium carbonate. the energy also increases. and the equilibrium will try to counteract this by consuming energy. One of the reasons for this behaviour is the fact that the precipitation of calcium carbonate require energy (endothermic). Pressure dependence: When pressure is decreased in a chemical system. The equilibrium is then shifted towards right. This principle states that a chemical system at equilibrium will always try to counteract any imposed change in pressure.Most behaviour of the calcium carbonate equilibrium can be predicted from Le Châtelier’s equilibrium principle. This is an interesting phenomena because most solubilities increase with increasing temperature and therefor one gets less precipitation. the equilibrium will try compensate by increasing the pressure. Further increases in NaCI concentration decrease CaC03 solubility and scaling increases  Scaling increases with increase in turbulence .  Scaling decreases as total salt content (not counting Ca ions) of water increases to a concentration of 1 20g N aCl/ 1 000g of water. Concentration dependence: If the concentration of calcium or carbonic acid is increased or the partial pressure of CO2 is decreased. volume and composition. This can be written into the equilibrium equation as follows: energy + Ca (HCO3)2 (aq) CO2 (g) + H2O(l) + CaCO3 (s) (8) When the temperature increases. Temperature dependence: The solubility of calcium carbonate will decrease as the temperature increases. favouring precipitation of calcium carbonate.  Scaling will increase with increased temperature  Scaling increases with an increase in pH  Scaling increases and becomes harder with increased contact time. the only way to increase pressure is by shifting the equilibrium towards producing more CO2.

3 Ib/bbl of water) calcium sulfate.log (equivalents of total alkalinity/litre) Total alkalinity= CO3-2 + HCO3-2 K=a constant which is a function of salinity composition and water temperature SI<0 SI=0 SI>0 Brine of Under saturated And No Tendency Of Scaling Brine at Equilibrium Scale Formation Is Likely 2. pressure. At higher temperature (above 100 ºC). Pressure drop from 2 .??? – ?AK where ?H=actual ?H of water ???= . Causes  Mixing of two waters. ratio of brine to hydrogen. Temperature.Stiff Davis Method (SI) . the most common scale occurs at relatively low temperature.000 psi to atmospheric pressure may precipitate as much as 900 ppm (0. fluid concentration. . one containing calcium ions and the other containing sulfate ions.  Pressure reduction : A reduction in pressure decreases solubility and causes scaling.Methods of Predicting Scale SI=?H-K.1/2H2O) and anhydrate (CaSO4). the stable phase predicted is anhydrite (CaSO4). particularly in water flooding.Calcium Carbonate . hemihydrate (CaSO4.2H2O or anhydrite or hemihydrate .2H2O). Sulfates i) CaS04. often causes gyp scaling.Calcium sulfate can crystallize from aqueous solution in three forms: gypsum (CaSO4. Many parameters are affecting this problem.log (moles of Ca++/litre) ?AK= . fluid dynamic and type of porous media are among these parameters.  Casing leaks or poor cement jobs are frequent causes of scaling due to downhole mixing of water from the producing zone with water fromother porous zones.  Casing leaks or poor cement jobs are frequent causes of scaling due to downhole mixing of water from the producing zone with water from other porous zones. Gypsum.

one containing soluble salts of barium or strontium and the other containing sulfate ions. Hydrates in gas wells frequently become supersaturated due to evaporation. p H has very little effect on solubility and scaling.  Evaporation of water due to evolution of free gas near or in the wellbore may cause supersaturation and gyp scaling. with resultant scaling  The effect of temperature on solubility of gyp scale and anhydrite is illustrated in Figure 9-4. . Agitation increases scaling tendency  An increase of magnesium ions in the range of 24 . Solubility of BaS04 in many of the high salinity oil-field brines may average 85 to 1 00 mg/liter. A change in temperature will change the solubility of calcium sulfate or gyp and the tendency to precipitate. ii) BaS04 and SrS04 .  For a given NaCl concentration.400-36.600 mg/liter may increase the solubility of CaS04 up to several times the solubility of CaS04 in distilled water and thereby decrease scaling.Both BaS04 and SrS04 scales are usually caused by mingling of two unlike waters.  Presence of radioactive strontium in scales is a major safety and environmental issue. BaS04 scaling increases with decreases in temperature as a result of decreasing BaSO4 solubility  Pressure drop may decrease the solubility of BaS04 in a given NaCl solution and cause scaling  Solubility of BaS04 is noted in Table 92 with changes in percent NaCI and temperature. Barium sulfate is often precipitated in gas wells as hydrates are evaporated.  Within the pH range of 6 to 8.

from Table 9-3. CaC03. sour wells and water injectors where the injected water has high sulfate content.000 mg/ l of NaCI will be precipitated from saturated salt water if temperature drops from 140°F to 86°F.  Iron scales are frequently the result of corrosion products such as various iron oxides and iron sulfide. Table 9-4 shows the great difference in solubility of NaCI. it may be noted that 4. Dry gas will evaporate water. If oxygen is introduced to a system . whereas the aquifer water contains dissolved iron.3. which then reacts with iron in solution or with steel surfaces to form iron sulfide .  The disposal water contains dissolved H2S.  Salt precipitation may be quite severe near bottom of the tubing or in the well bore in gas wells or high GOR oil wells producing very little or no water at the surface. leaving the salt as a precipitate.iron salts are precipitated during simulation if pyrite. Sulfate-reducing bacteria can be a source of hydrogen sulfide . When these two waters are mixed together.  Iron sulfide scale is present in oil and gas producing wells. and BaS04 in distilled water. calcium and iron salts along with wax if present in oil. NaCl  Precipitation of sodium chloride is normally caused by supersaturationusually due to evaporation or decreases in temperature. H2S reacts with the iron ions and precipitates iron sulfide species. For example.  Precipitation may result from both drop in temperature and drop in pressure through perforations and into the tubing. 4. as shown in Equation (2. Gypsum. siderite.7). it can . iron rich in clays are present in rocks. Iron salts. strontium. Scales do not consist of one salt but mixtures of barium.

It may provide the basis to estimate the scaling in the down hole equipment in producing wells because of possible prior deposition of scales due to release of CO 2 form Bi-carbonate ions in water as pressure declines. tubing choking B. Silicates scale is rarely a problem in low temperature reservoirs. E. D. Each chemical compound in the scale diffracts x-rays in a characteristics . X-ray diffraction is the most used method for the scale identification. The function of the scale sensor is double duty— not only to provide early warning about the initiation of production impairment by scale generation but also to provide information about possible impairment of the smartwell sensors and valves by films of scale. If the calcium carbonate super saturation is more than 10% of bi-carbonate alkalinity content. Analysis of water properties immediately after sampling is the best approach to predict the scale formation tendency.react with iron to form a precipitate and with steel surfaces to form an oxide coating. Silica – silica and silicate chemistry(SiO2) is quite complicated and highly varied in rocks and reservoir brined. take a well head sample of water and run test on water at the time of sampling. Analysis of water flood water provides a reliable basis for estimating scaling in injection lines and down hole in injection wells. Dolomite [CaMg(CO3)2] -there is no way to precipitate dolomite in lab. then the water will usually have a scaling tendency.     The simplest method of physically detecting scale in the wellbore is to run calipers down the wellbore and measure decreases in the tubing inner diameter Gamma ray log interpretation has been used to indicate barium sulfate scale because naturally radioactive radium (Ra226) precipitates as an insoluble sulfate with this scale. This involves directing a beam of X-ray on to a powdered sample of scale crystal. F. Analysis of produced brine predicts the scaling in the surface facilities. Prediction of Scaling Tendencies A. 5. It forms in 1000 to 10^6 years in field. IDENTIFICATION OF SCALES The first step is to determine which scales are forming and where they are forming. C. perforation choking. 6. To determine Calcium carbonate super saturation. If bottom hole pressure is near original. Field -rapid decline in production. formation damage. Wells with intelligent completions and permanent monitoring systems are being designed to contain scale sensors. bottom hole sample brought under subsurface condition may provide reliable information on both down hole and surface scaling tendencies under original reservoir condition.

Table 9-6 shows an example of BaS04 scale caused by mixing of Bartlesville and Arbuckle brines from wells in the Boston Pool. Chemical analysis may also be used for scale identification. By comparison. Table 9-5 is a summary of easily run laboratory or field tests to determine type of scale (2) Analysis of field brine can show scaling tendencies. Samples of scales are decomposed and then dissolved in chemical solution. (1) After adding HCI to the scale sample. especially if the sample does not contain iron sulfide or iron carbonate. It is the fastest method and requires least amount of sample. all chemical compound can readily be identified form an x-ray analysis. Scale compounds are then analysed by standard techniques of titration or precipitation. Scale compounds will usually not be identified unless the analysis is made for each specific chemical compound. Oklahoma . manner which permits its identification. effervescence usually indicates CaC03. . The odour of H2S will indicate the presence of sulphide scale.

Hobbs field. most effectively at the perforations. III. but is less effective on some forms of .time consuming. and its texture.Scales are generally brittle. Such scale removal rates are generally in the range of 5 to 30 linear ft/hr of milling. When pulling costs are low (e. Water jetting can be effective on soft scale. its physical composition. Mechanical methods are among the most successful methods of scale removal in tubulars.. These impact techniques work best for brittle scales. the least expensive approach to scaling is often to pull the tubing and drill out the scale deposit. Selecting the best scale removal technique for a particular well depends on knowing the type and quantity of scale. Impact bits and milling technologies have been developed to run on coiled tubing inside tubulars using a variety of chipping bits and milling configurations.g. Mechanical methods I. New Mexico SCALE REMOVAL Scale remediation techniques must be quick and nondamaging to the wellbore. IV.(3) Table 9-7 shows an example of predictable CaC03 precipitation due to pressure drop and release of CO2 from HC03 – 1. Chemically inert scales are not soluble in chemicals. Thicker scales require more stringent means. Jetting-Tools can be used with chemical washes to attack soluble deposits where placement is critical. readily accessible and shallow land locations).in the Grayburg formation. not a cost effective method II. and the reservoir. such as halite. Milling. 1. Wireline chipping. hammering the scales until they break. acid soluble and soluble in chemicals other than water or acids. One of the earliest methods used to break off the thin brittle scale from pipes was explosives: a strand or two of detonation cord (“string shot”) placed with an electronic detonation cap at the appropriate location in the wellbore. Impact techniques-works much like a jack hammer. If the scale is in the wellbore. Chemically reactive scales may be classified as water soluble. tubing. it can be removed mechanically or dissolved chemically.

The beads are soluble in acid and have no known toxicity. It has to be planned and installed in the mechanical completions. Sterling beads do not damage the well if prolonged jetting occurs in one spot. Types of scales . Chemical methods -most effective. Petro-physics VI. Field II. brittle scales. This tool is capable of descaling configurations other than wellbore tubing (e. while being 20 times less erosive of steel. Hard scales.. This material matches the erosive performance of sand on hard. sonic tools. of wells III. are removed at rates > 100 ft/hr. cost feasible Chemical treatment design  Objectives-to treat the pores. Tubing id and od VII. For perforated casing. Perforated interval V. removing hard barite scale deposits on two gas lift valves in a multiplemandrel gas lift completion). No. or open hole. Internally plastics coated tubulars -not a cost effective solution old wells but feasible in new wells 2. perforations and downhole equipment with scale dissolver in order to remove/prevent scale deposition  Data check listI. drilling . “Sterling beads” is an alternative abrasive material for scale removal by jetting. simplifying use and cleanup.a permanent or induced magnet is placed to prevent nucleation and precipitation. It is being practiced in USSR. Magnetic method. reperforating is a most effective method of bypassing perforations sealed with scale. 3. or reaming have been used to remove both soluble and insoluble scales from tubing. Wireline observation VIII.medium to hard scales such as calcite and barite. such as barite. Well production(production/Status) IV.g. Mechanical methods such as string shot. The use of abrasive slurries greatly improves the ability of jets to cut through scale but can damage the steel tubulars and valves. casing.

000 mg/liter NaCl will dissolve three times as much gypsum as fresh water. Formic acid and sulphonic acids have been used effectively to remove such scales.  A three stage treatment may be planned. The sequestering agents holds iron in solution until it can be produced from the well. A sequestered Fe acid. Produced/injected water analysis Previous history and treatment Treatment procedure  Carry out production test. and iron oxide (Fe 2O3).75% Acetic acid + . Acetic acid will not damage chrome plated surfaces at temperature below 200 deg. Acid should not be used to remove NaCI scale. – to assist the scale dissolver. The most prevalent of all scale compounds. . iron sulphide (FeS). Acetic acid has special application down the hole in pumping wells when it is desired to leave chrome plated or alloy pumps in a well during acid treatment. agitate after 4 to 1 hr. Acid-Soluble Scalei. involves flowing of 5 bbl of fluid out of well (in most cases) so that unreacted solution is moved to the scale surface.  Scale dissolver shut in for 24 hr. Add foaming agent if gas lift is not available. 55.) of perforation +wellbore volume below packer  Inject a spacer containing (4-6 %) EDTA/Erythorbic acid in deoxygenated seawater with 2%KCl -(70-100 gal /ft. 4 ft. HCl plus a sequestering agent is normally used to remove iron scale. ii. of perforation)  Inject a more concentrate on scale dissolver solution 20-25% w/w in deoxygenated seawater +2%KCl  Calculate the injection volume to perforate 4ft.000 mg/liter NaCl past the scale. build up if well is not in conformity with reservoir engineer prediction  Prepare the well for injection  Demulsifier spearhead: inject a slug containing 0.  Scale dissolver over flush solution. At 100 deg. Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3).55% citric acid may provide over 15 days of sequestering time. X. such as HCl + . around wellbore and bottom of tubing. iii.IX. HCl or Acetic acid can be used to remove calcium carbonate. Each may be separated after chemical analysis of produced fluid and well performance. Water-Soluble Scale-The most common water-soluble scale is sodium chloride which can be readily dissolved with relatively fresh water. However HCl may severely damage the chrome plated surfaces. Acid soluble scales also include iron carbonate (FeCO3). F. is acid soluble. F.depending upon reservoir pressure inject tubing volume of diesel or liquid nitrogen or seawater with foaming agent. If gyp scale is newly formed and porous. it may be dissolved by circulating water containing about 55. iv.1% solution of demusifier in deoxygenated seawater along with scale inhibitor (70100 gal/ft.

5 KOH 67.v. however only 68 – 72% is converted to gypsum leaving an undissolved scale in matrix.8 85.0 Na2CO3 83. iii.5 Na2CO3 – NaOH 71. Remove iron scales with a sequestered acid. SCALE REMOVAL IF WAXES. However Acetic acid is much slower than HCl.2 85. KOH converts gypsum to Ca(OH)2 . After converting gypsum the residual fluid is circulated out. vi.6 71. CaCO 3 can be removed with either HCl or Acetic acid. which is soluble in water or a weak acid.5 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ii. IRON CARBONATE AND GYPSUM ARE PRESENT: i. most of the chemical shown above convert gypsum to CaCO3 . Convert gypsum scales to CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2. . A 10% solution of Acetic acid may be used to remove iron scales without an additional sequestering agent. The only acid insoluble scale which is chemically reactive is Calcium Sulphate or gypsum.8 91. ii. can be treated with chemical solutions which can convert calcium sulphate to an acid soluble cmpounds like Calcium carbonate or calcium Hydroxide CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2 which can be removed with acid. Normally 15% sequestered HCl is used but 20% may be necessary because of slow reaction with iron compounds. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Type of solution % of gypsum dissolved 24 hours 72 hours ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NH4HCO3 87. iii. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Type of acid soluble scale Gallons of 15% HCl/Cu ft of scale ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------CaCO3 95 Fe2O3 318 FeS 180 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ACID INSOLUBLE SCALES: i. Degrease with a solvent such as Kerosene or Carbon Di-sulphide plus a surfactant. Calcium sulphate though not reactive in acid.

Barium Sulphate scales on the formation face or in the perforation may be removed by mechanical methods such as string shots. Rate of reversion to orthophosphates depends on temperature. Compounds such as EDTA (Ethylene di-amine Tetra-acetic acid) and DTPA (Di-ethylene Tri-amine Penta-acetic acid) can dissolve gypsum without the necessity of conversion to CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2. LP-55 . carried out only to place the chemical. a very stable polyorganic acid. It has no temperature limit and does not precipitate solids. " When a crystal nucleus is formed. Inhibition of Scale with Polyorganic Acid. phosphate content.iv. In the presence of calcium ions. This liquid polymer inhibits scale formation through "threshold treatment" approach. If injected during a minifrac. The best approach is to prevent the scale deposition. But EDTA or DTPA are not used because of high cost. was field-proven by Halliburton. Reversion does not start until polyphosphate goes into solution. Reversion to Orthophosphate-When placed in solution all polyphosphates tend to hydrolyze into orthophosphates.  For about 25 years. the well is fraced and then LP-55 is pumped in the well . drilling out or under reaming or by-passing by re-perforating. Sodium-calcium phosphates are normally used in well treatment because of their slow dissolving rate. and nature of polyphosphates. Dissolve Ca(OH)2 with water or weak acid. CHEMICALLY INERT SCALES: The most common chemically inert scales are Barium Sulphate (BaSO 4) and Strontium Sulphate SrSO4. v. Placement during fracturing If placed during a conventional frac treatment. the LP-55 liquid should precede the introduction of sand.During the late 1960 ' s. sand-grain size polyphosphate particles have been injected as a part of regular fracturing treatments. mineral content. This property assures a near constant phosphate concentration in the water over a long period of time. insoluble calcium precipitates may be formed. acidity. SCALE PREVENTION Scale prevention Inhibition of Scale Precipitation by Inorganic Polyphosphates  Inhibiting scale with a few parts per million of molecularly dehydrated polyphosphates is called a " threshold treatment. polyphosphate is adsorbed on the surface and slows further crystal growth. wells have been fractured specifically to inject the phosphate particles. Polyphosphates will also revert to orthophosphates in the presence of acid. Remove converted CaCO3 scale with HCl or Acetic acid. The objective is for the phosphate-containing water to be produced from the well before reversion can occur. The polyphosphate slowly dissolves in produced water and prevents scale precipitation. Also.

 The polyorganic acid is placed on the basis of 10 gals of chemical per 1. especially designed to prevent deposition of CaCO3. and BaS04 • SURFLO H-372 wasformerly sold by NL Chemicals. The polyorganic acid can also be injected in a water solution down the annulus to reduce scale deposition in the casing. tubing. CaS04. lab tests of compatibility should be made before injecting both a corrosion inhibitor and scale inhibitor into a well. however.  It can also be used in the power oil of hydraulic lift type of downhole pumps Inhibition of Scale with Organic Phosphates and Phosphonates Various organic phosphates are now offered to inhibit against calcium sulfate. and to a lesser degree. COREXIT 7640 treating procedure for downhole squeeze:  Preflush with 30 bbl of freshwater  Squeeze 165 gallons COREXIT 7640 dissolved in 30 bbl of freshwater  Overflush with 100 bbl of freshwater  Shut in well for 24 hr. two of which are COREXIT 7605 and SURFLO H-372. CaSO4. . pump.  Return to production.  It may be combined with a corrosion inhibitor if rates of 0. against calcium carbonate scale. BaSO4.000 gals of water or alcohol.  Exxon Chemical 's SURFLO H-372 replaces COREXIT 7641 to inhibit against most scales including CaC03. barium sulfate.0 bbl/minute to permit rapid leakoff. 25 to 1. COREXIT 7641 is a water soluble organic phosphates. It may be applied by continuous injector or formation squeeze technique. and surface equipment. Many of these water soluble liquid organic phosphates are suitable for squeeze treatments into the formation Exxon Inhibitors Exxon Chemical Company offers several organic phosphate inhibitors. The feedback rate is controlled by pressure drop when the well is produced from formation capillaries or from minute fractures.  Exxon Chemical's COREXIT 7605 has replaced their COREXIT 7640 to inhibit against calcium and barium sulfate scale deposition.

As an effective formation squeeze treatment scale inhibitor. CaSO4. Procedure for use in prevention of BaSO4. phosphonate.5 and causes the polymer to crosslink and precipitate as a gel in the formation. and salt water disposal systems. overflush with 50 to 250 bbl of formation water. water injection systems.  The crosslink polymer is then pushed into the formation and dispersed with 100-200 bbl of produced water. the most effective treatment is to mix a 1-3% solution of Visco 953 with produced water. developed by Atlantic Richfield is marketed by major service companies. a salt of polyacrylic acid. with 200-500 barrels of overflush into the formation.Exxon Production Research Compan/4 reported average effective inhibiting of nine months against very severe gyp scaling in one West Texas field. some wells have been relatively scale free with retreatments every 15 months depending on water production. II. With this approach. Visco 953 controls CaC03. However. pump in VISCO 959 mixed with formation water at a ratio of one to ten.000 ppm. 100 gal of 15% HCl and 100 gal AACROHIB polymer. Typical treatment is to preflush with 5 to 1 0 bbl of produced water. Visco 950 is best used with a 1 :9 ratio of produced water. Inhibiting Scale with Polymers ARCOHIB S-223. III. offers a number of phosphate.2 to about 4. and BaS04 scales at very low dosages in oil and gas wells. Pump in the slug consisting of 45 bbl of produced water. HCl spearhead to ensure CaCO3 scale clean up. VISCO 950 may be added to surface water systems or may be used for continuous feed into down the casing-tubing annulus.  Follow up with enough CaCl2 to raise the CaCl2 content in the 45 bbl slug of water to 10. CaS04. VISCO 950 inhibits against deposition of BaSO4. Usual treatment is about 1 65 gal of VISCO 959. Visco 953 also is used as a formation squeeze treatment scale inhibitor. depending on daily water production. with retreatment being considered when the inhibitor in the produced water decreases to about 7 ppm. Visco Inhibitors-Visco Division of Nalco Chemical Co. VISCO 959 is designed for formation squeeze jobs to inhibit CaC03 and sulphate deposits in oil and gas wells and producing equipment. displacing the solution into the formation. CaCO3 is as follows:  Pump in 100-150 gal. and polyacrolate scale inhibitors I. This raises the pH from 1. For water injection systems. and CaC03. . CaS04. mixed at a 1 :9 ratio with overflush into the formation. for downhole usage . batch treatment or semicontinuous treatment is most effective. continuous treatment is best.

FWKO outlet was dismantled for the injection purposes. Solution: H2S scavenger injection will affect scale inhibitor performance it will degrade the scale inhibition % compared with the system without H2S scavenger injector. By applying the appropriate scale inhibitor concentration on an H2S scavenger influenced system the production loss of 8. It was found that oil outlet down at the downstream valve LCV ---.0.3% with a 9 ppm of scale inhibitor.190 barrels of oil in semoga station could have been prevented.  The scale dosage was 9-10 ppm only.2 to 35.  No deposits found in oil outlet line at downstream of LCV at kaji station which has same H2S scavenger point and dosage. Problem: there was a separation system problem at Free Water Knock Out (FWKO) semoga station. increasing scale inhibitor dosage is not always the answer.CaC03 Scale Prevention by Pressure Maintenance-If calcium carbonate scale can be predicted as a result of drop in reservoir pressure. Lab test shows H2S scavenger brand X injection reduced scale inhibition % from 97. To reduce the H2S concentration in the facilities H2S scavenger to injected in the system.  There is H2S scavenger brand X injection at the downstream of the LCV in the FWKO with a conc of 11. There is also a nearby oil field in this block These fields have experienced reservoir souring when H2S is being generated from the reservoir and entering the system. which is located south Sumatra Indonesia. Lab test shows 20 ppm dosage given 58% scale.5’’ only Reason:  X-ray diffraction and x-ray fluroscence analysis confirm that the deposit is CaCO3 scale. pressure maintenance should be considered as a means of reducing scaling. In maintaining the scale inhibitor performance to prevent scale growth. . Case study Details: semoga field is an oil field in the rimau block. It is important to understand that scale inhibitor performance behaviour on a certain H2S scavenger brand before taking preventive measures.3<22ppm.030 ppm. Dosage was 17.