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**Test Systems for Dynamic Stability Studies in
**

Electric Power System

Rakibuzzaman Shah

N. Mithulananthan

**School of Information Technology and Electrical
**

Engineering

The University of Queensland

Brisbane, Australia

E-mail: md.shah@ug.edu.au

**School of Information Technology and Electrical
**

Engineering

The University of Queensland

Brisbane, Australia

E-mail: mithulan@itee.ug.edu.au

**Abstract- Electric power system is one of the largest and
**

complex

infrastructures

made

by

mankind

during

the

last

**century. The total investment associated with it in trillions of
**

dollars. As it is a very expensive, large and complex physical

system, secure network operation without having any system

wide instability issue and catastrophic consequences is sought. As

a result power system educators and researchers are constantly

scrutinizing power system with changing scenarios and coming

up

with

the

new

solutions

to

keep

the

most

important

**infrastructure intact in order to make the economy and society
**

sustainable.

**located at the periphery of the existing networks. This could
**

bring new challenges in power system operation and control.

Moreover, conventional grid will experience a change in

paradigms as more and more electric vehicles (EV) charging

stations will appear into the system in less than five years time

[2],[3]. In these consequences, some of the key research

challenges which need to be addressed by the power system

researchers in coming years are:

'r

**Maximizing the size of renewable generation by
**

maintaining system stability.

'r

**Rescheduling of generation with large renewable
**

integration.

'r

**Advanced control to minimize the intermittency effect
**

on power system.

'r

**Voltage and VAr control of the distribution system
**

with considerable electric vehicle charging facilities.

'r

Microgrid and

generation.

'r

**Cost effective placement and control of community
**

energy storage system and EV charging stations.

It is tough, but not impossible, and expensive to

**build physical test power systems to perform various researches.
**

Hence, the test power systems models have been playing a key

role for better understanding, development, and deployment of

new solutions in power system problems. There have been many

test systems with varying complexities and sizes used all around

the world. However, there is no common platform where the

most of these test systems are documented so that the educators

and researchers can chose an appropriate test system suitable for

their studies. The paper presents a collection of commonly used

test systems for various dynamic stability studies.

Keywords-Analytical

studies,

dynamic

stability,

power

**system modeling, power system education and research, test
**

systems.

I.

INTRODUCTION

**Power systems that exist today were largely conceived and
**

built first in early 20th century. Over the time to accommodate

the economies of scale in bulk generation and to improve the

reliability of supply, the grid voltages were upgraded, and the

interconnections over a large geographical area were adopted.

The current paradigms changes faced by the power systems

are more complex than ever before. Moreover, the de

carbonization of power grid has led to a number of

international initiatives to promote renewable energy

technologies for electricity generation. Different directives for

controlling emissions are currently in place, which has

particular impact on electricity industry, such as Kyoto

Protocol, the Large Combustion Plant Directive, and the

National Emissions Ceiling Directives [1]. Hence, the power

industry needs to fmd ways to accommodate renewable

sources into the existing grid to combat the contribution of

power sector to climate change. These renewable generations

are highly variable and uncertain into its output and are often

island

operation

with

renewable

**All these research challenges in power system could lead to
**

the new research dimensions for researchers. Numerous new

operation and control techniques will be seen in near future,

and this needs to be tested on near real system network

environment vigorously before being adopted by the particular

utility.

Test systems are widely used in power system research and

education since the inception of power systems. There are

several reasons for using power system models or test systems

rather than using a model of practical power system. Apart

from difficulties in building up such practical test power

system due to the involvement of huge amount of data, most

of the practical power systems data are partially confidential

and dynamic and static data of power systems are not well

documented. Unless it is a specific case study, in most of the

cases, test power systems are used for studying new

phenomena, proposing and testing of new solutions for the

potential problems.

On the other hand. [5]. Steady State Analysis or Static Analysis The steady state studies are restricted to small and gradual changes in system operating conditions for a longer time frame [5]. � Economical dispatch. for the completeness of the discussion. switching operations.Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. III.l) (1) 0= g(x. A general summary by highlighting the contributions of the paper is given in Section V. different analytical studies that are carried out by the researchers and educators in power system are highlighted. respectively. � Dynamic analysis. the basic power system model and the time frame for the simulations can be modified. planning. On the other hand. load variations). lightning strokes. B. Several criteria can be used to classify power system electromagnetic transients. x is a vector of state variables associated with dynamic states of generators. loads. Power system electromagnetic transients can be originated from faults. the power system can be generally presented by the following set of differential (I) and algebraic (2) equations: x= l(x. II. the network is modeled by considering distributed characteristics of line with frequency depended parameters. for static analysis such as optimal power flow. AUPEC 2013. and load variations. For the instance of power system stability studies. buses. p and I are the set of controllable and uncontrollable parameters. and they are as follows: � Based on the origin. the disturbance can be external (lightning) or internal (switching operation. it is assumed that the transients' events are settled down and the system states are remained unchanged. � Interaction between electric energy storage (capacitors) and magnetic energy storage (inductors) in power system. For electromagnetic transient analysis. � Short circuit analysis. � Electromagnetic transient analysis. TAS. [5].p. y. Several techniques have been developed so far for assessing electromagnetic transients in power systems. Australia. y is the vector of steady-state algebraic variables. lines. Steady state or static analysis of power system includes the followings: � Load flow. This analysis is used for operation and planning studies throughout the system at different voltage levels. where the main concern is the dynamic behavior of the generator with respect to the network and the other controller operation. which might cause the over voltage and current problem in power system [4]. Section IV describes the commonly used test systems for power system dynamic stability study. 2 ANALYTICAL STUDY The analytical studies that are conducted by the power system educators. y. switching events of transformers and power electric devices [4]. Most of the power quality . there are no documental platform from where a researcher or a young educator in power system research and/or education could get available information about the suitable test system for a research or demonstration purpose. Hence. power system representation for electromagnetic transient phenomenon is different from the electromechanical behavior. and associated controls [4]. loads and others controls. The importance of electromagnetic transient study is mainly because of the effects of the disturbance on the system performance or to the failures they can cause to the system equipment. � Steady state or static analysis. but.3 October 2013 As being seen that a numerous number of test systems have been used in power system research and education. researchers.l) (2) where. only the algebraic equations are considered as the time tends to infinite for this study. Hence. Based on the mathematical model of various components and their controls. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: in Section II. 29 September. this paper attempt to collect some of the most commonly used test system for power system dynamic stability studies. makes the changes of state variables with respect to time zero. Hobart. In steady state analysis. A. The most adequate representation of power system components in electromagnetic transient studies is not easy as various switching and system components with different frequency range are involved [4].p. � Optimal power flow. POWER SYSTEM MODELING The standard power system model is essentially a set of differential algebraic equations (DAEs) representing each and every elements of the system. Depending on the nature of underlying analytical study. Electromagnetic Transient Study Electromagnetic transient phenomenon happens in power system due to the change of system operating conditions and the time frame of interest for this study is in the range of micro to milli-seconds. transformers. These elements include generators. model of power transmission line consists lump parameter and all the switching events are considered as average dynamics [4]. This section describes the broad category of power system analytical studies in brief. This is different from the electromechanical transient phenomenon of power system. In Section III. the dynamic system components are excluded from the system model during this analysis. � Static voltage stability analysis. and operation engineers can be classified into three broad groups. Both time-domain and frequency domain analysis is used for electromagnetic transient analysis. some background of power system modeling for various analytical studies is briefly described.

The total load of the system is 28.3 October 2013 studies too require electromagnetic analysis. Frequency stability refers to the ability of the system to maintain acceptable frequency following a sever disturbance. As shown in Fig. flux decaying dynamics and controllers are not easily available. including students. The dynamic analysis of power system involves the change of system states following the perturbations [4]. It includes both differential and algebraic equations of power system. Australia. The detail static and dynamic data of the system can be found in [6]. However dynamic data such as generator electromechanical data. It consists of five synchronous machines with IEEE Type-I exciters. The main reason behind the complexity and not easy access is the need for various dynamic data. [5]. Among various test systems. IEEE-9 bus test system consists of 4 synchronous generators. Among them two generators are modeled as 6th order generator model and the rest of them are modeled as classical generator. and key operating parameters change continuously. A. B. G4 Area 2 . This system is widely used for dynamic voltage stability studies as well as low-frequency oscillatory stability analysis. >- Large-disturbance voltage stability. D. 1. Static data such as bus data.870 MVAr. AUPEC 2013. which involves simulation ranging from micro to milli-seconds. G2 �----�/ Area 1 Fig. three of which are synchronous compensators used only for reactive power support.3 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. A total system load is 2734 MW and 200 MVAr. The dynamic and static data of the system can be found in [5]. the test systems used for dynamic stability studies are complex and not readily available for wider power and energy system society. The system also contains four 20/400 kV step up transformers and a fixed shunt capacitor at one of the load bus of the system. limits of each generator and loads are not equal in both areas. >- Small-disturbance angle stability. There are eleven loads in the system totaling 259 MW and 81. this test system has also been used for static voltage stability analysis [7]. Single-line diagram of Two-area test system. C. 29 September. respectively. 2. The data needed for dynamic stability studies range from static to dynamic. The dynamic analysis of the power system includes the following studies: >- Frequency stability. Generally. Dynamic Stu dy The power system is highly non-linear in nature which operates in a constantly changing environment.I 4 bus test system is the most commonly used test system by power system researchers. TEST SYSTEMS FOR DYNAMIC STUDY In this section of the paper. [9]. IV. the most common test systems for power system dynamic stability studies are briefly described with the key features. Fig. However. and transformer tap information is easy to obtain.48 MVAr. I. branch. A simple turbine governor is used in each generator of the system. Moreover. Hobart. There are five load points in the system totaling 95. There are 3 feeders and 13 sectionalizing branches in the system. 2. Single-line diagram of IEEE-9 bus test system.7 MW and 9. IEEE-14 Bus Test System IEEE. It could be quite useful to have the information along with the system description so that researchers can choose the most appropriate test system for their dynamic stability studies. For this study generator automatic load frequency control should be modeled in details. respectively. All the generators are modeled as 6th order synchronous generator model. The static and dynamic data for two-area test system can be found in [5].000 MW and 20.3 MVAr. Many researchers have used this system in the recent past to study the impact of the distributed generations (DGs) on the dynamic voltage stability of the distribution system [8]. C. loads. IEEE-9 Bus Test System Single-line diagram of IEEE-9 bus test system is shown in Fig. IEEE Type-II exciter model is used for all the generators. >- Large-disturbance angle stability. including generation. the time frame of interest for this study varies from 2-3 s to 10-20 s [4]. The dynamic analysis of power system also includes the specific time frame for different analysis. generators output. educators and researchers. load. Large-disturbance angle stability is referred to as transient stability and small-disturbance angle stability is referred to as small signal stability. 16-Bus Test System It is a 23 kV radial distribution system with 16 nodes. the system topology with respect to bus 8 is symmetrical. Two-area Test System Two-area test system is the benchmark system for low frequency oscillatory stability studies. TAS. respectively. respectively.

G. [16]. The generators G1-G8 are equipped with slow excitation system (lEEE-DC1A) whilst G9 is equipped with fast acting static excitation system (IEEE-STIl) [14]. respectively. 26 29 Fig.. Single-line diagram of IEEE-39 bus test system. The detail system data can be found in [10]. The details of the system can be found in [13]. and controller design synthesis. and power market problems. A simple turbine governor is considered in every generator except generator I which is an aggregation of the large number of generators [11]. Hobart. = . This test system is mostly used for transient..00 MW. . The system has 21 load points totaling 283. shows the single-line diagram of IEEE-39 bus test system. 2. In this system. Single-line diagram of IEEE-30 bus test system.. All the generators are modeled as 6th order synchronous generator model. QL 1971.48 kV. respectively.48 MVAr. Generators G14 to G16 is the dynamic equivalents of the three neighboring areas connected to NYPS. Single-line diagram of IEEE-14 machine 59-bus test system. It consists of five areas in which area -I and 2 are closely coupled. All the generators are modeled as 4th order synchronous generator model with IEEE Type-II exciter except the generator at bus 31. . Total generations in light. 6.16 kV. 39 10 16. _ ..8 kV.. 4.2 MVAr. 3. also known as New England test system. 5. respectively.Machine 68-Bus Test System It is an interconnected New England test system (NEST) and New York power system (NYPS) with five areas... . Area4 . I. However. _ Area-2 .line diagram of the system is shown in Fig.. Fig.. 13. This system is commonly used for transient and small signal stability analysis [15]. _--_ . IEEE-43 Bus Industrial System IEEE-43 bus test system is an industrial distribution system and has been used by the researchers for dynamic studies in the distribution system.. 5. This system can be used for dynamic studies of power system.65 MW. AUPEC 2013. respectively. .4 kV. dynamic voltage stability analysis has also been conducted by using this test system [17].. there are 14 large generators with the equivalent representation of the actual generators and 5 SVCs. The static and dynamic data of the system are available at [12]..4 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. 4. The total load on the system is PL 17620. 1EEE-39 Bus Test System Fig.1 MW and 1233. TAS.. . It is a mesh distribution system that has five different levels of voltage 69 kV. . It has 19 load points totaling 6150. medium heavy and heavy condition are 14840 MW. F.76 MVAr and generation is 18408... H 1EEE-14 Generator 59-Bus Test System This is a simplified model of the Southern and Eastern Australian network. ... assessment of renewable energy impact on system dynamic performance.9 MVAr. This system is widely used for power system dynamic stability studies. The system consists of 6 synchronous generators and 4 transformers. The peak real and reactive power load of the system is 28. and 0.82 MW and 12. small signal stability studies. 3. Australia.. The single. as shown in Fig.. Generators G1 to G9 is the equivalent representation of New England system generator whilst GlO to G13 represented the generator of New York power system. . This system is often used for small signal stability analysis.3 October 2013 E. 4. IEEE-3� Bus Test System The single-line diagram of IEEE-30 bus system is given in Fig.-. Araa-1 . 21590 MW and 23030 MW. The system contains 39 buses with 10 generators. = Fig. 29 September. --�________v:.. .4 MW and 126.

7. The test system can be used for� Distribution automations. 8. The equivalent system has four large hydro electric plants at Itaipu. Hobart. There are 60 loads for the total of 2. 8500 . There are four areas in the system. To use this system for small-disturbance angle stability analysis required some modifications. 130 kV and 400 kV. The test feeder is provided with two versions of loads: � � Balanced 120V secondary loads on the servIce transformers. and service transformers..-_-+ G1 Areia Segredo Fig. The detail dynamic and static data of the system can be found in [19].three Machine Test System (Nordic 32) The twenty-three-machine test system in [CIGRE 1995] is intended for transient and voltage stability studies.Node Test Feeder The 8500-node test feeder includes many elements that may be found on a North American MV distribution feeder. The system has two different voltage levels. M. The singe-line diagram of the system is shown in Fig. and one is salient pole synchronous compensator. feeder secondary. Rest of the machines is represented by the classical model.. Single-line diagram of the south/southeast Brazilian test system. 8. 7 6 SE 5 Twenty. respectively. and electric vehicle impacts. and Areia. The system consists of 23 synchronous machines. respectively. All the synchronous generator of the system is described by 5th order synchronous generator model.. SaIto Santiago.5 Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. K. Fig. AUPEC 2013. and � Daily and annual loading simulation for evaluating energy efficiency options. only seven of them are modeled in detail (6th order model). The test feeder can also be selected for its potential for serving as the basis for future advanced test feeders. The generator at bus 7 is the equivalent representation of the neighboring Southeast system. Santiago 3-. single-phase capacitor control. twelve are salient pole hydro power stations. including voltage and var control simulation. . J IEEE -50 Machine Test System IEEE-50 machine system is an approximated model of an actual power system and was developed for stability studies in 1990. 29 September. among them ten are round rotor generators in thermal plants. Among 50 machines. L. These are: multiple feeder regulators. 4 The South/Southeast Brazilian Equivalent Test System This test system is an equivalent model of South/Southeast Brazilian network. Single-line diagram of twenty-three machine test system (Nordic 32). SaIto Segredo. renewable generation.80 GVAr. 6. While the likely initial use of the test feeder is to simply solve the power flow for the defined loads.. Single-line diagram of l6-machine 68-bus test system. The single-line diagram of the test system is shown in Fig. This system has been used by some researchers for small and large-disturbance angle stability studies [5]. Australia. Unbalanced 120V secondary loads on the servIce transformers. The test system has widely been used for low-frequency oscillatory stability analysis and PSS design for oscillation damping. All the synchronous machines are modeled as 5th order machine.83 GW and 0. 2 +-__ . The dynamic and static data of the system can be found in [10]. It consists of 145 buses and 453 lines including 52 fixed tap transformers.3 October 2013 Fig. The system dynamic and static data can be found in [18]. 7. TAS. consists of seven buses and five synchronous machines.

2010. M. Robust Control in Power Systems.Australasian Universities Power Engineering Conference. dissertation." in IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting. 2006. [8] IEEE Trans. G. AUPEC 2013. L. pp. TAS. Ayyanar.edulresearchlpstca [II] K. Y. South Australia 2008. Mahmud. "Wind generation. 26. "Simplified 14-Generator Model of the SE Australian Power System. V. Australia. Harbour. Feb. "Investigation of the impacts of large-scale wind penetration on the REFERENCES [1] [IS] D. Driesen. 1. 21. H. R. 1998. Series Compensation in Power System. [Online]. P.edu. Gautam." CONCLUSIONS This paper has presented the most commonly used test power system for research and educational purposes." IEEE Trans. 1. 1997. Australia. Chatterjee and A. Goel. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. University of Waterloo. G. R. [18] O. Conejo. Pota. Saha. Martin and L. 76-84." Ph. New York: Springer. 799-808. and N. Exposito. 2008. 6. 2000. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of numerous researchers who have developed these useful test systems. no." IEEE Trans. Feb. A. pp. Pal and B. 1996. May 2006.3 October 2013 The Transformer can be represented adequately with a simple transformer model while the latter requires a specific model of ubiquitous 120/240 V. angle and voltage stability of power system. Canada. Vittal. 2007. Electric Energy Systems: Analysis and Operation. G. I. E. The authors would like to acknowledge the funding support from Australian Power Institute (API). 2011." IEEE Std 399-1997. Power Systems." IEEE [4] Trans. vol. no. and Claudio Canizares. vol. vol." IEEE System Journal. and T. Feb. Clement-Nyns. Antonio. "Power system damping structural aspects of controlling active power. 25.ug. [3] [16] B. "The impact of charging plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles on a residential distribution grid. 371-380. Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control. pp. 1210 -1220. [7] A. Padiyar. July 24-29. Lima. Haesen. and K. Ramos. E. [14] Graham Rogers. [12] "IEEE Recommended Practice for Industrial and Commercial Power System Analysis. and emission reduction. Power Systems. Chaudhuri. Power Systems. V. A. Department of Electrical 6 and Computer Engineering. Mithulananthan. Sode-Yome. K. P. "Transient stability assessment of power K. no. dissertation. Detail system data can be found in [20]. Denney and Mark 21. T. I. org/soc/pes/dsacom/testfeeders/index. Power Systems." PhD. [13] M. It is believed that this paper would be useful for the researchers as well as power system educators in power engineering education and research. 214-224. USA. 2.ieee. Power System Stability and Control. vol. [2] system containing series and shunt compensators. Lund. Aug. Aderson and R. [6] P. wasinton.htmi . The comprehensive data of the described test systems can be found III Power and Energy Research group website (http://itee. Michigan. vol. 1989. Mar. Lee. " Control strategy to mitigate the impact of reduced inertia due to doubly fed induction generator in large power system. Mithulananthan. Mhaskar." The University of Adelaide. T. 2005. Mithulananthan. M. [19] N." IEEE Special Publication on Eigenanalysis and Frequency Domain Methods for System Dynamic Performance. 17-33. 2012. Available: http://ewh. New York: McGraw Hill Inc. power system operation. Vowles. 0' Malley.tapped residential transformer.ee. 1. "Eigenvalue and frequency domain analysis of small signal electromechanical stability problem. Sweden. no. Hobart. "Hopf Bifurcation control and indices for power system with interacting generator and FACTS controllers. [20] IEEE PES Distribution System Analysis Subcommittee's Distribution Test Feeder Working Group. [5] N. no. The University of Queensland. 2011. D. N.html) at School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. [10] Power system test cases archive. "A maximum loading margin method for static voltage stability in power systems. and R. 3. Gibbard and D. The test systems presented here are the commonly used systems for dynamic stability studies. 2008. Kundur. Hyderabad:BS Publications. Aziz. R. 1. Samuelsson. Boca Raton: CRC Press. central . 29 September. 341-347. 1994. Power System Oscillations.au/pss-IIPSS-L. A.. 22. Farmer. Hossain. "A grid compatible method for reactive power compensation in renewable based [9] distribution system. pp. Power Systems. and J. vol. 2002. pp.D. PBLSH! inc. [17] M. Available: http:// www. pp. [Online]. U. pp. no. T. Ghosh.. Detroit." IEEE Trans. Lund Institute of Technology (LTH).

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