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ILLUSTRATIONS

INFLUENCE OF THE MIND UPON
THE BODY
IN

HEALTH AND

DISEASE.

and less. in our experience. and blood." Some are molested by Phantasie . Burton. by whose means they work and produce times prodigious effects humors the parts affected. 1651. are no vertue in charms. many are Imagination many their is as are (so saith The like spirits. which forceth a motion of the humours. as Pomponatius holds. by relieved the medium deferens of Passions. Wierus). and make deeper impression. . . we may say done by mountebanks and wizards. Fancy alone and a good so some. again. so do perturbations is move more more or or less intended or remitted. and as the Phantasie disposed. we find. and such As by wicked incredulity many men are hurt the " same means. but a strong is conceit and opinion alone. which takes away the cause of the malady from of the magical effects. "by All the world as easily recovered knows there conceit." —Anatomy of Melancholy. superstitious cures. &c.

AND VISITING MEDICAL OFFICER TO THE YORK RETREAT.D."—John Hunter. that may not he influenced by the peculiar state of the mind at the time. DESIGNED TO ELUCIDATE THE ACTION OF THE IMAGINATION. JOINT AUTHOR OF "THE J 'There is not a natural action in the Body. 1873. DANIEL HACK TUKE. whether involuntary or voluntary.P. M. M.ILLUSTRATIONS OP THE INFLUENCE OF THE MIND UPON THE BODY IN HEALTH AND DISEASE.. . PHILADELPHIA: HENRY C.. LEA." FOREIGN ASSOCIATE OF THE MEDICO-PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF PARIS FORMERLY LECTURER ON PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE AT THE YORK SCHOOL OF MEDICINE.C. MANUAL OF PSYCHOLOGICAL MEDICINE.R.

MAR 19 SHERMAN cfe CO. 191 PRINTERS... PHILADELPHIA .

Bart.E. . F. ACKNOWLEDGMENT OP THE INFLUENCE OP HIS HIGH MORAL AND INTELLECTUAL QUALITIES THIS WORK IS INSCRIBED BY AN OLD PUPIL.C. BARTHOLOMEW'S HOSPITAL.. LATE LECTURER ON GENERAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY AT ST. SERGEANT SURGEON-EXTRAORDINARY TO THE QUEEN..S. AND WARDEN OF THE COLLEGE.TO Sir JAMES PAGET. Oxon..L. IN GRATEFUL. D.

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well wrapped up.PREFACE. effect. the time of leaving that station to the time of the collision. unparalleled in will. from side Crash ! to side of the carriage I hard cushion hit. Midland on the line. I met with the following in a newspaper :" under the heading of " The Curative Effects of a Railway Collision " Allow me your two correspondents have re- to confirm all that lated with respect to the alarming collision on the 17th inst. of a sojourn in a Manchester body was the From my heart in a profuse perspi- announced that the muscular were fibres under the tyrannical control of rheumatism. 1869. my weak my great.m. and I was almost beside myself with toothache. that I resolved to and. smash went ! bump ! and bang like a billiard ball The compartment was soon ! and under a seen to be sprinkled . perhaps. " At all my hotel in Manchester on symptoms of a the violent attack of rheumatic fever condition so alarmed me. Midland fast train from the . was going ration . —that you but the shock produced perhaps. start for 3. and hotel bed for make a bold Tuesday night I was seized with my dread two or three months was so sortie. London Road London by terminus.30 p. " Nothing needs to be added either to their descriptions of the circumstance or to their just condemnation of the reckless negli- gence which brought us so near to death an so curious effect on myself —an the history of railway accidents . in fact. In November. excuse my troubling you with the details. at express speed flashes of pain .

on a 3. led me to think that Mind upon the Body." physiology and psychology so far as they bear on this ques- and The has received. is. however familiar to be. I conclude Journal of the Association. that cases aside." collect together in influence of the may be thus stated one volume authentic Illustrations of the Mind upon the Body. but I learnt from other sources that. give these cases fresh interest and value by arranging them definite physiological basis. 1 "Journal of Mental Science. PKEFACE. my it since I endeavored to formularize the generally admitted some time tion. . this circumstance many my own these cases may knowledge. as the heading intimated. About 190 pages have appeared lished in that Journal. The chapters already pub- have been much extended. but also 1 its importance as a 'practical remedy in disease. of the present work. entirely new. scattered through various medical and other works. supplemented by those falling within 2.: . treating of the Influence of the Mind upon Disease. and the Organic Functions. de- from the press (general and medical) elicited the whole subject of the influence of the more serves and systematic consideration than serious In forwarding soon paper bearing the facts of after to the title to collect from the sources imperfect as these cases are they to forward them to the my command all authenticated Dissatisfied with my work I laid may be of some service. To a now at objects of the following pages To is 1 Judging. I observed. the patient The remarks which was cured of his rheumatism. from the remarks made. and Part IV. however. Motion. To show the power and extent of this influence not only in health in causing Disorders of Sensation." rest of this part of the paper was unfortunately wanting. " It facts illustrative of this influence. in common with several chapters. Vlll with the blood of a hapless victim whose face had come into crushing contact with The it.

and thus copy nature ally occurring. when some new nostrum. it from the measured "Remember. capriciously. and rescuing eccentric orbits of quackery. nostri There are two The medical employ Psycho-therapeutics tofore. are in active practice to utilize this force. and yet are content. this inquiry. the nature and action of what is usually understood as the Imagination. after reminding his class that improvement in Medicine not to be derived only from colleges and universities. Gaudia. powerless in effects a cure. fore. force it to tread. to est cause. who. it to by employing the same mere chance. ira. The applied and guided with skill and The question is force designedly. occasion- sudden recovery. acting it cannot be physician. from the spontaneous action of some powerful moral irregularly farrago libelli. force is whether wisdom by the there. to dismiss the circumstance I want medical yoke to it men who from our minds without further thought. " Quicquid agunt homines. votum. I hope. of instead of leaving and whom I wish more especially reader.PREFACE. to the car of the Son of Apollo. " In the pursuit of medi- . To ascertain as far as possible the channels through mode by which 5. there- of conversing with them." thus continues." classes of readers to to address myself. in a may be induced more methodical way than here- in those interesting instances. is and the exerted. with the orderly paths of legitimate medicine. "how many of our most useful remedies have been discovered by quacks. and of profiting by their ignorance He it is is its Pharisees as well as religion as unfriendly to the . in addressing medical students. attribute to this remarkable mental influence a power which ordinary medicines have failed to exert. timor. 4. discursus. Medicine has the spirit of this sect cine as 1 is Do not be afraid. but advancement of Medi- 1 to Christian charity. and temerity. To IX this influence by elucidate. with a shrug of the shoulders." step. Again and again we exclaim. " It's only the Imagination !" We itself. Rush. voluptas. said Dr.

disposed to regard in a different light from what they may may be hereto- have done. and who may these. in the first instance. let me advise you to converse with nurses and old will often suggest facts in the history and cure of the most sagacious observers of nature. also. this duction to the study of the alleged attention . collec- striking illustrations of the profound influence of the Body would alone serve to convince the reader of the absurdity of dismissing such cases with the flippant remark just referred to. may it is From refer- this point of somewhat of an which now facts." . for. the cases tion of so many Mind upon the by the application of admitted which are recorded in this The work. If the labor and thought required to prepare a reliable collection cal knowledge. but could never be employed any useful practical purpose. But however valuable a simple for col- and certainly " Truth can never be con- firmed enough. them. perhaps. our theories of physics. to acquaint themselves fully. Cerebral Physiology and Mental Philosophy have been referred so far as to. X The happen other class comprises those non-medical readers to peruse this work. whatever at in regard to those.PREFACE." the author thought its value would be greatly enhanced by arranging them in accordance with the generally received psychological and physiological principles. the author hopes. with those phenomena which view who are inof Modern Spiritualism. lection of cases may be. the success of some of the fashionable modes of treat- fore ment current terested in the manifestations worth their while ence to the principles laid may down certainly be explained in these pages. is essential to elucidate. by a attract so intro- much be the explanation ultimately arrived equally essential to ascertain what is the range of the phenomena which can be fairly explained by well-recognized psycho-physical principles. may find it Some of at the present day. be regarded as book may." He diseases women. as if the Imagination could solve a great many diffi- cult and inconvenient problems. They which have escaped adds that by so doing " you may discover laws of the animal economy which have no place in our systems of nosology or in. principles.

My and aim. and that work holding. and —possibly ad nauseam—with many of the familiar given. beam Lord Bacon. with his profession. as I do. I venture to hope that such an inquirer will not be un- thankful for the assistance now rendered him . be any measure of its utility to the reader in quest of facts of this nature. 1872.— . convenient to have in one volume. that " to is mine . such as the present work' contains. As Browning says " To shoot a To make that unto. therefore. a many it number of to those cases my own who are which are experience. PREFACE. XI of psycho-physical phenomena. into the dark assists beam do fuller service. and ought of duty to the height." August. I am inclined to think. judging from that they will find reference. for ready cases not readily found in the Journals publications of an ephemeral character." Every man is a debtor to endeavor to be a help there- . has mainly been to ascertain and apply the already known. spread And utilize such bounty That assists also.

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. 99 V.19 . Influence of the Intellect on Sensation... Section II. THE INTELLECT. . 68 68 ..CONTENTS... — 28 . — — . Muscular contraction and relaxation movements... . — Of various mental . . Influence of the Intellect upon the Voluntary Muscles. . 17 PART I. Section Section —Eetrospective sketch. CHAPTEE 43 III.. Influence of the Intellect upon the Organic Functions. Irregular and excessive muscular contraction spasms and convulsions.. I. CHAPTEE 76 81 .. . CHAPTEE I... Section III. Influence of the Intellect upon the Involuntary Muscles. II. II. .. General Psychological and Physiological Principles.. Section I. Loss of muscular power... PAGE Introductory Eemarks. . states Definition and elucidation. 85 ... CHAPTEE IV...19 CHAPTEE comprised under the Intellect.. . .

.. Influence of the Emotions upon the Involuntary Muscles. CHAPTEE 281 XII. act indifferently upon the several Organs and Tissues of the Body? 307 . .. Section III. . CHAPTEK VI. 227 X. paralysis.. .. CHAPTEE . CHAPTEE 126 VIII. — Irregular and excessive muscular contraction I. 147 spasms and of muscular power.. Section Section .. . especially the Emotions. ... convulsions... ... Influence of the Emotions upon the Organic or Vegetative 265 Functions.CONTENTS XIV PART II.. CHAPTEE 147 169 211 IX... CHAPTEE XI. Influence of the Emotions upon Sensation. II. . CHAPTEE . VII. . Do Mental States. —Loss 113 . Influence of the Emotions upon the Organic or Vegetative Functions (continued). General Psychological and Physiological Principles. . Influence of the Emotions upon the Voluntary Muscles. — Muscular contraction and relaxation. THE EMOTIONS.

.. . cessive or defective action of the Section III. . . PART PAGE 312 318 318 320 327 IV. upon disorders. involving the Involuntary Muscles and the Organic Functions..XV CONTENTS. PART III. 333 CHAPTEE XVI. and the Organic Functions. — Influence 338 338 . . 341 .. General Psychological and Physiological Principles. involving exI. —-Influence of the Will upon Sensation. XIV. — Influence of Mental States upon disorders. CHAPTEE XV. . . CHAPTEE . . Motion. CHAPTEE XIII. Voluntary Muscles. THE WILL. .. the Voluntary and Involuntary Musclks. Section Section and the Organic Functions. Section Section — Influence of Mental States upon disorders of Sensation. . Section I. — Influence of the Will upon the Involuntary Muscles.. Influence of the Will upon Sensation.. — Influence of the Will upon the Voluntary Muscles.. . II. INFLUENCE OF THE MIND UPON THE BODY IN THE CURE OF DISEASE. General Psychological and Physiological Principles.. II. .. and the Organic Functions. . Influence of Mental States upon Disorders of Sensation. . . III. . 345 of Mental States .

395 Appendix. .. B. XVI CHAPTEE XVII. .. at the end . in regard to the beneficial action of totally inert substances. Section IV. to B. 361 upon the Patient in which act beneficially upon the Body influence of the Physician Section II. exciting those Mental States in Disease.. and lightly touching the affected part. Importance of arousing the Patient's Will..... . — 372 373 . Conclusion. Effect of exciting certain Mental States (I) under conditions in which an influence may pass. Section VI... PAGE — Psycho-Therapeutics. of the volume... Section III. 380 (Braidism).. Systematic direction of the Attention to a particular region of the Body. Combined Influence of arousing certain Mental States.— CONTENTS. — General — — ... as alleged from A. . Section V. CHAPTEE XVIII. 407 Index. . 411 N. (Animal Magnetism or Mesmerism) (II) under conditions in which the operation of this Influence is precluded. Practical Application op the Influence of the Mind on the Body to Medical Practice. The figures in parentheses refer to the Titles of the works given The ordinals have reference to the volume. or is not alleged by the defenders of Animal Magnetism to affect the results . 899 List of the principal works referred to. or Hope. Systematic excitement of a Definite Expectation. 861 364 867 — .. — . Section I.

we intend to convey by the title we have adopted. but too frequently forgotten. this It term upon the all Sensa- must be clearly and that under " Body " . The Mind acts upon the Body through its threefold states of Intellect. and still more frequently neglected. has been the advance of late years in the knowledge of the functions of this system. for good or evil. III. truth. Emotion. — body with which it is associated including in tions. that the state of the Mind. Volition. and are probably less likely to mislead than any others which might be used but the only satisfactory mode of stating the case would be one founded upon a correct and complete physiology of the brain. INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. and Volition. II. scientific considerable collection of striking cases the often admitted. The terms chosen for the title of this work accord with popular usage. or rather of the entire Nervous System. I.^— y ' MAR 19 < 1912 ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE MIND UPON THE BODY. the design of illustrating by a logical precision amount of on all points .— . Emotion. Movements. exerts an enormous influence. comprising therein Intellect. it does not enable us to speak with perfect physio- and it is more than probable that no knowledge will ever displace the time-honored phrases of "Mind" and "Body. Great. however. understood that under " Mind " we do not." Psychologically. as . and the Organic Functions.

is the latter only which treated and volitional of. motor. are questions and will claim some may. or. the Illustrations range over the effects produced by the action of the vesicular neurine of the encephalic centres concerned in intellectual. upon the sensory and motor ganglia. and the impor- upon which differences of opinion still exist." as usually employed. . and trophic in Sensation. tance of the truth. do. will be considered as be evident to all who have we proceed. is a function of the hemispheres. Physiologically considered. include the special senses. but it is regard as the cause.INTRODUCTORY. the cerebral hemispheres act upon the ganglia below them. and. and of the influence transmitted through nerves. and if not. so far as the Intellect and "Will are concerned. Whether pure Emotion to which of the lower ganglia it should be consigned. at least. and through the outgoing nerves upon the whole body. further. and Secretion. emotional. emotional. Sensation (general and special) intellectual. Nutrition. the cases brought together in this volume will none the less illustrate the truth. 18 we "Feeling. or depresses —the Mind this as it or brain influences sensory. nerves. per- vasomotor. we here comprises these and Emotion. the antecedent of bodily change. Be attention in a future section. as being influenced by states. however. and volitional states of mind. the centre of the sympathetic. whatever cerebral physiology may teach as to minute points. The bearing of the doctrines of the reflex or automatic action of the brain. and through them causes changes — excites. vasomotor Their importance must studied the action of Mind upon Body. that the verts. Muscular Contraction.

CHAPTEE I. that commingles its action in the mechanical our external sensations the conception of another like to we have had before. and what is ordinarily understood as the Imagination. especially in regard to the effects of Expectation. writes : "We connect with it. Thus Unzer in his principal Intellect or great work. which mingles its actions in the mechanical machines with those arising from the external sensation. and only incidental to the external sensation" (i.PART I. published in the year 1771. is the sentient action of the Imagination." He illustrates this by the case of a person who always faints during venesection. .—Retrospective Unzee and John Hunter Sketch. including sensation as well as motion. "Sometimes afterwards he meets the surgeon in the street and becomes faint. which and thus a direct Imagination is attached to our external sensation. THE INTELLECT." that sighing at the sight of a person He who reminds then explains us of one with whom sorrowful sensations are associated. machines with those of the external sensation. GENERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES. He proceeds " often connect with our ex: We ternal sensations the expectations of others formerly connected with them. and thus a foreseeing accompanies our external sensation. If the phraseology is a little different from what we now 113). SECTION I. p." and adds that this was "the sentient action of a foreseeing of the bloodletting. clearly perceived mental or psycho-physical law which lies at and expressed the the foundation of the phenomena properly comprised under the influence of the Thought upon the body.

and informed me that I should feel it first at the roots of my nails of that hand nearest the apparatus. no other action results we have than as stated above why" the often in such cases. and in his lectures on Surgery (1786-7). i. I and accordingly when I went. without my knowing why some terrifies. and subordinate ideas. must be by the that. first is He with Unzer's writings. and supposes the case of a person who sees a visionary figure resembling an individual who caused him bitter vexation long before. . delivered a few years than the appearance of Unzer's work in Germany. where I was wishing and I am confident that I can fix my attento have a fit of the gout part expected went to . vol. found myself attending to his fcoe. upon me" tricks. Hunter had his attention drawn to the phenomena of Animal Magnetism. which . tion to any part I until have a sensation in that part. When the magnetizer began his operations. is speaking of the remembrance of a conception. does not conceal the just principle which he recognized. . no reason to suppose he was acquainted "I was asked to go to be magnet- says. It is my it great having nearly a century ago . He becomes pale with This occurs. p. refused. he points out under this division (expectation and foreseeing) that " expectation of the action of a rience remedy often causes us to expe- operation beforehand. and no conscious- we become . before he remembers fear. it to the be affected.' figure whom no action of the Will. I was convinced by the apparatus that everything was calculated to affect the Imagination. He bearing upon the influence of intellectual states upon the body. and thinking I could counteract this. affects. I fell to Whenever I work with &c. I fixed my attention on my great toe. 337). by which means I prevented (ii. because the spasm on my vital parts was very likely to be brought on by a state of mind anxious about any and I feared lest it should be imputed to animal magevent ." he re- hear persons say. it Again. 120). There figure resembles. 20 employ. is "How ness in the sense of recognition." its There is another striking observation made by this physiologist. "we marks. if any person was by affected Imagination being worked up by the attention it. There but at ized. calms me. When the person whose seen actually appears also. but now we know (p. must be the cause. later explained those which he witnessed on the principle of Attention and Expectation.THE INTELLECT. working any effect it about. Unzer points out. . 'This appearance I cannot remember. But considering netism. pale as before.

it mind explain all the necessarily follow that For our present purpose. as the idea" the idea gives nervous 'principle the determinate direction" 1390). He mere only makes one condition. 1 Miiller (1838) gave a luminous exposition of the influence of tal states. magnetism of A." he ob- by serves that certain groups of muscles are constantly prone to involto the excitability of the parts of the brain untary motion." though without Emotion. of whatever kind. will be very prone to ensue. expected with certain confidence and certainty of occurrence. the heading — "movements to mere external ob- as laughter" excited (iii. kindred states of indeed does same cause." He points out that. to the and "becomes manifested ivhen this Miiller expresses himself as decidedly as to the influence of Expectation. who might have been as great a metaphysince these sentences cized sician as he was a physiologist. the motion in- Again. "any sudden change in the ideas. in regard be stated. men- "The upon the bodily movements. in yawning. most important and . and having reference may iects. as a general conceived to be approaching. excite involuntary motions Under 1396). and those which we have italishow that the fundamental principle to which we shall have so frequently to refer. fact. nor the same phenomena are always due to the It does not follow from this explanation that Imagination. alleged B. now With the concerned. especially ideas. pp." he says. whether present its result of that _ it do not lie be- to the consciousness or not. individual nerve in "The Sensorium acts here in the same which any sudden change of condition. apart from the Will. idea of a particular motion. owing from which the nerves way as an arise. It really contains the gist of all that has been written since on the influence of Expectant Attention and the Imagination. the disposition to the movements of the muscles exists previously. that any and which state of the body. Expectation. sets the nervous principle in action. we are justified in saying that certain purely psychical agencies produce certain physical results. however. by interesting as this would be. "was most clearly comprehended by this remarkable man. and gives rise to dependently of the will. is "It which is may John Hunter (p. the action of the encephalic centres. and upon sensation and the movements of the the influence of this action 1 and phenomena produced by mesmerists. 21 were written. 944.. "if yond the bounds of possibility." In connection with ideas. "determines a current of nervous action towards the necessary muscles.THE INTELLECT. ideas. if we are not proved. in this work.

(i. sorrow. in fact. He "fell into the views of Unzer and Prochaska. p. namely. p. and before the cause of the sensation is known. So that the instincts. Unzer. but which tend toward the end proposed by nature. is shown by Professor Lay cock (iv. in some degree. &c. unfelt external impression is reflected in the ganglia. conservation de 1'animal et de reflexion. even in man himself. to take effect in the sentient ac- may. sentient actions. but felt before the individual has All that passes is an arrangement so much as dreamed of them. He also asserted participation active de l'individu. the brain. the conserva- tion and case of the individual. and this without the material ideas of the conceptions necessary to the instinct becoming an object of special thought. many applied the same principle to explain psycho-physical phe- In the following remarkable passage he enunciates the nomena. 22 body. 289). according to psychological laws" developed . are of the first importance. anticipated the observations of Marshall Hall in regard to the reflex action of the spinal cord. and maintained that joy.' and consciousness. no traces of conceptions can be discovered. 106) to have held the same opinion. when of a certain intensity. &c. and phenomena those excited by ex- . they being too little and without its sentient actions being obviously excited and connected with each other. fear. ni that these passions. produced by the external sensation direct transition [Uebergang] of the and the material ideas proper tions of the other. conse- quently there are no material ideas of imaginations.THE INTELLECT. foreseeings. to secure 'la Gall Fhomme. Between the external sensation exciting the instinct and its stinct. cannot be dis- regarded in the consideration of the operation of the mental faculties upon the system. are accompanied by actions which are independent of the Will . and on the nerves appropriate an . produced by nature. who. doctrine of the reflex action of the brain in regard to instinctive acts "Any : painful external sensation immediately excites the war-in- and the movements proper to the instinct as instantaneously follow. to a considerable extent. thus. Pie applied it to the passions. be asserted that in back [umwendete] the felt imj)ression.ill sans qu'il y ait conscience. which has attracted so The automatic or reflex action of much notice of late. to the sentient actions of the instinct. are not excited by the Will. the brain turns reflects it just as it to it so that there appears to be a latter into the instinct itself. intended for the external world. classing the of the passions with the instinctive movements.

in endeavoring to ascertain their cause. and which have been remarked on by Unzer. " appears to have overlooked the influence which the Will can exercise on the brain. p. all vulsions. Hall. the extension of the doctrine of the reflex function of the spinal cord to the encephalic ganglia. Haller. to the mes- meric phenomena which attracted Hunter's notice. understood in the sense of Expectation. Elliotson. because she cannot that she cannot most acutely listen. arise p. the whirling dervishes of India. and of cunning developed in hysterical girls. the 'wise men' and prophets knowing Iioav to excite conand somnambulism in In his dupes. Among those who investigated these phenomena with care was Dr. In this passage the brain is included in the range of reflex action. and Grainger. that they could be explained on the principle that a certain state of mind induces certain bodily sensations. 927). or delirium. 25) that the mesmeric subjects who two years before had attracted so much attention the Okeys were "of the same family as the Pythian priestess. Midler." merism " The phenomena (so called) are all illustrations of the of Mespower of the Will over the brain" (pp." be found in Yorkshire. 23 and of the brain. the wizards of Kamschatka. cannot fail. Ill. In 1837 renewed attention was drawn. Alison. Prochaska. In the preface to his work. by mental acts or drugs. without charging "the subject" with imposture. the author observes that "the action of the Will on the sensorial fibres of the brain. independently of consciousness from impressions on sensitive nerves exciting motor nerves to action through the intervention of the brain and spinal tions which cord" (iii. who was at the time acquainted with Marshall Hall's writings. when both are habituated to the effort. or spectral illusions themselves or their "Nervous Diseases of Women" (1840) he observes that the phenomena in these girls " were undoubtedly not feigned. and which led him to the conclusion that they were due to Imagination." Midler. who — the second-sight who may still men — of the Highlands. the serpent-eaters of Egypt. to interest the intelli- . 355). see. in England. and all the consequences which necessarily follow. and the almost incredible acuteness of the senses.THE INTELLECT. I think. quite a mistake to suppose that because a female appears not to that she has not an acute sense of touch. in short. Laycock." but that Dr. 1839. July. or. It is feel. observes that "reflected motions include all muscular ac- ternal stimuli. the nature and laws of sensation. observed (v.

Holland's chapter on the " Effects of Mental At- tention on Bodily Organs" in his "Medical Notes and Reflections. The two reference here. the Brain subject to the Laws of Reflex Action. in which he takes "a similar view of the subject. 86). and so " placing the sensorial fibres first. &c." Dr. although the organ of consciousness. will be it and the movements dependent on them Lay cock points on which Dr. p. 937). are subject to the same laws as those which govern the other ganglia. 172). "The importance of these corroborate the truth of the proposition already laid down. and afford matter for deep thought. and the diffused nervous did not overlook the importance of involuntary Attention (as well as the Will). and that Bonnet (about 1760) it his "maintained the views respecting the agency of Attention on the Referring to fibres of the brain which I have already advocated. so " applying the laws of the excito-motory system to the phenomena. which he classed "with the conservative acts. is to the passions 107. not of the spinal cord only and its prolongation but system" (p. were the extension of Bell's demonstration of the distinction between the motor and sentient nerves. 24 And gent professional reader. excited He refers to act of Attention. 1 MUller held this view untarily directing the nerves of common also: mind sensation "There is power of voland spinal nerves. 112-13). even to the in the central organs a to all the cerebral and the nerves of special sense" (iii. and The the vital mechanism of vegetables. the extension of Marshall Hall's doctrine to the brain . he adds that the ever directing inquiry "to the action of Will on the sensorial fibres of the brain." in more than useful phenomena will be Mesmerism. and through these on the sensitive nerves. and adds. though led to by a different process of inquiry. He to the brain also.— THE INTELLECT." and points out that Dubois in work on "Hypochondriasis. applied the same principle to the origin of that disease." he quotes the passage of Gall already given." 1839. or rather with the excito-motor phenomena. by the which "probably depends upon changes in the central terminations of the by the sensitive nerves. under the power of the Will. the diffused nervous system of animals." 1 and secondly." (p." published in 1837. (pp. "The Instinctive Actions in relation to Consciousness. insisted. doctrines is They apparent. that the cranial ganglia [the part of the cerebrum which may be considered as the seat of the passions]. ." in his chapter." and illustrated it sensation a nervous female experiences on being pointed at." seen.

according to the rewhich they previously expected. Collyer puts in a similar claim." The importance of Mr.S. Braid examined and explained the phenomena of "Electro-biology. Braid in the following year. He induced many of these mesmeric phenomena by his own method. In 25 the investigations of Mr. and it.. Darling. he held. on an extensive scale. Braid's experiments and conclusions will be frequently referred to in this result of 1 work. in December. be affected entirely consider or imagine there see is through the Imagination. 61). in referring to the Okeys. published a excited much work in 1845 interest in it. although they do not from which they are to be affected. irrespective of another" One (vi. Dr. regarding the above phenomena. In 1849 the Kev. any agency proceeding from or excited into action by 1843. sentence in his book contains the pith of the whole subject as far as relates to the influence of the Imagination or Expectation "The from association of ideas and and in this way they are oftener patients are hypnotized habit. Thus if they something doing. Nov.: THE INTELLECT. in 1851. exert all his endeavors in vain. and thus yield to it. Professor of Medical Jurisprudence in Castleton Medical College. owed its success to " an impression made on the nerv- ous centres by the physicial and psychical condition of the patient. Mind upon the Body. did throw a flood of light on the influence of the really a repetition. which. which showed the remarkable suggestion in a susceptible state of the brain. His experiments were of Hunter's experiments on himself. in Edinburgh." Further. the most expert hypnotist in the world may it. Dods U. U. Dr. they will become affected on the contrary. but. first Dr. Le Koy to exhibit these experiments at In 1845 a person subjected effects produced by . 1843. 32). p. he says.S . as the patients have become hypnotized or not by the same appliance. says this lectured on Electro-biology before the Senate of the United States. of America. however. 1841. the liable to more susceptible they become.. and clearly proved the power of the Imagination on those previously impressed.. Returning 1 to Dr. fact. B. states that he was the Boston. Wakley's experiments with the Okeys" (p. Laycock's important contributions to cerebral Dr. Grimes. J. if the party does not expect mentally and bodily comply. on the subject. who was long prior to the performance of any experiments of the kind. Elliotson published some interesting experiments to made on mesmeric manipulations. "I have varied my experiments in every possible form. This readily accounts for the sult Mr. In subsequent publications Mr. Sutherland.

p. Carpenter. and the en- cephalic ganglia placed in the condition of the 'true spinal' or reflex system" (vii.' Dr." Dr.. and Electro-biology. Laycock observes that "one great fact proper to action of the Will and of Consciousness is all is. 26 physiology in connection with involuntary and unconscious mental manifestations. on the other hand. No doubt. also. done essential service to this Indeed. and a later or involun- tary. in his already-mentioned from Dr. Carpenter has. which depend upon the reflex action of the hemispherical ganglia (viii. . Dr. of (p. he would now refer the phenomena they ex- hibited to the action of the brain. was brought forward "in a more physiological form. which are the manifestations of the reflex power of the sensory ganglia and the " ideo-motor " actions. Laycock. and the use he made of them as illustrations of important principles in physiology. says that the point wherein he differs sensual actions. in his "On the Reflex Functions of the Brain. and state as concisely as possible in that the reader question. Laycock is in " marking out the distinction between the sewson-motor " or con- work. that " the is is no " essential dis- is suspended" phenomena power of the Will over the brain" differs from the Mesmerism are all To some extent 8).THE INTELLECT. holds that there 1 The statement same illustrations of the this that "the action of the "Will writer's previous observation. 1851). 800). may be what seems right to it this difference consists. Oct. the prominence given by this writer to the action of the Will on the sensorial fibres of the brain in 1840 has been supplanted. it should be added in chronological order that. like the Okeys. involuntarily excited by the attention being directed in certain channels by the suggestions of the operator." published in 1853. phenomena as the fourth edition of His Physiology. in order in possession of the leading theories on this Writing on "Odyle. that the suspended. so far as they are due to the influence of Expectant Attention or dominant paper this doctrine ideas. greatly advanced their recognition. I suppose there is no standard physiological work which enters so fully into this class of his "Human department of Mental Philosophy. even as late as that year. Dr. full admission of the genuineness of a series of facts suspiciously looked upon by medical men and physiologists." and in subsequent writings he has followed up the subject with great philosophical acumen. mesmeric by the fully developed doctrine of Instead of speaking of the influence of the Will in subjects. by his masterly exposition of the rationale of the phenomena of Mesmerism. Mesmerism. to a large extent.." 1844 (vii. the brain's automatic action. stage of artificial somnambulism. however. accounted for by there being an early or voluntary. His views and those of Professor Laycock diverge on the doctrine of sensation. Jan. 1845).

than there is in understanding that impressions may excite muscular movements. p. so as to evolve intellectual products when their results are transmitted to the sensorium and are thus impressed upon our consciousness. in conclusion. 1855. a reference to the inseparable nexus existing is between the two. man who. that it not only unites microcosm of the whole. at the whole range of psychophysical phenomena. however. and is only a coincident phenomenon not necessary to the acts" (ix. it will well repay the cerebral physiologist.THE INTELLECT. tinction " between the sensory 27 and hemispheric ganglia gent responclence to stimuli being common —the to both. 513). in the light of no more is may results are evolved without difficulty in ' any intentional direc- reflex actions ' of the comprehending that such re- proceed without our knowledge. author believes that this mine and that. in truth." April. either by the its temporary engross- severance of structural connection. The from having been exhausted. through all his mysticism and mistiness. a stimulus has from time to time been given to the study of psycho-physical facts by peculiar conditions of the nervous system. p. application of these facts to mental diseases entitled "Artificial Insanity. or through ment by other objects" (viii. In both cases the condition of this form of independent activity is. without the necessary intervention of sensation. a ." in the . recognized some great truths) that the like- 1 The is attempted in my Essay "Journal of Mental Science. through the 'reflex' power of the Spinal Cord. from this sketch. there actions flex to them. in the fact of " unconscious cerebration. quite intelli- independ- ently of sensation or consciousness. but is. 1865. The reader can hardly fail to remark how powerful incidentally. tracted it is clear that it would be taking a very conview of the relations between Mind and Body if we did not include in this relationship. 819). is far more systematically worked. Glancing broadly. artificially induced 1 and usually denominated mesmeric. which Dr." as applied to the hemispheres. They agree. which " in the so-called sensational actions takes no share casually. arising out of the fact that the organ of mind but the outgrowth and ultimate developement of the tissues and organs of which the body common itself is composed them in one It a fine expression of Sweclenb org's (a is bond. that the receptivity of the Sensorium shall be suspended quoad the changes in question. Carpenter thus describes " Looking at all those automatic : operations by which tion of the Mind cerebrum.

— no nervous system exists —the organ. various Mental States comprised under the Definition and Elucidation. and. If. Intellect. plays of thought. whether striped or unstriped. vol. if it please. or co-ordination. although these continue to have their own action life where animal or have in added. fibres carry is a likeness of the brain with them the animus of the brain. to see or know) either arise from and succeed head (idifa. the very minds and inclinations or affections that muscles. and is an outgrowth from. in the least in the greatest. hard study. which. SECTION II. illustrative of the influence of the Intellect on the body. Cerebrum and cerebellum are universally present in the By a very of the fibres" (xxxii. There cerebrum continued The in every fibre.THE INTELLECT. as in a mirror. the Organic Functions. The use of the intellectual powers generally. upon the vascularity and innervation of the Sensory Ganglia. . as we have already seen. or concentration The Attention. however they are concealed showing that the fibre is the be turned over in the .— Of Before proceeding to special cases. 476. i. by means of the fibres for instance. . means body by materially which not conclusion does at a arrives different route he . if this . . in action by the Nay. will be included although. "nor can anything mind that. p. . that which then. the development of the minutest germ or cell in the body be a reprediffer same principle that works in the formation of the organ consists of. and he adds. through the bloodvessels. an act of the Will. so remarkable a part in the operations of the the physical phenomena under this Ideas in its relation to presented to our notice. 28 ness or image of the greatest least. such cells and if the brain be the grand centre which is in immediate relation with the structures and tissues which have preceded it. excite the principles. combination. one of whose functions is cen- tralization. . may not be portrayed in the extremes. shine out upon the face of actions. we shall endeavor to state clearly what we include under the term. in one form. and involves mental application. mind also. then. from that of the modern school of physiologists. and of the is represented. &c). brain was the they had before sentation of the organ of mind . falls under this divi- sion. must be expected to act upon the Muscular Tissue. from Idetv. and gleam through.

quse vigilantes videmus. the receiving of Nay. It is in the sense of an abstract notion ideas.). much existence as the concrete. volebant rerum esse judicem bant icloneam. notion (Tusc.THE INTELLECT. a brief reference to significations attached to Abstract notions. from Memory. in English." . quia sola cerneret esset simplex et uniusmodi pellabant. the . makes it an intelligible being seen." pt. post med. to abstract. "Of Man. without any external stimulus. He also uses "species" in the sense "Eadem est in somniis species eorum. 1 " The "species" The philosophy 1 of the Schoolman perpetuated the material schools teach that for the cause of vision the thing seen sendeth forth on every side a visible species .) understood." Plato. c. i. or aspect. ceptions. id. has as noumena of which he all indi- " If. cui crederetur. many in so senses. i. The "Virtue." Still. from the days of Plato. the only real existences." signification. I (Acad. that is. which. or they arise. ita et tale. the thing understood sendeth forth an intelligible species. They derive greatly increased to the perception of the impressions from the steady direction of the Attention force The term Idea has been employed to them. i. derstanding. called ideas. such as it. 24. hanc solam cense- : quod semper illi recte speciem ideam adpossumus Cicero uses " Idea " in the sense of a mental image or i. a visible tion. as synonymous with object. or a being seen. which Realists regarded termed ideas According man. iv. like ourselves. ideas are the forms of which material things the noumena of which all that we perceive are the appearances (phenomena)" (l). our con- as perceptions. then. (pdoaocpo^ Kept (o philosopher writers attached to the word the is occupied about ideas Donnegan says -aq \diaq (jizoudcXei). are copies — "The that Aristotle remarks. of a dream (Acad. "species" (from speeio. 17). (i. and constitute representative images. not that Greek only of an original mental representation. we shall not be far The phenomena which constitute what we perceive vidual things are the phenomena.. we define the Platonic Noumenon or Substantial Form. 8): "Mentem the term referred to by Cicero see)... 29* made upon the senses. Lewes. coming into the un(Hobbes. that it will not be amiss to some of the add to the foregoing. or Imagination. to the present time. idea to be a wrong of the world of Sense) are but the resemblances of matter to e. but of the form or external appearance and image of an idia } Latin writers employed. jam a Platone dicere." corresponding to the "nocturnse species" of Livy. of existing things. In other words. which into the eye show. quale esset nominatam nos : . the reputed originator of the word. appari- is seeing for the cause of understanding also.

Mill) points out that this Invention gold. The itself. or a mountain of the contrary. form examples of Mill's serves that such ideas are put together chiefly at our discretion. but his editor (J. suggested carries us much by modern doctrines of evolution. the medullary substance" (i. With Brown and his followers. and that Reid failed to comprehend Locke which classification of ideas essentially consists of those Locke's ! from arise sensation. or trace of a It sensation. copy. meanness. or of nobleness. and is altogether beyond sensorial perception. further back ing-force-to-ends) ideas of . e. is only true in cases of a centaur. 70. "mental ideas" (the mixed modes of Locke). is a Sensation. This idea of the horse's master constitutes. "are supposed to sible ideas (xxix. p. that the idea immediately formed by a present sensation to how- It has been objected. ac- cording to his view.THE INTELLECT. have real originals outside our thoughts. Mill obor democracy. according to Reid. . I. he is The Imme- idea of his a minister of state that . the Mind's conception of an object of thought. pp. representation. is simply the state of mind which exists in relation an object once present. and notions are. 52. and Sir W. S. or of idea- tional changes. g. 26). those which spring from reflection. nothing more than the Mind itself in different states. and. in employing the term "ma- doctrines of the Peripatetics." protests that he understands "no hieroglyphical it figures of the objects of the conceptions. such mental ideas as temperance. is not and which impressions external that there are ideas or notions excited by may be distinguished from sensations. but now absent. alike. although the idea and the senhere recognized. 142).. is an Idea. — On creative Imagination. Hamilton Hamilton misunderstood Descartes. diately. James Mill observes. life This —to those (order- in short." • that office . notions mixed modes while. by terial idea. thirdly. which Laycock calls ." and are not mere creations of Imagination any more than complex sen- &c. thoughts. idea of a griffin. and are not transferable to sensations. piety. ideas. an idea represents any concepby the reason. in or . being entirely merged into the sensation sation are closely allied. demolished the system of Aristotle and his followers that of Descartes . tion formed other words. I think of his master makes is me "I see a horse. no impressions stamped on Descartes. that master think of his another Idea. •SO Unzer. the image. asserts that also says that Reid attacks Reid wholly Locke misunder- stood Descartes. Then there is the deeper aspect of the subject of ideas. ever. to life itself and organization. with Kant.

consciousness. notion. development. have not at any time been present to the senses ." Any one of these biotic ideas." the growth of the living form by " an archetypal idea of development. ena of Nature." This what is mental organology in and noetic evolution . so as to form unreal representations. Which For The term is my eyes beheld. recalled . the chiselling of the Lao- this system. as Mill. in hot haste. thought. with poetical license of expression. or rather realized as a state of consciousness. 63). spectral) of an object those ideas which^arise without any memory the involuntary after its removal. usually called a cognition. to those ideas or clusters of ideas which. the faculty by the operation . the latter without. but more usually it is by com- applied. or idea. how fair. and yet behold! dire imagination still pursues me. which ferred to. to relate the catastrophe at " Whither shall I run. Idea. has been re- when speaking of As present external stimulus. and the development of the living of the same idea is itself noetic idea (lv. II. we sometimes speak of a certain taste being Recollection." when the messenger Gaza enters. is comprised under this division. consciousness the sculptor guided by "an ideal intuition of genius. : THE INTELLECT. —a original. in their bined form. growth. desisting from his work world to behold the " how shew'd it In prospect from his throne Answering his great . is doctrine of correlative biotic coon. are alike the result the former with. in conscious organisms. tion — Creator. but only energetic. "realized as a representation to the consciousness. becomes. that James erst ? is. or the sense in which Abercrombie scenes which have no existence — employs it. imagined. are. If we combine Memory. as derived from the Supreme Thought of CreaMilton speaks of the the Great First Cause of all things. or which way fly The sight of this so horrid spectacle. or to the separation of classes of facts into their constituent elements. from 31 this point of view." often used simply in the sense of active memory Thus. which in unconscious organisms results in form and function only. They teleiotic. how good. is This the basis of Thus. (almost Milton employs the word in "Samson Agonistes. p." Imagination. and combining them afresh. causes of the phenom- instinct.— — .

when prop- and guided. the ix. of the word to which we contrasted with the wide medical use shall shortly refer.. (from £Uw.. not to be met with in and creative Imagination.a imitatione dicta." in the sense of dreams. 560). and it follows the law of association of ideas . from which our are derived. the by which we form an idea or image which is not. imago. its derivation. or creating new objects by the Quintilian. totle. interpreting the word as used by ArisImagination." Imago seal : is used by Plautus to signify the impression made upon a a favorite metaphor for mental images. "imagines sonmiorum" ployed by Virgil (JEn. The Greek synonym of words Fancy and Phantasm imaginatio. ness might be be inconsistent with Imaginatio. which Imagination does not go beyond an exaggerated degree of —creating what is "furthest removed from nature. answering to our Phantasm. The Imagination. ii. this state Nor would termed Imagination proper. ployed by Virgil (i£n. a copy of of which faculty we may a previous impression. to signify a mental and is Tacitus Imago uses imaginatio in the above sense (Ann. (Calig. xv. ut eas cernere oculis ac prsesentes habere videamur. Festus). 36). tive impressions. may be Common developed. to resemble). conveniently speak of recollective In the former. says." in the latter. and Imagination." This is Hallucination. an image. 473). and the As a form. fact. a re-presentation to the mind. imagines rerum absentium ita reprsesentantur objects animo. Suetonius. I). ii. 32 we form an idea or image which is.. which erly understood in its broad medical sense is. and not Fancy as now employed. sly/j. a complex mental power of the greatest . means an imitation {imago ab really traced back to this em- is image or like- : " Obstupui : subiit cari genitoris Both imago and imaginatio are used former by Ovid. the external world. "imago noctis" (Met. "Per quas.." to both forms is the presence of an idea not immediately excited by any material form answerable As thereto. "forms and successions of events. (pavrama.: THE INTELLECT. signified the beholding of by the power of Fancy. or sober reality" (Bain). to employ Professor Lay"substrata are reawakened into activity by affinicock's terminology. by em- latter it is 360) " Ubique payor et plurima mortis imago. or Imago.

1 With this form of Imagination are closely associated Expectation. involving the feelings more than others. the repsome degree agreeable or disagreeable. in other words. 475). and one of to dispel. and points out the tional states of manifest impossibility of disentangling the cognitive from the emotional element. as regards the present inquiry. are habitually in Hence only in those rare cases in which both its terms and its remote associaan act of cognition be absolutely free from tions are absolutely indifferent can emotion. and. These sensations. all imply cognitions. p." the objects we have chievous an error. Conversely. al- states. subjective character. Herbert Spencer takes the case of perceiving a beautiful statue or even an ellipse or parabola. definition of the Imagination. Imitation. Belief. Faith. as i "The it Such is the broad presents itself to the mind. by implication. some of these states The most superficial examination of the sense in which the term "Imagination" is employed by metaphysicians on the one hand. that they are "all fancy. it signifies. in every cognitive process. if not altogether. vol. . and Hope. Because effects are produced and cures performed by means of a mental condition called the Imagination. by implication.THE INTELLECT. although apparently physical. and popularly and medically on the other. as every emotion involves the presentation or representa- and actions. resentations of them. and. when materials dealt with. Sympathy. in popular and medical language. i. The signification of the term contained in the first clause is too often assumed to be the whole truth. tion of objects ollections of objects 3 . and that a change of mental condition has been naturally followed by a change in the phenomena. That of the second clause is almost. and idea- to the difficulty of separating emotional mind. This in view It is is is much to be deplored. as far as possible. it is constantly assumed that these results are imaginary. it follows that no emotion can be absolutely free from cognition " (x. and as the perceptions. interest 33 and importance. the recand actions. are either sensations or the representations of them. so mis- phenomena generally implied that these are of a merely functional. In truth. must be considered under though passing insensibly into emotional In reference this section. more or less depen- dent on the state of the mind. more especially the Will. will reveal the wide difference which exists between the two. that a man imagines certain (bodily) phenomena to have occurred which have not or it is meant that certain bodily phenomena which really have occurred. lost sight of. are due to no other cause than that he imagined they would.

and utilized for therapeutical purposes. to matter a great deal . it ought to be a question of exceeding in- terest. and because it remains. that it Again. is purged. and that the force of these ideas is intensified by accompanying states of mind already referred When a person on swallowing a Expectation. That tive power passing from the ruler to the body — . found. and point it to a painful region my who entertains the opinion that I am about The patient imagining that the ruler will be the of the body of a patient. It matters little to the patient by what name the remedy is called. on analysis. and cannot be really The essential must be sepaexplained away. believes in a force which does not exist a curaand is relieved." or some of the many "pathies" of the It is emphatically a case in which "a rose by any other name day. in this sense. the mental condition present yielding. or indignant. disconcerted at the doctor having left the hospital without ordering an aperient pill. the success of his heterodox rival asserts that it was all is the effect of the is understood by his assailant. that such signification of the term widely is employed by metaphysicians and (yet more so) by writers like Mr. whether "Imagination. hand. and. and satisfied her mind.THE INTELLECT. it must be explained. This is what the orthodox medical practitioner means. augmented by Expectation. nurse procured a bread-pill." Imagination But the . that the ideas most vividly presented to mind are in direct relation to them. is dinned into his when and he ears. said to be through his Imagination . in the belief that it is it possesses aperient properties. who assigns to it a deeper meaning. a definite direction of thought to the intestinal canal . Hope. But to the philosophical practitioner it ought will smell as sweet. such leading idea exciting the same peristaltic action as would have been induced by castor is oil. Plymouth Hospital. then. to the — bread-pill. who was much me told The The force of this current of thought other day a lady nurse. 34 employed in reference to medical facts of every-day occurrence. he fact remains. It is obvious. Ruskin. to relieve the pain. as he had intended to do. as he complacently smiles. rated from the accidental. at the of a patient in one of the female wards. it will be found that the Attention is strongly directed to a part of the body with which certain different from that in which it is phenomena are associated. on inquiry. I hold a ruler in The Next day she had answered its purpose satisfactorily. or Faith. On analyzing the mental states comprised under the medical and popular use of the term. — means of curing her.

on the contrary. and one which regards simple images and its own combinations in peculiar ways. more complex. but in the wider medical use of the word it becomes. missed. and the "Imagination" of a feast. It is greatly dependent on acuteness of moral emotion." To these powers the above- mentioned metaphysician adds. it is seizes two that are disagreeable alone. fit for each other. produces a shock similar to what would be occasioned by its actual application. faculty. although the grandest mechanical power that the intelligence possesses. but abstraction. human In its highest "altogether divine. we say.THE INTELLECT. only copies the remembered image. produces a rush of saliva into the mouth . Ruskin pronounces point is this definition meagre. It is the "conception " of by Shakspeare as Stewart himself. although by no means embracing the Imagination of those metaphysicians. for he omits from it the essence of the whole matter. as before. as already stated. and should these supervene. In other cases the fixed idea may be. form. and one which will appear more and . and says the very the power of prophecy. What no Imagination. materials from the qualities with them in materials and directs their combination. " It is and are together right. reading truths. as Dugald Stewart points out. Fancy. the "apprehension" of the good. is used synonymous with the Imagination. which creates new forms. or loss redness power. and Judgment or Taste which selects the or simple apprehension. which is The composition which Stewart regards as Imagination has no part or lot in Such a composer it. torture applied to with whom (Stewart. the Imagination. the conception of an instrument of any member of the body." and out of an infinite mass of things." This is recollective Imagination. that there will be pain. of muscular it This medical use of the term has for was due its to basis that thinking upon an object which. that certain phenomena will occur. the prominent idea being the firm conviction that the morbid symptoms would pass away. 35 Merely to say was the Imagination is no solution of the problem. or of the skin. with Euskin. for example) it includes. not only conception "which separates the selected and circumstances which are connected nature. as well as a combining associative power. when he speaks of "thinking" on the frosty Caucasus. What really happened was that her attention was arrested and forcibly directed she is relieved is cured her? it to the part. and merely involves the presence of a mental image of an object not present to the senses. Mr. discoverable by no other it is a penetrating faculty. " The conception of a pungent taste.

the faculty " necessary for the production of any great work of art. word Idea As James Mill is used with so observes. and is happy but Imagination is a pilgrim on the earth. clear. and which may or may not be actual . the fundamental element is a psychical representative image we are concerned with what are ordinarily called ideas which the mind conceives. the " grandest mechanical The only point in which power" belonging to man's intelligence he could agree with Mr. — — copies or reproductions of external objects. Imagination cannot but be serious. Fancy and Imagination are used synonymously. in short." that the method so far from being contempti. Clearly. quiet." Fancy a country practitioner who has had a truant patient cured by a globulist. we have not now llic to deal. Returning. was " altogether divine. much it is an inconvenience that latitude of meaning. that in which it is used in reference to the painter." It is an operation of mind " altogether inexplicable/' and can only be compared with chemical affinity.THE INTELLECT. and her home is in heaven " (xii. rather." is able to give a portrait of the while " Imagination sees the heart and inner nature. in its circular prison. now. Euskin would be that it was. or. and has retorted that he or she was relieved only by the Imagination. and full of detail ." for It is Fancy is Imagination is never serious. "Fancy plays like a squirrel. ii). Fancy with him almost identical with simple conception. With ideas as they arise simply from the perception of impressions on the senses. sensation may may be intensified by various ideation or imaging acquire in- . he says "it sees the outside. too the most purely and simply intellectual. and that we are not concerned with the faculty understood in the Ruskinian sense." This eloquent writer's distinction between Fancy and Imagination fine to be omitted. As favoring circumstances. and outside. must not be allowed to mislead us. also. 36 more marvellous the longer we consider it. with him. when we employ the term "Ideation" we do so as a general term opposed to Sensation. ! together inexplicable." and. from a practical medical standpoint. The former he characterizes as " one of the hardest-hearted of the mental faculties. "al- ble. to the basis of the Imagination. vol. indeed. and." though obscure in outer detail. as we have said. one of is however. restless. being informed that it was by the "power of prophecy . however. But it is not necessary to refer further to this enough has been said to show that the aspect of the Imagination various significations attached to the term. so. simple imaging for.

an idea is suggested by it to the mind which recalls the sensation experienced on a former occasion when a real pill was taken this central sensation (which is referred . in fact. tensity 37 from Attention. as we say. man may vomit from First. so far as present sensation concerned. around which cluster emetic. this particular . there and may be . as powerful as anything. or so directly excited however. With this class to do the mind has not influenced the body. to the peripheral terminations of the sensory nerves of the intestines) is reflected on to the motor nerves supplying the muscular walls of the alimentary canal. how the causes differ. is. mainly in ideation. no doubt. upon ideation and from our present position. by seeing or hearing another person retch from gence. the observations already made as to simple ideas. the effect great. which impresses the senses to. The various ways in which vomiting may be excited. in shall subsequently show. Lastly. from a of cases we have nothing . greatly inferior in intensity to the original impression on the senses. he may vomit from receiving unpleasant intelliThirdly. the system be placed under the influence of Braidism. we but. . Secondly. in most instances. Bain no disturbing element to distract the attention. Mere remembrance of a sensation is. Faith. as when the action of the intestinal muscles by purgatives. and then we have Imagiits complex as distinguished from its pure and simple form nation in Further. far below the original We ! to a good dinner. in the ordinary sense of the term current among men. that excited at the periphery. and they contract in consequence. sure. If. will serve to illustrate the influence of ideas presented in different forms. Desire. is In the example of the fictitious pill. in the outer world. in intensity. &c. in general. ever. would be more likely to equal. In the two succeeding examples. this effect may be induced by the belief that an emetic has been taken from Imagination. It is produced would not be so is true that. In the second instance. . how- an ideal dinner would be as pleasing as a real one. and does not fall under the present division. a See taking an bad smell. . ideation immediately acts upon sensation. sensation acts differs . it is this and its influence upon motion which constitute such important facts. and ideas. the action excited from the centre. as of Imaging. is really more so. are prepared to maintain. that in the above-mentioned states. Sympathy. as under certain circamstances. its influence on the sen- sorium. the proximate cause is emotional in character. or from visceral disease. because in the states referred remarks that a certain pleasing remembrance attaches but how Mr.THE INTELLECT.

as we have said. difficulties of the investigation. medical Faith. . complains that "the inquisition of by induction. as plants and metals the third. Bacon.. Hope is usually involved Both are frequently Expectation is with allied a belief in the future . defines Imagination as "the re-presentation of thought. or expectation that certain phenomena will occur. with first. the second the third has reference. among a good deal that from the Minds and nations. it may be added. is not. there are several He acute observations. or as if they were present. or by Imagiby other impressions. braced by our survey. according as it is this subject in our way. is wonderful hard /" The intensity of Ideas is. he cracks his gorge. the first alone is emspirits of men and living creatures. we have spoken of as Expectation may be illustrated by the effect delicious peach in making the mouth water answers to what Expectant Attention) of the remembrance of a . the third. the cause to the Imagination." and says of that which is past. which associated with in Hope is or Fear." has a section entitled "Ex- periments in consort touching the emission of immaterial Virtues Spirits of Men. 38 other mental principles. so as to form a complex state popularly good an exemplification happen was absent to How much tion." in which. receive as Belief in an event about and present in the third. — I have drunk and seen the spider !" "Natural History. the Imagination that exercised . or is fanciful. . merely. upon the Of these. greatly increased by the belief. Imagination. to fanciful representations. violent hefts in his : sides. The power of Bacon also considered under three upon the body of the imaginant the second. and one may drink depart. either by Affections. these. but if one present The abhorr'd ingredient How to his eye. his With Lord Bacon. Fear Expectation and Belief. an individual joined with belief memory of that which is Of of things present. THE INTELLECT. yet partake no venom for his knowledge And . the first (or characteristically to is it is of three kinds come . upon dead bodies. Indeed. if of . and powerfully affects the body for good or ill. is referred " There may and be in the cup A spider steep'd. is shown by general consent our knowing that they are in every-day experience . as Expectation and Belief. the the second. known as Fancy or as we could desire. . make known he hath drunk. faith. Is not infected. in the fourth illustra- the effect of even disagreeable things depends upon so. oppressed by the heads : first.

the influence of ideas is by so largely determined their hopeful or fearful character. in undertaking the treatment of diseases admitting of amelioration from the psychical method. or conception. When Belief is cluded. seeing that Fear Bain. it the particular char- acter of the affection. a favorable character. is the desideratum. It is tation of a muscular movement." . Hope is the expec- Fear. the very mental condition which. the emotional element will constantly crop the consideration of the Imagination. from a medico-psychological point of view. is. the expectation of one not wished . . to an irresistible conviction . in a moment it restores the use of the limbs or the speech it destroys or develops the germ of diseases it even causes . an element of the indeterminate tation of a wished-for event unfavorable. from an intellectual point of view. or freezes by Fear in a single night it turns the hair white. Fear. . that Expectation is the hurrying forward of the thoughts into the future. in calling it a purely intellectual state. the distinctive character of the belief. or that certain As organic changes in the direction of health or disease will occur. Fear. be lost sight of. containing 39 Hope . death. and Faith intense. its The word comprehensive and lax a its composition to an un- perhaps. the illustrations of the represent Expectation. when its evil This rather than old French Commission on " As to the Imagination. more or less definitely. and the emotions made to enter into warrantable extent. who is up in head of of Fear must also effects the apprehension of evil. if are special forms of Expecta. is we Doubt is exis Confidence The Imagination has risen from say there all-powerful. Hope and constitutes it Wundt. for it is must not not simply that a fearful Belief will affect the bodily functions. but that the expectation of the form which will take will determine. we know for The example. the derangement which a vivid and sudden impression has often occasioned in the human machinery. holds that James Mill erred. observe. or of a sensation. The Imagination renews or suspends the animal functions it animates by Hope. On the other hand. just as under the emotional influence. . Animal Magnetism.THE INTELLECT. image. There may be the expecfor. form of Belief as expectation of defines the primordial some contingent future about to follow on our action. according to tion. in common with most metaphysicians. Imagination is sometimes employed in too way. . a mere idea. an apt description of his. more particularly the case beneficial aspect is dwelt upon.

as has happened to myself from writing this sentence. the convulsions and faintings which. additional principle. are due. and sensations. more or less involuntarily. causes similar actions. sideration. . convenient to refer here Fundamentally identical. it is because the idea is forcibly presented to his mind. or conception is alone sufficient to induce corresponding bodily any excitement of emotional sympathy. but there may be what is termed sympathetic pain. gesture. as expression. the effects of mental states. without A vivid image is formed in the mind of a phenomenon occurring to another. in sensitive persons. ment usually enters strongly into this condition. Imagination proper. as well as when stage of life. when the knowledge. There is will be both in etymology and usage. At this For with both it is this point it really merges into Imitation. as when John simply thinks of the act and the same effect is produced. As regards the Imagination . and thus produces analogous acts. This is reproduced in the spectaThe event is in accordance with the general law now under contor. It is arise from within. 40 There are two terms frequently made use of to which Sympathy and Imitation. acting on the known to psychologists. To this remarkable principle of our nature which leads us to act involuntarily like others. abstract mental and the sensational. bodily manifestations. which continually turns up in the now engaging our attention and both principles united serve to form a clue to many otherwise inexplicable. The idea is in this case excited through the senses of sight or of hearing but it may be suggested in other ways. follow the wit- nessing of these conditions. knowledge or apprehension of another person's state which. If John gapes when he sees Thomas gape. is very likely to experience it himself. that whatever mental or bodily state can be excited may through the senses from without. sympathizes strongly with another who is suffering from bodily The emotional elepain. while the latter is to Action. only imagine ourselves. from All these sympathies come into play when this principle. refers especially to Feeling. but by the public. well we we are really. so often overlooked consideration of the questions .THE INTELLECT. with those remarkable psychological dramas which have at various epochs arrested the attention of the world. idea. the former. it — employed in relation the sympathy with both forms of Feeling —the The influence upon sensation of a mind One who en rapport with another mind illustrates both effects. allied Imitation is with phenomena popularly referred to the Imagination closely . Here we meet the the tone of the voice.

according to a high authority. If in this or any other in- states ably stance he has been indebted. 1 this . any of his readers who will point out the source to which ." originating in unconscious mimicry. combines old forms until only copies.. which is An image is I formed on transmitted by the optic nerves to the brain. In concluding this section it may render the relation between Sensation and Ideation clearer to employ a familiar illustration. or object-consciousness. while so 41 from closely allied this point of view. without acknowledgment. while Imitation merely reproduces. fresh inventions or discoveries in each individual. the philosopher sees in these states antagonism rather than relationship. Without Imagination the world would be this aspect. the sun. Both are essential to the well-being of the individual and of the community. the psychologist affirms that a vivid the mind. and becomes similarly affected. and Imitation. it The Imaginew ones arise They bear. known would be as "habits. event spectator's body assumes the same physiologist's that the idea excited is image was excited in in regard to Imi- down mode state as of expressing the like by the scene passed from the hemi-'' ( spheres down to the motor ganglia and nerves. When people say that an hysterical girl has her imagination vividly impressed by the contortions of a patient. the a desert. hopes. however. Without Imitation the child could Without Imitation the acts of daily life. in facts. ent practical standpoint. THE INTELLECT. could not exist. and nation. Without Imagination the lover and the poet. he should he is feel obliged to indebted. but cannot recall the work. perceive an object. involving The whole complex state is included in Sen- The writer believes he has seen the analogies and antipathies of these two worked out. if is it limited by the boundaries of actual the Imitation faculty does not invent. to previous authors. does not create. not grow into the man. and so a correspond- ing ideomotor act resulted. These processes insure sensorial perception. devoid of even its mirage a barren present without future . He perceives that the Imagination expands and indefinitely extends the objects of perception or thought. there is a mental impression. Imitation an idea excited from is 1 From our pres- rather the result of sensorial impressions. the tation or The that of the patient.. by the law already laid Sympathy. It involves a reflection or bodily counterpart of a mental image. or of the imagination. and that. for example. But there is more than subject-consciousness. same relation to each other that the painter and the engraver do. the retina.

and also by Bain. in idea. the sun may be considered to involve ideational as well cited by. of course. then (apart. the mental state. and ex- including. This by active may be recalled. from the spectrum which may remain my eyes). the corpora quadrigemina. . as an idea. or by creative or recollective Imagination Imagination may be united with other ideas and formed by "esemplastic" power into one mental image. remains after the external object or stimulus withdrawn. A is change has been induced in the gray matter of the hemispheres by the upward action of the sensory ganglia excited by impressions from without. After ceasing to perceive the sun I retain. 42 sation by Mill. so that we have three distinct though con- tinuous portions of the nervous system acted upon : the peripheral expansion of the optic nerve on the retina. will be referred to in the next chapter. in short. as. and the hemispherical ganglia. a state of —the mind for a short time after closing in relation to immediate result of an external away from the Memory consciousness it which object. The vexed its question of the nature of the recollection of sensations.THE INTELLECT. which. who regards the subject state as But the condition of my mind when I perceive Sensation proper. constitutes an idea one which passing may become latent. sensorial changes .

which has already been cited. "I am confident that I can fix my attention to any part until I have a sensation in that part. INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT ON SENSATION. CHAPTER 43 II. .: INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT ON SENSATION. the result will A few will little fingers for probably be something like this be unconscious of any sensation in this member will experience decided sensations ." is." other proofs he gives the instance of a person's teeth being set on edge by witnessing another about to pass a sharp instrument over glass or porcelain . altogether (anaesthesia). lastly. The terse. do the sympathetic centres become excited. &c." Midler expresses the fact of the operation of the ideational upon the tions (hyperesthesia expression of "Ideas do not act merely sensational centres in equally clear terms. also the production of shuddering by the mentioning of objects which. as. and cause subjective sensations ? Or. some and . or may may suspend them induce excessive and morbid Sensa- and dysesthesia). does the act of Attention excite increased vascularity of the sensory ganglia. pain throbbing. simple experiment raises several questions. —aching. on the motor apparatus by which they are expressed they as frequently affect the organs of sense. The Intellect may excite ordinary Sensations. the majority will feel a slight sense of weight and tingling. tion. that slate remarks Herbert Spencer. me the thrill that actually seeing it produces. but comprehensive John Hunter. contains in a nutshell the principle which underlies the greater part of the phenomena referred to in this section. Among pressions or images of the ideas. which then present sensorial im. This Might sensations always be felt in the part. would excite that sensation "I cannot think of seeing a present. "without there running through same if by recollective Imaginarubbed with a dry sponge. . but are unobserved except when the attention is directed to them ? Or. from the changes which are constantly going forward in the tissues." If twenty persons direct their attention to their five or ten minutes.

the first." determine in these instances by what train of thought these different results came to pass . rigidly cataleptic. Braid tells us in his little that he requested four gentlemen. so as to cause temporary vascular changes in the finger which involve sensation ? The first supposition does not seem probable." per- suaded that he is in danger of being lost in the snow. &c. weight. p. Entire silence was enjoined. the character of the sensations would have been greatly modi- tion directed to them. except to a very slight extent. which the Tichborne has rendered so proverbial. Each was to look at the palm of his hand for a few minutes with fixed attention. going to happen. cold. in good health. his It would be arm being difficult to firmly fixed to the table. and watch the result. . that fied. 93) and from 40 to 56 years of age. said that for some time he thought nothing was Mr. we should always feel some sensation in the finger when consciousness positions subjective finger if is directed towards have weight. had Mr. What happened ? "In about five minutes. partially upon the and that these in the form of throbbing. pricking sensation took place from the palm of the hand. . The individual under the influence of "Electro-biology. shivers with imaginary. or whether an accidental condition of the hand at the moment. stated that he felt a sensation of great cold in the hand another. but at last a darting. . whether each imagined would be produced by the process. instead of preserving silence.INFLUENCE OF THE 44 and the vaso-motor nerves influenced. that Slmkspeare trial Adopting the expression would have been "surprised we may say to learn" that a man . who is a very talented author. lately mayor of a large borough. to lay their arms on a table with the palms of their hands upwards. felt Others are more likely to be subjective. . which were intensified by the Attenthat such and such effects Probably the former but one thing is certain. as if electric sparks were being drawn from it the third gentleman. had become . If correct. said that he felt a very uncomfortable sensation of heat come over his hand the fourth. caused certain very slight suggestions. it. but we believe there Thought We think both the remaining sup- Probably the feeling experienced is sufficiently long directed to is vascular changes are is a real effect produced it. but to him no less real. one of the present members of the Royal Academy. Braid suggested other effects. secretary to an important association. book on "Hypnotism" (xx.

The above patients being now requested to look aside. produced "a change of temperature. remarks in a " Certainly the first results accustomed to sift would have misled any one who was not such matters. ting- when he reversed the motion. 353). been a somnambulist. Dr. Moreover. drawing a magnet or other object slowly various from the wrist effects. his coat. if any idea of what might be expected existed in the mind previously. or a screen having been interposed so as to prevent their seeing what was being done. and wished to pull off his boots. which burnt him. when young. Braid gives the case of a letter to the author a few years ago. lady." for a central sensation of ideal or subjective origin. and. after which he was made to utes his feel it so cold that in a minute or two he buttoned and walked about rubbing his hands. who and assisted his father in his experiments. by suggestion. above 56. intolerably warm. p. Professor Gregory reports one of those frequent cases in which. it was generally very speedily realized. but in tried. he was made to feel the floor so hot that he was compelled to hop about. as I found. . By thinking on fantastic summer's " heat . who perfect health and wide awake when the experiment was had. or the whole was made sat equally to feel a knife When so. noting their responses.INTELLECT ON SENSATION. and the chair on he started up. creeping. Mr. or was suggested orally during the process. can hold a fire in his hand by thinking on the 45 frosty Caucasus. which he deprived of sensation. can Wallow naked in December snow. "it was generally followed by a change of symptoms from the altered current of ideas then suggested. Braid in investigating the alleged discoveries of in regard to the Od found that in nearly force. "One arm was He frame. and He was made room to feel the actually perspired with the heat. like that of a person exposed to frost " (xix. Reichenbach all cases. burning hot." Mr. or both arms." while. Braid. can forestall or supplant the sensation derived from a peripheral impression. similar when phenomena were stated to be realized there was nothing whatever done beyond watching them. "the subject" experiences a variety of sensations. In about five minhand was really chilled. even when the persons had not been hypnotized. Among to the point of the fingers these were ling." His son. pricking. if they were requested to describe their sensations during the repeti- tion of the processes. conversely.

We witness in the following instance the curious effect of what is usually called Association of Ideas. Mr. "By putting leading questions. Squeamishness allied mental is states. repeating the experiments. in the " American Journal of Insanity. Probably no sinvpler example could be given of the morbid of Imagination on the body. that she saw nothing. Attention directed to the stomach notably causes a sensation of weight. when she went into the closet by herself. in common A its effect recollective form. she went on describing various shades of most brilliant coruscations and flame. and she would see fire come out of it. Braid told her to look attentively. be induced in the several abdominal organs. and other forms of sensation may. and presently it seemed to her." prise us that such should be the case. she "declared. than the follow- child says. but still the same appearances were in a poles of a powerful horseshoe described as visible. and asking her to describe what she saw from another part of the closet (where there was nothing but bare walls). every one knows from experience. after Mr.INFLUENCE OP THE 46 Having been placed dark closet. Dr." the case of a friend of his who in- . after looking a considerable time. aggravating or even originating dyspepsia. " Thinking of that powder In fact he experiences nausea from no physical agent. On taking this lady into the magnet had been removed to another part of the house. when there was nothing but the bare walls to produce them and two weeks after the magnet was removed. frequently caused by Attention and by other Marshall Hall mentions a person who could not attempt to untie a small knot without a sense of nausea. the mere association of ideas was sufficient to cause her to realize a visible representation of the same light and flame" (xxiii). Discomfort. but solely from the representative idea thereof in his mind. according to the leading questions I had put for the purpose of changing the funda- mental On ideas. Braid then closed down the lid of the trunk which contained the magnet. as she had witnessed an artificial representation of the volcano of Mount Vesuvius at some public gardens. similar results were repeatedly realized by this patient. and desired to look at the magnet and describe what she saw." However. it would greatly suring occurrence almost makes me : sick. Kellogg records. same closet after the . she speedily saw sparks. a sense of tension. But for our familiarity with the fact. to burst forth. she still perceived the same visible appearances of light and flame.

for the galvanist stated that he had never observed any twitching of the hands from these imaginary shocks. instantly experiencing very disagreeably the sensation so much disturbed him as a boy. although he had not put the battery in action. and such another example he hath of another good wife. as in the present in- have a limit to their operations. which will be given under involuntary muscular action. and for years he could never without experiencing sensations of nausea or a sort of mal de with his violin. 169). fell into a grievous fit of a sciatica. which had Sympathy. 1607. &c. that stance. who fiddler. and in consequence this boat was an old blind did his best to alleviate the sufferings of the passengers The result was that this instrument became asmind with sea-sickness. without became affected. Anno. p. after the same manner she came by it. cited here. that coming to a physician. The pressure which their weight exerted upon the nose was so insupportable that he was obliged to discontinue their use. the most familiar instance douloureux occasioned in this manner. Then as to actual pain caused by mental tation. 297) relates of himself that when a child his sight and he was obliged to wear spectacles. visiting the Crystal Palace writer that the tell man who something about Imagination. But it is. and quite thought she was being galvanized. is states. in fact. perhaps equally deserving of such subjective impressions may. might also be. Physick" two ex- Cotta's "Discovery of Ignorant Practitioners of amples of what " Phansie is able to do . p. in a steam- the sea which was rough. that was so troubled with the cramp . the one of a parson's wife in Northamptonshire. as he conjectured (a was free from). Gratiolet (xv. for he as- lady had grasped the handles of the machine she remarked on the peculiar sensations she experienced. sociated in his hear it Van mer. he says that he never sees any one wearing spectacles. Writing twenty years after. because her physician disease she did but name When it" (xlviii. sured me that very often some years ago it struck the then had charge of a galvanic battery could when a I was not mistaken. the same night after her return. as correctly. notice.INTELLECT ON SENSATION. upon his words. Expec- that of toothache or tic- Burton quotes from Dr. Swieten's case of vomiting. Lauzanus records the case of a young man who watched with great . and told by him that she was troubled with the sciatica. 47 formed him that he had frequently sailed when young arm of boat across an Upon often suffered from sea-sickness.

2 A passage " the British Foreign Dr. with- is a most interesting and and would require a chapter instead of a few para- out drugs and solely by psychical means. hours afterwards he experienced a severe pain in his get rid of it for a couple of days (lx. 154). important fact. p. doubts that. severe as well as trivial operations A pain.INFLUENCE OF THE 48 attention a priest being bled from the Two and arm for an attack of pleurisy. out. — Insensibility to bodily pain. and to a large extent suggested it. graphs to do it justice. Cloquet removed a woman's breast. may be performed without any few words on anaesthesia. excellent illustration of simple pain caused understood as "sympathy. The case forms an by what is popularly which almost brings it under the category of emotional influence. psy- Yet they preceded drug-anaesthesia. this and the following case impossible to say whether emotional excitement assisted the is result. does not whether the affected ear corresponded to that upon which the operation was performed. is now of real historical and the period which it marks ought not to be overlooked by any one who undertakes to write a complete history of anaesthetics. It is said that no fatal case from psychical anaesthesia has occurred. during chical anajsthetics are not even mentioned. pain in his own state felt at who present for the the same instant so acute a ear that he involuntary put his Gratiolet. August 29. Four years before (in 1842) at a discussion at the Medical and on its interest. or nearly all histories of anaesthetics. who was a surgical operation which consisted in remov- life at hand to it and cried himself witnessed the circumstance. so far back as 1829. and did not at the spot corresponding to that of the puncture. No one who has studied the history of anaes- by inducing a profound and peculiar kind of sleep. 2 Vide Remarks by the writer on the occasion of Dr. artificially induced. Forbes in and Medical Review. ." a fellow-feeling. or by merely rendering the patient insen- thetics 1 in all forms. in the Medical Times and Gazette. 1868. but this is implied. whether sible to sensorial impressions related to a certain idea or train of ideas. Elliotson's death. fair instance of the primarily neuralgic class of cases. but insensible to pain)." written by employment in surgical operations. the mesmeric sleep (she being able to converse. Gratiolet (xv) relates that a law student time in his first ing a small tumor from the ear. Elliotson and Mesmerism. may not be out of place here. This is a own arm. Ancesthesia. 1 It is a remarkable fact that in all. especially in connection with Dr. caused by a stimulus acting centrally it upon the sensory In nerves.

have opposed the noble attempt to introduce painless operation in surgery. against the prevention of pain members of our anses- the profession. such as partial consciousness. under the head of "Animal Magnetism Superseded. 1846. which seems . and the news reaching England on December 17th. " I have considerable doubt of the propriety of putting a patient into so unnatural a condition as results 4 from inhaling ether.— INTELLECT ON SENSATION. the late Dr. thus writes: "Indeed. were quite consistent with perfect anaesthesia. Forbes. a considerable change of opinion evidently took place. proofs of imhis opponents were both right and in we ought much now at flippancy rather to blush profession." and on the following day Liston operated for the first time upon a patient under its influence. and Dr. because pain ion of nature. 49 Chirurgical Society. and were not. asserted that the fact was un- worthy of the Society's consideration. sensitiveness to slight touch. Elliotson and wrong. in a certain proportion of cases. in his "Review" for October. a distinguished of the profession. as to authorize us — recommend that an immediate and complete trial of the practice be made in surgical cases. raised with so that many mesmeric patients. and patients are the better for all it. on this ground." But scarcely had this number of the "Review" appeared when the first operation nay. in honesty to compel us to This was under the influence of ether was performed in America on October 16th. Copland. should. we hesitate not to assert that the testimony is now of so varied and extensive a kind. so strong. calling out as if in pain. in 1847. Now. for he wrote." few years. possibly its influence. that that operations however its Mesmerism would be the by had been painlessly performed under thetic ultimately adopted mode of action be explained. so seemingly unexceptionable. on an operation performed without pain under Mesmerism the influence of member (so-called). Dr. It was soon seen that many phenomena. a large number of capital operations in various countries (especially in India by Dr. Elliotson's well-known work. Esdaile) having Then after the lapse of a been painlessly performed. ! its discovery was announced in the "Medical Gazette" of the 18th. "Numerous Cases of Surgical Operations without Pain in the Mesmeric State. can but smile the objection already referred to. and. Perhaps the prejudice was not more singular than that of the esteemed Editor of "Chelius" against the employment of ether. in assertina. —he wrong. is a wise provis- and recover more quickly! In 1843 appeared Dr. as had supposed when they occurred posture. but right in his belief We .

the influence of the mind is notoIf any one prefers to consider the senses under the term Mind rious." she adds. ' ' ' — tion to From ' annul pain under the knife wa s only of mediocre interest this point of view. if practical reflection did not see ample physiological reasons for believing that the upon by their intense thought on certain They knew nothing of the action of Expectation Imagination upon the sensorium." be made upon the ecstatics more St. 1009).^ to surgery.— INFLUENCE OF THE 50 scarcely different from severe intoxication. led to reparatory action. Taisez-vous. mon petit!' declared in the French Academy that 'it was trivial to suffer. or 1 Since writing the above. (as we ought. 1 In regard to the special senses. as he thought. Theresa. We know to what source senses were really acted spiritual subjects. whom M. II. —the the ganglia of the senses so as to produce phenomena. actual hallucination. pression "the idea of a sensation itself. although subjective. Gull. questioned the desirability of its truth. instead of that of mind that the state of the is pheres —may play upon Mind over Body. the credulity of the saints and mystics. Nunn.' and a Dr. p. "Dr. in passing. and weak mind characterizes as the metaphysician of feminine mysticism of ecstatic illumination we made by a striking observation difficult to believe in known some of they think. "is a One may. freedonj^rTfi^pajinj disadvantage than otherwise." for there is is cannot adopt Hunter's ex- supposed to be the sensation a sensation. and this. is compensated for by the effects produced on . in 1847.' the system.' 'Pain. I observe the following in one of the public journals. Bransby Cooper was 'averse to the prevention of suffering. strictly speaking. Ave may When there is say the idea of a sensation having in- duced such intensity of action of the sense-ganglia. It would be much to whom she refers. is supposed to be a sensation caused There Maury is by an objective impression. to do) he has but to suppose that we are illustrating the influence of one group of mental faculties over another group.' argued Mr. who imagine they . Pickford wrote that pain during operations was beneficial while Magendie he who said to the writhing dog. and certain sensorial All we maintain condition of the cerebral hemis- also that it may so affect the sen- sorium that impressions upon the senses received from the outer world may We be modified in various ways. as to cause the same effect as if excited by a material object. in one of the London medical organs. i^^&^tnre world would be rather a . namely. and that an invenI cannot vouch for removing pain.' which. "I have see all that very dangerous condition. a state in which no surgeon would be desirous of having a patient who was about to be submitted to a serious operation" (lxii.

clearly showing of whom it celestial revelation. a specially interesting Friday last. so as to produce a corresponding sensation (spectre) is not more remarkable than the ordinary function of sight by which an idea of an object is produced. his section on the "Influence of the Mind upon the Senses. equally forcible (in the case of vision) or the central phenomenon. as if At himself corporeally. my Saviour. and who in His word is pictured and presented unto me. first thought sight. 51 Luther referred his visions. there suddenly appeared upon the wall a bright vision of our Saviour Christ with the five wounds. that the deeper seated parts 1 Muller says. but. and in a meaner and more humble form therefore I spake to the vision thus Avoid thee I know no other Christ than He who was crucified. but I reflected that it . steadfastly looking upon me. In the following instance. are in the former case. : ! came" ("Table Talk. on the cross suffered and died for our sins. as normally happens. one cannot attribute the influence of the brain to either of the abovementioned mind. "The process by which phantasms are produced is the reverse is due.INTELLECT ON SENSATION. This objection whether we regard the retina ganglia." Now p. referring to those cases in tion of the eye coexists with phantasms. In because it implies that the phantasm truly a sensation. on the contrary. Whereupon the image vanished. . I it it had been Christ had been some must needs be an illusion and juggling of the devil. contemplating with myself how Christ. even when they were such as we might have supposed he would welcome. the idea in the sensorium excites the active state of corresponding particles of the retina or optic nerve " (iii. p. for Christ appeared to us in His word." by an idea vividly he says. therefore. while have held that there was an image impressed on the retina excited 1 by internal instead of. we do not think it necessary to assume more than an excitement of the sensory ganglia. by external stimuli. a mere idea. In the latter case of that to which the vision of actual external objects particles of the retina thrown into an active conceived in that condition by the sensorium ." he objects to the term hallucination being applied to such experiences. state by external impressions. Muller would in such a case as this. when is is. instead of being of course. example of automatic cerebral action. and states of it is. that they presence of the retina is which extirpa- "prove that the not a necessary condition for the production of such phenomena. He adds that the action of an idea upon the organ of vision. "I being in my chamber in fervent prayer. as the seat of the Midler's remark. 104). 1891). excited "On Good present in the mind.

no are of a mixed character in these cases. in the boat. doubt. perhaps. or be easily recalled." he but am now says. the the wreck. The simplest example. ishing of the apparition is an amusing contrast to the description given by Miiller of phantasmata witnessed by himself on waking. When in this state he could and half asleep at the always see a vessel before him with her stern under water. and her foresail shaking in the wind. which can be adduced of the in- fluence of Attention 1 It is hardly necessary to say we do not nomena (whether i etina." And after being picked up by the bark next day. but quickly fade" So prosaic a narrative of events custom. he says. It has become my them than formerly. This was strikingly shown in the experience of one of When escaping from the survivors of the unfortunate "London. I had to go through the same ordeal." would sometimes be baling out. but in his sleep.. as received. At any time during the night if I were to close my eyes. Unusually vivid sensations from external objects occasioned by we have frequent proofs. originally determined the intensity of the sensations which ." is an admission phenomena from subjective causes being referred to the sensory ganglia and central Luther's mode of accounting for the vannuclei of the optic nerve. less liable to "very frequently seen these phantasms. immediately to open my eyes them upon the wall or surrounding bodies. The images then visible. and I may say many weeks after. long after the original impression was cerebral excitement at the time will. the water same time. when I perceive such images. " and a troubled sleep it was. now is the act of recalling refer to cases of spectral phe- hallucinations or illusions) which do originate in disease of the . remain. her jibboom and foretopmast gone." The phenomena The mental condition. led to the subsequent spectral ship . "It was the 'London' as she last appeared to me. INFLUENCE OF THE 52 of the essential organ of vision are alone required. and are direct would have hardly suited the fervent imagination of the great Reformer. the writer's sensory ganglia excited the activity of the cerebral hemispheres sensation excited a corresponding train of ideas. he ship was always before me in this form. and able to have some sleep. if only for a second. upon the sensory ganglia. I passed through all the horrors of another shipwreck and for many nights after. sufficient to allow of all other instances of spectral 1 "I have myself.

" and became as vivid as when he had just looked at the sun. p." By this method. he said he had been several years very well. but if he ceased to intend his fancy upon them. is " too hard a knot for me disposition of the sensorium to be easily moved." which he confesses to untie. that they began to return "by intending his fancy upon them. both by the Imagination and by the light." At last he says. and then turned his eyes into a dark corner of his room till the spectrum vanished. when the light and colors were almost gone. related by Sir B. The following. is a case in point . but he thought that he could recall the spectrum try. with my curtains drawn. even though I lay in bed at midnight. I. the dark.: INTELLECT ON SENSATION. as often as bright objects were Another remarkable observation was made by He had only looked at the sun (in the mirror) right eye. brought his eyes "to such a pass" that he had to shut himself up." and he could he did but intend his Fancy a little So that here the powerful direction of Thought or Attention produced the same effect on the left eye. I could make the phantasm return without looking any more upon the sun. describes how he once looked a short time at the sun in a mirror. yet he found that "my Fancy began to make an looked upon. re- The peating the experiment three times. even after a long interval of time. that such an occurrence involves a question "about the power of Fancy. some use "the spectrum of the to return as to meditate upon the phenomena. "After this. and the oftener I made it return.in a dark room for three days together " to divert the sun for if I . and employing his other things. Brodie. they vanished again. I presently saw his picture. he began in a few days to have of his eyes again." if he durst adds. third time he found to his amazement. as when a man looks earnestly to see anything which is difficult to be seen." Newton with his in this case. as that of the sun itself upon the while upon it. 53 a visual impression. impression on my left eye as well as upon see the spectrum of the sun if my right. Yet sun began some months often as I began for after. He "by the power of his Fancy. Isaac Newton in a letter to Locke Thus. the more easily I could make it return again." When Newton wrote this interesting account to Locke. though I was mind about in my Imagination from thought upon him. or a point in the optic ganglia corresponding thereto." to move but inclines to refer it "a and to the Imagination strongly. 40). Sir (xxxi. right eye." he "I found that as often as I went into the dark and intended my mind upon them.

observed thai. and its decision must depend upon whether we hold that in the operation of these faculties the same brain-tracts (sensory ganglia) are excited as in the narily presented to our this "more" consists of production of actual phantoms. Looking. and as distinct. by the occasional persistence awaking from the sleep in which the dream well as his cerebral lobes. as tion. man figure has his mind either one . . is acted is indicated Midler referred to upon by the this fact to need not so further than the sensorium. however. p. it being evipart appeared. native turn of mind. 84). steadfastly at it. of the phantom after has occurred. and is the product of his ImaginaThat his sensory ganglia at least have been in activity. that the cerebral hemispheres only are in operation. so that my friend was on the point of going up to it. He as a proof that in visions connected with our dreams. saw standing at the foot friend of mine. he it was. informed had •or of a very sensitive and imagi- that not unfrequently his thoughts intensely fixed for a considerable time imaginary object. though only wall. the only difference being one of inor. as far as this part of it was concerned. the door what. A so far awake during sleep as to dream of a which has formerly impressed his retina and sensorium. by Brodie illustrates these remarks. cited by him from . What is not decided by Brodie. in which the Persian figure played a conspicuous and thus the whole was satisfactorily explained. although the figure was as plain as possible. " tensity A ." The readers of Scott's "Demonology and Witchcraft" will remem- ber a remarkable example of spectral illusion. that he might ascertain in the morning. and presently the figure dis- Considering the matter afterwards. and so that the perception of the imagi- nary object had existed simultaneously with that of the real ones. as the chairs and tables in the room. be seen. mitted there —an ideo-sensory The next gives is it prove that the retina mind in sleep. behind it was plainly to be seen also. on awaking It was as plainly to of his bed a figure in a sort of Persian dress. with when he on an absent on the opposite all the brightness distinctness of reality" (xxx. and me he had at last seen it projected for a brief space of time. he recollected that he had had a dream. but we The idea has been trans- activity of the brain or case given action. had con- tinued after he was awake. or which he never saw. or rather who.INFLUENCE OP THE 54 "A gentleman of my acquaintance. there something more than what occurs in the instance of objects ordi- minds by Memory and Imagination. dent that the dream.

and some having a pleasing appearance" (xxvii. near him and swords. and several All these phantasms times people on horseback. Thus a the operator. but they sleep them the wakening state" (xxiv. &c.. may Bells be rung in their ears. unless they be directly related to the idea or ideas which are at that time dominant. though the colors None of the figures ap- peared particularly terrible. Anaesthesia of the special senses in regard to all impressions from without. and their length and wideness. meeting of the Edinburgh Medico-Chirurgical Society. and discernible to all that are not stone blind !" and he proceeds. . practiced. say nothing for I 'persuade you. appeared to me in their natural size. and that it is it can hardly be said that the cere- upon the sensory ganglia so as to produce this rather that the impressions which reach the sen- sorium are not perceived by the mind. INTELLECT ON SENSATION. this instance a great men companies of in many persons saw. lohenever they went abroad. ex- hibiting different shades of carnation in the uncovered parts. . to see. it is a matter of fact. again to Oct. be deaf to all sounds except the voice of James Simpson pointed out Sir this fact. vi). while others failed arms marching along and disappearing The narrator says that a gentleman "All you that do not see. and on. all kinds made. . guns. most of them being of an indifferent shape. the state of the Intellect determines the effect of the sensorial impression. It may be that in such cases bral hemispheres act effect. Still. except those with which a person from some particular cause is in relation. 55 Peter Walker's "Lives. and what handles the swords had. saw a bonnet and a . black or blue and those who did see them there. v He these objects at two-thirds." occurring on the banks of the Clyde in In 1686. sword drop in the ioay. as distinct as if alive. 1851). at a He observed that such persons "were deaf for the time to other sounds. is strikingly exhibited in "biological" or hypnotic states. as well as in different colors and fashions seemed somewhat paler than in in their dresses. and the closing knots of the bonnets. or disgusting. real nature. years ago. and birds. vol. " Those who did not see told what locks the guns had. shaking. dogs. rubbing the cornea. whether small or three-barred or Highland guards also bonnets. called out. apparently listening alone to the voice that sent asleep to summon them vii. strong noises of tickling. who could see Nicolai's experience (without any sug- estimates the proportion "I saw gestion from without) forms an excellent parallel. subject may. comical.

and through which the vessels of the brain fill ao. he was instantly (viii. day states just referred to. in was so profound that no noise of an ordinary kind. In this case. Carpenter states that young man. customed to disregard. much more easily aroused by them than we are by others we are which are in themselves much stronger. it was supposed that the chimpanzee had succeeded in escaping from Attracted to the roof.ain. Carpenter expresses it thus " The awakening power of sensory impressions is greatly modified by oar habitual state of mind in re: gard to them. however loud. his cage. was serving as signalthe time when the French fleet was a at confined in Toulon harbor. when lieutenant under Lord Hood reverie. with his attention constantly directed During the few hours which he spent towards this one object. Dr. p. he devoted himself to his duty — made by the lookout frigates with the and perseverance. but which we have been acpressions. if we are accustomed to attend to these im- and our perception of them is thus increased in acuteness. pered in his ear. with this expectation in full force. Thus. according to Mr.— INFLUENCE OF THE 56 This condition of mind is somnambulistic "Sir exemplified also in cases of ordinary sleep. and this idea aroused the influence which. often remaining on deck nineteen that of watching for signals greatest energy hours out of the twenty -four. men saw the unhappy animal holding on to get astride one of the iron ribs. his sleep But the soundness of his sleep." was no animal whatever there. absence dreaming or or abstraction. would awake him. When the animals were destroyed by the fire. occurred during the conflagration at the Crystal Palace in the winter of 1866-7. controls the sympathetic ganglia. Moore." A curious illustration of the influence of the Imagination in modi- fying the perceptions of sensorial impressions derived from the outer world. and. and all this feeling But there was thrown away . and being desirous of obtaining the fa- vorable notice of his commander. gles were to it. Edward Codrington. both the cerebral hemispheres and the sensory ganglia must have been in a state of profound repose. as the newspapers informed us. as well as in the Dr. but there existed an impressibility as regards that particular idea. and it used to be a favorite amusement with his comrades to try various experiments devised to test repose. word aroused and if the ' signal' fit for was even whis- immediate duty " 855). and writhing It need not be said that in agony its strug- watched by those below with breathless suspense. "with sickening dread.

she repaired to the spot and daughters of a gentleman They expressed their surprise at her statement. and it. afterwards she mentioned the fact with pleasure to the who was supposed to have erected it. The somewhat similar illusion of which Scott was the subject when reading with much interest an account of Byron's habits and opinions. and he owns that the resemblance of the prince was.— ! INTELLECT ON SENSATION. shortly after an event which strongly excited public feeling the execution of Marshal ISTey when the incident occurred. Wigan's well-known experience in his own person is a case in point. thought she saw in the road a newly- even distinguished an inscription upon erected fountain. but one by an appropriate motto corresponding to the leading idea. On the arrival of a visitor. arms. M. &c. an electric shudder ran through the company. the usher announced Marechal Ney. fitted up with the skins of wild beasts. need not be detailed. armor. found to her astonishment that no drinking-fountain was in exist- — only a few scattered stones which had formed the foundation upon which the suggestion of an expectant Imagination had built ence the superstructure. whose recollection had been so strongly brought to before him. as perinscribed — — fect to his eyes. and legs of In the following case within an ape my own knowledge the visual illusion by the idea being. He was attending a soiree given in Paris by M. for a moment. these sufficed to form. as if it had been the reality. not only a definite erection. and her mind being at that time. Marechal aine. Bellart. not long after his death. the exact representation of his departed friend. her senses and of those who would have been aware the testimony of of the fact had it been true. Dr. occupied by the subwas clearly excited ject of drinking-fountains. The subject having previously occupied her attention. the mind. and assured her she Perplexed with the contradiction between must be quite mistaken. or recently. let i)im come nnta 11 tne a\ib brink. Wigan says. and feeling that she could not have been deceived (for "seeing is believing"). but it will be re- membered that passing from his sitting-room into the entrance-hall. " he saw right and in a standing posture. . and is too striking to be omitted from our collectanea psychica. present to A lady was walking one day from Penryn to Falmouth. the body. to the eye of fancy. in the first instance. namely "Jf emu man Some time tljirst. Dr. upon a 57 tattered piece of blind so torn as to resemble.

but in the central organs. such other articles as usually are found in a country entrance-hall. child believes the oar broken because he has not yet learned the effect produced by the refracting power of water. our senses even in a healthy condition mislead us. fault does not lie in the afferent nerve. it is the result of our not making allowance for an intervening medium between the eye and the oar. He moment. and distorting or moulding in other forms the impressions The received from objects of sense. Ignorance is the cause of an erroneous belief. the organ of sight must be acquitted of says he once met with a man who urged all blame. They report correctly on various occasions. so as to notice Fancy had impressed upon the of dress and posture of the illustrious stopped. but in the somewhat muddled official sitting at the company's head office and endeavoring to decipher the messages. although entire. In truth. but in vain his all — a good illustration of the slight influence of volition over sensation compared to recall it with that of a vivid mental image or idea acting upon the sensorial centres. to this apology for our senses is that in many first It is instance that The common reply instances. how- show that our senses are not really at fault even in this inand that if we arrive at a false conclusion. not in the telegraph wire. will stance. shawls. plaids. for a single the wonderful accuracy with which bodily eye the peculiarities Sensible." Sir Walter returned to the spot of what might may from which he had seen this product be called Imagination proper. in our ordi- nary language. as he ap- was composed. however. These it and coats. had there been a stone wall in the way? ever. of the delusion. stepped onwards towards the figure. into the various materials of which were merely a screen occupied by great itself. As unfair function The is would it be to charge the eye with deception because interfered with and distorted by an intervenient its fluid. the water the cause of the appearance of the oar. and at the extraordinary accuracy of the resemblance. we give the senses a worse character than they deserve. looks broken in the water. when only the sensory apparatus we can properly speak is diseased in the of the senses deceiving us. but we draw an incorrect inference or read their reports in a hasty or slovenly manner. and tried with by the force of his Will. as in that of the oar which. A little consideration. which resolved proached.INFLUENCE OF THE 58 his Imagination. Who would blame the eye because it could not have seen the oar at all. he felt that of wonder no sentiment save poet. Reid that the Protestant argu- ment against transubstantiation from the testimony of our senses was .

Crede quod habes. in the mind Dobbin. " it So mighty sometimes we hear is &c. so that sounds. The latter. et cdis : Sic tibi rescribo." and the other." to each the chime live the may sound as he expects to hear it. " Never. De tuo palfrido. but it is The Imagination may be justly no imagination that sounds are heard. a mental than a bodily one. are said to be the cause. inconclusive. 1865. On leaving More's house he borrowed his pony. one on the is 59 to the purpose. voices. of course. because. forever." et September. endeavored to convert him to a belief in the Real Presence. quod Crecle edis.: : INTELLECT ON SENSATION. by Erasmus. walking This hot summer-tide. and finding it very useful did when visited not incline to return but sent the following lines it. a j'ou tire be. as the influence of especially brought out. and assured him that if he would only believe he would be satisfied of its truth by unquestionable evidence. Madame De tion. straightway you'll ride. as there are cases in which several of our senses deceive us. which a writer in " Macmillan " " for Remember. But. " Quod mihi De dixisti corpore Christi. that by Stael. you habes ." it is very manifest that the thought — the predominant idea or expectation —makes a real sensation from without assume a different character. how do we know that they may not instance? The so much all deceive us in this which followed need not occupy our atsame subject between Erasmus and Sir T. Believe your And As regards uppermost staff's the sense of hearing. those instances are much more striking in which the expectation excites the central termination of the auditory nerve. The fine passage of the power of Imagina- in our hearts the very voice and accents of . If of two told that they say " Long children listening to a peal of bells one is King. that with Belief is although the effect is rather it Imagination united may be referred to. More discussion tention. translates thus told me Believe and you'll see Believe And body body 'twill 'tis a "So should . actually heard.

p. ing the distant pibroch of Lucknow when Havelock was approaching is hear- to the relief a beautiful illustration of the familiar fact that the in- is tense direction of the thoughts to a particular sensation increases the sensitiveness of the sensorium. and it was afterwards ascertained that no child had been born. I have from sweet when the servant brought but was not. The influence of Attention in intensifying auditory sensations The Highland woman constantly brought under our notice." The tion. and the procuratormen to examine the body. find it is dif- water is abominable. p. 15). who coffin attended with the medical committed. Dr. can hardly be omitted in this place. send out the cream table because in meat drunk assumes a very Misled by Expectation.INFLUENCE OF THE 60 one whom we love/' is true in a more literal sense than probably she intended. which made him feel faint. " taste my Hold your tongues !" exclaimed a dinner. how heavy it reverse is!" simply from expecting a metal to be was the In his "Human states that so. But on opening the coffin it was found to be empty. Physiology" (4th muscular development. influence of the Imagination (in olfactory sense " taste bad.. Dr. what was supposed The nett. and exclaimed " Bless me. and consequently no murder fiscal. clergyman told me that some time ago suspicions were enterwoman who was supposed to have poisoned tained in his parish of a The her newly born infant. of A and to be. declared that he already perceived the odor of decomposition. Carpenter man remarkable for the poverty who shrank from the least exertion he "has seen a of his in his . and in consequence he withdrew. " I cannot inative people. With imagSo with the sense of Frenchman. edit. the a gentleman. a fresh supply. hopelessly fanciful." The conversation dishis tracted Attention. Pearson. When potassium was discovered by Davy. the ferent taste according to the fancy. taking up a globule. estimated its weight on his finger. and would not allow him to dwell upon his viands with the gusto which a gourmand desires. Pearson. taste. was exhumed. whereas the real truth. its expective form) upon the well exhibited in a case reported by Professor Ben- Edinburgh (xviii. 821). the food eaten or the fluid grumbler known finds the it tasted sour. though an illustration that it by the Imaginais so good well known. sense of weight has frequently been misled The anecdote of Dr.

oesophagus. first. belongs to the Emotional section of mental under which states. ordinary alone. Under this head are comprised the sensations of the alimentary canal. in the chapters on muscular action." Now. although admitting of explanation by a reference to the mere operation of the Attention. produced the same would have done. lift a twenty-eight pound weight upon his little finger and swing it round his head with the greatest facility. when the subject was assured that the weight was a mere trifle. also the disagreeable sensations of hypochondriasis will be referred to. stomach. to a mental condition rendered acutely susceptible to impressions. the consequence of perturbations of mind. and then to the action of the Imagination. to the same individual. as regards the ordinary creations of the Imagination memory the same psychical or encephalic condition is perception of an object present to the senses the Mind. In concluding this section. when impressible state. including the pharynx. beyond the general observation that attention to the various processes of secretion and nutrition not only excites their activity. Again. whether intellectual or emotional. this was due. The familiar sensa- tion at the pit of the stomach. and intestines. In regard to other muscular sensations. but is accompanied by more or less well-defined feeling. and a long train of hypochondriacal symptoms follows. and that he This idea by affecting the muscular sense of recould lift it easily. they receive further illustration from the influence of the Attention on involuntary movements.INTELLECT ON SENSATION. a handkerchief placed on the table that he could not raise it the weight effect as actually lessening after repeated attempts to do in the felt so same heavy so. We do not propose to enter into the influence of the Intellect upon the sensations of Organic Life. The teachings of psychologists of the present day appear decidedly to favor an affirmative reply. I wish to revert to the states of mind in Recollection and Imagination in connection with the vexed question of the character and seat of resuscitated mental images. as will be subsequently shown. The ordinarily obscure sensations which these processes occasion become intensified. It is disputed. It is of an object or the —re-presentative consciousness — whether excited as in the actual —presentative obvious that the answer to this question is states of of great interest in the consideration of the influence of ideal psychical states upon the body. sistance. 61 state. Abercrombie's work on the " Intellectual Powers " elicited a re- .

"without for July. and that in these cases the images recalled by Memory. do certainly seem very distinct psychical. the retinal impression becomes so distinct as to constitute a spectral illusion. when the impression there had been transmitted to the sensorium. secondly. from the pen the idea that in Memory and who combated recalls past impressions and forms fresh comany assistance from the organs of perception. impressions which these nerves have previously transmitted to the brain. 1831. and the nerves excitable. or whatever that portion of the brain may be in which impressions are registered. move with the eye may be explained on another principle than that of referring the revived impression to the external organs themselves. Brewster's general conclu- was this. in the first place. just sufficient for the purposes of Memory and Imagination. examples he adduces are not those of ordinary . or created by Imagination. brilliant and phantassion matic in abnormal states of the brain or nerves. and the counteracting influence of the external world. and simply to so to think of think of and recall the face of an absent him as to see his face projected as if pres- ent before me. A very faint and transient impression was supposed by him to be formed on the retina. these faculties are powerful." feeble in ordinary Memory and Imagination.INFLUENCE OF THE 62 markable revieAv in the "Quarterly" of Sir David Brewster. but in . that " in all our organs of sense the mind possesses the power of retransmitting through the nervous filaments to the expansion of the nerves which are acted upon by external objects. acts by retransmission from the brain along the nerves to the same points of the retina as had been acted upon by the original object. If. for. friend. owing to the exceedingly fleeting character of the mental images produced. the Memory or Imagination the fact that they satisfactory." This he explained by supposing that the recollection of an object previously seen. not only in degree or intensity." and maintained that while in the ordinary action of these faculties. "follow the -motions of the head and eye. there are exceptionally favoring circumstances which render it possible to examine them as carefully as impressions made upon the retina by luminous bodies. and therefore encephalic conditions. Imagination the mind binations. and. At first sight. as regards actual phantasms. Brewster's opinion is in accordance with that to which we expansion of the sensory nerves have just His proofs are not altogether referred. moreover. we cannot fix and subject them to examination. If for the peripheral we substitute the sensorium.

The am general notion is G. It faint. p. See this position ably maintained by Eev. caused by the influence of ideational (hemispheric) activity upon the sensory the face —by ganglia. Let little us.. 1868." for April. or a synthesis of cognition and ob- Memory and Imagination while it It is are not so. passing beyond a mere notion does or does not cause a true sensa- however tion. it is. Mental Science. whether the definite remembrance of a particular object the other so sensorial. practically difficult to decide at Still. According to Carpenter. I recall the notion of this object Avhich the sensory impression or state was formerly produced. abstract notion of nevertheless Toe it. " we are repeating the same currents and re- line. what point the we strictly ideational passes into the sensational. form of a mountain of the actual object is easy to believe that the seat of a spectral identical with that of the conscious impression is when present to the senses. it is can think of a rose. kind and The one seat. Davies in the "Journal of See also the observations of Mr. as sion" 749). L. 1864. —the only dif- Dr. consider a further the changes which physiologists assume take place in recalling a sensation. hemiwhich seem to recall the same condition of the senthat which was originally excited by the sensory impres- other hand. p. there occurs a change is corpora quadrigemina.— INTELLECT ON SENSATION. on account of the importance of the subject. that perception ject. on the (i. (viii. It is true. and tracing out- its imagining one. . but nerve-centre —the it is it may figured in the mind's eye. formed." That subjective sensations and objective sensations occupy the same seat cannot be doubted but the difficult question is. but not so easy to believe that in recollecting a certain mountain. such as seeing a person's countenance in the mind's eye." January. one of intensity. W. Carpenter. e. urged is 1 a biune fact. have a bare without any action of the sensorium. a secon- dary change. Clarke in the "Psychological Journal. or animating the same nervous tracts as in the survey of the actual mountain" (Bain). and by keeping such notion before the consciousness I enabled to see in 1 my mind my friend's face. sorium. I true that the moment although no spectrum or phantasm in the optic think. 19. . as we have seen. 63 operation feels to be so purely "mental. as alleged. for the object is not denied that seeing a rose and the remembered outline of a rose involve the same operation of mind ference being. speaks of "ideas or conceptions as cerebral spherical) states. is In opposition to this hypothesis present to them.

and is as applicable to the present subject. the sensational state not being reproremarks that we can remember the expression of a countenance better than the features. "these. because the former appeals most to that all duced. in all probability. once perceived. though here external excite the renewal of previous sensations. involve the action of the same tracts in the encephalon as are excited by impressions immediately derived from the material world. We have seen that Bain (who upholds the latter view) is equally strong in maintaining that the ideas which our Memory and Imagination form of external objects. The essential point remains. or ideational changes. 808). according to this physiologist. His is it objects in spontane- may help to special theory." "must be im- we can be rendered conscious of Probably every sensory impression. he says. and as re- . as respects the motor apparatus. An excitation of nerves in the revivability of former In the above-mentioned acts this occurs. the ideas of throwing a stone. is regis- and "may be reproduced at some subsequent time. in thinking of throwing a stone . if the hemispheres be admitted to be conscious ganglia without the co-operation of the ganglia beneath them. arrives by this and other routes of profound psychical investigation at the same conclusion. so probably Memory . except that. although there may be no consciousness of its existence in the mind." The hemispheric ganglia. INFLUENCE OF THE 64 some can attain to.. the teacher. when speaking of Thus. are repetitions of the psychical states caused motions" one (x. or seeing a nothing else than weak by actual impressions and expression he employs is a very forcible dog run away. that we call ideas. ISoyj^. the hypothesis that the hemispheres themselves are not the seat of consciousness. —the nascent impressions. It is not necessary to adopt. act independently of the sensorium. He our ideational consciousness. Herbert Spencer. in reprodu- cing ideas. during the whole intermediate period" (p. ous or passive in Recollection. Again. while the latter obliges us to recall a As sensational state. xar gists. among psycholo- of the doctrine of Evolution. in an unqualified manner. the details of this somewhat elaborate theory. p. 456). founded to a large extent upon tered in the cerebral hemispheres. or from those internal subjective stimuli which cause actual hallucinations. the results of such cerebral action pressed on the sensorium before them. ought to be kept distinct from the general question. do not register sensory impressions "these can only be reproduced afresh by the action of external objects. is which that the sen- sory ganglia.

tion can arise in the mind. or ideas of sensations. and therefore strong. they show how great a tendency mere thought has to excite or awaken the correlated sensation. "not a little puzzled to ac- count for the fact that he could hear language so utterly unlike the language of real feeling. (February. and not be aware of its preposterousness but the surprise vanished when I thought of the phenomena of hallucination. we think. accompany direct. sensorial perception passing insensibly into intellectual perception so in Recollection and ImagiJust. be admitted. subject-consciousand object-consciousness are united. around us. excitation of the same nerve-centres" (p. accompany indirect. we suppose. the calling up of the one state as originally excited by external objects. that after her death he was haunted by her image every day. without the action of the sensory centres being excited. had him- " every word said by his characters was distinctly I was at first. G." Such instances may be thought to support the opinion that the creations of the Imagination. Lewes. dream. 1872) on "Charles Dickens. in an article in the "Fortnightly Review" spects the optic nerves.. and that they only require additional intensity to become what are admitted by all to be (subjective) sensations possessing the distinctness which ordinarily characterizes those of objective origin. At any rate. that he saw a spectral form in the day merely a In the vividly defined and irrepressible memory of her person. when the outer world was excluded. INTELLECT ON SENSATION. and dreamt that he saw her every night for a year. He does not mean. It may. that the original idea which was abstracted from the sensorial percepnation. the ideational . then. in the away. and sensational changes are almost inseparable. though in a reverse order. Dickens also says. that heard by him. or be recalled as a general notion. and the images re- by the memory occupy the same nervous tract as those which are excited by impressions from without. the very same image called — presented all the characters of a sensorial impression. excitations of nervecentres while the faint states of consciousness which we know as remembered sensations. Mr. H." states an interesting fact in reference to his brain-fictions." he adds. 124). The application of this position to the influence of ideal states of 5 . 65 mental picture of a dog running "Those vivid states of consciousness which we know as sensations. and therefore weak. however. as in perceiving objects ness . calls up the other and in this way the old paths are traversed. in regard to his sister-in-law Mary. namely (what the novelist self told him). .

and muscular sensations. these or to become identical in character. 2. and the resulting sensations and motions being in many instances as powerful from the latter (the inner) source as from the former. the material world excited these sensations. the sensation corresponding to the idea. and may perform muscular actions without. whether recalled by the Memory or created by the Imagination. that the in sensory force — in objectivity —with that which effect is identical results from an . The following are the most important conclusions in connection with the Influence of the Intellect on Sensation 1. and the palate feels. the nose smells. so that breathe an atmosphere in which the body the eye sees. with the complex states formed when peripheral impressions from external objects. and even against the Will. al- though but faintly. and in some more so. they may react upon the sensory ganglia. Whatever hypothesis we adopt. the Sensorium. the ear hears. 3. When. usually recalls also. or such action of the sensorial centres that the citement Mind . The recurrence therefore of the ideational with the sensory ganglia. being tastes. refers the special sensations to objective sources of ex- whether they cause movements. such a powerful excitement of the sensory ganglia occurs. There may be here two distinct series of automatic phenomena the involuntary representation of single or combined presentations. and the involuntary results in Sense and Motion ideo-sensory and ideo-motor the common centre acted upon by objective impressions from without and by subjective impressions from within.: INFLUENCE OF THE 66 mind is obvious . and influence general. causing sensational illusions. When ideas arise from the sensorial perception of impressions upon the peripheral terminations of the various classes of nerves. whether they excite by their intensity and vivid- ness general bodily sensations. though not necessarily in degree. In some conditions of the encephalic centres. first excited state co-operating them. special. or whether they act upon the organic functions. but be reproduced without our having the slightest recourse to the we may original. ideas are imagined may be merely ideational states. the funda- mental fact remains that Sensation and Motion are not merely more by the readily reproduced may original impressions being repeated. through intellectual operations. and with or without consciousness. organic. but they ever tend recalled. as acutely as if — — . solely in respondence to ideas.

the sensorial impression so distinctly as to produce. by Attention. but complete anaesthesia be caused by psychical means encephalic vascularity and innervation being increased or lessened in the several sense-centres. causing hallucinations or phantasmata. e. 5. 4. the spectrum or image which was impressed on the retina and perceived by the sensorium.. INTELLECT ON SENSATION. . g. recall in the case of sight. Not only may hyperesthesia of one or more of the senses be produced.. The mind under certain circumstances can. 67 impression produced upon the peripheral termination of the nerves.

Loss of power II. the other. I. and strangers were absolutely electrified" (xiii. were sometimes startled by the vehemence of the outbreak. equally true to nature.— INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 68 CHAPTER III. draw himself up to his full height. Sir Philip Francis is described by his biographer as "pacing He would then suddenly rapidly forward as if to pursue a thought. 454). : . and 'with a sweeping of the arm' evolve some epigrammatic sentence or wellrounded quotation. p. Felix Holt. with which he scription of but. Paralysis. Spasms and Convulsions. Irregular SECTION I. INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. is in in- admirably illustrated in the de- — two characters one real. by the hand of a master. induce and III. The other character. indeed fictitious. their action Regular contraction and relaxation I. habituated as they were to these sudden interruptions of the measured tread. The influence of an intense and exciting idea or thought ducing well-marked movements. is thus graphically described "His small. sketched loved to pace up and down the utmost length that a small suite of rooms would allow him. Even his own family. nervous body was jarred from head to foot by the conIn fact. excessive contraction : : : Movements. by on the voluntary muscles. turn short round. the cussion of an argument to which he saw no answer. —Muscular Contraction and Relaxation: Movements. The several mental states comprised under the Intellect may.

frequently peeps and pries. or in motion endeavors to track an idea through intricate mazes of thought. instead of in the chapter . the axes of the eyes in an absent the street. worked out the idea in detail. upon imaginary when thus veiled. in both these instances. the eyelids are sometimes closed to exclude outside distractions —the impressions from without —but the exception only ap- calculated to confuse those from within parent. take place not only then. but we are mainly indebted to Gratiolet for having." 1 When we We perceive the bearings of a question we say em- Figurative or metaphoric expressions derived from Sensation are introduced on Sensation. in order to illustrate the parallelism between the action of the muscles when excited by Sensation and by Emotion. It illustrates a — Why. so to speak. insight. should any change occur in the organ designed only to examine external objects as if stepping out of its province. but when the thoughts are occupied by ideas having no relation whatever to the external world. and the danger of running against anything in the road. as regards any practical good to be attained. ? Yet. and it is hopelessly beyond but because the movements excited by the objects of the outer world. the intellectual element was followed by emotional excitement. ecstasy is is The appearance of the eyes in a striking example of the appropriate. It may seem a contradiction to this statement that. which intensified the character of the external Observe the eye when thought commotion. but are Again. Hence confused vision.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. in profound meditation. but. with his eye ardently fixed. here. engaged Figurative language corresponds to speak of " the mind's eye " and " mental imaginary contemplation. ken. man walking through which he meets. in figurative gestures. continues to fix its gaze steadily objects. no doubt. the eyelids sometimes joyously opened. purposeless action of the muscles of the eyeball in ideal states of mind. Diderot pointed out the importance of this correspondence. for the eye. The philosopher is described by Engel as walking. 1 purely intellectual interest. strains all its its powers to gain an insight into what Why. acting upon the senses. 69 only moments when he could be said to be really conscious of his body were when he trembled under the pressure of some agitating thought. are not fixed upon the directed towards a point suggested objects by a subjective image." To some extent. concentrated upon a subject of is law we shall speak of more fully when we have to treat of the Emotions the parallelism between the outward signs of mental states and the action of the senses. while pur- suing some luminous train of thought. sometimes half-closed.

We will only add.' as if the words were something real in his mouth. praying for a bounty to the prisoners to drink his Majesty's health. smacking the lips. in a loud. delicious to taste" (Forster's "Life. I taste and so will you hereafter " (xiii. and i). " Je goute cela.— ! INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 70 phatically " lightened " we is " see it. I feel it A really It is audible. It is ceiving from — visible. when engaged in an intellectual repast." and he ends a lec" ture by expressing a hope that his propositions have been " goutees by the intelligence of his hearers. strikingly re- sembles the painful distraction of deafness. ous voice. at once. ence is not." The eyes of your understanding being en- another familiar example. so clear as in the case of sight. swallow- ficiently significant of the fact that figurative certain operations of the Intellect. it already. gave roll him every word he gave to such words as who would hear it " Captain Porter." vol. II. life. description of Captain Porter at the Marshalsea. When such ill-dealings must be seen in thought ?" The French say. sonorof ' I remember a certain luscious it. &c. to all when attaching their signatures. and ' ' Who we must add so gross As cannot see this palpable device ? Yet who so bold but says he sees it not. . The behavior of the gustatory muscles and the salivary glands is in strict accord with this. " the feast of reason and the flow of soul. by way of illustration of all the senses being figuratively used. The ing. is most characteristic of this read aloud a certain petition prepared to present to the king. due to the same remarkable parallelism existing between the two series of facts and although here the muscular correspond. magnificent example of figurative expressions in every sense. when a subject is not understood." Such expressions' are sufmovements accompany namely. " J'entends cela " means either I hear or understand that —a double signification. in Dickens's reminiscences of his early He principle. the forcible language of Sir Philip Francis on re- Edmund Burke a proof-sheet of his reflections pn the French Revolution language worthy of " Junius :" " The mischief you are going to do yourself is. p. the expression of the facial muscles. 282). to my apprehension. on the occasion of his birthday. I snuff it in the wind. palpable. Majesty gracious Majesty's unfortunate subjects — —gracious Majesty —your your Majesty's well-known munificence." a mode of speech characterized by Gratiolet as " eminemment heureuse et fine.

. From the time of Bacon to that of Chevreul no one. placed a sheet of glass between the mercury and pendulum when in motion. The influence of Expectation (or Expectant Attention) muscles." 957). would oscillate when held by the hand over certain bodies (e. The latter. that it shall strike so against the side of the glass and no more. against the sides of which As day. before. until looking recently at Lord Bacon's works I found the following " It is good to consider upon what things Imagination hath most and the rule. actually occurring when is a to repress. the unconscious action of the digital muscles responding to the Idea or Expectation making the trial. facial when 71 gun a is is upon the well exemplified in the appearance they assume about to be expect that anything The person fired. than things merely inanimate. I was not aware had been an old experiment. We see a different form of Expectation exhibited in the common experiment of discovering the time of day." Bacon " Howsoever. although the hand was fixed and motionless. is that it hath most force upon force things that have the lightest and easiest motions Whatsoever present in the mind of the person that this. and found its oscillations uniformly impeded and at last arrested. mercury). it it is expected to beat the time of often proves successful. or that have been living. that at such a concludes thus much : There a ring by a thread in a glass. is of this kind should be thoroughly inquired into would be him telling made of holding trial that holdeth it. " Nat. but there is certain involuntary nervous twitching the Will endeavors instinctive contraction of the muscles which anticipates the the eye. by holding a coin or ring by a hair or silk thread suspended between the finger and thumb in a glass. Feeling that he had not discovered in the quicksilver the real cause so force I conceive to be true : ' . . investigated the subject in a philosophical spirit. so affected does not going to happen to himself. upon light and subtile motions than vehement or ponderous " (xiv. as I conceive. telling those who fingers. with a slightly different object.: UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. around a sudden explosion or shot suggests danger. so far as we know. and He many times adds an experiment on the same principle." depending for its success key between two men's hold it. finding that a pendulum composed of a flexible wire and heavy weight. likewise. is well known. and more force. yet that strong Imagination hath more upon things living. I have no opinion of these things. g. that of " holding a without a charm. Hist. name it shall go off their fingers..

INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT VI of the motion of the pendulum. The result it was was that the pendulum did not move at all. which it oscillates. or if bandaged the reason of the latter the . being that the guiding sense of Sight. and the application of the same law becomes practically useful. is popularly called the Imagination. when called by its right name. so essential to motion when the Will is in abeyance (as exhibited in paralysis). and can is be intensified by other psychical One more forces. an experi- mentum cruris which demonstrates the true principle at work in a large number of the cases given in this book a principle which. For the pendulum substitute a limb contracted from functional disorder. or not. but sufficiently broad. this thing else. moves. as happens to a man walking on a narrow. and found that this had the effect of preventing any action of the pendulum. has been taken away. and which It forms resolves itself in such cases into Expectation. He next took the precaution to have his eyes bandaged. imitating that of Sense. the act of falling." Sympathy or Imitation on the body has been . 280) when his eyes followed them. whether. it putteth his spirit into the The very action of a influence of fall. exceedingly simple illustration may be adduced of the what may be called expectant Imagination upon muscular action and that is. p. therefore." The rationale being thus worded. is by no means to be despised. imagining a fall. instead of merely the arm. from expecting to fall. he fixed the hand from which suspended. and had a vague remembrance of being in " un 6tat tout particulier" (xv. Nothing can more the influence of what clearly illustrate than the above experiment. He justly concluded that an unconscious muscular movement explained the oscillations which had puzzled him. Further. if glass. in the conviction also that. the glass intervened between it and the mercury. touching the force of Imagination. " for. is diminished and at last arrested. or any- be interposed between the pendulum and the body over with the Expectation that arrested the it is moment the eyes of the experimenter are it will have this effect. The . hand itself is supported. operation of the Imagination reduced to simple imaging. path on the top of a house or mountain. influence of . although a pendulum suspended from the hand over certain bodies. In Bacon's "Natural History " this very example is given under " Experiment solitary. His careful investigations resulted. and performs oscillations which increase more and more in motion extent.

when aroused to action by that it mental states. hands and caused another free . and very plain inclines those with man. of the muscles activity. in a letter written from Aberdeen in 1676. of a whom he converses. excites other muscles or organs. he pressed to get but when we would have known more particularly found himself affected. 167). slender body. We caressed him as much as we could." The Sympathy of the whole frame with the prominent ideas of the mind. vexed his heart and brain. it is affected in This homogeneity between the actions is follows the course which excited by mental would have been . and. who lays down the law that " every part of the body sympathizes looked. that him to imitate unawares all the gestures and motions of had never seen him ourSince our return we were together at Strathbogie. for he still put oif and on.— : UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. being a little. with the mind. but also the wringing of the hands. notwithstanding all we had heard of him before. by which one muscle or organ. and all this with so much exactness. summer. and turns them aside when he is in company. in which the automatic action of the brain is strikingly exhibited " I remember. and had then the opportunity to observe that he imitated. with you "when Mrs. instance of imitation. as he saw us do. named Donald Munro. and afterwards had much ado to make him stay. we had occasion last Scorrgall and I were to speak of a man in this country very remarkable for something peculiar in his temper. affects the mind. wiping of the nose. how he he could only give us this simple answer. George Garden." says a certain Mr. is When p. and therefore casts down his eyes when he walks in the streets. should not be over- The term so applied has the authority of John Hunter. that we could not so much as suspect that he did it on design. This person. where he selves. old. to make such motions. referred to when speaking 73 of the signification to be attached to these Southey has recorded in "The Doctor" a remarkable terms. the body exhibited whenever one muscle ideal. &c. dwells. from his infancy. We then thin. . and yet with such a natural and unaffected air. has been subject to this infirmity. for whatever proportion" (ii. not only the scratching of the head. stretching forth of the arms. We had made several trials before he perceived our design. and we needed not strain compliments to persuade him to be covered. IV. as He is very loath to have it observed. were somewhat surprised with the oddness of this dotterel quality. When we held both his he told us.

the whole being to its depths the nearest stations being in communication with the most distant outposts. the embarrassment caused by too prolonged Attention to the emphasis and the aspirates is familiar to all and the only remedy then is to pronounce them not . but forces the —the When Sym- whole system into eye. among the striped muscles. In the pronunciation of words. If we are engaged in swallowing food electrical thrills . the arms. the effect is ordinarily feeble in character but when a real scene is witnessed at too great a distance to render . INFLUENCE OP THE INTELLECT 74 pursued in tion. as reflected in its own chambers of imagery. The influence of Attention. would Thus. Thus. it does not assist the regular action of the muscles. a school-boy becomes frequently thoroughly "pottered" by . Attention or the direction of Thought to a part does not affect the muscles under the control of the Will so easily as those which are and it is the semi-voluntary character of the pharyngeal muswhich renders them. cles . through the operation of Sympathy. though not so much so as by Emotion.. and legs are the automatic representations of the forms they actually assume if rendering help on the spot. while the horror depicted in the countenance is merely the facial expression of the Emotion. "sending through every nerve of the body. body and body. and that derived from the Attention. from the wonderful fellow-feeling established by nature between mind and mind. it usually occasions deglutition. upon the voluntary muscles (usually muscular sensations) is not so striking as that of some of the foregoing mental states. so in Imagina- vividly imagines another in danger the scene is and the purely the work of Imagination. into violent action. the facial muscles. the Imagination. the motions of the arms. or between the various parts of the mental and bodily constitution of an individual. form altogether single muscle. The muscles engaged in articulation are also markedly influenced by Attention. assistance. trunk. are an actual scene. the most susceptible to its influence. not being necessarily consentaneous. and the frame changing now with its own and now with another's condition. but disturbs the impression made by it the presence of a morsel in the gullet. pure and simple. yet not only does the law of harmonious action legs. the As reality." stirs. with as little thought as possible as to their correct enunciation. when a person fall in presence of of a heavy weight —how the of averting the impending danger move a pathy impel him useless to thrown ! —say from entire attitude assumes the Reason tells him it is to gesticulate. Directed to the pharynx.

ignoring the operation of this prinand the more he is ordered to attend carefully to minute shades the teacher's ciple. it In almost requires the guid- ing influence of an expectant idea to induce any well-marked action. through the is distinct set of nerves medium influence of the same cerebro-spinal nerves as convey the mandates of the Will. Simple attention to the finger or the foot seems. seeing that motion. gotten in the muscles of the part. are proofs of the influence of the Attention.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. certain fidgetiness is be- Before dismissing this subject. directed in a definite manner. 75 method of tuition. though well-assured evidence. p. Whether by which the mind's attention is directed to different parts of the body ? His answer was that we must frankly admit that we do not know what nerves are engaged question of Sir there be any especial nervous action 1 in this function. nation of the phenomenon before us. to render more it difficult to keep it A motionless. and so secondarily lead to movements. emotional excitement. . mode of reading or speaking. 42). increase the vascularity of one or " Those of voluntary motion can scarcely be admitted. the more difficult In stammering the influence of Attention is well known. in opposite direction along the we have no same If. is is in giving this partial direction to the Consciousness. however. truth. 1 act directly . as they mutually have to each other " (xvi. In the direction of the Attention to a special point of the body. an idea may may upon the motor nerves (ideo-motor action) or itmore of the sense-centres (ideo-sensory action).- It would now be generally admitted that no required for the action of voluntary muscles. a condition of which. we must admit two several actions tract of nerve. we suppose the nerves of sensation concerned. Holland's may be briefly referred to. therefore. a H. but these. apart from those occasions in which it is mixed up with of difference in his does it become. the hemispheres act upon the sensori-motor ganglia. Other examples might be given. as regards the voluntary muscles. when excited by the that whether purely automatic or partially voluntary. on the other hand. in no part of the effect. in either case. can we find any certain expla- not disproved. though it has various and close relation to both. nor in the nerves ministering to them. and that the influence extends to parts over which we have little or no voluntary power. The only employment of Will here this sense. with the illustrations already brought forward under Expectant Attention. In neither of these functions. and the transmitted. is Attention .

a very severe and well-characterized convulsion. it is and abstract idea. in the name of the Lord. who had epileptic fits whenever he studied hard. when a powerful Expectation is excited that we spasm or convulsion. Galen mentions a young man." The confident assertion that a person subject to epileptic have an attack. without the are most likely to witness which there is emotion of Fear. It is. the simple thought or remembrance of previous attacks suffices with some epileptics to eases. within the last half century. Tyler Smith has — related to me an instance of an epileptic girl attack whenever she tried to undo a who difficult experienced an knot in her work. for the power she exercised over nervous dis- young woman was brought your complaint?" "Epilepsy. and the difficulty will then A cold be in selection rather than collection. and immediately the Imagination has produced upon the same person. thirty minutes. with the same means. to her. attained great reputation in France. may cause a of epilepsy. before generates an Emotion. which was tapestry" (xvii. The effect was instantaneous. and what are called crises. —Irregular and excessive Muscular Contraction Spasms and Convulsions." replied the girl. and had a violent attack of epileptic convulsions. Amour sufficient to fits will produce one. that under circumstances absolutely similar. conclude from the statement of the French Commissioners on Animal Magnetism "upon persons endowed with sensitive nerves we have produced convulsions. employed for certain result. p. however. The patient fell backwards. a difficult task. We is. are the illustrations which : will be given of the influence of the Intellect in causing spasms and convulsions. When we treat of the Emotions our cases will be abundant. has produced no effect. "What is . It is related that on one occasion a when she demanded. fit Mental application. even of a very slight character. not calculated to cause excessive muscular contractions. Without Expectation. Marshall Hall observes "Dr. however. a grammarian. 24). "Animal Magnetism alone." that the effect was brought about by leading the subjects to expect a They add. has frequently proved Madame De St. Amour. "Then. To obtain cases in Expectation of the phenomenon only. have a fit now !" exclaimed Madame De St.INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 76 SECTION Few II.

had a recurrence of the attacks whenever he heard a dog bark. In a workshop where sixty women were at work. From what but the unreasoning operation of this law. lacking these. may Van be re- boy who. Emotion simply takes the place of the Swieten's is 77 Works recorded a case of epilepsy which is Ideal In original feeling. though striking evidences of a blind instinct its beneficial operation upon the control of reason and constitute such those just referred depending for the moral sense. the famous scenes in the Cemetery of St. one of them. likely to spread through the and the occurrence in Boerhaave's practice which is so well known. ferred to this principle. Medard. Napoleon necessary entirely to destroy the box by fire. several immediately followed his example when they became his successors in the same box? What a practical commentary on this imitative principle of the mental constitution. when a sentinel of Napoleon's army committed suicide by hanging himself in his sentry-box. remarks that history. found it that. and still more potent the recollection the cause has been of an alarming character. The reporter in the above journal. leading simply to a mischievous reproduction of acts. to prevent further mischief. if fit . Illustrations of the pernicious influence of this principle in connec- tion with witnessing or reading the reports of atrocious crimes will occur to the reader. until twenty it. but occur more frequently than would be supposed from this circumstance. scarcely presents more than two. after Her a violent altercation with her husband. in fact. as they do not^ good examples of bodily effects from Sympathy as to. but no sooner had they done so. that of a The mischievous fied in the des Connaissances treats influence of Sympathy or Imitation following case which occurred at Lyons. companions pressed round her to assist. excited by an association of ideas.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. but. could it happen that. Medico-Chirurgicales " is exempli- The "Journal (16th February. the images of which are impressed on the mind through one or other of the senses. having been frightened into epileptic fits by a great dog. cause a recurrence of the of the cause. than first one and then another fell a prey to the same kind of were prostrated by attack." They certainly are not very frequently reported. 1851) such occurrences as "excessively rare in the annals of physi- ology. had a nervous attack. and need not be detailed here. The contagion appeared company. Such facts demonstrate in strong colors the duty of not neglecting the idiosyn- . but was checked by clearing the room. in adding that there are few precedents.

ordinary safeguards. and that he could hardly swallow When he first applied to me. which it was very is Hay garth in his letter to Dr. and confined him- self to bed. difficulty of swallowing. and the patient would probably have died.attempt to that this effect may swallow water." It is important to remark that. as pointed out by many medical writers. present asked him whether he had any sensation of heat at the pit self completely hydrophobic. a medical friend who was anything. and he began By a little indulgence of his fears this might have to walk about. however. that is. . but the man. call idiosyncrasies are the workings of a universal principle acting exceptionally in conse- quence of the absence of certain modifying influences underlying a thousand posed by the removal of its —a principle unsuspected or unrecognized until ex- acts. a meagre hypochondriacal subject. Cases of spasmodic action of the pharynx. but next day I found him in bed. p. observes "Dr. and will be One case. the mere mention of . by a dog- of the stomach. tremors. sometimes produced by the power I met with an instance of this kind lately in difficult to prevent a person from rendering him- Himself and his wife had been bitten which they supposed to be mad. iii. and of mental origin. continued to persuade himself he was ill He of rabies. 46). and confusion in the head. into been converted a very clear case of hydrophobia. .: INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 78 crasies of men and women as regards the association of external Often what we forms and internal images. Percival has justly remarked that the difficulty of swallowing of Imagination alone. are more likely to arise from a powerful Emotion than an intellectual act. expecting death for nearly a fortnight. may properly be given Dr. Professor Laycock would say be produced whether there is or is not an idea whether the changes by which ideas are presented to the consciousness reach it or not that which immepresent in the mind. The image the Imagination causes the same effect — — as the. here. treating of Rabies Canina. At last I re- marked to him that persons who were attacked by rabies never survived more than six days this drew him out of bed. He answered in the negative doubtfully . but by no one so forcibly as by Rush. complaining of heat at the pit of the stomach. more or less assuming the form of hydrophobia. fancied that he had uneasiness in his throat. Ferriar in his " Medical Histories and Reflections " (vol. The woman thought herself well. water will in a hydrophobic person induce the recurrence of the symptoms. given under that head.

and confusion is ocand sensory ganglia. and another. 79 d lately precedes the hydrophobic gasp being the ideagenous and kinetic "The changes in the cerebrum. exciting another series (kinetic changes). cerebral nerves being analo- gous to the posterior spinal nerves. true is. the traverse the optic nerves matter in the brain. causing changes (ideagenous changes) corre- sponding to the idea of water thence the series of excited changes . hemispheres are no impression can reach them. must If a man's cerebral. phenomena. there ticular impression. but the ganglia respond to an idea introduced into the mind.. may not be true. January. sometimes happens that the term It employed in as no doubt. it may seem to be a misnomer to speak of the influence of mind at all upon the body. tion of a definite idea in his mind. is Thus. "The sensation or in reference to these is only an accompanying and not a necessary antecedent" (ix. without the mind being conscious. he observes. but that the from without. is) may That ideagenous changes (paradoxical take place without an idea when properly understood. so thoroughly asleep that is — is —that the mind may not indisputable conveyed to it . in regard to that be impressible is operations which equally clear. October. UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. and it is said that the individual is conscious of this par"consciousness" casioned. idea is may be different senses. and the encephalic ganglia analo- gous spectrum of the cup of water will and enter the analogue of the posterior gray to the spinal ganglia. will pass over to the analogue of the anterior gray matter. as in somnambulism. the statement. But at any rate. without sciousness consciousness as it is be conscious of its ordinarily understood own brain. can be excited . understood as a state of conscious mind. The terms as con- and impressibility are frequently confounded together. only an accident. 1845). that the first change in the series of phenomena is excited. it is clear that no idea. — consciousness — it is by reaching the hydrophobic by mentioning to him water. for is patient's consciousness. in reference to the cases which our now under consideration. Thought conscious Mind being from this point of view 1854). by the induc- implied. Elsewhere. a state of the hemispherical But in the ordinary sense of consciousness this The fact is one person assumes that to have an to be conscious . by which the necessary groups of muscles are combined in action" (vii. That the brain may act in a reflex or automatic manner. in which there is apparently unconscious sleep. that an idea may be present an excito-motor. the condition of thought induced under these circumstances and coexisting result.

says Mr. p. however." still. Under this section fall those cases occur in certain susceptible states of of cataleptic rigidity which mind from the influence of Ex- In the following illustration the effect of what is usually called imagination. the hemispheres the senses. movements. but the material changes in the vesicular neurine or gray matter . I had the pleasure of sitting very near the lady. but no "mention of water" will excite Restore consciousness. which is here synonymous with Expectation or Expectant Attention. Madame St. directed to modifying the natural condition of the part so regarded. plectic fit. and no manifestation whatever took place during the whole time until after I had explained evening at this lady's house to afford my any views regarding the power of an act of fixed part.INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 80 the sensorial ganglia can alone respond to impressions That. and of enjoying a long and interesting conversation with her and her husband. of very moderate power was placed. it pro- I was kindly invited to spend an me an opportunity of seeing and having more particulars of these wonders. act. so susceptible to ordinary mesmeric passes that she might be sent off into the sleep by the most simple attempt to produce it. from her seeing the light duced streaming all around it. in attention." but an idea to which we attract the notion In the epileptic woman. without the is that which person being conscious in the popular sense of the term. "it If a man. is who is hydrophobic. "of an interesting case of a highly susceptible lady. and consciousness effect. and the mention of It is true it is not consciousness. which does and similar cases consciousness is clearly a condition. . and so sensitive of the influence of magnets that she was quite uncomfortable if a magnet were near her in any room. this is of movement. has an apo- abolished. and which was not a merely " quasi-idea. the spinal cord may act. can and does happen. Amour's of consciousness. which they respond to impressions or that a latent idea (so called) conveyed may excite may to made through be in a state in them from without. these have been in these instances set in motion by the idea which has reached the consciousness. and in the dark she could point out any part of the room where a magnet pectation. Braid (xx. 82). the sensory ganglia may the characteristic spasm. not the Will or sensation which is the principal agent its but in True. is admirably exemplified apart from the par" I had heard much." ticular muscular affection which resulted. command that she should have a fit would have had no effect without consciousness. water has this.

. directed her attention became rigidly cataleptic" had she which arm to added. in his side pocket next to the lady. from home to buy some meat. and as she was returning in the evening. and the or any one else. SECTION The simple or relaxed is sensitiveness III. effect Dr. be Mr. and very quickly fell asleep. secondly. if while his judgment entertains doubts of success his attention be distracted by a variety of the one effort which objects. the conviction of inability to use the muscles engaged in articulation. it must with the armature unattached. a small village in — a maid servant of that . As she was passing the bridge. if a man's mind be ease may become absolutely impossible — entirely possessed with the idea of its impossibility . paralyzed by the absorbing conviction that The principle is which we have already It it this is re- out the will be ineffectual. gentleman's family was sent a short league Kleische. case. who asked her where she had been. to which she returned a very distinct answer.— Loss of Muscular Power belief or conviction that a muscle cannot be contracted sufficient in a sensitive person. Upon reaching the outer court of her master's residence. the same (although the result differs) as that considered when speaking of the of a conviction in inducing muscular action. she thought she suddenly heard a great noise behind her. Carpenter gives two reasons why an action which can be ordinarily performed with " first. like the noise of many wagons. to cause temporary ferred to the Imagination desire or will Paralysis. p. Upon turning round she observed a a child. and frequently urged her to go along with him. She was requested 81 and to direct her fixed attention to her hand. or. belonging to Mr. but she still continued to do so. : is . The not. is well exhibited "In S Germany. had a fourteen pound lifting magnet. but continued to walk on. the influence it to bear upon 793). of expectation. or in is induced. She executed her orders correctly. without anything being done either by her husband She did so. she was met by the coachman.: UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. so that may he cannot bring alone be needed " In the following curious (viii. watch the result. Braid. not bigger than her to go along with him. who commanded little gray man. loss the effort to carry in other words. return any answer. He did not remark the little man. V. She did however. one iD whom of power. little figure accompanied her.

15). whose muscular motions were controlled in every possible way. but could not make any answer to the questions which were proposed to her. . p. but he could not take it. Darling. 16). and having said so he disappeared. tray. On all one occa- was presented to him on a though anxious to do so. p. from De la " Roque's " Journal de Medecine A woman saw a man with a paralyzed arm but. Crossing a street also was very door he was always arrested for men had and on going in or out of a some minutes. and upon her refusing to answer him. what had happened to II. on the expiration of the fourth day. having ordered a glass of water. The girl hastened to her apartment. when the obstruction In the other case the peculiarity was limited. on Professor Christison's authority. volition excepted. he told her with a menacing look. Often on endeavor- could not carry out what he willed to perform. graphically described their feelings to be as if another person taken possession of their Will' " (xviii. "W by Dr. ' — an (a very common one) of Mr. last. ing to undress he was two hours before he could get off his coat. . it of houses. his mental faculties. unable to open her eyes. and narrated her" (lxiii. servant standing before was overcome. and he could not An unbuilt-on space in the street was sure to stop him. that she should be four days and dumb. in the street. his him for half an hour. On with- on recalling the circumstance. " biologized . He was rendered unable to raise his hands or to let them fall he was made unable to move one while he could move the other unable to sit down or to rise up or to take Dr. but all was in vain. Professor Bennett records. Both these gentle- difficult. . hold of or let Demangeon go an (Ix) cites the following case out any ill her arm felt object" (xix.INFLUENCE OP THE INTELLECT 82 he summoned her for the last time. subsequently. effects : . She appeared to understand all that was said. numb. being perfect. Gregory gives the case officer. and he kept the sion. when walking proceed. If. two cases which appear to be illustrative of the influence of a mental state unconnected with Emotion or with organic disease upon the power " The first was that of a gentleman who frequently of locomotion. attempting to take up a bottle of brandy . or to "pronounce a word. this individual came to a gap in the line will suddenly became inoperative. p. she arose in tolerably good health. She was incapable of swallowing the medicines which were blind At ordered for her. and threw herself on the bed. Everything was tried for her recovery by the family with whom she lived. except by signs. 353).

UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES.
she was unable to grasp

it,

and

One

let it fall.

all

On recovering from

bled.

power, she

An

soon experienced a general loss of feeling and motion.

was administered, and she was

body

side of the

Alarmed, and afraid of losing

became paralyzed.

83

emetic

the seizure

she explained, as above, the circumstances preceding the attack.
are not informed whether the
It

not.

may have been simply

symptoms

entirely passeed

We

away

a case of hysterical paralysis

;

or

or an

oncoming attack of real paralysis may have been hastened by the
mind dwelling upon the man's palsy.
Hysterical affections of the joints are good examples of morbid
conditions arising from the imagination, but are usually more or less
emotional states. Sir B. Brodie observes, " The symptoms may frequently be traced to the circumstances of the patient's attention having

been anxiously directed to a particular joint."

Actual paralysis from hard and prolonged intellectual labor should
here be noted as a not infrequent result.

come under our

In many of the

notice, there are other causes at

cases

which

work, such as anxiety,

&c, and
would be difficult to find a case of purely intellectual
paralysis.
At the same time excessive exercise of the reasoning
powers must be accompanied by danger. It would be interesting to
have some estimate of the number of literary men who succumb to
disappointed ambition as to literary fame, impecuniosity,

no doubt

it

paralytic affections, although, for the reason stated above, open to

considerable fallacy.

do

It

may be remarked that

these cases of paralysis

come on suddenly, but, as Dr. Richardson
preceded by significant warnings, the most strik-

not, as a general rule,

truly observes, are

ing being " a sensation on the part of the patient of necessity during

any mental

effort for

frequent rest and sleep

described so faithfully
poet Cowley.

The

by Johnson

;

symptoms such

as are

as belonging to the case of the

cause of these cases

gressive course towards general palsy of

is

usually clear

;

it is

mind and body, and

a pro-

it is

not

unlike the decline of mental activity in the age of second childishness

When

and mere oblivion.

this condition exists, at

however

on the nervous structures, and
transforms suddenly the threatening malady into the extreme reality.
Sudden muscular paralysis is the most common sequence of shock
early a stage, the slightest shock tells

under
it

may

this condition

;

it is

in

most cases at

first

at once be general in respect to all the

a local paralysis, but

muscular system under

the control of the centres of volition " (" On Physical Disease from

Mental Strain," xxi, 1869,

p. 360).

INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT

84

man who had been partially cured of a
and in whom, if the exertion of mind was prolonged, "the whole of one side was paralyzed" (xxii, II, p. 115).
In connection with this case, it may be stated that M. Lombard has
made some researches into the influence of intellectual work on the
temperature of the head, and observes that " all circumstances exciting the Attention and producing cerebral action, as a noise, or the
Gall records the case of a

wound

in the brain,

sight of a person, caused an appreciable elevation.

the exaltation
certainly

Active intellec-

more marked effects, though even then
does not amount to one-twentieth of a degree Cent.
neither to changes in the movements of the heart, nor

tual exertion produces

still

It

is

to

muscular movements, that the elevation of temperature

is

attribu-

During energetic intellectual work, the temperature of the
members falls as much as one-fourth in one-half of a degree Cent.,
It is at the
partly, no doubt, owing to the immobility of the body.

table.

occipital region that the changes in temperature are

(Brown-Sequard's "Archives of Physiology," 1868.)

most apparent."

:

UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES.

CHAPTEK

85

IV.

INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT UPON THE INVOLUNTARY
MUSCLES.

The

upon the Heart and non-striated muscles with

Intellect acts

a power similar to that which

it

exercises over the voluntary or stri-

ated muscles, causing regular movements, Spasm, and Paralysis.

The

direction of thought to the

barrassing influence upon

much

its

Heart has, very generally, an em-

regular action.

It

is

true, emotional

and more instant influence but simple
attention to its beats is usually attended by slight, and occasionally
by painful cardiac disturbance. This action of an intellectual, as
distinct from an emotional, state is referred to by Sir H. Holland

states exercise

"There

is

a

greater

;

cause to believe the action of the heart

is

often quickened,

or otherwise disturbed, by the mere centring the consciousness upon
it,

without any emotion or anxiety.

On

occasions where

its

beats

are audible, observation will give proof of this, or 'the physician can

very often infer

it

while feeling the pulse

to irregular pulsation, such action is

by the

creased,

effort

;

and where there

is

liability

seemingly brought on, or in-

of Attention, even though no obvious Emotion

be present" (xvi, p. 17).

From

the same cause, medical students Avhen their thoughts are

directed by their studies to this organ, are frequently sufferers from
its

Anxiety no doubt comes in here to aggravate

disturbed action.

the disorder, and will be referred to again under Emotion.

Frank
to

himself, even

when

in advanced

life, is

stated

have been attacked while devoting especial attention

ject of heart disease

during the preparation of his

Peter

by Romberg
to the sub-

lectures,

with such

by an intermittent pulse, that he
felt assured he was affected with an aneurism ; the symptoms only
ceased after the completion of his labors, and after he had enjoyed
the relaxation and diversion of a journey (xxxiv, II, p. 6).
severe palpitations, accompanied

INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT

86
It

is

a

common remark

that medical

men

frequently die of the

which they have devoted special attention. When the
coincidence occurs, the two circumstances are likely to be placed in
There is
the relation of cause and effect without sufficient reason.
disease to

nothing, however, improbable in the popular impression
slight

symptom

physician,

;

very

for a

by the
and would be

referable to the organ especially studied

would concentrate

his attention

upon

it,

likely to aggravate any previous mischief, and in the case of the
heart induce irregular action and ultimately hypertrophy, or some

And

other decidedly organic affection.

do not a large
supposition

class of facts

How

?

appear

probable as this seems,

yet,

difficult to reconcile

with the

explain the impunity with which thousands of

and firmly believe that they have a particuit night and day, and yet escape

hysterical persons fancy

dwell anxiously upon

lar disease,

without any organic disease whatever ? What proportion of medical students have heart disease out of those who after having their
studies directed to cardiac maladies fancy they are themselves af-

A

fected?

"You

his lectures,
it

young

occurs in

we

small one,

believe.

Dr. Armstrong said in one of

will seldom be alarmed at hypochondriasis
subjects.

.

when

I have, since I have lectured here, had

the honor of curing some of the pupils of extraordinary and danger-

ous organic diseases by very slight means. I have cured an aneurism of the aorta by a slight purgative, ossification of the heart by
a little blue pill, and chronic disease of the brain by a little Epsom
salts

It

!"

must

therefore be allowed that while attention to the action of

the heart embarrasses
present,

it

its

action,

and while,

proves mischievous, there

that in a healthy organ

it

is

very

if disease
little

be actually

evidence to prove

would induce more than functional

dis-

turbance.

Nowhere

are the pathological effects of the Imagination

valetudinarian better satirized than in
29th, 1710-11, in which

contracted his
physic.

He

ill

"The

upon the

Spectator" of

the writer of a letter confesses that

March
he

first

habit of body, or rather mind, by the study of

said that he

no sooner began

to peruse

books of

this

nature than he found his pulse irregular, and scarce ever read the

account of any disease that he did not fancy himself afflicted with.
Dr. Sydenham's learned treatise on "Fevers" threw him into a
lingering hectic, which
that excellent piece.

hung upon him all the while he was reading
"I then," he continues, "applied myself to

UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES.
the study of several authors

who have

tempers, and by that means

fell

growing very

fat,

Not long

tion.

written upon Phthisical Dis-

into a consumption,

till,

at length,

I was in a manner shamed out of that Imagina-

after this, I

found in myself

the gout, except pain, but was cured of

it

me

the

all

by a

symptoms of
upon the

treatise

who

'Gravel/ written by a very ingenious author,
convert one distemper into another) eased

me

87

(as it is

of the gout

usual to

by giving

I at length studied myself into a complication of dis-

the stone.

tempers, but, accidentally taking into

my

hand that ingenious

dis-

course written by Sanctorius, I was resolved to direct myself by a

scheme of rules which I had collected from his observations."
There are many interesting cases of syncope from states of mind
which it is not always easy to analyze and to decide upon as
regards their emotional or intellectual character.

Thus,

if

a person

undergoes a sham operation of venesection, and believing that fainting will be the result, faints,

caused the result.

on being

we may be

doubt how far Fear has

Thus, some years ago, a medical student in Paris,

Masonic society, was
His eyes were bandaged, a ligature

initiated into the mysterious rites of a

subjected to the above process.

bound round

When

in

his arm,

and the usual preparations made

to bleed

him.

a pretence of opening the vein was made, a stream of water

was spurted into a bowl, the sound of which resembled that of the
flow of blood which the student was anticipating.
The consequence
was that in a few moments he became pale, and before long fainted
away. Gratiolet, who relates the story, does not say whether he
inquired into the proportion of cases in which syncope was caused
by passing through the ordeal of membership. There is a case on
record of a man who was sentenced to be bled to death.
He was
blindfolded, the sham operation was performed, and water allowed
to run down his arm in order to convey the impression of blood.
Thinking he was about to die, he did actually die. Imagination
had the same effect as the reality. But it is impossible to say how
much Fear had to do with it; probably a good deal, as in the instance
of the

man

reprieved, after his head

the fatal axe was about to

fall.

had been

laid

The reprieve came

on the block, and

too late.

The

antici-

pation of death had arrested the action of the heart.

which fear
it seems to have been simply a strongly impressed
unattended by fear. How far, however, death happens through

tions belong to the class in

some instances
idea,

Death predicmay enter largely, and yet in

;

:

INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT

88

arrest of the heart's action one cannot say,

most likely

Probably

cause.

it

A lady, the daughter of Sir
by an

we

but this seems by far the

so in the following case

Charles Lee, died at the hour foretold

Believers in the reality of ghosts will perhaps

apparition.

not dispute the

was

fitness

of such a case as an illustration in point,

if

suggest that even a supernatural visitant might, by this principle,

bring about the event.

The

apparition, that of a

little

woman, ap-

peared between her curtain and pillow at 2 o'clock, and assured her

by 12

that

o'clock that

day she would be with

her.

"Whereupon,"

says the narrative (xxv, xxvi, p. 262), "she knocked for her maid,
called for her clothes, and when she was dressed went into her closet,
and came not out again till nine, and then brought out with her a

her father, brought

letter sealed to

it

to her aunt, the

Lady Everard,

what had happened, and declared that as soon as she was
dead it might be sent to him. The Lady thought she was suddenly
fallen mad, and therefore sent presently away to Chelmsford for a
physician and surgeon, who both came immediately, but the physician could discern no indication of what the Lady imagined, or of
any indisposition of her body; notwithstanding, the Lady would

told her

needs have her

let

blood, which was done accordingly.

And when

them do what they would with
the
might
chaplain
be called to read prayers
her, she desired that the
and when prayers were ended, she took her guitar and psalm-book
and sat down upon a chair without arms, and played and sung so
melodiously and admirably, that her music master, who was then
and near the stroke of twelve she rose and sat
there, admired at it

young woman had

patiently let

;

herself

down

in a great chair with arms,

and presently fetching a

strong breathing or two, immediately expired, and was so suddenly

by the physician and surgeon. She
and the
died at
but he
Warwickshire
in
letter was sent to Sir Charles at his house
was so afflicted at the death of his daughter, that he came not until
she was buried but when he came he caused her to be taken up, and

much wondered
Waltham in Essex,

cold as was

at

three miles from Chelmsford,

;

;

to be buried with her

mother

at

Edmonton,

as she desired in her

letter."

It

may

be observed that, assuming that a morbid condition of the

brain caused the apparition, the same condition would be a fitting

one for the
fancy.

fatal

impression received from the creation of

its

own

Whether lowering the system by the removal of blood would

;

UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES.
add

to the

power of

may

resistance

OX

Probably a

well be doubted.

powerful stimulant would have saved

life.

not very possible that her condition after all was
one of trance and not actual death ? That she was in a partially
somnambulistic state is further suggested by her increased musical
Further,

is

it

her master evidently being unaccustomed to such a display.
I defer speaking of the probable channel through which the mind
affects the heart until the emotions are treated of, and pass on to the

ability,

lungs and bloodvessels.
functions of respiration are so closely connected with the

The

heart that the influence of the intellect

upon them may be

although involving the action of the voluntary

to here,

are appropriately called, the semi-voluntary muscles.

expressed by Mr. "Wilkinson (xlix, pp. 108-15)

referred

or, as

they

As

well

is

— " The breath awaits

while the steady-fingering thought explores, and then inspires, not
whatever comes, but precise information. Let the reader observe
himself

when he

is

and he will

feeling for such information,

curiosity rejoicing in periods of suspended lungs

best in breathless attention,

and

see

the

which

mind and launched into the air, is made of
The mind is breathed* out into the
and

imagination, Avhich

own

ing to

the intellect

is-

houses in the breath,
its

or, as

expirations, in

it,

and not by the

their pauses,

but what

it

is

it

which

it

pire either to do or to die, but to

through the

is

said,

is

also

from

the material of the
social

world by the

inspirations.

.

.

.

The

of the passions, builds especial

forms

revels, for

breathes out

It

consists of perceptions freed

expirations.

expirations

hear

most observantly when the eye-

thought gazes unshaken and unprompted by the lungs.
to be noticed that the voice,

find his

We

what

it

in is noth-

draws

It does not, however, ex-

all.

run

These are

air-castles.

after its breaths as they sail

air; not desiring to leave the world,

but to propagate

image children in the universal imagery. The smoke of its lungIt makes
pipe keeps it busy with the pleasure of a thousand twirls.
its

its

objects out of its breath,

and hence we

locate

it

among

the expira-

During such imagination, accordingly, the head is held up
and the breathing-tube to the very mouth levelled like a barrel
words fly forth with arrowy straightness the inspiration is inaudible though sufficient, but the man pants audibly towards the unseen,
and each pant externizes more of the breath on which the faculty
tions.

;

pulls

bring

and
it

feeds.

When the breath-palace

to the ground

;

whence

is built,

the laws of gravity

air-castles, as the frequent

beginning

INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT

90

of earth-castles, are not to be despised

mate architect of the

art

and

by saying

piration of this faculty

;

imagination being the proxi-

We may

sciences.

that,

during

its

formulize the resexercise, the lungs

take their airs to themselves just as the imagination represents
objects to itself externally.

own

This lung conceit

is

its

one means by which

and protects it amid great fluctuaThe same writer also makes some observations on the relations."
tions between the exercise of thought and respiration which are true
" Thought is still, and contemplation breathless each into nature.
the body holds

its

sphere,

;

volving,

on, until the thought

To

anew
sciousness

;

is

traversed, or the effort ends

the senses, suspended animation

to the intellect

suspended animation

and supreme wakefulness
exist in the

Bloodvessels.
to,

is

may

suspended conbe

life,

thought,

upon
involve common phenomena,

Intellect touches so near

trance, that the highest cases of either

and

and so
and begins

fixed breath, and, second, a small expiring;

first,

same persons."

Sir

Henry Holland,

in the essay already referred

observes that he has reason to think that "hemorrhage (as in the

simple case of epistaxis)

by excitement

is

by attention, but whether
by direct influence on the

often increased

to the heart's action or

vessels of the part cannot easily be decided.

Stimulated attention,

moreover, will frequently give a local sense of arterial pulsation

where not previously

felt,

rushing noises in the

ears,

and create or augment those singing and
which probably depend on the circulation

through the capillary vessels."

The

singular

phenomena of Stigmata may be fittingly referred to
and not caused by mechanical

here, for so far as they are genuine
irritation,

they arise from the mind's influence on the capillary

culation through the vaso-motor nerves.
subject in a

No

cir-

one has treated the

more luminous manner than M. Alfred Maury, who

forcibly observes that ecstatic mysticism, including these remarkable

appearances,

is

"the most striking proof of the influence of the

Imagination upon the body, and
being one of those marvellous
secret escapes

is

truly a miracle, in the sense of

effects

of the laws of thought, whose

and whose extent confounds us."

He

admits the fact

of stigmatization (after making the allowance he considers necessary

and exaggeration), and explains its occurrence, so far
at least as the reference of the phenomena to a certain group of
psycho-physical facts may be regarded as an explanation, by a conIn mentioning
sideration of the influence of dreams upon the skin.

for imposture

UPON THE INVOLUNTAEY MUSCLES.

91

those cases in which persons have dreamed that they received blows

and in the morning have found marks of inflammation
on the body, and which sometimes, in the course of a day or two,
become ulcers, he observes that "just so with visionaries, under the
or wounds,

power of the Imagination, by the concentration of the attention, the
blood is directed to the place where they fancy they are affected"
(xxxv, 1855).

M. Maury's

whom

description of the experience of St. Francis d'Assisi,

he regards as the ancestor of the stigmatized,

the purpose that

we

shall

make

is

so

One

free use of it here.

much to
when

clay

and absorbed in reverie and prayer, he imagined
him to open the Gospels in order that he might
" Open me the Holy Book," he exclaimed to
there learn His will.
a friar. Three times was this done, and three times it opened at the
exhausted by
that

God

fasts

ordered

account of the Saviour's Passion.

St.

Francis regarded this as a

proof that he must carry his imitation of Christ

much

further than

Bodily mortification he had doubtless prac-

he had hitherto done.

and had crucified his desires, but he had not yet subjected his
body to the sufferings of the cross, the penance now evidently required
by the Almighty. One thought, one definite idea, henceforth occuHis Imagination revelled, so
pied him his Master's crucifixion.
He strove while fasting more and
to speak, in all His sufferings.
more, and praying more and more intensely, to realize them himself.
On the anniversary of the Exaltation of the Cross, resigning himticed,

more than ever to one of these ecstatic contemplations, he
imagined he saw an angel descend from the vault of heaven and

self

As

approach him, the hands and

feet attached to a cross.

contemplated this vision

of profound delight and astonishment,

full

the seraph suddenly vanished.

But

St.

Francis

the pious anchorite experienced

and his whole system was
more than ever permeated with the idea of the realization of the

from

this spectacle a strange reaction,

physical sufferings of Christ in his

pain in his hands and

feet,

so severe as to terminate in

own

person.

He

then suffered

was succeeded by inflammation
ulceration.
These wounds he regarded

and

this

as the Stigmata of the Saviour's Passion.

It might not be safe to take this or any other saintly narration as

a proof of so remarkable an influence upon the body, but

viewed by the light of

facts

when

coming within our own knowledge, we

have, I think, no sufficient reason for rejecting the particulars of

such an experience as

this.

So clearly defined an

idea, so ardent a

." He adds. and a brighter color indicated a fresh afflux of blood to the part —the thoughts being specially concentrated upon the Passion. in whom the marks supposed to signify the crown of thorns and a cross upon the chest are not permanent. " The flux of the Stigmata upon Fridays has been verified also' in the case of the Sister Emmerich (1824) and the Stigmatized of the Tyrol. in the Department of Var. she had been stigmatized. pp. the seat of the marks became more painful. and. had an attack of apoplexy which proved fatal the hysterical. The first patient . Francis d'Assisi. instead of soiling the periodicity of Stigmata is but one which. but the fact is still more remarkable with a contemporary Mad. Maury Ursula Aguir (1592). A.. D. Miollis of Villecroze. although she did not present the veritable signs of Stigmatization. 204. and C. had been present recently when his brother D. in a vision. . We may body. were sufficient to reflect it Francis d'Assisi with the charge of pious fraud always an easy escape from venture to say. will be less scientific difficulties. ecstatic.— INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 92 faith intensifying its operation. experienced every Friday severe pain in the place where. but for the sex. In the following cases it is a question how far the symptoms may be referred to the combined influences of Imagination and Imitation : Two brothers. B." In the early part of the century Count Stolberg visited her and has left on record a description of these stigmata a description confirmed by the account which a physician published in one of the Salzburg journals of the phenomena observed in this ecstatic (op. as the 'f£te de la croix' and the celebration of the Stigmata of St. At the same time we should hesitate to accept this case with implicit — faith in its entire accuracy. states that mystics' M. and less resorted to as mind the delicate nexus which unites body and The upon the accept the physical result. cit. a further interesting illustration of the influence of Attention and Imagination upon the direction and localization of the cutaneous circulation. B. presented successively nervous which were regarded symptoms of a variable character as hypochondriacal. 220). fair fame of St. On saints' days and on Fridays. of whom " An the botanist Auguste de St. in which she remained meditating upon curious account in his and experiencing the sufferings of Christ. Hilaire has given a 'Voyage au Bresil/ fell every Friday and Saturday into an ecstasy. we we understand better in inseparable union. and the wife of one of them. but only apparent during the contemplation accompanying certain solemn occasions.

is to the point. and. Now. occurrence produces bodily and apprehension. symptoms. urged in opposition to the view taken by Dr. to giques" (1851) arrived at the opposite conclusion. and indeed has been. Elliotson. from which A. who suffered pathy. that. in less than ten minutes usual in her sleep-waking condition" (xxxvi. none of these cases were the symptoms referable to Imitation or show the " glorious uncertainty " of Medicine " Annales Medico-Psycholoas well as the Law. the wife of one of them (it is not stated which) had assiduously . as respects A. cases to point out possible sources of fallacy. if so. In many persons. B. for headache. for retire into the first. must by nursing her husband. B. performed no mesmeric but tried to forget her. Laviroth (who records these cases as examples of disease produced " by the force of the Imagination and a kind of Imitation"). imagination was at length others that I would through the door. that Imitation operated The editors of the " Gazette Medicale " held that in in her case. indeed. the editors of the Sympathy . in consequence lastly.'s attack. B. &c. and not attack. while a person impressed will not come may be rendered Dr. shut the door. though very possible. it may be. walked away from the door.'s symptoms were not those of apoplexy. and on returning found her soundly asleep. and in inducing waking from sleep at a certain time. whose state was very distressing to witness. B. 47). in describing a mesmeric hours. says. B. suffered. it is only necessary to expect sleep and with the idea that it it supervenes. it is affected prejudicially not certain. while. passes. and room . 93 second had witnessed the sufferings of A. are the natural consequences of a painful impression upon the nervous system. nursed her husband. p. from have been fore effects. and as Sir John Forbes demonstrated. headache. may Reference here be made to the influence of Expectation or a dominant idea upon the vessels of the brain in causing sleep. the wife.UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. in regard to A.'s no more than that witnessing an affecting The second brother may have through Imitation or Symsymptoms caught A. and there- restlessness. sufficient. We cite these and the necessity of sifting the evidence in each instance. " Mere I one day told her and two next room and mesmerize them I retired. B. necessarily the result of involuntary imitation of The case shows. The . A. frequent pulse. 1846.'s hypochondriacal Lastly. as is well known. the syncope. —even walked through into a from the and she answered me just as was busied myself with something else third restless for case.

the effort to yield to for all such occupation of when we it. Noble. co. than that he should faint. and unconsciousness induced. mind. " far as to cause fatigue. as give up the the feeling even to it keeps the brain withholds from the bloodvessels their ganglionic stimulus to contract. it command . The expectation of sleep. nor woo. we 1 is work when at and so allows the unrestrained action of the cervical sympathetic ganglia by which the arteries of the brain are contracted. or supposed inability to remain awake. consisting of Ext. through the sympathetic. without consciousness of the process. by a pill often more remarkable. what is called " waking ferred to the influence of an expectant idea as at will. Col. and reduce the of the arteries" size (xxxvii. which. 31). before passing into his hibernating trance determines ' This theory applies also to states of somnambulism — natural and artificial. and some unknown faculty which we can neither localize. This affords an excellent instance of mental activity. wak- between mental willingness to withdraw from thought.INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 94 expectation that a hypnotic effect will be produced succeeds effect when it is perfectly inert . how a necessity or a delight. acts. But at any moment when the attention of the brain unconcentrated. is viii. the and comfortable sleep induced in the place of insomnia. by paralyzing the normal inhibitory influence. gr. as in other cases. mental activity causes sleep only when carried so are awake. the person being in fact asleep at the time the latent idea comes into operation. Apart from Expectation. This familiar fact The Fakir when he shall involves an automatic calculation of the lapse of time. but still of a purgative pill has been rendered nil. by the belief that an opiate has related by Dr. the amount of blood lessened. and the accession of which to its desired supremacy waits only for the instant attempt to long for active. nor feel. Most persons can insure waking in the morning at a certain hour by strongly fixing the attention upon the time desired just before falling asleep. according to Mr. the pills and Calomel." much as must be re- going to sleep. . Moore's ingenious theory. it. p. instantly the ganglia become uncontrolled and is primary nervous centres. gr. On the other hand. but to those with whom They delicately poised sometimes ing ! The power seems is who think sleep soonest thinking is the least the alternative of sleeping and to oscillate .. ! cause be affected. ij It is not more remarkable that a person's cerebral vessels should from this Such a case been administered.

working to a definite end. and soon boys. at a meeting of the Edinburgh Medico- Chirurgical Society. late Sir James Simpson. than to bring the Will to act upon the muscles. difficult piece suddenly. when assisted by the suspenand still more sion of the Will. but no to do. lowering the boat [and therefore no longer trying to remember].seen them." he says. . and so the me But sorrowful. and suspend the action of the Will and the forgotten tense comes back to his " memory by automatic cerebral action the " unconscious cerebration of Dr. the He says. and wish to rise. and strongly impresses upon his mind the day or even the hour when he shall revive and revive he accordingly does. urges wake from sleep. I find that while thinking of feet. A parallel case is the ease with which name by not thinking circumstance or a I cease to endeavor my mind something subject. who boys supposed to have gone away to hours. this unconscious activity. p. In this connection it may be observed that it is often much easier thirty-five hours." They eagerly asked women were seen on searched in vain for fish." . a little boy vainly endeavors to remember the tense of a Latin verb. the act. The . we often to another I am on my remember a but of another matter. Macgregor to tell two many them whether he had. in which a person " biologized " was commanded to sleep and did so. I ran over the fields after I remembered having seen those the anxious mamma. but missing for Mr. "all I could to recollect. ! not seen the boys. — ciple. 1847. . " with two short intervals of permitted awakening" (xxiv. Reason strongly The Will fails to excite movements by Now. it. women went away when distracted. by the Will. to act automatically. referred to a striking case witnessed by three physicians. not a muscle moves. when tempted to indulge I in further rest. toiling in the and left middle of a very of rock-work. so assured Such are the involuntary operations of the cerebrum. as exhibited in these instances strikingly. volition. in getting out of bed. 95 awake. produces those changes in the relative force of the sympathetic ganglia and the cerebro-spinal system by which the brain her that the children had been safe an hour ago. if and divert of else. when in sleep. I make him change entirely the current of his thought. bank of the "When on the Meurthe three river. and implored him with tears to advise them what I had "I tried."UPON THE INVOLUNTAKY MUSCLES. 486). As I write. Carpenter. in great alarm. In Macgregor's "Thousand Miles in the Rob Roy Canoe" occurs an incident which will illustrate the same prinafter fruitless efforts to recall it .

. from what has appeared to be a profound slumber. The rejection of the contents of the state is well exemplified in in a hospital. to the exact moment. Durand (de Gros) in "Essais de Physiologie Philosophique. at three o'clock in the . culty of swallowing. easily be anticipated — — need not approve of the deception of the infirmier . 273). my morning. Stomach. in inadvertently The result may by those who can estimate the influence of the Imagination." observes. instead of syrup of gum. of this kind may occur in the cases alluded to above" Oesophagus. . but. " Some- how or other people know what out watch or clock near them o'clock it is when asleep. he pretended to have made a mistake giving them an emetic. referring to the circumstance of young women in peculiar states of the system. that after some time he experienced a similar his diffi- and ultimately died of the spasmodic impediment produced by merely thinking of another's pain " (xxxviii.INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 96 Dr. something . " Medical Times and Gazette. on the Ulster is Revivals. I have myself more than once awoke within two minutes. then. Cuthbert in a letter to the restored to its waking state. had so great an impression made on nervous system. We sick. —At the Westminster Medicase. 324). stomach from a purely mental an experiment made upon 100 patients and reported by Dr." his able work. even causa comfort. which strikingly "A gentleman of involuntary Attention: constantly witnessed the sufferings of a friend afflicted with stricture of the oesophagus." November 5th. Mr. for instance. the experi- ment having been made. and with- and will awake at a time fixed on over night. observes in regard to the "subjects. it is a pity so many people should have been rendered miserable without good use being made of their disIn regard to misleading patients generally. Now. when usual waking hour was seven and I have awoke at the hour at once. and of awaking at a specified time." that "one of their most remarkable endowments was the power of producing sleep. No fewer than 80 four-fifths were unmistakably How many of the rest suffered from nausea is not stated. "stating the hour when a watch is placed to the nucha or epigastrium under circumstances such that the patient could not have previously known it. 1859. full of alarm. p. of the hour so fixed ." Dr. Laycock. and Intestines. The house-surgeon ad- ministered to them such inert draughts as sugared water. Quain related the following illustrates the influence who had (iv. and frequently within five minutes. cal Society. p.

associations are. for recollection of the circumstance most likely involved a resuscitation or revival of the former accompanying olfactory and nauseating sensations. of the greatest importance. perhaps.UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. who is ashamed to acknowlimpression (a foreseeing. The often-quoted experience of Van Swieten illustrates the influstrict ence of an idea. Locke calls the association of ideas a disease of the understanding. Such a case might be. is certainly the unseemliness of making experiments of this nature. or a subjective Unzer would say) upon the muscular system. and the stench caused him relates that he once passed a dead dog in a state of putresto vomit. "Sic sola idea fastidiosi remedii renovatapurgantis pharmaci vices supplevit. and may at last cause acts over which the Will has no longer any control. one of the practical 97 difficulties the investigation into the in- fluence of the Imagination presents. The most trivial matter attaches certain ideas to certain places. and it may certainly prove as mischievous in inducing bodily and mental diseases as it is pernicious in the employment of the reasoning powers. He cence. In a medical point of view. unless the influence of the associa- and the automatic action of the brain be considered. tion of ideas when the image called up Van Swieten says (xl. apart from Imagination or Expectation. and the search after moral truth. and which are those of a madman." He compares this to our thinking of sadness or even feeling sad when 7 . Clearer proof could not be found of the action of a mental image. and concealed by the patient. persons. scientice. and the danger of sullying that honor which by no profession is more prized or maintained than by the professors of the medical art. p. more 'correctly given under the head of Sensation. to tenacity which is which they cling with a truly surprising. edge the circumstance. but also be frequently purged. from their immense influence. in exciting an act which had originally been excited by an impression from without. the circumstance was so vividly recalled that he could not help vomiting. " I have seen a man who had taken a sufficiently nauseating draught. will haunt the mind grievously. not only shudder and be nauseated." and adds. 414). several years afterwards. and is disagreeable. and especially articles of dress. in nervous affections especially. ettotum corpus turbavit. Having occasion to pass the same place. when he merely saw the cup in which he had taken the medicine. and are frequently the foundation and explanation of the bodily and mental phenomena little suspected by the physician.

and the impression on his mind of the horrible dose which awaited his first waking. ordinary dose of salts would answ er T all and imagining that an the purpose. the more valuable from being the personal experience of a medical man. and astringents. and be less nauseous than most others. the difference alone being that his was more purely imaginary. and that it as effectually acts as if he had swallowed it (xli. but like the haunting phantom of the roasting pig to the slumbering glutton. want of a purgative. accordingly. and kept it continually before him. which the other had. his life all had the greatest horror of taking medicine. judiciously for others. . efficiency of an ideal purgative in exciting the peristaltic ac- tion of the intestines has been already incidentally referred to following case well illustrates it. and is the . as he had not swallowed the cause of the mental disturbance. all however. hyoscyamus. and was accord- in ingly purged as he desired (lxiii. although it has only an arbitrary it. however. II. namely. he After due deliberation. banished sleep from his eyes. however. experience a torpidity of the bowels and ness. Dr. he began to the consequent uneasi- apparent to himself that relief could only be ob- tained by the means he prescribed to his patients. be carefully mixed one.' INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 98 we merely see the connection with The word sadness. p. and laid it by morning when he first w oke. he did sleep. S. he awoke. however. looked in the index of a medical work for the word "pill/' which he supposed must be a purgative. although fully admitting the beneficial and necessary and constantly prescribing never took it After a certain period of it. and conflict with decided upon taking some. and even then the vision did not leave him. it assumed various guises and positions to his mind. the taking of medicine. 446). 64). At length. himself. p. he consequently life. but suffered from the anticipation. and so far from requiring the prepared medicine found all occasion for it removed by an effort of nature. and from that time he declares that he has nothing to do when suffering from torpid bowels but to lay a dose by his bedside at night. who. rendering it effects of it. The proximity of it. his bedside at night to be taken in the r Crichton quotes from Pechlin the case of a student at Leyden. At length. and took one containing opium.

referred to. causing changes in nutrition. has. its influence on secretion and nutrition might be predicated even without proceeding more deeply into the causes of this influence. The Intellect may powerfully excite. He of action of the Emo- upon nutrition and .organic life. modify. at the same time. deserves here. he maintains (xliv) that this can be the circulation of blood. and that there to the direct influence of nerves 1 The remarks which follow apply upon the same processes. and excretion. The part played by the involuntary muscles in the processes of secretion and nutrition is so important that the two cannot properly be separated. whether these activity affects the respiration.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. CHAPTER 99 V. and thereby affecting the development and maintenance of the body. INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT UPON THE ORGANIC OR VEGETATIVE FUNCTIONS. But the question which at once arises. 1 Let us first now notice Admitting that the ner- vous system exercises an incontestable influence upon these processes. Bernard. tions all accounted for by the action of the nervous system upon is no occasion to equally. and the present is in fact a continuation and supplement consideration Iutellect. As mental and the circulation and aerification of the blood. The we have given to the influence of Thought or upon the muscles engaged in the vascular and respiratory systems. extending to their chemical phenomena. or suspend the Or- ganic Functions. variations in the circulation of the blood in the organs and tissues adequately account for the alterations in nutrition and secretion. some consideration the conclusion arrived at by CI. secretion. exhibited to a considerable extent its actions upon the functions of. of the previous chapter. in its various aspects. to the mode have recourse secretion.

" The phenomena is augmented whenever the nerves derived from the action of the chemical cerebro-spinal system antagonize or paralyze the influence of the sympathetic nerves. as contraction is of muscle. but . "Voila tout le mecanisme de Finfluence nerveuse. to the action of certain ferments. — tions." sufficient supply of required to create the ferment or active principle of each Motion for motion. the nerves sets forth can retard or accelerate the secre- its action. with this difference only in vegetable life the phenomenon is produced under the influence of the sap. the latter. therefore." do not directly interfere On "A new this hy- with organic chemical phenomena as galvanism acts upon inorganic matter. a and this compound it is done by the muscular apparatus. and the when the other hand. thus allowing of more blood and a higher temperature . the nation. "the accumulation of a peculiar compound within primitive cells is watery menstruum and convey blood is secretion. vous system (though that "which this is upon the dominated by the ner- it is not essential. is created through pothesis. illustration is the sympathetic is stimulated." tive process. the former acting as moderators. the of which contain certain special chemical principles. although the ner- vous system cannot create new histological elements. which this blood serves to dissolve. and the modifications thus produced in the vascular system react upon the chemical phenomena. when stimulated. germi- temperature . on the contrary. phenomena which may result from the suspended action of the sympathetic. Secretion is the peculiar characteristic of the glands. &c. "it their characteristic properties . and it is then poured forth to dissolve this substance the into A excretory ducts. in animals.. although a chemical process muscle is indispensable. on the contrary. cause the vessels actively to dilate. the antagonizing action of the chorda tympani upon the sympathetic cells is supposed to cause an afflux of blood to the gland. as also some due special conditions of and points out that in animals we find the same condisame ferments. contract them : lessen the supply of blood. chemical its the exclusive privilege of the glandular tissue. and so excites the function of the gland. the chemical phenomena he employs of the submaxillary gland. INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 100 refers to the starch transformed in a vegetable cell into sugar." He believes that both sympathetic and cerebro-spinal motor nerves act acts directly upon the and vessels vessels. is seen in the embryo). Thus. . calibre of the vessels In the diminish. or the increased action of the cerebro-spinal On nerves. lessened. is necessary for this.

work which we have already years afterwards (1866). 1 may. the author has obtained the just published " Lemons de Pathologie Experimentale. he." and finds that Claude Bernard repeats his sentiments in the following among other passages "Dans les vaisseaux comme partout ailleurs. 1861). good reasons for it . still published five cited. 1 As these pages are passing through the press. identical. been content with this doctrine. for he observes that. nervous system do not therefore a distinct sels — is float in mechanism 101 terminal ramifications of the the liquids of the economy. Si dans les glandes et dans d'autres tissus cette demonstration n'est pas donnee. ce n'est pas un motif pour admettre les nerfs trophiques agissant d'une maniere chimique directe. he as it continues to be of the same opinion. seems to have some misgivings." appearing "to stimulate the dormant activity of the tissues to which it spreads. and that through may exert an influence. it is not by any means proved that Bernard's exclusive position is the whole truth. and phenomena of a different nature in other parts . however clear the action of varying mental states the constrictor nerve on the vessels may be. he himself. contraction in muscles. Indeed. that of the dilator is more difficult of comprehension. towards the close of his Lectures (Aug. "The only through the circulation." and —the muscular apparatus of the ves- required to enable these nervous fibres "to modify the com- position of these fluids" (xlv. 311). as to the main rise to these effects dilate the vessels are. : : . creating secretion in glands. after all. April. in the and those which However. and others. the mind the circulation. have given. Laycock. so far But. expresses himself strongly in favor of the view that the contraction and dilatation of vessels constitute a acknowledged influence of the nervous sufficient explanation of the system upon the phenomena of nutrition and secretion as we know. as writer. 1861). be this who have not appears to the supposing that a directly trophic action may be conveyed through other than vascular nerves." and then he immediately expresses a doubt "infinitely whether the nerves which give point. et dont on a invoque 1 'existence pour expliquer les phenomenes secreteurs " (Ixviii. 17th. c'est toujours sur un element contractile que se porterait Taction des nerfs l'anatomie microscopique vient ici en aide a la physiologie pour demontrer dans les parois vasculaires 1 'existence evident de ces memes elements. therefore. p. 1870) that it is all them. the position taken by Bernard is for the But sufficient as purpose of showing how must influence the organic functions by acting upon the nerves (whether sympathetic or cerebro-spinal) which regulate the calibre of the vessels. 1872. as well as through The former holds (xlvi. April 27th. Professors Rolleston.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. and.

think that it fol- lows. the other. that there is a distinct set of Prof. he thinks. a man who suffered from records the case of forcible separation of the fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae. secretory. 1871) protests against the notion that the action of the nerves on nutrition tion of the vessels. Other instances unquestionably fluence of defeat in it dysentery.INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 102 may but demonstrable that nerves tary. and He other. and extends is restricted to the regula- their operation to the chemical changes which take place in the action of the lymphatics tissues. in regard to the in- trophic nerves. While. like work . that nerve force can act directly on tissues without Thus Brodie the intervention of bloodvessels. the motor and sensory. He died in twenty- yet the temperature (on the inside of the groin) rose to 111 . upon an army. The trophic centre is fixed in a which includes the medulla oblongata. to all healthy tissue and application. the vaso-motor. and analo- gous to. then. but that they shall take place in their proper or normal order. are here recognized — "The heat. four hours . making succumb to upon prisoners. of such of stimulus as was competent to throw the tissues of the lower parts of the body into active chemical change. and cerebral ganglia. pigmen- does not." Professor Layc. the trophical system Two and more general than. act directly upon cells. we can entertain no doubt as to the fact that mental . He holds that as tissues are nourished independently of vessels. cord. the executive and regulative being as distinct as.ock (xlv. and immediately after death it was found to be the same. scorbutus. cerebellum. considering the varying functions of nerves according to the tissues to which they are distributed. nervosa one. regulative of latter." He assumes corresponding anatomical seats. is its function needed. or of gaol readily life show. for they can and do go on independently of nerve. Rolleston observes that. a molecular energy necessary. with effusion of blood within the theca vertebralis and laceration of the fect. basilar region. however. The kinds of is vis before. and in whom the respiration was imper- the pulse weak. and to the regulation of the and absorbents. from the irritated and an amount isolated segments of the spinal cord. not to the end that the tissue changes shall take place. the explanation being that " there was a showering down. and the countenance livid. and malaria. Jan. there is no clear indication as to whether they are produced by vascular changes. therefore. 14th. or by the direct action of nerves which cause intracellular molecular disturbance.

that in guinea-pigs. convey nutriment and tissues. The internal half of one eyebrow. In the case of the eye in which this change occurs . Professor Laycock cites the observation of Brown-S6quard. to this in his interesting which most of the bones of one half of the head are affected by exostosis. Murray's care. greater well as the motor roots paralyzed.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. it may surely be inferred from other facts that. as above described." but refers it to the fibres of the sympathetic being incorporated with the cerebro- spinal through the ganglia of the sensory nerve. Mr. three or four years ago. 1869). and various forms of ideational activity. Carregion deriving its nerve-supply from the centre injured. The destructive inflammation which follows division of the nerves of a part does not settle the question as summarily as one might have expected. independently of vaso-motor Cases in which neuralgia nerves. injury of certain nerve-centres caused the hair to become white over the Dr. March 6th. indicating a common cause —disturbance of the function of the oculo-nasal nerve. she being a brunette. according to the distribution of sensory and not vaso-motor nerves. minutes. 103 and contract the small vessels which. another and independent one exists. having gone Avhite. and the corresponding portion of eyelashes. a skull possession a very inson. were perfectly Her statement was that. in addition to this channel of influence. the Imagination. she was attacked during the tic. tions point in the same that sensory irritation is accompanied by herpetic erup- direction. by which there is a states dilate to the cells of glands communication between the mind and the organic cells. either on the tissues through motor or sympathetic nerves. Herpes may affect the lower half of the nose. which lasted only a few night with a very severe spasmodic In the morning the hair was blanched. Hutchthe has circumstance Avho pointed out pathological specimen—namely. and has remained so (xlvii. on account of a tumor. and that this alone would go far to account for the phenomena which result from Attention. In this case he considers nutrition to have been interin fered with in the course of sensory. writer. to bed well. and along with this direct the interior of the eye may be inflamed. A woman was admitted into the Great Northern Hospital. although is reflected it is said in reply. under Dr. or that vascular changes constitute a common cause but the fact remains that lesions of nutrition may be located . penter points out that "atrophy of parts supplied by the spinal nerves is when the sensory as than when the latter alone are much are involved.

interfere. outer while. the division of the nerve was no longer followed by destructive inflammation. is the fact that from which the foregoing particu- . although not themselves sensory have been made as may to their nature. This is explained by "the increased vascularity and temperature of the eye" due to the extirpation of the sympathetic ganglia. ." Here there appears to be a forcible reason for concluding that there are trophic nerves for the eyeball accompanying a sensory nerve. because destructive inflammation does not follow facial paralysis where the organ is equally subjected from without. May 20.. thus ultimately resolve the trophic influence of the nerves fifth and sympa- 1 strong point in favor of the view that vaso-motor nerves are. if the carotid were tied. its loses its sensibility . • But to pro- this solu- proved to be unsatisfactory. as above. the eye retains its "If the nutrition. so that. We should of the eyeball into reflex mechanism through the thetic. centres. Then. Sinitzin. and. united with this nerve. by causing dilatation of the vessels. again. possible there is may .. 1871. the explanation that —the eye being unable which it is exposed. in short. at not the only channels of trophic influence." A least. renders both eyes equally resistant against inflammation from irritating substances . if the inner sensibility. We have the experiments of Dr. on the other hand. who removed He the superior cervical ganglia of the sympathetic in rabbits. there the loss of sensibility accounts for tect itself tion is from the irritants to it is. in accordance with which he observed that " irritation of the depressor nerve." have been derived.. but nevertheless undergoes destructive inflammatory changes. . the eye fibres be divided. It be in the trunk of this nerve certain aiferent by which the tissues excite an inhibitory action and thus produce dilatation of their vesand thereby regulate their own vascularity and nutrition. " British Medical Journal. 1 lars .INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 104 after section of the fifth nerve. . found the result to be increased ability to resist the deleterious in- fluence of external irritants. fibres (not sensory) on the vaso-motor sels. For but various conjectures instance. this extirpation of the cervical ganglia had no influence in checking the effects of section of the fifth nerve. first. it is said they be vaso-motor nerves derived from the sympathetic. with fibres be divided. there may be lesions of the trunk of the fifth nerve which do not impair the sensibility of the to irritation and yet eye.

the it is not directly through sen- evidence supports the conclusion that motor nerves that the organic functions are acted Wasting of muscles follows.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. because it In this way. possibly. rather than with the motor nerves. and that paralysis of the sory. It is remarked by Dr. Jackson that he has never seen wasting follow paralysis of the fifth nerve. although it is maintained that these are afferent nerves. in response to this sort of cry for help. December 9th. He agreed with Jaccoud that the sym- pathetic fibres go to the face with the fifth pair. at any rate. 1871). produce wasting of the tongue. but do directly excite the functional activity of gland or tissue cells. not a peripheral source. Dr. although vivisections seem to prove that it can be -arrested or excited through vaso-motor nerves. an afferent nerve. at least. not only more surate changes in nutrition. This. . suggests their direct action on the secretory process. Lister's observations foot on the pigmentary have proved that change of color web of a frog's there "dependent upon cells in is the 1 See Summary at the end of the Chapter on the Influence of the Emotions upon the Organic Functions. while paralysis of the hypoglossal does. At a discussion of the Royal Medico-Chirurgical Society (xlvii. Bastian said he was by no means certain that tongue-atrophy is always associated with paralysis of the hypoglossal. disturbance of a and mal-secretion sensory nerve might cause mal-nutrition . 1 In Bernard's experiments on the nerves supplying vessels. and upon the efferent nerve. proceeding a fronte. organic life When the functions of are influenced from a central (mental). blood. and knew of an instance to the contrary. is upon those which regulate reflected the calibre of the vessels. paralysis of motor nerves. and not conveys any afferent influence to the part. the influence of which. as traced by Pfluger. the peripheral termination of sympathetic nerves in glands. but through upon. when stimulated by a sensory. In regard to secretion. take place without being accompanied by special trophic disturbance. as efferent nerves. gustatory nerve does not. the central nuclei of this influence be reflected an afferent nerve may be excited. marked changes 105 in vascularity so frequently occur without commen- would be explained by the assumption that the active dilators of Bernard admit. sometimes. and vascular changes might. on this hypothesis. on a case of unilateral atrophy of the tongue. or.

" movement within A force a pigment . by which alternations of local vascularity are secured. and ideas exert much more power over the pression that it is tincture of pellitory. in. salivary glands are so notably aifected frecmently referred to. of course. 21. 4. besides being probably in of action of vaso-motor nerves "Lancet. both in its rec- Illustrations of the influence sentative states will readily and constructive or Unzer expresses the truth very clearly. of ideas the repreof consciousness which Imagination. Just as spasms or convulsions are more likely to happen when the will is suspended and the cord acts independently. its automatic action is intensified. 1 — creative form. comprises — upon Secretion. and when anything occurs to neutralize the former. the One reason why these functions the Emotions act so is. organic functions when In the hypnotic state There directed towards them. 28. .INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 106 molecular movements carried on influence of the nervous. and. the considerably increased. is 1871. 18. may ap- we think we ence of mental states are justified in declining to restrict the influ- upon the processes of secretion and nutrition to the mechanical action of the vaso-motor nerves. the foregoing re- anatomy and physiology of trophic nerves. 25. as Professor which can be seen to produce molecular cell. image or idea must. We ficient to excite the function know by ideas that they are that the mere idea of food To of these glands. Nov." However puzzling and sults. be The in relation to the secreting organ. so when the controlling power is removed from the brain. If a teaspoonful of colored water be placed in the mouth under the im- amount of saliva will be this would be still more effective. Eberle vividly imagined acid fruits. 1 subject of the in the powerfully upon because they are less under the control of volition than the intellectual faculties The Meryon latter rules the hour." Oct. is a constant antagonism between voluntary and involuntary actions. may well be supposed to be com- petent to produce nutritional or chemical changes in the interior of cells of other characters. contradictory." The mental ollective occur to the reader. is suf- procure sufficient saliva for his experiments. therefore. much more mode are. " Many glands pour out their secretions from imaginations. much ably treated by Dr. as to the pear to be.the interior of cells under the and under circumstances which exclude the intervention of the blood vascular system " (xlvi) Rolleston observes.

closer anatomical relation 107 with the nervous centres which influence the vascularity of the secreting glands. considers explained by the contraction of the cerebral vessels in the first instance. the chief lessness. Any one given to study can trace such an attack from earliest stage. of Cambridge. "the attack may not be developed during the paroxysm. but accelerated on slight exertion . and other signs of visual derangement. and be arrested by suspending mental application. if there is actual other places. and the localized. in a Clinical Lecture on Nervous or Sick-headaches meets with a great many (xxxii. after the period of nursing. tingling in some portion of the body. or any intense strain on the feelings." That the attack may come on during actual work. March 23d. we have ample evidence to prove. Latham's cases were generally marked by anaemia. its Dr. Parry. often slow. true that. It is. in short. a relaxed condition of the muscles and arteries . it The may be more prevalent among males than in by "prolonged mental work. but afterwards. who. case of a lady is mammary glands is well recog- recorded by Dr. including glimmering. especially (so far as our observation goes) over the left eyebrow. rest- piercing pain felt in the head. but " perhaps in a university town. one of disordered sensation. states that he cases (sufficiently severe to require treat- ment) both in males and females. protracted mental excitement. being followed by their dilatation the vaso-motor nerves of the sympathetic being first excited. the pulse small and compressible. regards the secretion of the liver. the other of headache and nausea. and loss of power over the facial muscles . and then exhausted." He marks two stages. owing to the large proportion of individuals of studious and sedentary habits. when the excitement has passed off. The influence of Attention on the The nized. 1872). specially related to the organic functions is here well illustrated. spectral forms. as the arm or one side of the tongue." attacks he refers to were brought on mental excitement. more or symptoms being cold less feet.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. . Dr. however. the general tone of the sys- The headache he tem. which so often occur with the sensorial disturbances. affections of hearing and (involving the motor centres) speech. being lowered. . and the mental strain is somewhat lessened. Latham. was accustomed to have milk secreted whenever Reflex action of the encephalic centres she heard a child cry. we may refer here to what is called a " bilious headache " when brought on by overwork at the As desk.

I no sooner heard of a sweat than. 445). full of wonder. Byasson of the renal secretion passed under the opposite conditions of repose and cerebral activity.INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 108 The secretion of gastric juice idea of eating. case would have been of the influence of Expectation. still more or." and observes that "they constitute a hopeless class the danger sudden. In It would be manner. long continued. Ex- pectant Imagination. and purgatives. but . The exercise of thought was followed by an increase in the amount of urine. as it satisfactory as may an instance perhaps be termed. acts by the however. in causing diabetes cases which have was apparently the cause. 1320 on those of cerebral activity. the case of a student who him for advice for (inter alia) a troublesome collecmucus every morning. Richardson refers to three cases "in which the first excretion of sugar and the profuse diuresis were sequential to severe mental strain. The above . In the "Medical Times and Gazette. cream of He fol- by a preposterous conceit persuaded himself that the powder was intended as a sweat and accordingly. . fallen under our In one of the most rapid notice. The number 1157 represented the quantity in : cubic centimetres on the days of repose. kidneys. actually to prove upon the it." Oct. after he had swallowed it. " I applied to tion of glairy him ordered fifteen grains of white vitriol. had the patient not covered himself all over with bedclothes. He then came to thank me and tell me that the powder had been attended with the desired success. exclusive of those which excite the peris- skin. this . taltic action of the intestines. II. The influence of intense study. on the authority of Pechlin. I asked him if he had taken any other remedy than the one I ordered him. They may be thus summarized 1st. scribed for pected. but that he thought the powder which I pre- him was to sweat him which effect he therefore exand which had been effectually accomplished" (lxiii. Dr. lowed advice. tartar. Crichton gives. Hence ideal diaphoretics. increased difficult. the fatal end sure" (xxi* 1868). secretory functions of the and the intestinal glands. thought like is. in order to extricate the pituita my from with a little his stomach. 10th. are given will not be questioned. He assured me he had not. diuretics. the course rapid. 1868. the results of an examination by Dr. in all probability. he covered himself all over with the bedclothes and fell into a profuse perspiration. For this the Doctor says.

Passing on to Nutrition. or muscular exertion. it its in- suffi- from Shakspeare respecting thinks too much. The amount 109 marked manner drachm of repose. But that instances cannot be doubted ciently so to justify the oft-quoted line Cassius's lean ill effect impossible accurately to disentangle of exercise. acid represented is on the day of repose by 1. and on the day of active thought by 1. opposing chemical forces. "Every conception. Changes in the chemical composition of other secretions are much more frequent in emotional than purely ideational states. lime. which wears away the the expression that "such men flesh. day devoted sometimes a fect so arranged that a work sometimes succeeded a day of repose and day of muscular work. the uric acid. are dangerous. were scarcely affected. &c. A slight but uniform increase in the amount of the phos- Anhydrous phosphoric phates and sulphates. density.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. however slight and transient. every mental affection. venient rivals and which On —that justifies "He —the rather the plotting thought is air." Still it is studying the overthrow of incon- here referred to. from that of it is with nutrition in many and hungry look. Dr. Chlorine was potash. and in each case there was a perto brain concordance in the results. fresh loss vitality. as Liebig says. Still. there being about a more on the day of work than on cerebral that asson does not doubt the contrast would be greater if complete re- "The experiments were pose had been secured.51. a few observations may be made upon the unquestionable influence excited by intellectual states. the removal of the means of study when the in- . Dr. or active thought. Byasson says that he can whether a man tell less in and amount. however. If nutrition only occurs when the vital force is more powerful than the . the acidity. every sensation. by a single analysis of the urine has passed the day in repose. is accompanied by a change in the composition of the substance of the brain. . The 4th. influence terferes may be said to interfere with nutrition In determining. in the functional activity of glands. with nutritive processes. supposing the diet to have been uniform and the external conditions similar during three days so employed. By- of urea was augmented in a (indicating increased disintegration). 2d. whatever in mental action lowers will proportionately interfere Intense mental application in one of study upon the body.98. the general form or other." 3d." which may lead to changes. magnesia." the other hand. is followed by changes in the chemical nature of the secreted fluids and every thought.

immediately locked up his books and writing-desks. which was already much impaired. Fontanelle. Hunter. 80. 109. that it is not inconsistent with longevity. Hunter. Landor. for Petrarch. 70. Adam comb head or pare his nails "). Zimmermann. Brougham. Carneades (" so intemperate in his thirst after knowledge that he did Chaucer.. 75." man who thinks too and enumerates among the conse- quences of extreme mental exertion gastritis. 80. 88. haemorrhoids. not even give himself time to Euripedes. Titian. Archimedes. Plato. Hippocrates. : INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 110 tellectual pursuits is have become a habit. enteritis. Pythagoras. Handel. Sir Edward Coke. 98. 70. 80. having procured of him the key of his library. nevertheless submitted to the passed by suffered him in the The mandate. . 80. is detrimental to health. 90. at death. W. fearing lest his too close devotion to study should wholly ruin his health. 90. and chronic affections of the urinary organs. first day was during the second he under a constant headache. Thucydidcs. 70. 89. though much pained in his feelthe space of ten days. 89. Dryden. 75. Bacon 66 . Solon. 73. 71. cancer of the stomach or intestines. 80. Thales. Sophocles. 80." and cites Rousseau's exaggerated expression. 78. J. Quintilian. Blumenbach. 99. Newton. 84. 80. turned him his (xliii. of intellectual men who have exercised their powers beyond the average Aristotle lived to 63. 69. Fothergill. saying to him. Dugald Stewart. Reid. Galileo. Whatever may be the injurious influence of mental work. Laplace. Franklin. 'I interdict you from pen. 90. 90. it must be remembered that. Olbers. " The man who thinks is a de- praved animal. 78. 100. 96. Boerhaave. 90. and thus restored him to his previous health" fected with fever. Leibnitz. 99. Galen. 65 Hume. In some of the foregoing examples Wordsworth. p. Simonides. Descuret devotes a chapter to the " Mania of Study. his 75. rekey. at least. Gauss. Bossuet. 67. 68. although from disuse the musWe have collected from several cular system may become wasted. " The much depraves his constitution.' ings. Kant. 90. paper. Pindar. to sources the following ages. QQ. Xenophon. Dr. Clarke. Johnson. 84. and books. Dr. the age which many eminent thinkers have attained shows. 77. Democritus. Locke. 65. 65. Zeno. 66. and on the third he became af- The bishop now taking pity on his condition. ink. Dr." which he paraphrases. most tedious manner . 76. It said of Petrarch that "his friend the Bishop of Cavaillon. 4). 85. Euler. Milton. Lagrange. 87. 77. 80. 75. 78.

he He is Everything goes to prove that purely than emotional. however. military men. &c. 62. whether or not statistics comprise a sufficient number of cases. the brain. It is obvious that the element of which we age 57. Under this division reference should be made to the influence which we cannot doubt that mental states may. tumors. its John Hunter's intense indignation sus- All forms of disease are indiscriminately laid at the door of study by Tissot. though worn was prolonged. clerks. Ill itself. 58. Professor Laycock has main- . 56. medical men. artists. convulsions. gout. Preys on Madden. as appears above. ulcers. As to the natural philosophers (mainly mathematicians) and poets. their operation than others. Sweet- has endeavored to estimate the relative longevity of different The classes of authors. of twenty -two distinguished members of the former profession in England in 1870. is a marked tional in the character of his poetry. dropsies. "With curious art. lawyers. exercise upon absorption. under favorable circumstances. Thus. pursuits influence the organic functions pursuits involving the passions. farmers. that. while pended action. 57 . a dropsy is much more likely to result An and apoplexy aortic aneurism or from passion or other sudden emotional action than from thought. the much which some mental processes have with the bodily the far greater tendency some have to interrupt organs than others and suspend intellectual powerfully than less guishing between different forms of mental manifestation closer connection also excep- was more philosophical . their age averaging 75. it is obvious that Sir Isaac Newton's intense concentration of thought did not imperil the action of the heart. much It shows the necessity of distin. apoplexies. inflam- mations.. 61 each. aver- Caspar gives the average age of clergymen at 65 . their ages ranged between shorter lived than clergymen. and is destroyed by thought. who poets are at the bottom. ser). scirrhosities. 59. but it would be altogether opposed to medical experience to assert that the chances of inflammation or aneurism. baldness. natural philosophers in his table are at the The top. are equal. namely. the organ of mind life was completely- itself out. UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. medical men would It be work taking the deaths. without reference to mere brain 75 and 76." in his " Infirmities of Genius " (quoted by Dr. merchants. too finely wrought. exception. is a highly probable that the greater longevity of the former it is If Wordsworth fact. aneurisms. or convulsions arising from study. are in search is only one of might be expected many in these various occupations. .

or bined as to construct new forms). however. or that downwards ideational changes always tend to pass to the motor and sensory centres. ideal states. The Muscular movements which express mental states (gesture movements which from impressions from external stimuli on the peripheral exThey are figurative. and sympathetic centres. the mind in 5. it is important to have clearly in view 1. 1396). motor. illustrating the automatic action of the hemispheres upon the sensory. states may be as vivid and operative as real objects acting directly In the upon the sensory if actually nerves. cause Sensation. the result of impressions senses from without. made upon Intellectual states. so com- and im- portant changes in the Organic Functions of the body. The application of this law one which we desire to bring out here Miiller: idea that a structural defect will certainly be — —belongs. and from without in the other. If this be we have a so. the whether recollective or creative Imagination (the simple remembrance of sensations excited by the outer world. It is in entire accordance with the physiological "An law laid down by removed by a certain act increases the organic action of the part " (iii. fact. 4. —the —the Sensorium maybe placed and that excited by sensible same condition. Motion. In both mental objects states ideal in exactly the the former instance always referring the sensation to the peripheral end of the nerves. 1851). guage. and hence verbal pansion of sensory nerves. both as to kind and degree of change. and are themselves involuntary . correspond in great measure to those arise expressions also are applied in tended to be literal. to the in bold relief disease by psychical chapter on the treatment of agents. in the one case in- the other metaphoric. 2.. In concluding the consideration of the Influence of the upon the Body. language). in common to both. or consisting of purely ideal these be formed by Intellect states. the bodily changes correspond to the ideas present in the mind. These ideal induced by 3. p. . Oct. the principle contained in which forms a most important basis for the practical treatment of some diseases.: INFLUENCE OF THE INTELLECT 112 tained " the possibility of a lymph deposit being absorbed from an opaque cornea by the daily direction of the Attention to the part for a prolonged period by means of mesmeric passes" (vii. may seats of either be explained both are identical. thus applied to ideal and actual on the principle that the encephalic This analogous lan- states. the stimulus proceeding from within in the one case.

also internal and mental. I wish to say a few words in regard to the sense in which the term Emotion observations is is here employed. It our notion of what constitutes an emotion largely derived from is accompaniments. whether of pleasure or which. though my object throughout these to present Illustrations of the action of Body. " Emotions are principally and primitively applicable to the sensible changes and visible effects which particular passions produce upon the 1 guish it f?-amem consequence of a this sense in the present particular agitation of mind. that causes these effects. however. . in which Emotion is It is never employed in regarded as the state which very certain. — Emotion a true commotion of the mind. Cogan) goes so far as to say. anguish.PART II. but of the body. now with pain often termed Passion is to its . Every one is conscious of a difference between a purely intellectual operation of the mind and that state of feeling or sentiment which." work. THE EMOTIONS. GENERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES.bodily commotion Indeed. CHAPTER VI. is its physical . is equally removed from (though generally involving) a bodily sensation. and therefore as mental. both subjective and objective. and not of the mind only. likewise. because now with it moves our being and which very depths. is expressively called 1 Hence the not infrequent practice of speaking of mental emotion to distinfrom . rather than Mind upon metaphysical questions which to enter into the might be considered in connection therewith. delight. a writer on the passions (Dr. from its occasioning suffering.

from the Will and . but they vary also in their quantitative character. . ideational. include an ideational or compound states 1 which. we can only term it an emotional state but if we find it arises special) state of . and that under the head of Emotions. so far as states of mind. and pass- ing beyond mere pleasure and pain of mind. emotional will frequently in a broad sense. and as the emotions form motives which are rapidly bound . 114 thus subjectively rendering us conscious of the tumultuous mental movements which have arisen. ." the to the the climax being . differing also and yet. can. cannot. there results mental pleasure When. therefore. they are disappointed. We or crazy distraction. be used to include the idea of a certain attainable and the emotion or feeling which is associated with it. of Latin writers. When Joy. we shall probably avoid confusion by pursuing the course indicated in the text. our desires are gratified. and. in considering the specific emotions. out of the apprehension of evil. on mental pain the contrary. a painful mental feeling may exist. there arises —Grief or Sorrow. it is practically useful. sometimes apply the word Emotion to the simple (however mental pleasure or pain at others. Such are emotions as regards their quality. and volitional states together. employed tinguish. get rid. followed by acts of Will are intimately We we have been considering . state. gratification. We we call it Fear. we shall treat of those strictly speaking. endeavoring to dis- and intellectual happen that they will be inevitably blended together. in reference to their influence on the bodily organs and tissues. Thus. while the word Emotion might be always rigidly restricted to the latter state but as custom hits rendered the passions and emotions synonymous. a specific emotion. emotional. and objectively manifesting outer world the signs of the disturbance within "mens emota. then. as well as an affective or emotional element. While. of an ideational element. therefore. to a compound which includes the idea in immediate relation with it. if we would. until we know to what it refers. vice versa . easily recognize a condition which differs from any of those states of consciousness which. intellectual. one which determines the character and direction of the purely emotional feeling Avhich term Emotion cation. .— THE EMOTIONS. 1 The word Passion might Again. and compound The signifi- occasionally be convenient to designate the former as Emotion proper. though will be used both in its simple may it it generates. as an idea may instantly excite emotion.

and its various forms or synonyms. Haweis in the is "Contemporary" for December. they obvious that. and the intenser states of Rapture and Ecstasy. but the following grouping of the feelings will Those in the be found useful for our present purpose. the former involve pleasurable or elevating. first division and. 1870. as these charac- is the influence of the emotions upon the body will be modi- fied. exist may of ideas for. and the latter painful or depressing. 115 It . DESPAIR." Emotion may be variously classified. " of course in a thousand instances they are so attached thought is always seeking emotion. I. ters vary. II. is. Emotion. THE EMOTIONS. and lastly. quite apart from different ideas. others ." resolute. but all classifications are more or less arbitrary. may they may be manifested in very different degrees of intensity and from the slight ripple force. and — is — the opposite of Despair. so is emotion always seek- and the atmospheres of the soul may be said to be constantly penetrated by crowds of appropriate thoughts. apathetic. Hope and Faith. which has been referred to in connection with the Imagination understood in its broad medical sense. Melancholy. expects has faith that a pleasurable event will happen. 1. The first four relate mainly to the individual they are contractive in their character. and we shall not pretend to give one which is either complete or reduces them to States of consciousness involving their simplest form . Affliction. are antagonistic to those in the second . Dis- Discontent. or Sorrow. — 1. HOPE. GRIEF. severe. that Emotion proper "consists of infinite varieties of mental temperature that upon these atmospheres of the soul de. pend the degree and often the kind of actions of which at different moments we are capable and that. wave to the resistless differ in their persistence.. the antithesis of . 2. 2. impulsive. brooding. on the whole. JOY. Contentment. as . in its various stages and degrees. . the emotional region be dull. eager. which take their peculiar color and intensity only upon entering the magic preing thought cincts of . synony- mous with tress. Mirthfulness. Emotion. refer to they are essentially expansive. He shows that each of these states may and pass away without being clothed with any appropriate set &c. It well pointed out by Mr. Cheerfulness. Sadness. The remainder to self.

4. Fear assumes the Panic form. LOVE 6. last may be regarded as gaining in chronicity and Care. nation. the ignoble and more chronic form of Anger. or Vanity. and its acute or sudden form of Fright. assume the form of Scorn." different thinks that the state of being ad- mired by self is more elementary than that of being admired by others.THE EMOTIONS. with the minor ones of Faintheartedness. Allied to Ambition. the beautiful. Wonder and Astonishment. Humility. HATE. 5. there is the opposite of Self-control implies an emotion to repress. Admiration of another more than of self is the foundation of Venera- various child. or what is commonly understood as leading to Scorn. Pride or Conceit. opposed to Modesty. and Impudence. the emotion of Self-esteem somewhat when it "takes a He turn. or Reverence. is. Anger. when painful. and Cringing. 3. Self-possession. mainly applicable to the tion between human affec- beings. Love of Approbation. in their relations of mother and husband and wife. Wrath. 5. tion. the Self- lowest — Cring-ins. Eemorse cency. 3. closely allied hatred of another) with the more noble form of Indig. culminating in abasement. Envy Jealousy or is -the common result of Self-love. or Surprise. may be classed with Fear. Anxiety. is an essentially selfish feeling. Self-reliance. 116 SELF-ESTEEM. Disdain. or Confidence. Modesty. ANGER and its aggravated phases of Rage. COURAGE. is the opposite of Fear. includes the love of the true. 4. . Fury. though the what When loses in intensity. ConPassion tempt. but is and the good. according to Bain. Self-compla- HUMILITY. implies energy . Allied to Suspicion. that . Shame is the fear or dread of being by others (Bain). FEAR. and intenser form of Terror or Horror. 6. Disdain (love of self and ill-thought of CALMNESS. Contempt. leading to Revenge the antithesis of Love. it epidemic. Tends to and ignoble form . . Adoration. &c.

as seat in organic while the desires. 7. of the passions in the visceral or ganglionic system. which so remarkably influHis editor. "All that Bichat says of the seat of the passions. and of his location of the whole. Of emotional states referred to in the succeeding illustrations. as pleasurable feeling. many at any When rate. Anger or Rage . and the ideal element in the brain. 1 we it . 1 we have life. overlooked. senses attached to the markedly affect . Compassion. in one of the although it is true they do not so &c. Misanthe direct opposite of Benevolence or Generosity. Hope. Cerise. BENEVOLENCE 7. the most important will Despair. with which such emotion The Chapter as- automatic character of emotional movements is referred to in connection with the doctrine of the reflex action of the brain. states enumerated Obviously some of the mental and Confidence. Joy. said. "Wonder or Astonishment. when is a form of Admira- pleasurable. reflex or I. Fear or be those which arise in connection with Grief. or Pity a mixture of Love and Sadness. in is . outward physical signs which cannot be Bichat spoke of the Passions. Involves "the endeavor to free that which we pity from suffering" (Spinoza). complains of Bichat's confusion of terms. or sentiments.117 THE EMOTIONS. they have." state. instead of a part. tion. "Pity This is a mixed is akin to Love. Avariciousness osity is a — . and without entering minutely into their consid- shall here pursue the subject a little further. M. signification. ought to be restricted to the emotions. Pride. Fright. or Gener- MALEVOLENCE. which excites painful as well thropy. believes that Emotion proper has its Cerise. fall under the designation of and complex They word and the body as anger." These remarks on the definition of Emotion have insensibly led us into the anatomical and physiological questions which arise in connection with eration. in the foregoing classification are felt to be less emotional in their character than others . yet they can hardly operate without involv- ing feeling of a certain kind. strictly emotional element of the sentiments or passions in the sym- pathetic. form of Sympathy. and they Emotions understood in the broad are Passions. who places the in ence the organic functions. he evidently had view such emotions as anger and joy.

Whether we employ the term Emotion. Dismissing. hereafter to be con- sidered. in It striking to observe is how many or. the epigastric the focus where. however. any other region of the body than the encephalon. belong to the brain. Thus Willis to " the posterior . All these conditions are. spinalis agreed included in —the medulla oblongata. completely met by the Solar . He does anatomically. 1 it The term Encephalon is referred their and supe- always employed. so to speak. or the adjoining encephalic or employing the term Sensorium or sensorium in the old sense of Unzer. is the various general conditions of the organism designated "thoughts" on the one are really part. plexus of the sympathetic (li. the medulla oblongata. since it is or where. we must entirely decline to locate it in the sympathetic. centre According to his view. it is it the precision which although in most sufficient to men prove to us that focus communicating with one or it it He lacks. then. and pons Varolii. organic and animal life. 306-7). but rather an indefinite one . pp. the may be' said it who in commune —besides the medulla optic thalami. if the idea of the cause or of the object of the emotion does not convey to marks that. that to this region of the cerebro-spinal axis they have assigning a more direct connection with the emotions than any other part of the nervous system. 118 sociated. and can only regard the sensation experienced many one of the results of at the epigastrium as emotional excitement. in a broad or narrow sense. consider to what portion of it they may probably be referred. in let us cerebral physiologists have arrived at the conclusion that the emotions are connected in some special way with ganglia . not composed of a special apparatus. . and the impressions and affective ideas not pretend that it is easy to circumscribe it on the other. as wholly untenable the theory which would any of the sympathetic ganglia. seat to the pons Varolii and Dr. in other words. he considers. obscure. in this 'work. under the form of sentimental emotions. Todd to . find a seat for the emotions in 1 short.THE EMOTIONS. in its comprehenthe term Cerebrum is restricted to the sive sense of the contents of the skull hemispheres. so that the emotional echo which there takes place does not offer any very distinct character. their echo is heard. felt. the epigastric emotion re- very is occurs in a ganglionic more sensory or motor nerves —an intermediate a-p^areil between the general conditions of the organism and the brain between.

even when the Will can exert no control over them. constitutes what as emotion. but not the seat of the whole of this centre. is also a part of this centre. 226). and influence of emotion on the countenance may this affect one side of the to the influence of the Will. and that is known this is composite in its nature. Med. involving the cerebrum for the formation of the ideas. p. and For. The extraordinary known. particularly by connected with the roots of the auditive nerve. writing in the October number of the "Brit." Brown-Sequard (1860. tion excited may act on the seat of emotion through and an excitement of this part may produce movement of a limb. that the tendency to the recurrence of a certain class of ideas constantly connected with feelings of pleasure or pain. From these facts it is plain that that part of the brain which is influenced by Emotion. and through the optic thalamus. referring to Dr. observed that "the occurrence of ideas in the cerebrum may produce feelings of pleasure or pain in the sensory ganglia analogous to those which are produced by sensations . rior part of the 119 meso-cephale " in the following passage 283) (hi. "I am ready to admit that the pons Varolii. . as the superior it and have already noticed posterior part of the meso-cephale.: THE EMOTIONS. by it that it may be readily acted on by the nerves or be affected of pure sense . The medulla oblongata. that nerves of the face may influence the spinal cord and the motor when the ordinary channels of voluntary action No part possesses these conditions so completely have been stopped. lviii. "Emotions are. Todd's views. Carpenter. the The working of the emotional feeling causes intellectual change. for the most part excited through the senses But emotions may likewise be produced by intellectual change. by its influence on the spinal cord through the olivary columns. which we emo- Is an by an impression made upon one of the senses ? This part becomes directly affected. desire. Carpenter reconciles these views with Gall's doctrines of the . and the sensory ganglia for the feelings with which they are associated. or propensity . Rev. intellect. or it face.p.. the same channel . or of all the limbs. observes that he has given some good reasons in their support." Dr. which may excite movements is is . on the other hand. . emotion may give rise to movements independent of the Will. must be so connected that the convolutions may affect it. as concerned in acts of sensation. is its part a portion of the centre of emotional movements. Now. adding. . I think. well paralyzed of the limbs." Dr." 1846.

equally involved. the simple. Carpenter. through the 'nerves of the internal senses. Further. with the simple elementary feelings of pleasure and pain. affections are the emotional states." Mr. from common joys and sorrows. 1853.THE EMOTIONS.' Now. emotional sensibilities and impulses. or some part of it. elementary. 120 emotional as well as purely intellectual functions of the hemispheres. alike in and in the composite nature present an intellectual element as well as Emotional is essentially different cannot identify hopes and fears. his "Human Physiology. the impressions that produce the for- the sensory nerves. but elsewhere. although the pleasure attending the act of entertaining them is not seated in the hemiEssentially the same views are expressed in spheres. the latter by the nerves of the For they are internal senses. it seems clear that the emotions of the lower animals bear no proportion development of the cerebrum.. not know. although he observes (in a letter dated Feb. and the phenomena of Unconscious Cerebration indicate that cerebral changes are only brought to consciousness through their acting on the sensorium commune. the Sensorial Tract. I believe the thalami optici to be the seat of those inner sensibilities and feelings which are to the associated with the emotional states. and. that they are common sensation but the evidence of Comparative Anatomy seems to me unmistakably to point to the distinctness bethe seat of . 29th. tween the Sensorial Tract and the Cerebrum .. sensorial feeling." " Closely allied with the social propensities them and human ideation of each and of all." " combativeness. they may be brought into play through purely sensational channels without the agency of volition or thought. is We there is for. whch immediately link themselves on either to sensations or to ideas mer coming by .." 4th edit. 1872) that "it nite reasons why is impossible to give any defi- the thalami should be regarded as the special seat We do of the Emotions. sensibility. sensorial state that it is often so closely connected with the difficult to separate the two. and have their seat in the sensory ganglia. And thus we see that the two great centres of emotional feel- . they are distinct mental states. by supposing that there are such classes of ideas as those grouped under " benevolence. and the author has ascertained that he continues to hold them.." &c. like the instinctive feelings. as automatic functions of independent nervous centres. . would seem to be the seat of the emotive or affective states. in the first place. The emotional differs from the sensational consciousness. Dunn observes: "With Dr. are strictly consensual. Still.

when active from of external sensation. 151). Mr. it forms the cosncesthesis. commencing with a physical impulse. Dr. irrespective of this. Emotion. as well as Dr. "I regard emotional ternal feeling. optici the cerebrum and the external organs of upon. by the flow of our thoughts.THE EMOTIONS. Carpenter. 'the spirits. reupon the emotions. and moral agencies in our cerebral organs" (ix. 1856. Noble endeavors to show. 402. inasmuch as he considers the optic thalami and corpora striata as the dentata that of sensation he does not believe that it but that. and and the memory of thought. "It would harmonize extremely well with the whole observed development of our knowledge.. I look upon the corpora striata and optic thalami. Noble. Morell has written. The position of the above-mentioned ganglia into distinct notions or ideas. acted site while. as regards the psychology of Emotion. as the site of this inner sensibility. and the corpora mere mental pleasure or pain. from the outer world. also form of in- from thought. cit. in an able and suggestive book published in 1858 (lxv). distinct sensibility as a from sensation proper. there arise the buoyant or depressed feelings comprised under what Germans. p. of Manchester. coencesihesis . ing in the encephalon placed sense —the thalami midway between —may be played 121 and corpora quadrigemina. upwards. express these relations in Dr. appears next in the form of an incipient mental sensibility. it is propensity . and so on. sentiment. act at the base of the hemispheres corresponds exactly with the supposed function" (op. p. 1857. by the appropriate stimulus upon the nervous vesicular expansion of each of the external organs of sense . from the cerebrum. p. and the workings of ideo-dy nam ical. which. consists of we of Emotion.' when active under provocation from sensation." On this hypothesis as to the seat of emotional feeling. Carpenter. intermediate between the convolutions and the ganglia when active spontaneously. thought. and roused into action through either. . characteristic manner the seat of emotional sensibility upon from below by the nerves proceeding from the viscera in is and other parts of the body. is sometimes called the sixth sense of the when acted upon from above. that this view does not necessarily militate against the phrenological functions . emotional. downwards. Noble's cated to the writer. Dr. from below or from above. in their turn. enunciated views which are a modification of those put forth by Dr. from the inner or psychical world. 129). and then expands which ideas can then. feel in a When various intellectual states. Emotion or to own words recently communi.

" adapted movements. clestrucmainly ideal . this case. which end finally in the medulla oblongata before the higher feelings and sentiments can be experienced. and looks of vegetative life and of all medulla oblongata "as instincts. when and helpless creatures are gratuitously tortured. and through it on the medulla oblongcda. deliberate acts of poisoning and of incendiarism are perpetrated. and is regarded by phrenologists as the organ of this has its root. . as the ganglia beneath. regards the corporeal feeling of pleasure or pain. or desires. by which states of concorporeal actions these can be and are manifested autosciousness are manifested sulting from changes therein tion or consciousness. coincide with conscious states. however. having. which. in this way. may. he adds. there is vivid perturbation of the themselves.THE EMOTIONS. the vesicular neurine of a certain region of the In cerebral convolutions destructiveness. feelings. in the usual states." He at least the seat of the thinks it probable "that a series of changes takes place in the great encephalic centres. manifesting itself chiefly in the course is When wrath. that. in deeds of violence defenceless tiveness is — 146). as ideas. during morbid states. cannot easily comprehend the automatic nature of the violent twitches of the face in infantile convulsions and the automatic groaning often uttered during sleep. " There are phenomena. as a highly excited feeling. — matically. for instance. in a similar tissue in in direct fibrous communication. it is cold-blooded. ccensesthesis. however. as if expressive of great pain from the action of a morbid condition of blood or lung on the afferent nerves of the pneumogastric. 122 of the hemispheres. longata is the in favor of the doctrine that the medulla ob- common sensory of all conscious states —whether they refer to corporeal processes or the purely encephalic changes associated with ideas. the sexual moral sentiments. with which Professor Laycock. and there it may cruelty. re- which are wholly independent of sensa"Being the seat of the substrata of all those cries and facial movements. like the corporeal periphery. When rage and fury when. the medulla oblongata for their centre. The cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres may be con- sidered as extensive peripheries. egotistic instincts and and who it is it were. show there is destructive Emotion " (p. locates in the cerebral hemispheres the and domestic instincts upon the cerebellum as the centre the processes of the organic appetites and propensities. in " clestructiveness " be held that "there is of thought. So that teleorganic changes taking place therein." — After observing that those sociate consciousness with all who are accustomed to as- adapted movements.

medulla oblongata. Kirkes. Dr. pp." may its caused. . ideas of them being but the structures in it can generate Emotion.) excited. This is. painful or pleasurable. vagus nerves like way in whatever effects it naturally happens that on the viscera — it sensations intensely painful or pleasurable. II. pass downwards to the 123 medulla oblongata.) The reader ac- quainted with the writings of this psychologist. needs not to be in- formed that he believes in the constant co-operation of all the nervous centres in every thought and emotion. and there excite the ac- motor or kinetic substrata. that rise. to whatever extent they are recombined by the actions of higher structures. without at the same time exciting any state of consciousness whatever. Mr. in the locus niger we must look for this common sen- pp. alike cause fainting. p. sory" 1 in all cases of automatic or unconscious cerebral action. &c. remains to the which they are localized. undue excitement. "It is not improbable that the sensory ganglia are the organs of those emotions tional acts or expressions which belong to the instincts and emo- which men — — and animals have in common such as fear. but that it is that out of which it by itself Emotion ing actions of the great centres above is it. being the seat of all feelings. in his Handbook (1863). whether aroused from without or from within. by the reflex action of the medulla oblongata. 1872. 461). while through the hemispheres the mind manifests itself in its higher and peculiarly human emotions and feelings" (liii. March 2d. produces through the naturally happens that and emotions intensely (He adds that syncope be caused even by intense intellectual action. (loc. partial excitations of the which the sensations originally arose. he regards it Still. says.) I confess to rather a strong leaning to any physiology of the 1 " The vivisections of Brown-Sequard and Szokalski show that cries Emomay be independently of pain. In his "Principles of Psychology" (x. as leading- respects the "as the seat of emotional feeling considered as a mental state apart from the movements to which gives Not. it results that the centre in which all simple feelings or sensations are brought into relation." &c. of course. 572)." (Extract from a letter last that in to the author. evolved by the co-ordinatSensations being the ulti- mate elements. cit. H. They do not differ in their seat and origin from laughter. anger. and emotions being compounded out of the ideas of sensations (the composition being now mainly organic) . in fact. 443. tivity of appropriate what occurs Possibly. 469-70). Spencer observes that "the medulla.THE EMOTIONS. it is (lv.

that the optic tracts or nerves are not only connected with the corpora quadrigemina. importance of the medulla oblongata in this connection is The borne out by the microscopical observations of Lockhart Clarke. p. Todd. that although their direct ratio of that of the cerebral hemispheres. of the in the cerebral herni- Eoyal Society " He has shown. being accordingly much more carnivora than the herbivora. who regards it as probable that the power of expressing emotions and desires is dependent upon the co-ordinating functions of the olivary bodies. in the is sense in which Marshall Hall employs the term tion. which the muscular co-ordination referred to by Dr. as suggested by Dr. its cells. close relationship between the emotions and the medulla. or or the meso-cephale as held 1 The probability sensation is of these bodies being the seat of either common or emotional lessened if the opinion of Dr./' There is feathers lvii. Clarke implies. one in accordance with the observation of Brown-Sequard." Schroeder van der He Kolk held lvi. they are the of emotional movements centres (xlvii. xi. August 17th. between the above proposition of Lockhart Clarke. the passions. the passions. as size much is in the smaller in one would expect on the supposition of their . and went further. ("On the Intimate Structure of the Brain. strongly expressed in the faces of the " The superior corpora olivaria appear to be organs for the involuntary or reflex expressions of the passions. 124 which recognizes a special and intimate relationship between them and the medulla oblongata. and holding that the medulla the seat or organ of the emotions. we have frequent hemorrhage these bodies without loss of Sensation. that while the various nervous centres which compose the base of the brain are the conductors of voluntary motor influence.) the same opinion.. or any altera- enters the optic thalmns. or some portion of the sensory tions ganglia.. by Dr. and spreads out Clarke in a letter to the author. 22). and act not along the cerebral. Ob. is amongst certain that and further. . p. however (though not necessarily a con- tradiction). 1868. 1861. a wide distinction. it and other morbid changes in tion in the state of the Emotions . Carpenter. 1861). p. In birds they seem to serve for the movements of the in the head and neck in passion" ("On the Med. in the optic thalami. and yet the seat of Emotion 1 be elsewhere. p.THE EMOTIONS. 204). when he and the sense of pain have their says. 318. 364). they are not so the ox and sheep than in man being the emotional centres. Clarke be correct tbat they are parts of the central apparatus concerned in vision. especially anger. in the " Proceedings (vol. but the true spinal and gan- There may be the glionic nerves" (xvii. but a considerable division As remarked by Dr. " seat in the Emo- medulla oblongata. found that in beasts of prey these bodies are more highly de- veloped than in herbivorous animals.

We feel justified. their . for supposing the nervous centres of emotion to be distinct from those of idea. in (and probably that part of medulla oblongata) bears a special relation to the it called the Emotions. either in psychology or physiology. may be a hyperesthesia or an anaesthesia may be a hyperesthesia or an anaesthesia of as there of sense.. so. Schroeder and middle also regarded the hemispheres (posterior lobes) as the seat of the emotions. in a way universally felt be different from that in which a purely intellectual process acts upon them. marked concurrence of opinion among modern as to the encephalic centre of emotional changes involve movements . Clarke himself believes." he observes." sensibility of the "Emotion is strictly. 137). hemispherical cells. . We ought to add that in Dr. and with the alleged origin of the sympathetic. THE EMOTIONS. 47. as. a sensibility of their clares the manner of own still. and yet I cannot but think such a special relationship between the emotional element and the medulla must be admitted as shall explain why the passions act upon the muscles and to upon the organic functions. "are confessedly not sensitive to pain. With some there is a difference of view. mainly on points of detail. then. they have and the sensibility which thus deaffection. or which does not at power of expressing emotions is dependent upon the medulla oblongata. at least. It is idle to dogmatize upon so obscure a subject. brings the latter into close relation with the ganglionic cells of the pneumogastric. therefore. van der Kolk 125 Dr. Maudsley's work the doctrine is up- held which steers clear altogether of any special connection between "The the emotions and the sensory ganglia. it seems to me more difficult to account least recognize that the physiologically for the popular belief of the feelings being located in the heart or breast.which one or other of the encephalic divisions of the old sensorium commune. pp. all referring it to this region physiologists those. and it must be admitted that there are objections to the attempt to dissever and separately localize the intellectual and the emotional elements of mental states in which they are combined. On the hypothesis which refers the intellectual and emotional elements equally to the hemispheres.. there ideas. assuming that . is what we call emotional and to ideas. the supreme centres [hemispherical ganglia] to ideas " (lxiv. and for the sensations at the pit of the stomach while the recognition. also. spheres themselves. in some form or other. perhaps. Certainly there do not appear to be satisfactory grounds. of an anatomical or physiological connection between the medulla oblongata and the emotions. in fact.

or may may suspend them induce excessive and morbid ones (hyperesthesia and dysesthesia). So with the special senses. as impressed by ex- however. we proceed in the first place to examine the interesting series of phenomena resulting from the operaEver tending to be contion of their influence upon sensation. in spite of metaphysi- cal difficulties of this kind. in this . as in reality. and Indeed. its consideration We can more discrimination than that of movements. although only referring to the con- justly speak of some feelings as corporeal as mental. &c. the ear. and of others state. It is. which impresses the extremities of the sensory nerves distributed upon and in the body. although the former state involves conscious- ness as well as the latter. altogether (anaesthesia). perfectly easy. now.INFLUENCE OF THE 126 CHAPTER VII. scarcely avoid employing language which is not strictly scientific. and in this blending fail to discover which is cause and which is effect. mental sensational the emotional and closely allied as elements so in our that happen it must constantly feeling and bodily feeling terms. the eye. as a part of that influ- ence of the mind upon the body which we are endeavoring. only it has reference to the condition of something external to mind. An Emotion may excite ordinary Sensations. founded with the converse succession of events. the influence of morbid states of sensibility in producing emotional disorder. from the consideration of the general psychology and physiology of the emotions. while consciousness is implied. ternal objects. we confound the two together. or speak of the consciousness of corporeal pleasure and pain as if it were not requires — — itself in one sense a mental We dition of the body. Passing. INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS UPON SENSATION. it has reference to the varying state of the bodily organs. with two can be only understood in a popular sense. to make clear what is meant by the in- fluence of a powerful emotion upon sensation.

facts fear. visual. to pretend that we can rigidly carry out any such division as that of emotional and intellectual. whether our physiology regards the functions of the hemispherical ganglia as comprising the sensational as well as the ideational elements of the passions — (see ante. When we start with Emotion. It is mental sensations are it is difficult. although the bare statement They of them suggests some questions of difficulty. . we may feel be to free an Emotion from no hesitation in deciding that certain mental states are comparatively emotionless. gustatory. therecharacter of the resulting physical changes. These remain of interest and importance. they sometimes lead us to do violence to nature. to sacrifice in the present case. desirable as we certainly hold it ment in the series of to be to have these tigations. definitely directed to a certain locality. fore. without generating any emotion. a penalty which and often im- from the ideational we pay ele- for our classifica- however convenient they are up to a certain point. duced the experience of John Hunter. so as to cause subjective sensa- whether olfactory. e. its states For however intellectual roughly in view in psycho-physical invesdifficult it accompaniment. to separate the purely emotional ments of passion.. We have may. 120) They the sensory ganglia. — or whether it relegates the former to are so. there can be no question as to the fact that moral disgust does in some instances cause mind may the sensation of nausea. and thereby determined. work. however much they may involve conception. tions and divisions that. it may be. the It would be idle. as our first ele- phenomena under review.EMOTIONS UPON SENSATION. g. are so. the intimate cohesion of psychical states to the idol of reducing every- thing in science to orders and classes. in quickening the circulation) — but so united with their associated ideas that possible. to a considerable extent. physical and corporeal pain alike acting upon the body stantly witness the (as. may. have ad- seen that a vivid idea. or tactile. or that distress of occasion neu- ralgia. p. to point out and 127 For example. or that the special senses under tions. auditory. be stimulated centrally. illustrate. "I am We confident." he said. or fright the sensation of cold. to dissever that which is inseparable. in its bald sense. we lose sight for the time of the mental conception which has determined the character of the emotion. although not only do mental physical sensations merge imperceptibly into each other — for and we con- same results from emotional as from sensational excitement. induce a sensation. while on the other hand there are mental spates at once recognizable as essentially emotional.

and observe the influence which streams there- from through the sensorium. but operates even on of the highest mental endowments. the feeling of Terror is will to a highly efficacious " (Bain). Thus the muscular action excited in vomiting is the result of the nausea we have just instanced. also. to the external world. as Fear or limited subject. ordinarily. nerve. is this Emotional impulses may act upon the sensory ganglia and nuclei of the nerves of sensation. one. are altogether subjective. inducing various sensations determined by a variety of causes.. While they are such states of feeling as have immediate reference to the bodily organs in their relation. then. which changes are induced by Emotion. we shall study the phenomena which the emotional impulse causes in the body. Claude Bernard. Hunter's confident assertion from his own experience. although central.changes in the neighborhood of the peripheral terminations of the sensory nerves. Subsequently. impassioned how much more profoundly Joy? "For securing attention affect sensation. because. to and from . Besides. these direct sensation may and purely subjective sensations. however. when the antecedent of motion. and in this sense objective . indeed. in that they are the result of impressions from within and not from without. drawn shows that the principle is not confined in its operation to the susceptible men and nervous. we consider those phenomena which In another sense. now. we place ourselves in the inner world of mental Emotion. being referred by the mind to the peripheral termination of the : . are they subjective. but in that influence we shall also witness its action upon sensation. Our starting-point. holds that the same nerve may transmit the sensory current in both directions (xliv). In the next chapter we shall see the striking influence of Emotion on muscular movements. it is the more interesting. we approach them in a reverse order to the natural Disregarding the outer world and the impressions thence re- ceived by the sensory nerves.INFLUENCE OF THE 128 " that I can that part f fix my attention to words which ought any part until I have a sensation in to be inscribed in letters of gold over the entrance of a Hospital for the Cure of Disease by Psychopathy. as a good illustration of a sensation induced by moral disgust. an intense emotion. so as to produce any of those sensations which are ordinarily induced by impressions upon their periphery such sensations. perceptible by others. be indirectly excited by. but not through the channels of the sensory nerves. thought can thus And if calm.

I think. the physicians would confirm the statement of not rare to find it coming on quite suddenly M. or of the organs of sense. at the same time. them as as a German to a word writer exclaims. as for example in the sensation of "creepiness" from fear. again. and the blood thus changed may feelings. EMOTIONS UPON SENSATION. indicates the psychical origin of the disease. although truly originating in an emotion. generally present at the time. and the mind experi- is ences sensations in the ordinary way. as every one knows. also. and frequently so gradual as not to be obviously con- nected with any special mental exciting cause observations of is this condition can . The sensations. but the sensations now referred to 129 admit of a different ex- planation. to lose sight of the reality terest of cases of hysteria in general. may — In be caused by intense Emotion. from central congestion. composition. being probably due to the influence exerted by the emoupon the sympathetic nerves. as the intestines.. He makes the observation. cial senses. whether exaggerated or deadened. We and inby too summarily dismissing "hysterical. tions Whenever the capillary circulation of a part tional excitement. &c. Then. a violent emotion. that from The much is clear. it only involves the parts supplied by the cerebro-spinal sys- tem. the action of dysaemia in causing dysesthesia tion of the blood. in regard to cases of hysterical anaesthesia (of 1240 of which he gives an analysis). influence of the emotions on the blood has yet to be considered. it is difficult to decide to state of the many Briquet. whether of the whole of one side. or per- may sistent morbid blood. is so circulaaffected this cause likewise arise altered sensations. of hysterical anaesthesia 9 may be seen in the "Ga- . act directly and produce innumerable subjective upon the character of the affect the sensory nerves. in fairly referred to the abnormal the invasion of the disorder is which there what extent sation. a flash of light or a voice may In respect to the spe- be perceived. as a merely subjective sensation. never those supplied by the sympathetic." He is a loss of sen- be Emotions. the local changes caused in the skin are impressed upon the sensory nerves at their peripheral terminations. and this congestion Ancesthesia. cases of hysteria. that whatever may be the extent of the affection. the brain. this granted." instead of learning a lesson from their aetiology lungs. centripetally. in full. after observes that the intense headache. as well as its by emotional impulses. " Woe unto him who swears allegiance !" Cases. are apt. that " it Emotion. its sensibility is increased by emo- augmented.

muscles. might have dispersed it in a short period of time. March 27th. Wilks (xlv. 600 patients imbecile. some circumstances. M. . it was found that throughout the surface of the body there was complete loss of feeling. hearing. in that institution. moreover. (including among the Insane/' M. pain. while that of 1 touch remains perfect. on her admission into La of the skin of the Charite. 294. different degrees of cutaneous insensibility.INFLUENCE OF THE 130 zette des Hopitaux" and "Annales Medico-Psychologiques. there is frequently in hysteric cases an absence of sense of pain. especially among religious and suicidal lypeina- 1 According to Brown-Sequard there are. and melancholy) he found states that. temperature. the existence interest to us arises of a from by which the muscles and skin were affected from no other cause than an internal one. and muscular sense. observes. smell. Briquet. and who had fell girl to She had an in which she appeared to have received a great fright. There can be little doubt that while local applications and drugs failed to remove the affection. powerfully influencing the Emotions in the right direction. which prove the existence of anaesthesia (not as to touch. Wilks altogether lost the sense of touch." the subcutaneous parts. tickling. but sensibility to pain) in most afflicted with melancholia. without. He refers to the observations of M. 1869) records the case of a whom he was called. Michea. and taste). Duchenne special the from infers and other this "muscular consciousness." 1855. conductors of impressions of touch. at the age of 22. except in a limited spot side of the chest. and pain The sense of smell was also lost. she was insensible to "electro-cutaneous excitement. In an "On article in the "Annales Medico-Psychologiques" (xxxv) Diseases of the Cutaneous Sensibility Auzouy. into a state As Dr. bones. and the sight of the left as insensible as the skin. hysterical attack." but their marked and unusual train of disorders cases. of many demented. Dr. eye was imperfect. under Dr. more than half presented idiot. and nerve trunks came the were subject of hysteria at 18. p. which appears to have been closely connected with emotional disturbance. of Mareville. in addition to the four distinct kinds of nerve-fibres of the higher senses (sight. on the left where there was tenderness on pressure. We mention the case of a young will here only woman who be- and began to lose the sensibility upper extremities until.

peculiar condition by causes influence of emotional excitement They upon the sensibility of the body. which . but fixed the countenance pale the entire . when their sensibility was so benumbed." 1737 We read in Mont- — "Some remain two or three days with their eyes open. which they after the cruel inflic- solicited. This immunity from pain. but rather a very frequent symptom. geron. independent of the alterations of which the sense of touch may years. Medarcl serve as examples of anaesthesia As numbers of these persons were thrown into this known to be directly and purely mental. above twenty times. 1860. "La Verite des Miracles. according to the form of delirium that it accompanies . itself is witnessed in various conditions. it is in general. undeniable proof given that tion of blows many amongst them showed. macs. p. to blows is astonishing. I have shown to pain is a pathological state which constitutes not solely a fortuitous event peculiar to some cases of mental alienation. of which the appearance is intimately bound up with the generality of the types of insanity. the surface of the body and the limbs. increases or decreases with propor- and influences it. The most severe tor- tures were often applied to their bodies without procuring dence of pain. powerfully the development and progress of the diseases incident to the insane" The (ix. themselves that left any evi- is not surprising that the convulsionnaires persuaded all the blows they courted and received on the body It no marks. and cites the case received a serious of an old wound which man asylum in the at Dijon him any did not cause application of cupping-glasses and 131 pain. "But many of these fanatics deceived themselves greatly in imagining themselves to be invulnerable. rigid as that of a corpse. separation from they admit of cases of hysteria of vague or unknown origin and may therefore be fairly employed as illustrations of the of the muscles. and the only thing he comThe writer plained of was that his interment was not completed. the cellular tissue. for there has been. 68). By way of experiment he was literally buried up to the neck. and innumerable contusions on the surface. body and insensible . large patches of discoloration under the skin. especially a spasmodic condition of the muscles. This patient believed himself to and besought that he might be buried." Calmeil observes that the resistance of the skin. who The was not felt have been dead forty various irritants by him. be the object. tioned to the moral lesion. convulsionnaires of St. are usually complicated with disorder of the motor system.EMOTIONS UPON SENSATION. "I believe sufficiently that insensibility observes.

is in ecstasy. the insensibility is not due same principle.INFLUENCE OF THE 132 had borne the most severe assaults" ("De la Folie. whether painful or pleasurable. his suggestions and his endeavor to absorb the mind in another subject. p. Mr. then balanced her by the arms and legs. ciple forms the foundation of a large class of cases of psychical anaes- Rapt thesia. however." The insensibility to pain in these cases appears to have been com. "She was struck on the head with a log. la muraille . does not necessarily involve emotional excitement. one person being on her stomach. Of course in those which there is profound slumber. when the mind is plete. of Monte Kotundo (1867) a zine :" In reporting the spectator writes in the "Cornhill " All day long the battle raged . and gave her the strapado. The battle-field constantly affords examples of the influence of an engrossing emotion in blunting sensation. In the case of the convulsionnaire Nisette. then again dragged her by the four members. (!) gave her the strapado and the ordinary sape a. hypnotism in which anaesthesia. they again cause there were only six persons to pull. often present. This pulling continued for a long time. a man being on her back then they turned her round like a spit. beAfter that. then they trod her under foot. The which the internal organs suffered seems by the extreme rigidity of the muscles. and lix. battle Maga- the troops were fainting . This. two persons also pulling from below the shoulders. then one man stood on her back. though it is. notoriously interferes with or entirely prevents the mind's perception of them this prin- . 386. fifteen persons at a time. but not complete induced. they suspended her by the feet. the immunity from pain arises from the occupation In those cases of of the thoughts or ideas in another direction. ii. The distraction of the attention from impressions made upon the sensory nerves. 584). and then had the four members pulled in different directions At length two men stood on her body." t. were apt to prove unsuccessful. which was a marked feature of the phenomena a rigidity so frequently produced with great ease by the hypnotic method. II. then with four logs. Braid found that if a patient expected an operation. slight extent to to be best explained — under the influence of powerful Emotions. two others dragged up her arms. cases in to the no doubt. the devotee feels neither cold nor wounds. sleep. although the sleep may have been originally produced by mental influences. They pulled her arms and legs. p.

states upon —When of emotional vascularity. some years ago. cit. when one of her schoolfellows burst from behind the door to frighten her. or the witnessing the signs of pain in others. and is related by Gratiolet (xv. pened. sun when a cloud passes over it'" (lxxvi. ten years of age. p. 286). It is given by Sir Astley Cooper and quoted by Pettigrew (p. During an emeute. 'going and coming. engaged in . in Paris. the certainty of victory chloroformed pain. experiencing a momentary pain in the part which had been struck. in witnessing a paroxysm of epilepsy with which her husband was affected in the night. in the consequence of the fear of pain. several examples will be given in which pain was present as the vascularity illustrating one of the is which severe pain results.) also mentions two medical students. A company of soldiers and National Guards. were exposed for a few moments to a murder- tration of the effect produced ous fire from all sides. On the following day she became deaf. however. so much so as not to hear the loudest talking." Gratiolet (loc. She was much terrified. most patient set of sufferers I ever saw their . " He distinctly felt it. 'like the . he felt a stream of blood flowing down the side of his chest from the wound. After the skirmish.' as she herself described it. engaged in the Rue Planche-Mibray. and scarcely noticed it. deafness was caused by fright. the fol- : from Dr. and her head ached." Hyperoesthesia. which is a good illusupon sensation by psychical impressions. a trivial event hap- p. either not is the influence There are other cases in which marked or altogether secondary. who wanted to write her exercise and to scrape her slate-pencil. In the following case. and she continued in this deplorable state of deafness. Peid "the case of a woman who was almost blinded by fright. 101). yet the skin had not even been broken. Certainly they were the liveliest. In one eye the vision was completely destroyed in the other the capacity of seeing was intermittent. 99): "A child. One of the combatants received a slight con- tusion from a reflected ball upon the shoulder. and fancying in his fright he had received a more severe injury. and on the next. went into the school in the dark to fetch her knife." In regard to anaesthesia of the senses of sight lowing are instructive and rare cases Pettigrew cites and hearing. Sir Astley saw her three months after this had happened.EMOTIONS UPON SENSATION 133 with hunger and fatigue. and the prominent and primary symptom being .

so that his position at sunset was nearly isolated . but this He to experienced no immunity from pain he attributed to the produced upon the brain and nervous system. battle of in Wagram. lest the torn vessel should be roused into action and produce fatal hemorrhage. An excellent example of the influence of emotional excitement in the form of a fearful belief.: INFLUENCE OF THE 134 dissection. and yet through fear he cried out with "excessive pain" when the sleeve was cut off in order to allow of the arm being examined. on trying to hook up a heavy piece of meat. I was aroused from a . wounded in this way. in causing a corresponding sensation. did not usually bleed profusely until reaction took place. November. averred that the pain was so acute. as he suddenly sank down. which lasted. Boutibonne was actively engaged during the whole of the fray. to the extent of about a foot in measure- ment. on the following morning. down by and while in the a cannon-ball. one of whom playfully struck the other's extended finger with the back of his scalpel. he cut. who. nor ventured to move. but I uttered not a word. p. through his legs below the knees. man a of literary attainments. and when he discovered his mistake. In this posture he lay motionless during the remainder of the night. At early dawn. which resulted in a treaty of peace with Austria. is well known. said he suffered acute agony. is given by Dr. if I rightly remember. The hook had only traversed his coat. severe suffering. from soon after midday until dark. for I had stunning effect ' been made acquainted with the fact that the bloodvessels. and imagining that he was uttered a terrible cry. the trunk of the body falling backwards on the ground. Noble (lxv. separating them from his thighs. Whitehead "Mons. that he thought the instrument had penetrated to the bone. lay groaning in agony on every side. 120) on the authority of Dr. and was present at a number of At the engagements during the early part of the present century. The ranks around him had been terribly thinned by the enemy's shot. 1809. a native of Paris. he The impression produced upon was shot his mind was that the ball had passed from left to right. shortened. Professsor Bennett's case of a terrified butcher. Frightened. Mons. was suspended by the arm by the hook. 'My wounded companions. Boutibonne.' said he. as he believed. slipped. and when taken to a chemist. and the senses being completely paralyzed by the shock. served in Napoleon's army. act of reloading his musket. the arm was uninjured. not daring move a muscle for fear of fatal consequences.

by located in the heart. A man innumerable organic sensations. into which my feet suddenly sank. anaesthesia sanity. " Faites-vous lever legs Whereupon d'abord. the main reason why the emotions. Probably no sensation is more universally recognized as connected with Emotion than this instantaneous epigastric feeling. I had. the whole course of my life before. and stood firmly on the legs which I believed had been me more thankful than I had ever done in I had not a wound about me. for instance. " Tin coup de canon my m'a emporte les jambes." I replied. who came around to succor the wounded. or. Striking proofs of the induction of bodily sensations by means of psychical agency." and thighs. with a ris dejoie. with Pistol. Anxiety causes pictures himself in a posi- delivering an important speech. my legs. vous n'avez rien de mal. he exclaimed. giving me stead of passing through the ball had passed under the separation of my the idea that I had been thus shattered Voilk ce que sefoM-U legs. and giving He proceeded at once to examine me a good shake." and heartsick qualms of speaks of into a qualm minded of its psychical correlative —the qualms of conscience." EMOTIONS UPON SENSATION. " I am qualmish at the smell of leek. there are cases in is frequently found associated with in- which hyperesthesia is equally well marked." I sprung up in utter astonishment. that although. are to be daily found in the sensations produced from mental imagery of an emotional character. ( je vous prie . " What's the matter with you.' It may here be noted. I may either say I am qualmish from a moral cause. or even — Milton death. Again. as I firmly believed it to have done. which pass into a complete qualm may in the sense of sickly faintness. instead. Qu'a-t-il." The sensation in the pit of the stomach forms. as has been shown." others experience. when not no doubt. le by pouvoir d'imagi- nation. felt in the earth beneath. This is instantaneously succeeded by a "qualm in the stomach. indeed." I do not now mean actual queasiness or in the nausea. tion of responsibility . in the sense of its Saxon original " the reader may be reagony. been shot down by an immense cannon-ball. mon camarade f) said he. without detailing cases. my good fellow ?" " Ah I touchez-moi doucement. and had ploughed away a cavity at least a foot in depth. House of Commons. 135 troubled slumber by one of the medical staff. my feet. an equally well-marked sensation in the legs or in the perinseum. but the well-known indescribable sensation referred to the pit of the stomach —the "epigastric centre. but inlost to I forever. have been referred to the stomach .

" says he. . at other times they pass 1 See Mosheim's " Ecclesiastical History. in the passage in which Iago the place of the heart. 124). As popular opinion refers the seat of sensational impressions. who in quoting the passage characterizes the light as "the production of a distempered fancy. in this connection. and to the solar plexus by some eminent physiologists. the seat of the soul. so does the same authority refer the emotions to the region of the stomach or breast. would lean to actual vomiting. In regard to epigastric sensations. there has always been a tendency to connect the deepest feelings of the soul bilicus. but to the peripheral. in thy raise thy cell. To this spot a monk with this region or the um- in the eleventh century directs the thoughts to be turned in order to arrive at the highest degree of "When mental insight. which. " in accordance with the natural and widespread theory that desire and passion are located there. or." In accordance with the metaphoric use of words. thou art alone thy door. turn thy eyes and thoughts towards the middle of thy abdomen. like a poisonous mineral. from the acknowledged influence it possesses in producing a state of Somenausea." Shakspeare recognizes the influence of unhappy feelings on the sensations of the alimentary canal. and no sooner has the soul discovered the place of the heart. "shut mind above all things vain and transitory. gnaw Tylor says. the sentient extremities of the sensory nerves. the reason being that mental feelings have excited the central nuclei of the nerves which supply these organs.— INFLUENCE OF THE JL36 the vulgar. times our expressions are strictly figurative. 1 says " The thought whereof Doth. and search At first all will be dark and comfortless but if thou persevere day and night thou wilt feel an ineffable joy." and Gibbon. the creature of an empty stomach and an empty brain. not to the sensorium." that at the Berlin Institution they push the forefinger against the pit of the stomach to express " I . and seat thyself in a corner . the centre of the emotional movements being in the medulla oblongata (see p. it may be added that we speak of the sickening details of a crime." "Early History of Mankind. in his Deaf and Dumb my inwards. than it is involved in a mystic and ethereal light." . if aggravated." that at the Edinburgh Institution they indicate their desire or will by placing the hand on the stomach. as indeed they are often called. recline thy beard and chin on thy breast.

D'om its his brother . e. recognized between the emotions and certain abdominal organs." spirit sickens at the hateful Joanna Baillie's "Ethwald. ages of the human race being largely justified by. From profane Greek authors similar examples might be cited. Paul. we read that " Joseph made haste. Scene V." as it is is a proverb as true Thus Shakspeare ancient.ara the Oxford MS. render it by GTzlayxva (bowels." That hope deferred maketh the heart "sick. i. the is literally association of the pected from upon two ideas is therefore met with. The In the above passage.. the word employed in the Septuagint 1 is eyy. the tenderest emotions employed to describe the physical circumstances attending the death of Judas are represented in the same language as that which is Iscariot. the or for (as in word which frequently occurs in the writings of St. sick with working of my thoughts. as in the expression rendered by our translators "bowels of mercies" and "straitened in your own bowels. in every age. Act IV. by a curious inter- along with verbal identity. The for- intended in such a phrase as "My thought." Such Hen.— : 137 EMOTIONS UPON SENSATION. alarums both of hope and fear. In the oldest historical work extant. in the language of the early. but the foregoing are sufficient to mark the connection which every one's consciousness and observation have. and he sought where to weep. 12: 10. LXX in of hyperesthesia of emotional origin Prov. for his bowels did yearn The Heb.) cnzMyyva^ the intestines or bowels. insensibly into a description of the actual physical mer is effect. (ffrddyyva olxrcp/iajv) Hence. as might be ex- foundation in nature. anatomical and physiological teachings of the present day." change of ideas. The is effect produced upon the abdominal region by the emotions recognized in the interchangeableness of the terms employed in all languages to signify the physical and the mental state. my " I feel such sharp dissension in fierce As am I breast. is seen in tender mer- . Greeks made use of the same metaphor." rendered in the authorized version. example. VI. though needing qualification from. popular language less than in the later. One marked form 1 The cies). the no .

the cart before the horse . often caused the globus is of the vagus course of not so simple as at hypochondriasis by emotion. to which the term coencesthesia is often. productive. and attaches itself to a given group of sensory nerves" (xxxiv. although in impressions is. to subjective irritation of the pulmonary branches of the vagus. however. so operations of the bodily functions. with Romberg. or well-being. There ical are. the special direction of thought to one part anxiety. . and may originate a host of imaginary disorders." "I have veins. and changes the imagina- . may here be referred to. which he does not believe to be present. applied. only be said to exist if mind the creates new their turn give rise to nutritive derangements. regarded as a direct subjective sensation —and By Romberg —hyperesthesia not an indirect one occasioned by spasm of the pharynx. refuse dition of We originating as properly hypochondriacal. Heat and Cold. in emotional cases. as it should include de- pressing as well as buoyant feeling. or anxiety may induce may cause a person to direct his thoughts to the The phenomena in However. induces that general sense of bodily comfort. many cases the attention paid to the by a morbid con- in the first instance at least. is first sight appears. on the one hand. joy. Here." he did not know what other people passion that impels tears sensation. it is very easy to put but no one doubts that while. Again. and especially the anxious reflection. . . it tion clings to creates corporeal sensations its own admit cases thus to "Hypochondriasis can which in The mind is sensations. upon any of the bodily sensations. I. excited some organ of the body. is Walter Scott said but with him "the hysteric a terrible violence besoin de respirer Sir —a sort of throttling a nearly allied state. and that of throttling. a faint cold fear thrills through my That almost freezes up the heat of life. may. for "liquids and solids pass equally well through the gullet. . though not quite correctly. on the other hand. however. productions. pp.INFLUENCE OF THE 138 hypochondriasis. —The sensations of heat and cold are notably caused by emotional disturbance. the fact undoubtedly remains that reflection. a healthy glow of bodily health acts upon the mind and causes pleasurable emotion." The is feel. The sensation of a ball in the throat. agreeable as M ell as disagreeable psycho-physr phenomena. 184-5). due. as in hypochondriasis. increases them to a morbid extent.

EMOTIONS' UPON SENSATION. if or Joy be substituted for "cold Fear. 1778 (a day in which the mercury stood at 90° importance to it. but much more so on a warm day. of soldiers who were found among the slain without any marks of wounds or by the heat exmind being added to that of violence on their bodies." The is influence of Shame on The proverbial. It is clear that of cold. as well as the cheek." The evidence is afforded by the heat experienced on the field of battle of so mixed a character — it would be mental from the physical causes —that so difficult to separate the I should not attach much upon the present inquiry but as Dr. The many instances which appeared after that memorable battle.).— . first onset in a battle they felt a glow of heat. but involves and has "a burning shame" its is not a mere origin in the actual sensation of heat " Mine ears that to your wanton talk attended. but may Fear may not only cause the subjective sensation also reduce the temperature by its action upon the vaso -motor nerves. he experienced pain and very great warmth (une chaleur tres grande). Fahr. reported. were probably occasioned cited in the body by the emotions of the . colonel of a New England regiment. after describing his situation at the time he received his wound. manner in the battle of Princeton. the external ear. simply from mental excitement. Hush has thought it worth while to regard it from this point of view in one of his remarkable essays. on the 3d of January. on the 28th of June. and who was wounded in the hand at the battle of Monmouth. Do burn themselves for having so offended. that without touching "the subject" or employing any means whatever. among other phenomena they observed. in 1784. to report to the Academy of Sciences on the claims of Animal Magnetism. whom I visited at Princeton. in the year A veteran 1777. on which day the weather was remarkably cold. concluded his story by remarking that fighting was hard work on a cold day. so universal as to be This was the case in a particular perceptible in both their ears. as bearing . Instances occur daily of cold extremities from painful emotions warmth being soon Hope restored. 139 The commission appointed by the King of France. I cannot do less than quote "Many officers have informed me that after the his experience. expression figure.

then at the full. and at length an old woman. Rush is more for this conclusion are far satisfactory. and raising her arms to heaven beneath the bright moon. after sleeping several months upon a mattress or upon the ground. she kneeled upon the bottle of sticks. who enjoyed good health during a campaign. or in the open air. but one death. that he might convict her of the theft. who was I knew seized with convulsions the night he lay on a feather bed. obvious. by the Dr. Heaven grant that thou never mayest know again the blessing to be warm. that the is from being Another observation of Dr. and there was life. considerable influence in causing a chill in the first instance.: INFLUENCE OF THE 140 the atmosphere" grounds (lxi. already shivering with cold. that soldiers favored by the fortune of war would remain comparatively insensible to cold. in which her load was upon the ground. spoke to the farmer. which was excited by a sense of danger and the other invigorating objects of a military life. in the coldest months of the year yet in the course of six weeks only two were ill. approached. no doubt. and then springing from his concealment he seized his prey the sticks carried . an instance of a militia first captain. and in a few days with violent threats. left ' . ness of so large a vigor infused into the human body by the produced insensibility to all the usual remote causes of diseases. were often affected by fevers and other diseases. the power of Fear in sustaining the morbid sensation of cold afterwards cannot be denied "A young farmer in Warwickshire. I. like a witch in a play. These affections of the body ap- peared to be produced only by the sudden abstraction of that tone in the system. and was carrying them off. After some altercation. Darwin relates the following case. and began to pull up the hedge he waited till she had tied up her bottle of sticks.' He complained of cold all the next day. It 129). reverse of this picture must be added to render victory of Trenton having it The complete. however. Although the exposure to the cold of a frosty night had. although not directly referring to the influence of a certain state of mind in "Militia resisting cold. and officers soldiers. Rush says he can only account for the healthinumber of men under such circumstances. as soon as they returned to their respective homes. He lay many cold hours under a hay-stack. and wore an upper coat. ac- Trenton and barns. finding his hedges broken and away during a frosty season. reliable. p. customed During the American war the Philadelphia to the comforts of city militia. determined to watch for the thief." Dr. slept after the battle of in tents .

for it may equally In melancolie avec stupeur. The researches of Louis Meyer. "Loewenhardt was enabled by this means to diagSeptember. had a sieve over his face as he lay . during those of tranquillity the temperature fell sometimes for six months. it has been observed at the commencement of an engagement. are far from being conclusive. and experiences a the drunkard. in the rectum has devoted subject.variations are less regular. but this is due to the state of the patient. for fear of the cold he died" (lxxv. the pulse. consequence. also becomes more frequent during mental excitement. varia- affect the ought tions of temperature blankets. The this oscillation continuing pulse. No one will doubt that these sensations are well be the result of incipient tubercular disease. in his essay on the " In- 1 Gill Upon : this case a true story. Ertzbichoff (xxxv. increased temperature. 359). and mental excitement. till at length 1 temperature of the body. II. modified —aroused — or dulled child hears water mentioned. but never exceeded this to 98. as every one knows. the results. made him warm always saying nothing many he covered himself with very . for this is not present. the these examples of the influence cases in which emotional excite- ment tends to create thirst. who in insanity. tending to prove the coincidence in the rise of the pulse with febrile action. these oscillations are regular : thus. and from 141 this kept his bed above twenty years. malingering was suspected. during the days of excitement the thermometer indicated 100." Hunger and Thirst. one insane idea he to be of diagnostic value in regard to the According to Dr. Rush. and not to a febrile condition. Dr. With —by the condition of the mind. Thus. "Goody Blake and Harry .." Wordsworth founded his poetn. If certain mental states mind and air. which nose insanity in a case in state of the Westphal. p. the mental image of a glass of spirits will excite his peculiar thirst for drink. mometer much time to the investigation of the The former places the therThe coincilatter.EMOTIONS UPON SENSATION. some insane patients.6° — . of ideas A desire to drink in Persons are often if the attention But apart from —the imagination —there are be diverted. is omen when of bad it frequently occurs. in a fortnight took to his bed. Dr. and another. has obtained good in the axilla. dence of oscillations in the temperature with alternations of mental tranquillity With and excitement. it is true. thirsty when. the temperature is always below the normal amount.8° Fahr. sensation disappears. 1865).

394). he had taken no This expectation. illustrates this familiar fact. little was evening before he approached the place of his destination. Carpenter relates an anecdote of himself. except. on the authority of Dr. but as he felt no hunger he thought fulfilled of the disappointment. The in maintaining the vital power in the physiologist last cited records a case in which a young lady. on own observation. having walked about twenty miles. and he then began to feel a peculiar lassitude." . I. 399. the sec- ondary phenomenon being tion in the stomach. because the circumstance of the upon another subject trated Hunger from Body. one or two cups of tea. this cause is not often experienced.) Even ently. : INFLUENCE OF THE 142 fluence of the American Revolution upon the he noticed thirst to be a very and officers more He soldiers. Willan. which sion of this. there . so that during the he could scarcely support himself. "Yet the strength of the patient rather increased than diminished during this period ful. he . a few words may be added in re- gard to the influence of the peculiar condition of the mind present in some forms of hysteria. this subject. was not food since breakfast. kept him up immediately fainted " In connection with The ' last mile stimulus of necessity/ but on arriving at his temporary home. took no nourishment for some days. however. the patient. cit. and with occupy his mind and having expected to meet with some . under his three weeks. different from orIt after dinary fatigue. resting frequently by the way. 128). her muscles became firmer and her voice more power- In a case of delusional insanity. only took a little orange-juice. however. &c. (viii. striking. its manifestation through a particular acwhich may be overlooked when the mind is otherwise employed "He much to was walking alone through a beautiful country.. cited by the same writer. p. p." says among both the occurred when no exercise or it body could have excited Human sensation This p.. is the mind being concen- failed to extinguish this sensation. absence of food. He adduces it as a proof that the sense of hunger originates in the condition of the general system. a young gentlewoman. and yet lived for sixty days. if it be thought that such cases might have resulted differhad a " Welsh Fasting Girl Committee " sat upon them. Other mental images appear in this instance to occupy the attention to the excluDr. action of the common adds that it (lxi. which rapidly increased. (Op. opportunity of obtaining refreshment on the road.

man who is deaf. under (emotional) excitement. generates. it . as ocular spectra. —whether we hold that the sensory ganglia are called into activity every time which we have visited. The exalted mental condition of some religious enthusiasts. amouting oftentimes to a state of true ecstasy. a form of its The own. . is — such central hyperesthesia transmitted to the peripheral terminations ? The remarks already made on the Influence of the upon Sensation (Chapter II) apply here also. 1 involving only the cerebral hemispheres . 143 number of instances of fasting for shorter periods quite a sufficient of time in abnormal states of the feelings to show their connection. Special Senses. —and. without supposing any centrifugal change phenomena which to take place in the course of these nerves or in their peripheral expansions. and produces. "The is expresa happy imagination. whether fearful or Those who believe in real visitations from the other world. involve the act. there are subjective as well as objective ghosts. mutatis mu- of the nerves Intellect tandis. labors under amaurosis can he can still though his olfactory nerve 1 See p. sight —The influence of Emotion in exciting the sense of by many ghost illustrated is &c. that if he smell. visions. It is obvious that our present standpoint does not necessarily extend beyond the central terminations of the sensory nerves. in regard to this class of phenomena. — Are the organs of sense the distal extremities of the sensory nerves themselves affected by emotional excitement? In other words. has led in men to results as ex- traordinary as those observed in hysterical females. to account for all the subjective sensorial follow. All this is true as fact. The sion of Coleridge. or the we mind the localities recall to the sounds we have heard.— is EMOTIONS UPON SENSATION. is still hear an audible voice destroyed. do not deny that agreeable. sufficient that we It is allow that these can be excited by an emotional impulse. implies the activity of the sensory ganglia. and the same portion of the brain. stories. while nothing short of the presence of distinct hallucinations or illusions of the senses. behold or can therefore. that a sensation. We know that a spectra . in accordance with the position taken by Bain and others. 61 of this work. or whether we believe that the mere recollection of an object is a remembrance of a purely ideational sensation." state of the feelings at the time will determine the character of phantasms. and have any knowledge of physiology. one.

from some cause or other. and it appears. what has been already their action. Symonds. occur. ought to be told not that he is wrong in saying he or from without. and the consciousness of an impression sensorial made upon or sensations arise the nerves. indeed. but in supposing that that is sensation consists of the consciousness of an impression produced upon the peripheral termination of the nerve by an external object. in it —retransmission—can I venture to think that. 1 Midler in maintaining that physiologist. brain immediately concerned in the recalled impression said is. it in the would be clearer to substitute the expression that the idea in the cerebral hemispheres excites the action of the sensorium and the central terminations of the sensory nerves. The individual who thinks he sees an object. observes the impression that those parts of the nervous system which have been used to be associated in and thus. and which. had often been excited at the same time with a spot on the retina. even of the nerves of sense. I trust. p. — " I do not see is unnaturally when somewhat probable. has gone further than can and does. in the former case.— INFLUENCE OF THE 144 cannot be needful to suppose any centrifugal action along the course This remains a secure position to take." and that the idea sensorium excites the active state of particles in the retina. when a certain part of the is. . and visions are not He is is the other. from the well-known fact impossibility in such a transmission. excited. which is not present to excite the optic nerve. that. whether acted — conscious of the sensation experienced. and as this function is seated in the sensory ganglia. while admitting that the internal parts of the apparatus of vision are alone essential to the production of certain phenomena. the late Dr. With regard to a question sometimes asked phenomena which — are the subjective from an internal stimulus like an emotion. he confounds two views which are distinct —the phenomena of one. so as to produce the same effect as if excited from a peripheral impression. the latter becomes likewise affected. is whether the sensorium is reached from within upon from above or below. but when he to be confounded with says that they are seated "in the senses. are the same thing. are ever ready to sympathize. and not the periphery of the nerve. sufficient to show that the reproduction of the sensation takes place independently " (xxvi. usually a current along the nerve right when he says that phantasms -mere ideas. But though we admit the probability of such consenting action. there from centre to periphery. that sensorial subjective origin are as truly states of sensation as those excited objectively. 244). 1 any That accomplished physician. as real as those excited by an external object? it is obvious that as sensation. if it No be true that this backward action fact. from its connection. it as truly a sensation. vivified.

Having repaired to bed. to pressed his surprise at this. almost on any terms. the room gets filled with canaries. as the only landlady readily gave her assent. The result was a panic in the House. 'are you aware of the remarkable circumstance that always. and he a dead one. some stood up alarmed. But no sooner said than realized . and both went to take up their quarters in their usual lodg: ings." whose weight broke a board in the gallery. for. presently there was a burst of music.' 'Then. although a state of expectancyis also present. The first has reference to the Sense of smell When. the candle having been put out.: ! EMOTIONS UPON SENSATION. Braid "Two captains of merchant vessels arrived in port at the same time. followed by an armed band marching to Westminster to defend the House from this imaginary gunpowder plot The effect of alarm and imagination in health upon the sense of sight.' said the other. and Sir John Ray cried out that he smelt gunpowder. To this the that she was very sorry that she could not that occasion. 10 . which fly about and sing in the most beautiful manner ?' His companion excorpse in it. and there were rumors of dangerous at issue plots. In some. however. after midnight. Being most anxious to remain in their accustomed lodgings. considering it better. including "two very corpulent members. rather than go elsewhere. in such cases. report was made to the House of one (without foundation) which was designed to blow up the members. and in illustration of this the two following cases may be mentioned. They were informed by the landlady of the house. so far as she was concerned. accommodate them on bedroom Avhich she could have appropriated for their use was occupied by the corpse of a gentleman just deceased. Fear itself has generated this expectant condition. who was a very great wag. In the majority of cases of false sensations of 145 mental origin. which gave so great a crack that some thought there was a plot indeed. began a conversation with the other by asking him whether he had ever before slept in a room with a which he replied 'No. and we have had occasion to refer to several interesting cases in a previous section. is exceedingly well illustrated by the following account given by Mr. one of the gentlemen. they offered to sleep in the room wherein the dead body was laid out. and throughout London. to have three such customers in her room than only one. the Parliament was with the King. During its reading. however. as well as upon feeling. during the reign of Charles I. ex- pectant attention appears to be the chief element in the causation.

And. nerve terminates in the body. p. but at length the horrified novice in the chamber of death avowed and felt the birds flying in all directions and plungIn a short time he became so excited. this Thought strongly directed away from any part.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 146 as if the room really was full of canaries. is tivity of the cerebral functions during deep intellectual operations excludes consciousness of the impressions made upon nerves generally. strikingly shown. In concluding which this chapter. Thought strongly directed to any part tends to increase its Associated with a and consequently its sensibility. we may briefly state the principles Emotions upon commencement. 88). as stated at the sations. lessens its sensibility. assuring the astonished household of the fact. water. excited by agents acting upon the body from without. but also seen and felt them flapping their wings against him" (xx. as he could testify from the evidence of his senses. either by directly exciting the sensory ganglia and the central extremities of the nerves of sensation. for example. exciting. vascularity. an excited emotional condi1. There is . without taking time to do his toilet. 2. . gether. tion induces a general sensitiveness to impressions —an intolerance of noise. whether general or special. or which by inducing vascular changes in a certain part of the body. for he had not only heard them. powerful emotion. and insisting that the room really was quite full of birds. The captain had some excuse for saying he heard them. The emotions may cause sensations. although not for seeing or feeling them. no sensation. so an absorbing emotion effectually produces the same 3. which cannot be excited also from within by emotional states affecting the sensory ganglia such sensation being referred by the mind to the point at which the 4. the sensory result. ordinary senexcessive and morbid sensations. or suspending them alto- lie at the foundation of the influence of the sensation. these effects are more when not directed to any special part. or cutaneous irritation. which were not only heard. especially when As the acoccasioned by Emotion. excite the sensitive nerves at their peripheral terminations. he rushed downstairs in his nightdress. that. for his companion had really imitated the note of the canary by blowing through a reed dipped in that he both saw ing against him.

— — UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. III. is the produced upon the limbs. The ordinary influence of Emotion upon the muscles is most marked upon those of the face "the Dyall of the Affections" — and as we shall find it convenient to include the muscles engaged in Respiration in the consideration of the action of the emotions on the voluntary muscles. the relation between Emotion and muscle becomes of great interest and importance in a physiognomical point of view. it must be added that they enced by emotional changes . gestures. —Muscular Contraction and Relaxation. INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. more than evanescent expressions. The may Emotions. SECTION I. Regular contraction and relaxatian : Irregular and excessive contraction Movements. and The attitudes to which the passions of the soul subject the body. or of emotions of one however. —may may cause. what extent the influence of the mind on the facial muscles is direct or through the heart and lungs. eifect to predominance of one emotion. are strikingly influ- but sufficiently distinctive. The question. will be referred to subseAs Expression depends mainly on the contraction and requently. less. laxation of the muscles. II. cause I. Loss of power: Paralysis. class. CHAPTER 147 VIII. including in this all the fleeting expressions. especially the hand. Spasms and Convul- : sions. determine the . by their action on the nervo-muscular system.

As Scott describes Bertram's features in " Rokeby •" " For evil passions cherished long Had ploughed them On with impressions strong. rapid motions of the limbs. and by pleasurable. as Ruskin says. were well exhibited in the Barns- ley Colliery Explosion of 1866. Joy excites the whole muscular system." Let us consider now the most striking and familiar effects of strong emotion upon muscular contraction and relaxation. which may become not only permanent in the individual. ita animus commotus est metu Spe.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 148 and is the basis of physiognomy from mere pathognomy emotions of a noble and settled character of the features. after a period of suspense. The effects of Joy. gaudio. the broad grin of Joy contrasts with that of Hate. a debased type of expression. will not impress a new fairness upon the features. tarn repentino bono. shook hands with them. the angle of the fact that Fear and Joy mouth. exercise of sive. involving with it moderate. laughter. as distinguished — lofty character tending to produce a refined. but the whole body. leap- When and throwing the arms about. ing. when." "There is not any virtue." Here Terence recognizes the psychological are simultaneously caused by glad tidings. when excesthe contrary." The signs of Joy may closely border upon those of Fear. and congratulated them till they were almost overdone. stripped them. laxes into a smile. the eyelids. the which even momentarily. and succeeded in bringing the "They were nearly pulled to pieces by the deother in safety. running. The nostrils are dilated. dancing. but it may be too rapid to allow of . with those of Grief. who seized them. The activity a characteristic tone to the voice. and those of a sensual character. producing. as contrasted mouth reThe the smile of the eyes. but hereditary. and depressed by painful of the vocal muscles is excited by Joy. scrubbed them. neither on them only. — two men reached the top in safety one of them having volunteered to seek for any that were still living. mirando hoc tanto. giving the eyebrows are raised feelings. lighted engineers. because the mind pictures to itself the possible removal of the sources of its j°y— " Vix sum apud me.

! UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. in fact. strange. pain which has been the muscles —and. and mingled 'Twas sad by fits.' What said Nay. engaged in respiration are excited. Isabel I— Edith!— all fear not well- my The safety of My bride?' but there the accents clung In tremor lovely bride to his faltering tongue." Contrast the mild facial expression and crouching attitude of Humility with the firm and decisive tread of Pride. sobbing. his grief beguiled solemn. groaning different effects from Joy. on the other hand." Canto II. in Ode well Juliet:" "Death. by . produces very are. Grief. intelligible articulation." While Hope "with eyes so fair: Enchanted smiled. on felt to They all the muscles. Its influence on the power of speech. wan Despair.— — :: : . those of the cheek. tearing the hair. described by Capulet in "Romeo and Yet not less true is " With woful Low A to let make me me wail. and waved her golden hair. acute pain induces wringing the hands. he 'my said. tending to familiar expression of sadness. that hath ta'en her hence Ties up my tongue. which further embarrassed by in- still is 149 creased frequency. when extreme." "Lord The muscles is — I will well provide directly directly induce changes of the Isles. 'Fear not. grinding the teeth." the description of hopelessness. by Collins in his is its chronic to the Passions measures. the natural result of such a degree as to exhaust the system now droop under their own weight. the head erect . starts 'twas wild. induces feeble respiratory movements sighing. xix. air. rapidity. sullen sounds. and swallowing " With hurried voice and eager look. produce by their action on the eyelids the especially. In the early stage of Grief. and inwhich more properly belong to the organic functions. and will not form. speak.

neck stiff. and in spite of all I could do to enliven her. to obtain a tribute of admiration. while kind tone. Cruelty. became suddenly afflicted with a sullen sadness. and the more I exclaim 'Fine Stella. With this. She might have been likened to a country damsel in a new gown on her way to church. In each case the head is high. and she passes from one to another. After two years of melancholy she suddenly resumed her former gayety. had in the house for 282). so far as the relation of the form of these animals to that of man permits it. that had always been very lively and fawning. or Sen- suality. proud courser magnificently caparisoned. and wriggles her whole body. she continued lying in her corner. The full drawn lip that upward curled. and answer in a bitches ' : my " One of my slippers in her honorable burden she bridles up. p. fine Stella the !' more animated are her movements. coincides with the attitude of the proud man. The eye that seemed to scorn the world. Gall contrasts the expression of Vanity the his cage either a canary bird or a goldfinch. you will see him turn from side to you in affectionate accents expressive of his pleasure. the eye of flame. wriggling to and fro." "Rokeby. more deeply wounded than was this poor brute by the presence of a strange animal" (xxii. 190. and began to caress me with her ordinary liveliness and affection.INFLUENCE OP THE EMOTIONS 150 or thrown back. with head up. V. the characteristic smile " " The mouth firm and compressed. had been killed. and chest protruded. In the course of the same day I learned that a squirrel. p. — "Pride smiling or displaying a stern/' as Beattie expresses The lip of Pride. draw upon herself the envious looks of her companions. viii. which I had to two years. this when she is carrying ' Observe in you address him side." is never happier than Charmed with mouth. and jealous courtier. Never was unquiet. attitude of the movement grave and measured" (Gall). or of the cock that has just vanquished his enemy. I." Canto it. . The shrug of the shoulder is a familiar and striking mark of Con- tempt. The attitude of the vain man is the opposite of that of Pride. vain. IV. Pride is considered by Ruskin to be more destructive of the ideal character of the countenance and body than Fear. This same bitch.

as if he wished in some sort to avenge his vexation on the ground" (Ixvi. — In describing painful respiration. peaussier clu cou.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. there man grows meagre seems to become stunted . p. firm and resisting. and prepared for defence. life or death hanging on the result of the experiment. with a bold facial expression. his features immedi- eyebrows meet. de Fangoisse et de Fepouvante. his figure already the envious well described misfortune happens to his rival. contrasts with the well-recognized outward signs of Fear. in short. "s'eleve. le vaniteux s'etale. but while fancying that he conceals. which was heard echoing and re-echoing within the shaft. " But gnawing Gealosy. Bitting alone. his eyes become sunk in their sockets. dont la partie faciale a recu de Fanatomiste Santorini le nom de muscle rieur." ob- serves Descuret. but none came. All listened in sickening suspense for a response. and the . The attitude of the muscles in Courage. the spectators standing around and maintaining the most profound The silence. Then two men lay with their heads over the edge of the pit mouth. by causing spasmodic respiration may." In the accounts of the frightful colliery explosion at Barnsley in The cage 1866. smile upon man is his thin lips. stillness of death was preserved by the awe-struck occupants of the platform. thin with the good fortune of another. he is silent. Gratiolet observes "Ces mouvements out pour cause immediate les contractions de ce muscle noea. was lowered into the pit in the hope of rescuing some of the sufferers. 151 "L'orgucilleux. 599). terror. as they checked their breath under the influence of their highly-wrought feelings. If he hear read any production of remarkable merit. sans doute par antiphrase. risorius. choke the utterance . It is from the same motive that men bite their lips with jealous vexation." The aspect of the envious "When thor. if fortune ately contract. although both are founded in selfish feeling. Then the two men gave a loud shout. he betrays himself nearly always to an acute observer by a slight clattering of the feet. his bitter lips did bight. the facial expression is that of dysp- Fear amounting to as in grief." The Faerie Queene. out of their sight. the effects of fear and suspense are well portrayed. his by the same au- is is an infernal his lot. car ce pretendu risorius est le muscle de la dyspnee mortelle.

has been justly compared to a dog with from pursuit. in tremblings." Qtjeene. as one that had aspyde . for with the signs of the former already mentioned. when feeling most. Him yett againe. and are experienced during . In "Childe Harold" expressed the signs of this condition of mind is well "All heaven and earth are still." are combined the relaxation of the masseters. Astonisht stood." He answered nought at all but adding new Feare to his amazement. Fear when flight. extensors." says Mr. staring wyde With stony eyes and hartlesse hollow hew. 1 description of the physical aspect of Terror and of other emotions "Emotions and the Will. have.. did inly quake. the sphincters. cles. But trembling every joynt. p. diminish their size. with which we are not now and the concerned. induces rapid muscular action in the form of flight. The Faerie The opposite muscular states of contraction or tension and relaxa- tion alike find illustration in the emotion of Terror. in palpitations. on the flexor mus- —analo—while courage contracts the causes the general bending or curving of the frame gous to the action of the hedgehog.. Infernall furies with their chaines untyde. bespake The gentle knight who nought to him replyde. "To in the in- were." . in efforts to es- go along with an actual suffering of the evil feared. and "the stare of the eye. 483). fear it head bent between his shoul- B}r acting its tail chiefly between its legs.. is to be in a state of what we strong expresses itself in " Fear and these are just the manifes- cape.'uud life. though not in sleep. But breathless as we grow. "in a slight degree such psychical states as accompany the reception of wounds. and produces expansion and height. and yett againe. tations that call cries. &c. . processes of organic 1 See a in Bain's !. if it silent as we stand in thoughts too deep : —" does not proceed so far in the direction of terror as to paralyze the muscles. while it fixes and contracts other parts of the body as The man flying his ders. And Fear. I.— INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 152 shout was repeated with a like result. Spencer (x. with under similar circumstances. stinctive attempt to conceal and. And foltring tongue at last these words seemed forth to shake.

furrows the forehead. speaking the last words of spiritual exhortation. at fear.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. rations. indicative of repose. proceeding with his hideous prepa- drew the white cap over the condemned man's face. who had his feet. and induces a violent action and more or less rigidity of the muscles generally it usually impels the body forward. . and exposes and rolls the eyeballs. He was determined to meet his fate. and somewhat defiant- looking man. with followed the culprit to the drop. muscular. it would have been to support. advanced with quick. firm tread up the steps of the scaffold. and of tion of Hinson. left him to meet his doom. Some resistance on the part of the culprit had been anticipated. his whole bearing was altered in a moment when the full reality of his awful position was realized." influence of the conflicting mental conditions of defiance. and not to control him. clenches the fist. while Fear impels it backward. and if the services of the two warders who stood behind him had been required. probably not without reason. "A tall. as previously stated. inflates the nostrils. if not courage. But. and was as ready to die as he would have been to live. . His whole aspect for a moment was that of a man who held in supreme contempt the fall that was before him. . Nor The dares th' obliquely gleaming eyeball raise. 'Now for the grand secret!' and when he reached the drop he looked with assumed nonchalance on the iron chain depending from the cross-beam above him. unflinchingly. particle of courage . 153 Beattie lias accurately described the muscular action and appear- ance of the eyes in one form of fear —Suspicion : "Suspicion hides her head. But as Calcraft." Calmness a placid condition of the feelings generally is marked by a gentle contraction of the muscles. but at the same time of latent power by a countenance free from furrows. and then down at which he appeared almost to stamp upon the drop. every seemed to forsake him his ivhole frame quivered with fear as the noose was adjusted round his neck and the chaplain. Anger or rage contracts the masseters. was well represented recently the "Daily Telegraph:" at the execu- I abbreviate the description given by Newgate. — — — but not relax'ed into weakness. He exclaimed. if possible. and from his demeanor when he first left the room where he was pinioned. had the opportunity of a renewed period of existence been afforded him.

admirably represents the symbolic acts of this passion. and embrace the object upon which it expends itself. Were ne'er prophetic sounds so full of woe. : . forcibly described by Joanna Baillie as "grinding his horrid jaws. accompanying rabid movements all red. The war-denouncing trumpet in thunder down. The smile of Hate may be opposed to that of Love. and knees full lowly Dent." Contrast again the expression of Adoration.— " : : . especially when a person thinks he is able to succeed in a nefarious scheme. with a frown. The description of Earl cit. INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 154: "The destructive passion eral tension of the is shown/' observes Spencer. and fear. ." Love and Hate present their opposite characteristics no less clearly the general effect of the former on the body being to possess. 483). furious heat. is and paced his hall his upper lip." now his under. Every one can testify that the psychical state called Anger consists are of mental representations of the actions and impressions which would occur while inflicting some kind of pain" (op. And ever and anon he beat The doubling drum with love. in growls and these . on the one hand. as well as the " At this Now he turned gnawed Ethwald. the attitude of the mother pressing the child to her breast being in unison with the leading feeling. Collins's stanza " But. "in a gen- muscular system. " The ghastly smile of fell Malignity. All night she watch t. who "took p. Breathless with adoration. in gnashing of teeth and protru- sion of the claws. taking. with a withering look. And blew a blast so loud and dread.. weak forms of the actions that accompany the killing of prey. Doorm." And on the other. a wonder. Or Wordsworth's lines " Quiet as a nun. retain. his russet beard be- tween his teeth" in his anger. Eevenge impatient He rose : threw his blood-stained sword And. when enraged. . with that of Revenge the excpiisite description of compound of Una " "With folded hands. took. in dilated eyes and nostrils. for we may witness.

and consequently an arched eyebrow . can put themselves into a vocal posture to be understood. was the author of a book entitled " Chirologia or. and a third (agony or painful thinking) contraction of the corrugator supercilii. A very remarkable writer of the 17th century. and thereby a lowering ex- another (joy and inquisitivencss) contraction of the frontal muscle. While each strained ball of sight seemed bursting from From these examples. conversely. follow And it. making a more quick dispatch by gesture so when the fancy hath over wrought upon the Hand. which accompany or this . somnambulism or Braidism. Yet still he kept his wild unaltered mien. and speaks out a good part of our meaning. in so 1 See these various expressions illustrated in the plates of Bell's Expression. John Bulwer.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. movements of the hand. as in the report of a Piece." In it he observes that member. is latter. so although Speech and Gesture are conceived together in the mincle. before our words. nasi. fixed relationship between certain muscles 1 The and certain mental states produced in evoking the by the effects by placing the former in particular attitudes. each dreary pause between. Dejected Pity at his side Her soul-subduing voice applied." "Anatomy of . it is not an affair of chance that one state of mind induces contraction of the orbicularis palpebrarum and the pyramidalis pression . anticipates the tongue. our conceptions are displayed and utter'd in the very movement of a thought. the eye being the nimbler sense by conduct of the the Eare. the motto being only be thoroughly effected in We have referred artificial to the significant character of the . yet the Hand first much as appearing in the delivery." sufficiently clear that certain feelings of the mind act upon certain muscles of the body in preference to Taking those of the eyebrow others. For the gesture of the hand many times gives a hint of our intention. This can be done to some extent in an ordinary condition of the system. but can also proved. which he quaintly terms "the manuall Text of utterance. although the flash and report are discernes the discharge before vocal 1 wave arrive at any intelligence twins born at the instant of the Pieces going off. alone. And 155 though sometimes. ! " Ifanus membrum hominis loquacissimum. it is his head." takes "oftentimes the thoughts from the forestalled tongue. the Natural Language of the Hand Composed of the Speaking Motions and Discoursing Gestures thereof/' &c.

which is common to you with us. in his work. which." " Bulwer." he says. but perhaps the simplest and most satisfactory illustration of Emotion producing . Taking a general view of the opposite conditions of the muscles contraction and relaxation all — it may be observed lhat the absence of painful and pleasurable emotions —a state of apathy —may be accompanied by motionless features and relaxed limbs. having a language more naturall and significant." — general language of Human Nature." in general are admirable. 307). spares itself a The remarks on gestures " The lineaments of the body doe disclose labour. IX. after . that any Physiological 1 Handfaster that can marry them stronger together might doe it if he pleas'd" (ix. wee renounce wordes and use Nods and other naturall signes alone. to prevent a needless tautologie." We may undoubtedly grant to Bulwer what. wring them in sor- row. Philocophus or. as being most part of their ability neither can bee denied but that it is a great dis- coverer of dissimulation and great direction of businesse. "you cannot expresse your mindes in those verball contrivances of man's invention yet you want not speech. the general and universall language of Humane Nature. blush and most part of the most subtile motions. " What though. the disposition and inclination of the minde in generall motions doe not only and so. but the but doe further disclose the present humour will. so for the . he says. minde and state of the . For. Gesture. and therefore a number of such eare. advance them in prayer and admiration . shake our head in clis- daine. p. wrinkle our forehead in dislike. is all he asks to be allowed "to have been the first that by Art endeavored to — and the Affections together in a new Pathomyogamia or at least to have published the Banes between Myologus and Pathology. wee joyne in commission with our wordes. for as the tongue speaketh to the speaketh to the eye. to heare lips. do well know the advantage of this observation. Friend. so Gesture persons whose eyes doe dwell upon the faces and fashions of men." unfolds "the subtile art which may enable one with an ob- what any man speaks by the movement of his and designates Gesture the Vox Corporis the only speech and servant Eie. 296- to link the Muscles . and when wee would speak with most state and gravity. one manner almost we it clappe our hands in joy. perceiving herself forestall'd.— INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 156 many times the tongue. to wit. when we would have our speech . the Deafe and Dumbe Man's in shame. crispe our nose in anger. who have your whole body for a Tongue. have life and efficacy.

Hope. the lar fibres due to the effort is really powerful contraction of the muscles of the cheek. before we can trace the guiding principle of emotional movements. confusion has arisen from the use of the traction " as applied sometimes to the muscles. Contraction. and especially of the triangularis oris. relaxation. the painful or sorrowful ones. it has been said.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. and the result in the first case is expansion. but the former mainly contract the extensors. . Benevolence. in which the fibres of the We have. In Anger. Fear. seen exemplified in the later stages of from the exhaustion of pain and despair. is 157 found in moderately pleasura- The whole body is in a languid and relaxed and naturally assumes the recumbent posture. Avarice. . What principle determines these outward manifestations ? We must commence with the recognition of the fundamental prin- ciple which governs purely corporeal actions. active Joy. but decided contraction also. Joy. concen- word " conand sometimes to the expression. conservatio of Prochaska. certain — and pain. and the latter the flexors. It would be more correet to say that the pleasurable or joyous emotions impart expansion to the expression . but there are many exceptions to the rule as thus laid down. in which it zygomatici we have results —being called into active exercise. This is the Lex Nostri so prominently brought into notice as a grand teleological law by Professor Lay cock. relaxation of the voluntary muscles ble states of the mind. By virtue of it. in which there appears to be a relaxation of the muscusurrounding and controlling the mouth. and the lips slightly open. again. the muscles are vigorously contracted. smiling and laughter succeed. in the early stage of Grief we and is it true that witness violent contractions of some of the muscles. no longer simple orbicularis oris are relaxed. we shall subsequently see more clearly how far. Grief. movements take place to insure the preservation of the individual. relaxation of the pleasurable ones. again. In weeping. the eyelids If the emotion intensifies into droop. condition. emotion on the other. the antagonistic muscles of the orbicularis —the Relaxation. In conscious states the working of this law is mainly secured by feeling by the sensations of pleasure in unconscious states. and relaxation and pleasurable Some tration. However. however. and in what sense it is true that there exists a relation between contraction and painful emotion on the one hand. is the natural language of the pain- ful emotions. contract the muscles so do Grief.

Dr. Now. the rebuke of an indignant eye. immediately designed to protect the individual. have rarely been surpassed. much an as evidence The when no action is perlook and the words of angry violence. In some of the best-marked examples the pose and movements of the head are in accordance with the alleged position of the cerebral organs. are obviously directly designed to secure. inde- mode of explaining them. They may or may not be combined are a number of movements not of this But there primary character. and . and infinitely superior to most of his critics. pendently of his and made an honest and bold endeavor movements accompanying the dif- his descriptions of their natural language. in the same sense. . cause Fear. Some of these movements. the at once recognize. was an original observer. but this. but are useful as outward signs of the emotion. as in the mainly outaction of Grief on the lachrymal gland. a true philosopher. however. certain muscular movements. granting the correspondence. "We are so constituted that we tremble before of design as the horns or other defensive weapons of an animal. the object suggested by a certain emotion. Chalmers has taken the anger which prompts to the resistance of aggression as a proof of the hand of a contriver in the moral constitution of man. the frown of an offended countenance. but occur by virtue of a law of correspondence. on those per- formed for the service of the bodily organs. as we shall show. to account for the character of the ferent emotions. occur. who. Under we would under the the influence of Fear. and especially those which minister to sensation. to which we are about The former may be called primary the latter secondary to refer. not. They are in some instances. because of its obvious utility . acts of expression. those especially understood as which are obvious design of flight or defence. and perhaps menace of an uplifted arm. even formed. securing which we as readily as with the Will. or a sense of danger. while others have no such direct object." or an indignant voice. or figurative. the emotional principle. These muscular changes appear to be based. part of the movements of the muscles of the would only explain a face and body.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 158 movements are themselves guided by the same and employ the same machinery when outwardly expressed. in accordance with the law of conservation. whatever may be the ultimate fate of the details of his Organology. safety valves though not the less useful as constitutlets of emotional excitement — — ing a part of the natural language of the emotions. Gall.

" It can only be explained by the absolute inaction and the complete apathy of the organ of Pride" (xxii. 282). and which we witness in carnivorous animals when." With regard also to the action of the teeth. in energetic action its backward his it elevates the head while. or original. further. there are emotions characterized 159 by marked outward signs. while the proud one struts with expanded chest. &c. help to explain it may be that one principle explains this and another principle another gesture. but makes a rapid movement. or rather it turns rapidly from left to and from right to left. they tear their prey. line. Avith his eyes fixed on the ground. tion of the it when a person on a height has In the opposite state of Humility. the strongest that can be adduced p. " Why. and Avhich we refer Again." and he is apt to it utter tall talk. is perhaps. . such movements seem much more easily explained on the principle that the muscles prefigure the form which they would assume in the corporeal acts of eating. the second.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. head be explained by a reference may not the posi- to the counterpart form assumed in bodily debility? In that fascinating book. &c. the introduced to adapt . although Gall attributes to this the fact that " the head is drawn clearly explained between the shoulders. many of the gestures which Ave observe in Pride. as connected Avith the Fine Arts. might ing attitude assumed down. "The Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression. from a dAvarf ? not also be accounted for by the correspondliterally to look upon one who is below him. as Humility is and carries it a little the reverse state." is that. while It does not. however. in favor of Gall's position." Sir Charles Bell divided the cerebro-spinal nerves into tAVO great classes : the first. a figure of the real and completed act in animals. and the Fifth Cerebral Nerve. possessed in common by man and the loAver animals far-famed "Respiratory" or "Superadded" class. to another principle. by the situation of Destructiveness above the ear. under the influence of rage." asks humble man walk meekly along. none of which appear to receive any explanation from their supposed Thus. the movements of Anger do not seem to be seat in the brain. The pantomime in man is in such instances right. This examj)le. and is carried neither forward nor backward. "does the And head erect?" median seat in the durinsc answer . "V. and Gall. the head and body are bent forward. in Anger. or Avhen a giant regards Hence a proud man is said to be " high. comprising those of the Cord. as "the organ of Pride has its the superior posterior part of the head. as regards the elevation of the head.

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 160 the organ of breathing to man's intellectual nature. breathing That the emotions act upon the muscles concerned in expression. "As this view is obviously opposed to the belief that man is descended from some other form. the chest action . he says." the heart is But the anterior to that on the lungs. and indirectly from the mind. while yet there is . arising from the medulla oblongata and supplying the head." 1 Darwin. "not in the language of sounds merely. throat and chest. it was necessary of the lower animals. in it in order that. and why does/ no force of circulation his heart ? — knock at and for his lips cheeks are ashy pale." in which he "maintains that man is endowed with certain muscles solely for the sake of expressing his emotions. is "a spasm on elevated . but gradually introduced by a slow process of develop- ment into the animal the blood." is which is mainly affected by the emotions is to communicate our feelings. I likewise wished to ascertain how far the emotions are manner by the different races of man. directly from the heart. which thus form " a mechanism for Respiration not found in the lower animals. there is a grasping and a a tremor on his hollow cheek. be. who in his introduction to his " Descent of Man. serves to explain the modus operandi of only some of the expressions occasioned by emotional excitement. 267). the extensive apparatus constituting the organ of is put in motion.. besides oxygenating Man. Darwin observes. . adds that his attention was called to the subject Sir Charles Bell's for me to consider it. Darwin is likely to collect together these two will be of ." he observes. in his graphic description of the of Terror on man. This it may of nerves class kingdom. according to Bell. the muscles of his neck and shoulders are in short and rapid is convulsive motion of his lips. can only be admitted up to a certain point. ing and catching of his throat his ribs. through their primary influence upon the heart and respiration. expressed in the same questions. 92. their office. "Certain strong feelings produce a disturbed condition of the heart through that corporeal influence." On this Mr. the mass of great interest. 1 "There is. and gives us the outward signs which we call Expression" (pp. and unless qualified and supplemented. the organ of Voice and Expression." On facts Mr. his breathing his breast —he cannot breathe effects freely . as insisted upon by Sir Charles Bell." says that he had intended including in his work an essay on the expression of the various emotions man and hy book on the "Anatomy of Expression. but in the language of Ex- in fact. pression in the countenance also. a gulp. 87. action of the mind on Thus. neck.

and in the expression of the muscles of the face most concerned in respiration. I think. at least. the heart beats loudly against the walls of the chest. — be due to the action of another and more comprehensive principle. and which may be excited without increasing the action of the thoracic organs. as the agony returns. and all the extended respiration. first upon the equally the breathlessness of delight This principle rests is facial expressions. and alarm. are accompanied by opposite Another principle is at work. it is by connections —not mere con- almost impossible for the former to But certain fitall this more a there would seem to be something than ness." the required modification of the exclusive theory laid down. indeed. does not satisfactorily explain why of two equally powerful emotions. The palpitation of joy and fear. which are the result of morbid conditions of the heart and lungs without these mental changes. and. fact that the functions of the bodily organs are assisted and guarded from injury by. It seems clear. discernible in many instances. secured tiguity —of nervous fibre. although. of the nerveless and relaxed condition of the body the limbs gravitate. between the emotion which agitates the muscles of even the mouth and nostrils. Then — it follow the signs connected with "Why comes at intervals the long-drawn sigh ? Why and throat convulsed ? What causes the swelling and quivering of the lips. and the form which they assume. by a fixed physiological law. and the deadly paleness of the face ? or why is the hand so pale and earthly cold? and why. the he speaks reclines . "However strange it may seem to unaccustomed ears. and the breathing accelerated. does the convulsion spread over the frame like a paroxysm of suffocation ?" Bell's answer is that these outward signs of the passions in the face and elsewhere cannot proceed from the direct influence of the mind. as we have said. the action of the muscles. at intervals. are the neck instruments of breathing. impossible not to see in the oppression of the breathing. in both instances. So in describing. that the encephalic centre of the emotions must be closely connected with the roots of the nerves supplying the lungs. it is to the heart and lungs. and probably present in all.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. first 161 overwhelming influence of Grief on woman. the force and truth of these observations It is may be readily admitted. the other a miserable ex- pression of the features. in short. one induces a happy. are dependent upon. the same effects produced by certain violent mental emotions. 11 In regarding the . Bell. that With we are to trace these effects. so that.

. understood in of its its coarser form. the eye no . however. to trace their movements their original use to immediate connection with the bodily organs. both by the will and automatically. respondence between the play of the muscles from the action of the senses. In listening. confined in their exercise to this directly sensational sphere. These muscular actions which are called forth by impressions from without. again. their action on the organs of sense. the nasal muscles conspire to exclude it. to exclude impressions In addition it. and the eyebrows are depressed. may an and moment be passive. it seems natural and signification in action of the emotions. those of the cheek are raised. while the trunk is fixed. More than this. So. mastica- and respiration. in more than ordinary smelling. in or- dinary vision the facial muscles. With tasting are closely connected the acts of deglutition. may and be illus- For example. as we Thus. have said. 1 how much Observe in Pride. including even those of the eyeball. but the object. world. they assume different forms. therefore. to the direct action of the muscles of the eye. is it necessary to look intently at they are employed to direct the organ of sight towards from other sources. as impressions from within. 69 of this work. there exists a beautiful cor- be called figurative.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 162 upon the muscles. but are constantly in intellectual operations. there are accordant or sympathetic gestures of the body but to this class of movements we shall refer under a distinct head. the neck is strained in order that the ear may approach nearer to the point whence the sound proceeds. and all the facial muscles assume a significant form. and from the action of the sentiments. the muscular signs of which are familiar to all. natural language muscles is when employed wholly different purposes. and so help to bring us into relation with the external tion. having relation to the organ In tasting. are not. the action of the lips assists in bringing the of hearing. particularly those their of special sense. employed by we have seen — the emotions —and being then excited by These emotional movements may. 1 The assistance rendered which is trated by effected by the muscles to the bodily organs. of the outward exhibition associated with the normal action of the in the exercise of bodily functions for The muscles connected with See footnote at p. . the alas nasi are dilated and to escape a disagreeable odor. and according as it is pleasant or nauseous. food in contact with the most sensitive portion of the tongue. .

by affected is Here. taste. the limbs. we have (Gratiolet). occasion general muscular responding bodily movements states. in fact. though by no means exclusively. but. is also. satisfaction. also But the employed for movements connected with the external senses." principle applies to the actions or gestures of the whole Dislike and affection. but it so and hence the muscles of respiration regarded from Sir Charles Bell's point of view as emphatically. mental pleasure and pain. marked by physical and the gullet disgustation. as organs of sight. the nostrils dilate. in tasting stead of the saliva being swallowed. or purely mental excitants. every action This manifest action of the law operations. also affected as an organ of respiration there . is sion of Sadness presents a striking contrast. the muscles of the and the mouth. and the performs the movements of pleasurable deglutition" In- self. The mouth a slight smile of but at the same time somewhat repellent. those of expression facial nerve. Thus. the tude assumes the form of resistance. for it is The a mouth. very noticeable in intellectual and has already been referred to when we spoke of the influence of the Intellect on the muscles. may be the muscles of the all happens that the under the head of " Expression " . And mentally tears his foe in pieces. emotion clearly reflected in his voice? maddened Collatinus name he tore. asks moral disgust — "Ne dit-on is expres- state. instead of one of infinite satisfaction. the nose. and. eye. although employed in respiration. or to surrounding objects. similar to those which arise from cor- If the mind repels a suggestion. the tendency now being to close. Gratiolet pas a chaque instant que la tristesse amene le degout de la vie?" An man enraged " But through his teeth. if it embraces a beloved image. or is in accordance therewith.— UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. the mind acts figuratively through body. as if the The same is not this Sometimes the hated name of Tarquin was pronounced plainly by the body. he tastes himself. and these sensorial movements are also excited by what may be regarded as analogous or corresponding mental states. for exclusvely directed to self. is atti- hugs a pleasant thought. then. as it Indeed. and non-se»nsational. mouth were. allowed to escape from the it is for the lips to open. the trunk. and the face great group of movements classed are mainly those of respiration. smelling. moreover. some of these are ef- . "to smell some ideal perfume. of disgust. 163 longer direct the attention to other men. not as respira- it is tories.

and so of all the other senses. whether under various than another. affect the respiration. and all these fectecl movements. &c. so pleasurable and painful emotions. by emotional excitement. As is and of the other allied to avoid and reject. refer. a general expansiveness of expression and gesture all the emotions which are excited by impressions to attain this is allied with (or generated by ideas) of a beneficent character. or even by " expansion and — concentration of the expression " influence of these feelings is Combined with the view. but that we very frequently can is certain. while the lungs and heart are most truly organs of expression. and as contraction and relaxation take place primarily end. and that the same law pervades the whole class of emotional movements to which we extremely probable. pleasurable vision causes one expression of the eye and its sur- rounding muscles. which one set of muscles is called into action rather becomes true that the form assumed by the features emotions is determined by their character. emotions cannot be easily indicated by any word uniformly descriptive of their presence by " re- ward — laxation and contraction " of the muscles. and while the facial muscles are unquestionably affected in their character of respiratory muscles. in certain states of the emotions or feelings. deglutition. whether of the respiratory or the sensorial class. that the out- signs of pleasurable and painful. just as the muscles of sense are by the character of sensorial impressions. the same forms as they would if subjected to corporeal impressions. while a general exclusiveness or con- with emotions excited by maleficent impressions. is now Reverting to the observation previously made. As all movements have for their great end the preservation as well as the enjoyment of the individual. the object of one class of movements being to court and traction of the features receive.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 164 by muscles not supplied by nerves included by Bell in his reIn short. they are also affected by this cause as muscles of sense. and painful vision another and opposite one of these parts. That we can always trace the correspondence. it painful or pleasurable. and say this mental expression represents and symbolizes what would have occurred under such and such physical conditions is not affirmed. assume. affecting the respiration and the senses respectively. while it is quite true that the emotions spiratory class. in affecting the muscles . serves to explain why it must here be remarked that the all-important from the present point of principle of figurative movements. respiration.

they combine to favor its the muscles concerned unite in excluding entrance. Frequently an emotion excites muscles all at other times the influence . then. the muscles of one sense only being called into mental activity. Professor Laycock. the muscles connected with the organ of sight unite in protecting it and excluding the light case. will cause them to assume the form proper to their own sensibility. according as they are beneficial or noxious. " Pain is the sentinel of the organism. II. hears. in conse- quence of the harmony between mental and bodily acts. The parallelism on which we insist remains unaffected. is the sensorial and respiratory and circum- distinctly partial scribed. that as a feeling of pleasure or pain is Thus. whether we adopt the hypothesis of the sensationists or the conservationists. Pleasurable and painful sensations from without determine. fully admits that in states of consciousness. after observing very often associated with the action of the conservative machinery. In the original exercise of the sensorial form of the features in their relation to the and respiratory functions. a system of pains and penalties. tastes. In fact. sees." which "ushers in or accompanies a series of vital changes. the inference is unjustly drawn that feeling is the cause. but the pain ing to gaze at it we endure by soon obliges us to do the same thing. or and analogous mental states induce the same changes. 27. if agreeable is painful to it and protect- and salutary. and is It may admitted that the law of conservation is usually secured ever in accordance with. The . or the restoration of health from illness " (Iv. the end of which is the prevention of evil. be by virtue of a primary conservative reflex law that close our eyes to a strong light. and respires. pleasurable or painful. and affect the muscles accordingly. admitting or excluding impressions. touches. conservation is usually secured by feeling. figuratively speaking. the form which the muscles called into action assume being to protect the organs. all If a stream of light ing the sight . we have traced the sentinel-action of the muscles subserving these functions. The mind. according as they are pleasurable or painful. and with each of these mental operations the feeling of pleasure or pain may be associated. Indeed. pp. it is by.. 165 connected with this or that sense. . 35). the purpose Similar muscular changes arise from the emotions. UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. the most able and uncompromising advocate of the Lex Nostri eonservatio. he says. smells. we continu- In either whichever explanation be given. the eye.

What before was a mechanical act in aid of respiration be- comes the natural language of the breathings of the The soul. and the muscles of the . that therefore the so-called respiratory nerves supply muscles which are not used only with the mouth. (e. the expression of the features is and cardiac entirely different —the form assumed being determined by the corresponding bodily form excited by common and special sensation pression representing common —the rough outline of general ex- and the sensation. when Joy and Fear excite- respectively cause respiratory ment.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 166 may eagerly receive or forcibly reject the stimuli which exIn regard to the action of the respiratory muscles. and when certain emotions arise. are strikingly similar to those which are exhibited in the former. also of taste. They Take in respiration. is is effected by a convulsive form hand Fear takes away the breath. in short. they will be influenced far by as acts —but they are respiratory in of respiration. is designed to assist it. it may be said — bodily. it is necessary to supplement the excitement they undergo through the action of the emotions upon the heart and lungs as laid down by The form which the Bell. muscles of the mouth assume (regarding it here as an organ of respiration) in laborious breathing. the same expression of these muscles presents emotions cite them. circulation mouth tell . as grief or anxiety outward . induc- ing an expression which corresponds with that excited by the respi- Joy ration of pure air. be too strongly insisted upon in connection with this subject. itself. Hence. by the principle under consideration. delicately specific shades answering to the predominating special sense figuratively affected. : We suffer pain of two kinds mental. that the and same facial muscles perform different functions. allowing for local differences.) those connected are not merely muscles of respiration and prehension. and muscles the character impressed by dyspnoea while laughter the other produces on the facial from pulmonary obstruction. So character. and particularly in reference to Sir Charles Bell's doctrine. On of respiration. and hence whatever emotion disturbs the action of the lungs may affect the But mental states may act directly on the muscles of the mouth. It cannot. and when the signs. accelerates the action of the heart the respiration the tale. the and the chickened. By way of summary. as toothache latter occurs. . pleasurable emotion which causes a smile relaxes the mouth. g.

may be excited by an emotion. how- be that some of the African tribes. in but a few additional ones will be sufficient for our A stifling present purpose." which the absurd effects of supposing a reversal of the fixed signs of grief are humorously described. " I nauseate them A !" lady dis- who heard him in- me that the emphatic enunciation of the word. exclaimed. the uniformity of these signs constituting their utility No as a natural language. and a bad moral odor will cause a very similar expression. ments abound . so jects mental acts a remarkable manner." . forms there was an obviously apart from expression . mouth in its other functions. indicative of nausea. may be completely modified by the figurative expression which the and two very different emotional states .— — UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. The respiratory muscles. the figurative character of the move- trates. as a state of mental dis- this head." where Shakspeare makes Salisbury say "For The with this smell of sin. as illus- Thus. In the muscular changes originally associated with nausea and vomiting. make merry at the funerals of The obvious explanation of this seeming anomaly Sir not felt. altogether but the corresponding changes induced by emotion are merely figurative. in gust in reference to much We seen loathe the idea of a certain Dr. act. and the accompanying gesture. his sermons. 167 and without exciting the action of either the heart or lungs. although they become serviceable as outward signs. is that Grief is admirable popular illustration of the uni- formity of natural language will be found in "Greyson's Letters. Chalmers. smell induces muscular contractions in the nasal muscles calculated to avoid fecting the mind it . The language which we employ ments referred to under may mouth similar to Avhat we speak of loathing in regard to contemplated by the mind. had a most striking effect. their relations. as described by Samuel Baker. An but Joy. ever true it may savage expresses grief by laughter. in one of as a certain nauseous drug. cause an expression of the in threatened vomiting. referring to is the ob- some opinions from which he strongly sented. muscles assume in accordance with the character of the emotion especially whether painful or pleasurable. again. may to this extent have a common effect but the particular form the facial muscles assume. Illustrations of figurative language derived from figurative move- by Professor Rogers. direct design and physical use. sponding language may be found in a line of I am stifled af- corre- "King John.

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 168 So again. We may add . taste. p. in addition to the movements arise which are in unison with them. be forgotten r." "a man of and we speak of " disgusting " and "distasteful" in reference idea. frigus. As we have already observed. and is therefore fiprirative. The gesture is precisely the which we employ in order to rid the mouth of a material substance with which we are disgusted. the members members rejoice that this sympathy suffer. to purely psychical Tact is the psychical analogue of touch. Pooh ! Now. and the labial and figurative of the movement performed by the sudden jerking expiration employed in expulsion. rrrr. is made in emotional states of hatet and con- derived from the labial gesture. some movements are of a sympa- In the use of the bodily organs. action of the muscles directly required. to their roots ptt and fit. The whole body the attitude and geswill thus sometimes display sympathy with the exercise of tures thetic character. may inand relishing a certain pleasurable tasting we employ such language as "the mental palate. we say. Gratiolot. which appear to be the basis of words in various languages. only one sense. trrr. suffer with it with it. the piyog. and the throat. Probably ptt is the root of our s-pit. roideur. and produces an inspiratory or suction sound one. the lips Tp&fiu. froid. There are also guttural that is same distasteful. growl." It 1 .it. as cracher in French. traces to the various sounds frrr. We try to show our scorn by expelling a certain individual or idea from our thoughts. horror. op. however. tremor. rigor. fetidus. words horreur. very common in Corngesture is similar to . terreur our English words. In the same way we may trace the words putidus. at least. it is words If we wish to evident that this origi- nates in the act of throwing out the lips. wall. terror. fright. roar.. grrr. fear. frayeur: gronder. The word hiss again 1 is derived from the sound The sound tempt. Ho all the all not. so as to reject something "What ? An idea." phenomena. A reverse action is expressive of assent. express contempt. other — — "Whether one member member be honored. which are the natural sounds produced by the labial movements indicative of disgust. as the motion of the mind dicate that the is lips and even deglutition. . The influence of the emotions on the original formation of may sometimes be traced with tolerable clearness. or one must Cf. arrrh and krrrh. made between 0ptf. 161. as that sounds expressive of still greater disgust. &c.

We shall include under the present section whether epileptic or not. whether all hysterical. In this way the contraction or relaxation of consequent on emotional excitement. the impression ular change occurs —along the is frightful sight. puerperal. may many of the muscles. spasnis of the larynx ynx. the . The spasm which chokes the voice and converts the fibres of the platysma myoides into rigid cords in Terror. the convulsion and tremors of the facial muscles in Despair.: UPON THE VOLUNTAKY MUSCLES. If. through the sensori-motor ganglia. or conveyed —a certain molec- nerves of special sense to the brain. the mind is affected by witnessing a hearing dreadful news. on the other hand. and tetanus. all convulsive infantile. for the sake of distinction. as they would have been by the original action of the bodily organs in what we have. to disturbance. attacks. ally the When of the functions of the sensori-motor apparatus. a terrific image is formed in the mind. as Terror. nervous hydrophobia. trembling palsy. they may be referred. these spasmodic contractions are consistent with health. more or less serious. in describing the effects produced by powerful emotional states. termed sensational movements. independently of stimuli from without. be explained. which often causes excessive or spasmodic contractions. by respectful and considerate relaxation as by jubilant contraction. the muscular system. examples of spasmodic muscular contraction from emo- tional stimulus. chorea. the spasm of the jaws in Rage. and the emotion excited agitates. It follows that when an emotion excites any of the muscles figura- may be tively. afford daily of Grief. sometimes amountfluence of The sobbing ing to tetanic rigidity. or and phar- Physiologically. when of emotional origin. we have extent anticipated the consideration of the in- Emotion on spasmodic action of the muscles. the spasmodic rigidity of the muscles in a maniacal paroxysm — are they not written in the graphic pages of Bell '? With the ex- ception of mania. the clenched hands. SECTION To some II. 169 as much shown by passive as by active forms. the other muscles will be excited sympathetically. especi- medulla oblongata. the convulsive opening of the phragm and muscles of mouth and spasm of the dia- the chest in Fear. —Irregular and Excessive Muscular Contraction Spasms and Convulsions. the laughter of Joy.

and tongue are affected. "The affection (an exalted sensibility) of the "of the various convulsive movements in He does not in the medulla oblongata. Mar- shall Hall's original statements in regard to epilepsy are in accord- ance with this position this disease. 27-8). no one disputes. for he adds that the same is true of convulsive disorders. for may essential cause sufficient reason." again says this pathologist (lvii. irregucertain nervous centres . causes the refuted by Schr. may Avell be questioned and it implies. while some- times convulsions are produced without the vascular changes taking place which necessitate the loss of consciousness." affections from convulsive epilepsy and other distinguish between most other this point of view. whether special inducing abnormal and excessive acresembles the electric irritation of it which is succeeded by convulsions. or rather the cerebral condition convulsions. when speaking for he observes that it of Emotion as a cause of seems to induce the seizures directly — by acting immediately through the spinal cord "the muscular system is excited psychically" (xvii. v. p. and what are the vascular changes which take place." he says. 230). in which commonly starting-point. of the voluntary muscles it — sciousness. fore. " It is in- correct to suppose. vulsion have the one point in common that of involuntary. we have sooner or later something more loss of consciousness. when they are How Emotion by the nerves of called into action acts in tion of the muscles.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 170 muscles are aroused to more or less violent action by the idea excit- ing emotions which operate upon the sensory ganglia in the same way as sense. d. there- with the convulsions of epilepsy. are more difficult questions. who considered that both are equally results of an antecedent medulla oblongata. as eclampsia and chorea. on which much difference of opinion still exists but their determination does not affect the statement just made. ex- . . of a non-epileptic character connecting it as an That convulsions occur without this condition being There seems no present. clonic or tonic. It may be that generally the mental shock causing the attack so blood to the brain that unconsciousness is affects the supply of the result. is Kolk. Although all the forms of spasm and conEpileptic Convulsions. epilepsy must be sought the muscles of the neck. "that loss of consciousness always precedes the attack" in epilepsy. although the entire withdrawal of cerebral control tensify the convulsions by may in- liberating the sensori-motor ganglia. Whether this unconlar action. p. — — — must not be forgotten that when Emotion occasions epilepsy. head.

in a person predisposed to Dr. Dr. it amounts as the jar.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. gets rid of the disturbance of equilibrium by the disruptive discharge. case. Todd. all employ the familiar illustration epilepsy. bear upon the question of vascularity. it must be admitted that Dr. conclusive. made with a view to determine the cause of convulsions. Radcliffe's arguments in favor of diminished nerve tension and cerebral ansemia deserve consideration.) And proximate causes of convulsive movements. They are so well known that it is only neces- sary here to recall the position in which they leave the question as to the nature of epileptic and eclamptic attacks —namely. In this connection. and Van of the Leyden jar to describe the condition of the nervous tissue at Continual malnutrition causes disturbance the seat of the disease. The start of fright is the simplest expression. of the polar state of some region of the encephalon. and Dutch physician. 215). essarily occasion convulsions. in inquiring into the cells action proceeds through the nerves as conductors to the muscles. and of the irregular muscular action tending to convulsion. occaan impression which in sioned by the suddenness of the impression — mental pain." (Dr. 876. after observing that we viii. and syncope does not nectation or muscular action . both of the conservative law already referred to (p. might be aroused. der Kolk. to a certain intensity it is If manifested in an epileptic fit." 1849. but also liable to In either pass on into convulsion. which likewise be followed by automatic movements intended to be conservative. not. 158). p. 171 abnormal action by certain stimuli. similar to the pain of the eye this instance involves may caused by too strong a light. for in somnambulism the movements may be performed as perfectly as when awake. Todd's "Lumleian Lectures. compares these cells to galvanic or electric which must be charged to a certain extent before the electricity accumulated in the Leyden jar has acquired sufficient tension to discharge the flask (lvii. although they are batteries. take the ganglionic as the parts from which all the must. it would seem natural that their irricited to undue excitement would cause excessive and irregular while it is clear that the mere suspension of volition does not involve this. that it is probable "that epileptic convulsions can be brought about by con- . the latent tendency Carpenter. As ordinary movements called into action by the emotions imply normal vascularity and nutrition of these centres. " when charged with electricity to a certain state of tension. I think. p. The experiments of Kussmaul and Tenner on animals.

101). possible to reconcile the experiments of Kussmaul and Tenner with the pathological observations of Van der Kolk. did not. according to him. in at least the early Not stage. that the vascular spasm is the cause of the fit. or by reading the appearances presented after death in Schr. the excited action of the ganglionic cells in the medulla influ- ences the cerebral circulation through the synrpatlietic. d. causes He irritation of the medulla oblongata. so as to cause loss of consciousness. divided them at the inferior cervical part. Kolk's cases. The use he makes of the above experiments is to draw the inference that the sympathetic. bare. (xlii. consider. the ascending cervical branches of the sympathetic. Brown-Sequard denies the epileptic character of these attacks. when galvanized. 229-30). and in rabbits. p. who anaemia is differed Van der from the opinion of Kussmaul and Tenner that the condition of the encephalon and original cause of the attack. 1 The observers admitted that these experiments by which convulsions were induced required confirmation. that Kussmaul and Tenner held ruption of nutrition of the brain is that a sudden inter- usually the proximate and real cause of epilepsy or eclampsia.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 172 by the vaso-niotor nerves " remembered that these experimenters laid traction of the bloodvessels induced It will be p. as already intimated. which are certainly most closely connected with the vaso-motor nerves" (lvii. and the vaso-motor nerves were thus stimulated so as to contract the diameter of the cerebral vessels. but subsequent observations would seem to bear out the conclusion that in epilepsy there a state of anaemia as is regards the general condition of the encephalon. the nerve connected with which was faradized. but that it by produc- acts indirectly ing certain molecular alterations of the brain substance. in epilepsy. It is. that is to say. Radcliffe reads 1 Dr. while through the spinal cord muscular system in producing convulsions. v. . Kolk. then tied. however. but "rather the result of the commenc- ing discharge of the nerve-ganglia. Convulsion followed. as Dr. by it acts on the Violent terror causes reflex action of the medulla ob- longata. convulsions. so that One of the carotids was the brain only received the supply of blood from the other. and thereby convulsions. regarded the post-mortem appearances presented by the medulla oblongata in cases of epilepsy as a proof of hyperemia of that part. perhaps. either by supposing that hyperemia of one portion of the encephalon coexists with anaemia of another.

while there is anaemia of other regions of the encephalon. but certainly not the only. upon which the control of the would not be an unreasonable hypothesis. changes which may have The successive occurred in the contraction and enlarge- ment of vessels do not record their history on the nervous tissue. true. posterior lobes and cerebellum. the corpora striata and retina. it is difficult not to draw the same conclusion as to other regions of the encephalon. it and would only allow us to infer a pallid condition of the parts supplied from the same source but when we examine the pulse. The temporary paralysis of the vaso-motor nerves and increased vascularity in fever. through the vagus or sympathetic. and the opposite condition indicated by the previous shivering. described by Bernard. we know that pallor and other signs of anaemia are present." has pointed out that the carotid supplies the anterior and middle lobes of the hemispheres. epilepsy of emotional origin. cause of . while the medulla. its 173 malnutrition and degeneration. are not to be found in the post-mortem examination. in his 'little book vertebro-basilar. Fear. them —namely. As respects the alternative. excited by violent emotion to increased vascularity. are supplied by the will depends. "On Going to Sleep. the cerebral anaemia. during a particular period of life. an argument certainly in favor of the position that when state of during life. Mr. but anaemia of the results. may upon be one. and as indicating. to the first alternative. consequent cardiac inaction. . So it is very possible for different ob- servers to arrive at different results in endeavoring to infer from the an organ after death what its condition as to vascularity was and moreover.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. medulla. that the microscopical and other appearances of the medulla favor the interpretation of its anaemia as well as that of the cerebrum. has checked the action of the heart and it may be that in cases of alon is is in a state of anaemia. Moore. In regard in the importance of and therefore the opinion that the medulla. there is a growing belief distinct vascular centres or areas. optic thalami. . cause direct excitement of the roots of the nerves thence may arising:. the enceph- Pallor alone would not prove this. Looking simply at the effect on the bloodvessels caused by violent emotional shock. in- eluding the alleged origin of the sympathetic. mesocephale. not hyperaemia. convulsions are caused by sudden and painful emotion. it must be admitted to be a matter of no small difficulty to decide from the morbid appearances observed after death what was the condition of the vessels in a certain region during the time of the convulsions.

. of excessive emotion irritat- ing the motor nerves at their origin. " Spasm and its modifications seem to afford much ground for believing that the nervous centres per se may assume different morbid states. 1860). Handfield Jones. by their downward influence through the medulla oblongata. and that the convulsive movements suc- may be epileptic. Radcliffe innervation (xlvii. that these emotions or from within by may ceeding these emotions ous tissues may turbance like be excited from without through the senses. choose to explain it. and inducing convulsive move- ments of the muscles they supply. epilepsy. or regard the withdrawal of arterial blood (and an antagonizing nerve fold varieties of we may speak power) as the true cause. whether we adhere to the opinion of stimulation (by red blood) of the motor functions of the medulla. being determined by individual 1 "Phil." 1868. convulsive in character. but extends to the spinal cord and to the sympathetic. however we And . that the emotions when sudden or excessive in character do." But as to blood theories. produce involuntary automatic movements. but movements are affected by sudden. but another 12th. and then the other than psychical stimuli first paroxysm may be induced by —the impaired nutrition having probably been caused by the influence of a depressing emotion on the blood. violent. . Malnutrition of the nerv- doubtless be induced by a prolonged emotional dis- grief. is acknowledged as Dr. I cannot think that changes in the blood-flow can explain these mani- morbid action. name and in for in- this irritation. would May to cause convulsions say. In the same memoir. which the latter efficient it is. ideas. question appears to me still subjudice. and the particular disease. the result of emotional shock. which Clarke observes is " not limited to the medulla oblongata. and one feels disposed to say with Dr." 1 But the foregoing surmises as to the pathology of convulsive seizures must not be allowed to divert our attention from the more obvious truths. this admirable histologist also observes that these bodies are not the only motor centres through which the different movements are co-ordinated for expressing the passions and emotions. and those through which different peculiar impressions on the special senses. influencing the glandular secretions and the diameter of the capillary vessels through the vaso-motor nerves. in- volves the disturbance of the co-ordinating functions of the olivary bodies already referred to. In the former case.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 174 The vascular the paroxysm. Trans. irritation is a result of active stimulation corresponding to the electric stimulus of the medulla.

there is foam at the mouth. Last convulsive attack March 3d. After the fit is The convulsion lasts complete loss of conscious- the patient sleeps for half an hour. The attacks of petit mal are much more frequent. the tongue herself is first fit after a fright. the disorder was . and then only four or five where she had thirty before. because not only of emotional origin. " Has had altogether ten applications of galvanism. Had last attack of petit mal early in August. and swearing at her. Some years afterwards she had another fright. Four months' treatment with bromide of potassium relieved her of the convulsions. Apparently well. but part of the treatment was locally directed to the region supposed to be disorder more particularly connected with the the cervical sympathetic and —the medulla oblongata and appeared to serve ." November 12th. Ceased attendance. but the petit mal remained the same. and speaks slowly and thickly for some time. one of fifteen children of the same mother. Althaus in the " Medical Times and Gazette. The following it it 175 case is was especially interesting. by a woman coming up to her while she was playing in the street. and rarely goes three or four days without any. but that she child. as Romberg sory nerve for healthy blood.as — a useful adjuvant. . 1869. The convulsive seizures are well marked. Sometimes she has a succession of five or six in the same day at others only one or two at a time. which occur at intervals of two or three weeks. motor nerve says. four or five minutes. 16. predisposition. and then wakes with a bad headache. Mary B — set." April 24th. during which there ness. The girl some other children having played at ghost with her in a cellar. commencing with a scream the head is turned to one side. pain is the prayer of the sen- may be said that the prayer of the for healthy blood is convulsion. There is no aura with these fits. This was when she was five years of age. Since this she has never been quite free from fits. "much better in every respect. The mother says none of her other children have had had a succession of frights when enceinte with this had her fits. during which galvanism was applied to both mastoid processes and the cervical sympathetic twice a week. as she has sometimes thirty or forty such seizures in one day. under the care of Dr. Althaus. report is made. the urine often passes involuntarily. I abridge the report of the case given by Dr. A month after this.. If. . bitten. UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES." In another case. Since galvanism was commenced she has only on three occasions had fits of petit mal.

if in the street. in 8th. set. he took sulphate of zinc. seated sometimes in the arms. who was under his He had been suddenly awakcare for epilepsy five years previously. and he then quite While in this condition loses his consciousness for about a minute. to April 2d. or pull a handkerchief over his head. and nitrate of silver. or.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 176 by the patient to a great deal of trouble and anxiety. and a thrilling sensation going through him as if about to die. 1869). of trem- and sometimes . &c. and but very rarely two or three at a time." He should be stated. of rigors. the legs. 1866. cessation it of chronic coryza. only one May fit. then ordered twice a week. but. or tear up paper or attributed his clothes. Galvanization of both hemispheres and the medulla oblongata was In the course of the next month he had which he tore his waistcoat. referred the affection to the sudden himself. generally only one in a day. to use his bling. and the report of Oct. From Nov. When he comes out of these attacks he feels very confused." This lasts only about a second. and was also preceded by a great fright when he was awakened by an alarm of the house being on fire. or thighs." " In the beginning. he will perhaps scratch the plate with his knife. 27th. Trousseau records the case of a man. Ceased attendance" (xlv. the attacks being marked by severe pain at the back of the head. and. In another instance the patient's " attacks were ushered in by a sensation of great heat beginning at the navel. would be interesting to know whether the improvement recorded in these cases was sustained. ened and frightened in the night " by horrible shrieks from his wife. These fits happen two or three times a week. Sometimes it appears to him "as if a vapor rose on his brain and muddled him. own words. Within an hour or two he has quite recovered himself. oil. put mud on his clothes. and had suffered for six years from irregular attacks of petit mal. It and a few days afterwards he had his first attack." It will be observed in this case that the patient experienced a sensation of trembling in the pit of the stomach. 36. and sees double for two or three minutes. these seizures were characterized by a sensation of inward cold. When admitted into the Infirmary for Epilepsy and Paralysis he was 36. although the general health improved. the fits remained as frequent. but Trousseau merely speaks of this as " a coincidence. 15th says: "Has had altogether fifteen applications of galvanism and no fit during the last four months.

gard. sation spread all over him. He looked exactly then. the sympathetic would be if. This argument. or various parts of the body. This fit lasted about twenty minutes. when he suddenly got up. the legs. unquestionably at first sight caused by a moral shock. followed is interesting. as we have their opinion that the sympathetic nervous system . his looks hagvoice loud. and The attended with loss of consciousness. be asked. and if SchifP and others are correct in arises from this portion of the emotions bear. I. arms about. would be marked by different symptoms from those which usher in a seizure consequent upon certain other causes and from this point of view it might seem reasonable to con. taking hold of the bar across his tester-bed. the ture. his The attack had set in with quivering of by convulsions He was perfectly unconscious of his acts. and his articulation rapid. however. rarely longer draught of cold were now air. nect the sensations referred to the region of the solar plexus with the emotional origin of the attack. 177 in the pit of the stomach. the seat of the disorder. it may in emotional states It might Do most prominent of them. and if. the indicated. for no matter what the exciting cause if the medulla is equally liable to be aifected. began to vociferate in the most atroHis face was of a purple-red color. however. attacks recurred at irregu- than four or five days. cannot be sustained.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. p. throwing his cious manner. to observe the the symptoms. and kept insulting those Avho were attending him. similar to those he had on ad- On the day of his admission he had just lain down. and without any transition he became calm" (liv. as there can be little doubt. and were brought on by the slightest painful emotion. as if from thence the seizure originated and was transmitted throughout the body. closely connected with It is may be. this part. 40). a This sen- lasted a few minutes. without being least variation of tempera- They or exposure to a hot sun regular convulsive seizures. further. vary in these cases which originate from those which are occasioned by other causes ? seem probable that epilepsy. It is not necessary to describe the symptoms more in detail. a remarkable circumstance that in some cases of emotional 12 . lar intervals. is If it be established that epilepsy a disorder specially connected with the medulla oblongata. a remarkable relationship to it might appear natural thus to explain the rationale of the symptoms of those patients who have described the epigastric sensation of heat or cold or spasm. It like a delirious maniac. it is very it. mission.

my "I am cir- seized through thoughts. was 17 when he was placed under treatment at the hospital. this painful cumstance invariably recurred to his mind. to pass into the real disease" (xxxiv. A case of this kind is epilepsy. which had pression He been of frequent occurrence during the six years. no less than 35 the first In 07 was found that symptoms were preceded by fright. or intense terror. and was uppermost in the thoughts whenever an attack subsequently occurred. 39). injuries. of an an emotional cause rectly referred to epileptic character. and it was found that on the accession of every fit. although occasioned by other circumstances. p. cases." 11. thirty-one they were due to influences of this nature. the painful circumstances or the dreadful on each succeeding scene which A boy. first set. seizure. and is epilepsy also operates as a mental influ- said." he used to say. It of which the cause was traced by Leuret. see again in spirit or before their eyes. the by Trousseau. and had constant reference to his loss (liv.: INFLUENCE OP THE EMOTIONS 178 same alarming event which in the first instance induced an attack was immediately brought vividly to mind. an agent that came into operation more often in former times. persons who have become epileptics after strong moral related that "many emotions. ence. which may itself be excited by the sight of an epileptic paroxysm. who indorses the observation of Jules Falret. 71). That many cases of convulsion. the next most frequent influence of this description being Fear. The case is as follows The wound made so deep an im- produced their complaint. which may have states that. are incoris no doubt liberal allowance for the influence of other causes been overlooked." observes Marshall Hall. than at present Anger also comes under this category as an exciting : The simulation of cause. "is of the most intractable character" (xvii. upon him that he was seized with epileptic convulsions. 213). II. he found that in He adds. and he explained to his medical attendants that his thoughts were always the same. p. p. that "no disease is so liable to be produced by Fright as this affection. the causes of which were carefully examined by Cazauvieilh. occasionally. it is that mental influences are far Romberg but with a impossible to deny the great importance of powerful emotion in the etiology of this affection. "The form of epilepsy arising from Fright. when tales of ghosts and hobgoblins were the bane of the nursery. After observing more frequent causes of epilepsy than among forty -four cases. it in is . true. lost his mother.

exhibiting. Trousseau. tissue originally affected vessels . After this interval the convulsive fits recurred again. The by a sensaup the back. beginning at the navel. Whilst on a long journey through his country he had gone to a lonely inn. He stated positively that no member of his family had ever been similarly affected" (liv. which were at first mistaken for apoplexy. and recurred at intervals of from twenty to thirty days. whose first attack seemed to have been manifestly brought on by fright. to underrate the frequency of this cause. to 179 be presumed that an observer like Leuret would satisfy himself and the fright was not so great that the interval between the attack as to render the circumstance merely accidental. and rising which was followed by absolute loss of consciousness for the space of two minutes or so. We may fairly draw an illustration from the customs of the Sandwich Islanders. fell scene. acted powerfully upon the vaso-motor nerves of the brain. the remarkable influence of the emotions . although not causing at the time epileptic convulsions. attacks were ushered in tion of great heat. They sometimes passed away so quickly that they were not noticed by anybody near him. he was every day affected in the same way. as well as stabbed with a knife.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. persisting for six years. They then became less violent again. The vertigo disappeared from that time. although more frequent. of the men. as intense and as regular as before. At the end of five years convulsive seizures supervened. p. I. I think. In this case it will be seen that emotional excitement. and a few days afterwards." he says. who is disposed. and for the space of four years and eleven months he was free from an attack. admits that he has ascertained the fact of fright being a cause "on several and from him I have obtained the following illustration: "I was consulted by a Brazilian. Since that time." "Very recently. and for the next five years. The was the involuntary muscle of the cerebral the convulsive affection of the voluntary muscles being long subsequent. 52). whilst dining with a friend. where he happened to witness a quarrel between some individuals who were armed. One blows. and who from high words came to occasions. He was horribly affected by the down dead in his presence. and occasionally attacked him during the night. He was treated by a physician at Rio Janeiro. he was seized with epileptic vertigo. mortally wounded by the discharge of a gun. and induced the morbid condition of the capillary circulation which characterizes the petit mat.

in some instances. was the vehicle by which the The sorcerer performed was then placed in the basket of the person for whom it was designed. or other secretions. foaming at the mouth. writhmouth. rolled on the ground. AVhen the incantation was performed only on a lock of the hair. Mr. friends concluded sionaries. whose destruction he desires. p. The parings of the nail. " The most acute agonies and tersufrific distortions of the body were often experienced . He was from home. in inducing epileptiform convulsions. the wretched ferer appeared in a state of frantic madness. returning before they had left. to obtain the co-operation of the demons.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 180 with imagination upon the bodily frame. (" Polynesian Researches. &c. to enter into the victim of their malice. or spirit. and then in made He often shrill cries which were regarded as the utterances of the diusually subsided. Avas incantations over it at his house . his eyes starting from their result of the malediction. Ellis says that when a priest imagined that the god had entered his person. found face distorted. he employs a tahu- tahu (a charm). Ellis observes. or a piece of the food which he would eat. he became violently agitated. and the eyes wild and strained. i." vol. the effects appear to have demon supposed to enter the person. his limbs violently convulsed. who were it was the ing in anguish. it been similar. inevitable destruction was expected to follow. torn by the evil ful spirit. that if any native uses sor- cery against another. the body swelled. equal to that arising from a barbed spear or hook. and his turned. the features were horribly distorted. his The mishim lying on the ground. and if eaten. He soon after . a lock of hair. Two pronounced the most dreadful imprecations upon one or both of them. while he foamed and writhed under his dread- power. and to induce the tit. to doubt that in other cases the effects produced were real. foaming at the sockets." The boys reOne of them was shortly afterwards taken ill. comparatively composed Doubtless. Mr. who happened to be a sorcerer. in the same work. but the boys went to the field and procured them. threatening them with the pifao or " agony of body from possession. 373). and death speedy. the saliva. the allied muscles of the limbs were convulsed. or as they expressed it. the priests merely imitated the signs of the genuine and spontaneous result of the imagination excited by but there is no reason their superstitious beliefs and expectations declarations Then the . sent for. if food." boys were sent to a man's house for arum-roots. and the priest became paroxysm vinity. The owner.

the child gave one sharp cry of pain. and made vain was lying The boy was a cock perched on the hood. when Up its turn. than whom few have had more experience. in his cradle. expired in dreadful agonies. and was instantly convulsed. It is well known that Puerperal from psychical causes. raising his head again. many deaths resulted from the influence To the same of Terror and Expectation upon the organic functions. grew up an idiot" (xxxii. setting aside those instances in which food was taken and poison probably introduced. sign of terror pressed. appeared to to this point the little fellow but there was something like ." records a melancholy example of the influence of Fear in inducing convulsions (and subsequently idiocy). but his attention continued to be intently fixed on the animal. death inevitable. — Lectures on Insanity. in his " Morisonian Infantile Convulsions. first when amused and delighted. there can be no doubt that. their superstitious friends not fail to impress them with their danger. but never again. boy. observes that "depressing passions of the this complaint ." delivered to the sorcerer's power. it. however. however. in interested in the child. whom we are in- " Imagining he was already deemed became the victim of despair. and uttered a shrill cry. It is 181 said that the boys " apparently took no notice of the threatening." but on this important point. Dr. Convulsions occur frequently Dr. began to grow with his hands. It is and the infatuated sufferer quite in accordance with this mode of explanation that the Eu- ropeans were proof against the incantations of the sorcerers. stretching his neck. are very likely . mind produce unmarried women. and thus the most credu- them would be lous or susceptible of in danger of falling a victim to Fear. who have passed the latter months of pregnancy in solitude and wretchedness. efforts to These signs of delight. On the whole. to But would whether they did or not at the time. 1870). Gooch. hope was abandoned. nearly two years old. March 19. at reach the bird less evident. more definite evidence would be required prove that they did not. as also their general uniformity. looking at the character of the symptoms in this and other cases. put his head become gave no still unex- down and and when. which. the child ceased to smile. though the cock.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. looked closely at the boy's face . he flapped his great wings. conclusion the thoughtful and observing writer to debted for these particulars is conducted. Arthur Mitchell. Three or four The fits occurred during that and the next day. "A healthy. well-nourished boy.

" he says. The symptoms arising from these different causes be precisely similar. however." pendium of Midwifery. does not in the the convulsions. generalities . and no physician will ever be able to distinguish between convulsions occur- ring in a pregnant sions in a woman woman "Eclampsia occurring worms. with re- gard to their symptomatic expression and their proximate cause.) p. without the history of the impossible to decide as to hold. and. that all physical may would be phenomena we (includ- ing irregular movements) which can be induced by reflex action from the irritation of a bodily organ. or has from scarlatinal dropsy. and convul- seized with eclampsia at the beginning of labor. . as undoubtedly its we must. then. p.. "I must at once declare that in my opinion epilepsy and eclampsia are two identical neuroses." 243. from the simplest vulsion. and ordinarily styled hysterical. under Epilepsy apply here." This appears to be the most convenient place to refer to other forms of spasmodic muscular action. many same as clearly originate directly in emotional disturbance of the centre. arising under emotional excitement.. even if teria as "a reflex neurosis we be induced by central agree with those dependent on sexual who define hys- irritation. it If psychical or physical origin. and presenting all degrees of spasm to the severest con- irregular movements. An attack of eclampsia is exactly like one of epilepsy.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 182 to be attacked with it and . in name. case. certain. I." suffering child in a who is cutting his teeth. or is long afflicted with epilepsy. without springing same from or involving the reproductive or- . it is found in lying-in hospitals which admit unmarried women." we must believe that emotional excitement can primarily produce the disorders. as to least fit. When we terical in speak of irregular movements which are considered hys- we their character. as in hysteria. considerable are in danger of being lost in vague no disorder are we so easily carried away by a mere One number of thing. speak unreservedly. that while a is and cases are clearly referable to uterine ovarian disorder exciting reflex action of the sensori-motor apparatus. that a large proportion of cases of puerperal convulsions occur among females of this class. (" Practical Com- Most of the observations made Trousseau (liv.. 32) states very clearly that the convulsions arising in the course of various disorders — eclamptic seizures —are in their proximate cause not distinguishable in their character or "To from the convulsions of epilepsy. can also cerebral irritation. from an epileptic differ.

but all reflex movements are not hysterical. in a fifth class we see what every one recognizes as . ted that. if we employ the term in any distinctive sense at all. slight tremor and pallor. When persons in health. is reflex action. or hyperesthesia. which renders them peculiarly cases the condition of the uterus The former liable to emotional excitement. vated by uterine irritation. we can have — — no hesitation in acknoAvledging a psychical an emotional cause. frequently outward manifestations of the disorder have often impossible. While in some. which occasions the symptoms to be something more than the ordinary effects of Fear pallor. has been the point de depart in this physico- We may. and it must be admitmorbid condition of the reproduc- instances. is the first and be have been called into action by have in women a constitutionally certain that they We a central emotional stimulus. or the influence of religious revivals. in others. states — less than genuine epilepsy. the same time it is 183 manifest that in a large proportion of and ovaries in women. which really epileptic in those predisposed or subject to epilepsy will be . and sexual development or disorder in men. peripheral or them to irrita- centric. the various phenomena which are excited by powerful and alarming appeals to the feelings.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. although having. the automatic and reflex All hysterical movements are reflex or automatic. effects of violent mental impressions are almost nil . volition. convulsive seizures. subjected to the excitement of popular tumult and alarm. On the latter the exciting cause. —and something Emotional clear. uterine or emotional. however. exposes from every source. &c. in character belonging to hysteria. induce a morbid susceptibility of the sensori. induced by the downward action of the feelings. in many tive organs is itself psychal circle how originated. That a predisposition or diathesis exists (the female nervous system being in itself a predisposing cause). in others. weaker Will and greater susceptibility to natural susceptibility. and in others. syncope. or by fright of any kind. tremor. the hysterical. instead teria. At gans.and excito-motor centres. the attempt is too often of remembering that with different constitutional proclivities. would seem being so intimately connected with hys- made to comprise under this one name. different forms of disorder will be elicited. the To determine which ascertain is the other hand. and not all properly speaking common. but this no doubt greatly aggra- This heightened tendency of the ner- vous centres to act independently of tion the predisposing. display the group of symptoms ordinarily understood as hysterical.

and live with into a great blue flame? your ing. General agitation and tremors. and others were present of a more tetanic character. and England by and denunciations of eternal perdition. INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 184 a fit of hysterics. would do as well now as then for one class of cases. frightful contortions of the countenance. Camborne. sobbing respiration. of the Irish Revivals.." he exclaimed. Were we the attack takes which produces it. him and his angels. and clasping the hands. the head thrown from side to side. Her face was tration of the influence of the emotions : deadly pale. it is that you will be always burn- . Falmouth. who was seated upon a low stool. 145). especially the muscular system A neatly attired young woman. then con1 excited harangues : vulsions (passing downwards) of the muscles of the neck and trunk. were convulsed). with the descriptions so frequently given in recent times of the effects produced in America. and compare it &c. and was supported in the arms of an elderly female. "If you are wicked you will go to the devil. We are in- debted to Dr. acter of the excitement revivals. Ireland. violent spasms of the muscles of the eyelids. except when partially raised by a convulsive paroxysm. p. so long ago as 1814. or hysterical simulations of epilepsy and other motor Of course aifections. the lower At Ballymena. about 22. Massie's " Revivals in Ireland " for the following illus- upon the body. Won't it be very awful to be put Your hands will be all burnt with the big fire. agonizing expressions of despair. The utterance rather incoherent . accompanied by many extremities alone escaping. writer himself heard the following from one of these preachers : Ad- dressing "the dear children. and then no part of the eye was visible. followed. her eyelids firmly closed. Redruth. For instance. and and the worst of feet and all your body and yet never burnt out !" . great perspiration arms extended or elevated. Thus we find Yawning. as color from the char- its is witnessed in religious to take our description of the scene often pre- sented on such occasions from the accounts of one which occurred more than half a century ago in Cornwall (when four thousand in various towns. we should not fail to find a striking similarity in the symptoms. the physical at the commencement phenomena were very similar. pulse intermittent . except a narrow line of white . had been stricken an hour previously. and her features rigidly fixed into an expression of supplication 1 . the eyeballs themselves being fixed and staring. and then the hands clasped with great energy. convulsive beating of the breast. frightful gestures. the account given in "Fothergill and Want's Medical and Physical Journal" (lxix.

upon her heels and the back portion of her head. which are the counterfeits of the disorders to which the frame liable. every fibre of the heart and every muscle of the body were wrung with the same excruciating torture. and her a spasm so violent that it appeared to rest. body curved in arch-like. At other times the force of the emotions and spinal accessory "an . Suddenly she uttered a terrific scream. hands clasped firmly pale. is The circumstance of the disorder occurring in a young female itself a presumption in favor of the hysteric character of (e. that the same morbid susceptibility of the nervous centres is present. &c). and shrinking from some fearful inward vision but she ultimately fell back exhausted. shuddering with terror. It obvious that is which there exist many restrict the term hysteria to those cases in symptoms which common consent attributes to it (sobbing respiration. In that position she lay without speech or motion for several minutes. and a choking sensation experienced. in full force at the time. and tore handfuls of hair from her uncovered head. the together. A striking expression "In all cases it is employed appeared as if 185 in one description of the stricken. nearly all and causes reflex phenomena. In a third case. clutching spasmodically at the grass." A young woman is described as lying extended at full length . that fearful pit !" During this paroxysm three strong men were hardly able to restrain her. Extending her open hands in a repelling attitude of the most appalling terror.) is this suscep- tibility.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. the face of a woman was deadly . globus hystericus. the case. and apparently insensible. fell chiefly on the vagus the thoracic muscles were spasmodically fixed . her eyes closed. because the most prominent symptoms of hysteria betoken functional intolerable weight disorder in the range of the respiratory nerves. she exclaimed. single g. nerveless. her hands clasped and elevated." Such cases have more especially suggested the employment of the word hysteria in reference to the revival cases. reflex is so as to dis- not to refer to phenomena which . the features rigid. She extended her arms on either side. and doubtless they constitute typical examples but without these we may strongly suspect from some one symptom in the history of . was felt upon the chest. and the head moved from side to side. the lips clenched. as if to indicate in- ternal agony. The important point here (though not nearly so much tinguish between functional and organic disease) this hysteric susceptibility or exaltation. " Oh.

1870). festations. of Londonderry.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 186 arise without any evidence whatever of having been present . of the " Edinb. in short. but as the result of sympathy and imitation. Cuthbert. and there was no globus or diuresis cold water assiduously applied had no eifect with returning mental quietude the In a second class the morbid symptoms bodily symptoms declined. with one female. Cuthbert informs me that he believes the con- " In a large number of clusions he then arrived at to be correct. Dr. with some variation. symptoms were but the natural expression of menstill consider that the symptoms in a large num- I ber of cases were not those of hysteria. " At first this dis- temper obtained in a private way. In a (June 16. . were reproduced in some of the Irish Revivals. were in inverse proportion to the physical maniI should observe that in the cases which came to Dr. therefore. and Surg. for its clearly an excessive stimulus of the emotional centre may cause a healthily susceptible sensori-motor apparatus to respond too violently. were no doubt hysteric. differences of opinion Thus we find Dr. Babington (lxix." which. although good effects. in . the distemper was communicated . Med. symptoms arose. rather than convulsion. protesting in the " Medi- Times and Gazette" of Nov. was the prominent feature. apparently. Hence and from using the term in the broad and narrow sense." Cuthbert's knowledge. directly from the impressions pro- duced on the mind by the Revivalist preachers themselves. 5th of that year. convulsively. cases the physical tal impressions. but she being seized in a public way at church. from Orkney and Shetland Islands which an extract may be given written about a century here. p. letter written recently it has nothing to do with I may add a significant my present object— " The I think. he says. and the term " cataleptic hysteria " is applied to them by the writer. and that they do not. prostration. correspond in their character to those described in "Fothergill and Want's Journal. one class of cases which the mental condition appeared to regulate altogether the physical state. not. Lastly there were cases in which hysteric venient category of hysteria. of many cal of the Ulster revival cases of 1859. against what he regards as the too indiscriminate reference of the whole to the con- There was." remark. Journal " an account of a convulsive disorder in the ago. are often so closely allied To which is class to refer phenomena which a question the decision of which will de- pend upon the whole history of the particular case. Dr. 157) quotes from the third vol. himself a witness arise.

" once odd down. this seems not entirely the case. and in either sex. as new men. to That emotional disturbance can produce hysterical movements and other symptons. Babington adds." frequently troubled. to others. until it changed into a laugh. and not looking ill. I expressed some little . who tossed a woman in that state. fall toss their not "When violent passion seized them. our public assemblies. its seizing but most imagine ever. with their bodies into many shapes. when he began to cry presently the cry reached the stage of sobbing this became louder and louder. but ported none can imagine causes in removing. " The cure is attributed to a rough fellow of a Kirk officer. at church. shows the influence of natural ject to it . which if true. was a man thirty years of age. and not only so. and girls to the nature of this disease. became greatly disturbed by their outcries. who have made inquiry differ. and others dreaded the same treatment. but whether by the influence of Fear or Sympathy easy to determine. that he was a ruined man. and more violent. throwing their heads about from side to side. which seems more confined to women. or on a sudden surprise." " Few men are troubled with this distemper. but there are instances of With respect of six years of age. He . people it men and hysterical . into a ditch of water. they at is especially any would all arms about. March 13." Dr. with their eyes fixed and staring. it is a disease in Shetland. with a large black beard. and I became a witness of the most marked attack of hysterics that I had ever seen vexation at being better. which he was totally unable to suppress. His wife then told me that he had been speculating. He said he was now much and commenced explaining to me the reason of the summons. and had as manly an appearance as you would wish to see. but without any connection with the development or disturbance of the reproductive organs. summoned so hastily. and there seems no reason to doubt it. 187 However this was. quite exhausted.. as well as inducing convulsive disorders. He presently fell back in the chair. moreover. UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. man. crying out all the while most dismally. 1869): " Some months ago I received an urgent message to visit a gentle- Wilks (xlv. is well illustrated by the following case reported by Dr. how- children are sub- when imIn Northmaven a cure is said to have been effected by a very singular remedy. with whom he had been She w^as never known have the disease afterwards. . a short distance from town when I arrived at his house he was sitting in his parlor. in the male sex.

whether from without or from within. was regarded by Dr. that the noise could be heard throughout the whole house. He had returned home that evening shortly before I was sent for. however. do not tend to endanger they may end life or prove permanent . itself. and then he broke out into such a loud and involuntary fit refrain : of laughter. Handfield Jones as undoubtedly counterfeits of disease. and then talk to me. and thus the cause Whilst she was relating this he grew calm. violently contract or dilate a feeble or atheromatous vessel in the brain. for the strongest diagnostic sign is that the symptoms of hysteria. Emotional excitement. and such once understood to belong to the non-hysterical class. structural change. ferent From our present standpoint. the diagnosis can often be certainly made only the case has issued either in recovery or death. by its action on the vaso-motor nerves. it may discharge itself through the sensori- motor ganglia upon any of the nerves and muscles of the frame. induces an imitation of the corresponding diseases originating in organic change. but could not from referring to the circumstance of his misfortune. when fact is. a purely emotional one. which was pronounced to be hysterical by Trousseau. or paralysis. or overstrain the nerve tissue serious and fatal organic changes may follow. so as to cause tonic or clonic spasms the globus hystericus being the natural sequel of irritation of the medulla at the point of origin of — the vagus or accessory. Should the emotion. just as can at any time be induced by Braidism in affections go. however alarming. convulsions.INFLUENCE OE THE EMOTIONS 188 would have to leave his house and family." It only ended with his utter exhaustion. He had not proceeded far when he was again overcome another laugh. afterwards. commenced. commenced to him was more than he could bear. a disorder which demanding a treatment and admitting of a prognosis wholly diffrom those called for in one which involves structural changes. has been already referred to. that it is common with all functional may quickly come and as quickly It has this feature in susceptible subjects. This gentleman had simply an hysterical attack from violent emotion. for in insanity. tetanus. acting centrally. . saying how foolish he was. cases are at When we . whether resembling coma. and the thought of the prospect before of the attack. The epileptic. at least in these forms. and he The great importance of distinguishing between the hysterical and forms of disease involving more or less Only the other day a case of convulsions. I saw him a few days was pretty well. only to admit that if we have a powerful emotion be aroused.

almost amounting to hemiplegia. sleep the the case of the Abbe" . which may or not be symptoms in combina- warrant our reference of these cases to hysteric excitability. movements are calmed. The loss of his wife gave him her hand in the gentlest manner. "but he was ever afterwards subject to violent tremor of the limbs. muscular tremors occur. it is unnecessary to do more than to state the fact." Also that of a gentleman in whom the disease was induced by the mental anxiety occasioned by a ruinously expensive parliamentary He was unable to walk alone. speaks of paralysis agitans as emphatically "a disease of . the other cases of hydrophobia. that various spasmodic movements take reference to the tremor constantly witnessed as the result of Fear and Joy. the muscles are liable to spasm. by emotion. and pass on to the serious pathological condition marked by tremor. and de- power over his muscles excite agitation or emotion. may removed from the mind. the disorder also origiand the son of this patient being nated in anxiety about money intrusted with a large sum of money to convey to a bank. al- though producing the same muscular movements. that by far the most common cause of the accession and of the aggravation of paralysis agitans Emotion hence during . when place. Paralysis Agitans. and consistent with health. when voluntary power is first embarrassed. the Will In is subdued. laying his return by going to the theatre. —Medical experience fully confirms the remark of Marshall Hall. was seized by the mob with cries of "A la lanterne!" He escaped." was complete when anything occurred to In a third case. strated UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. during the reign of terror in France. . — it is easy to understand (and can be practically demon- by Braidism) how the latter is but the reflection of an image of the real disease intensified by Fear.see two 189 —one caused by actual virus. involves a very different physical condition from that which obtains in chorea of tion with it. but otherwise Ave can see that an affection of the cardiac valves which causes embolism and consequent chorea. may There emotional origin. Hall. and that the symptoms pass away when the image may prove is So of chorea: fatal. was the cause of a great aggravation of the symptoms. and while the It is afterwards. and frequently produced by emotional states. Hall is cites who. struggle is maintained. Whenever the emotions master the Will. who M. Trembling Palsy. but walked very well "if election.

during the set. sleep. On admission the muscles of the face. bomb burst near his house and alarmed him again. and he died three lous muscles were at the after admission. A post-mortem examination revealed. as soon as he made the attempt. but so that in order to avoid falling Twelve years after the fright he fell down in a fit. 23). down. only suspended during diminished weeks . case of paralysis agitans. an abnormal production of connecThe opaque tive tissue. A few hours afterwards. on trying to take some food. neck. 60. The keenness of his senses and of his intellectual faculties had diminished slowly. He of Vienna in 1848. to get in the midst of the fight. he was obliged to lay hold of neighboring objects. disease not only but also grew gradu- when he persisted even lastly. accounting for the induration of those parts. from progressively. p. and upper limbs were affected with violent trembling. so that resisted all the he could The trembling ally worse. very decided induration of the pons Varolii and the medulla oblongata. is an excellent illus- tration of the disorder The bombardment was struck with such terror that he could not return home by himself. because as soon as he tried to move them. stria? in the lateral columns of the cord were due to the presence of connective tissue in process of development. or to walk hurriedly. He they began immediately to tremble violently. measures employed against involved other muscles . noticed also after a short time that his lower limbs trembled in the same manner. paralysis it. though not unconscious. a man. presented opaque gray stria?. lay was superadded down. and was unable to rise. croscopical examination. he became incapable of standing erect. and a few weeks after was admitted into the Hospital under Professor Oppolzer. In the substance of the ." adds that he could adduce kind as the above A many examples of the same (xvii. tongue. and. he found himself perfectly unable to use his hands. whose observations Trousseau gives the particulars. and had He had scarcely got over his fright when a to be taken there. and the medullary substance of the lateral columns. same time rigid. among other appearances of less importance.: INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 190 emotion. and to it. The tremu- His strength rapidly he had severe convulsive seizures. After a few years. principally in On making a mithe lumbar region. The spinal cord was firm. under Oppolzer. patient. happened. he had an irresistible tendency to fall forwards. there was found in the substance of the pons Varolii and medulla oblongata. but less violently. still The walk.

p. Dr. the walls of which contained pigment. but on examining him carefully. and his symptoms grew worse. Emotional excitement may therefore originate the disorder. I might say. Todd gives the case of a boy. 446-9. but otherwise healthy- symptoms appeared. In a short time the leg on the same side became affected also. After a time he had to give up writing.— UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. reported cian. we will now take chorea to illustrate the upon the nervous and muscular systems. Trousseau remarks that the patient looked like a paralytic. see liv.) In another case of paralysis agitans. who. Carpenter well expresses the condition present in chorea as " an augmented and perverted activity of the sensori-motor centres. " the aggravation of the movements by emotion. spasmodic affections influence of the emotions Emotion may to shake slightly. it was soon made clear that the paralysis served that his arm seemed was only apparent Of 442). right optic thalamus there was an apoplectic cyst of the bean. where it its special seat is at the of the reasons he as- summit of the cranio- comes into connection with the cerebrum. that bear to hear the ringing of bells. without being at all benefited by treatment. who had covered herself with a white sheet and appeared before him unexpectedly while he was in bed. so constantly — . may induce the spasmodic twitches which characterize the disease. exerted through the cerebrum. irritability followed. then. p. subsequently" (viii. which then become the sport of the sensori-motor apparatus. a day or two before the thin. Grief and sleepless nights had ex- twelvemonth before her death." along with diminished power of the "Will. the connection indeed. or the least noise. Dr. I. 869). pp. was much sister. set." is this fact " being inconsistent with the idea that the proper spinal centres are essen- although they are frequently affected coincidently or tially involved. Todd. whether arising from this or another cause. " that which we so frequently observe. (liv. but of the hand especially." observes Dr. One signs for holding that spinal axis. 191 size of a small (For the case in full. Such nervous hausted him. had attended his wife assiduously for a patient. namely. he could not He soon ob- and that the movements of the whole limb. 9. " There frightened by his is here. so injuriously affect the nervous system that the "Will can no longer direct or control the muscles. the disorder originated in " deep emotions The by the same physi:" an advocate. became more and more difficult. or when once established. looking.

and partly to a want of due the pharyngeal muscles. and the patient himself had been attacked with rheumatic fever (giving rise to endocarditis) ten weeks before admission. symptom This the tongue. 12. and when the report was made eighteen he was able to walk without assistance. the some sudden emotional excitement. although the interval seems very long. He had The boy went lost the power of directing his movements properly . but usually harmony in the action of is peculiarly interesting. and at the same time feedHe improved much in general nutrition. a few days after which she . set. perhaps. but in the morning. was a sister of the foregoing and was frightened by a drunken man. and if he attempted to take hold of anything. even longer periods have elapsed between the fright and the I have known it occur six weeks accession of the malady before the chorea manifested itself. the appearance of the choreic symptoms. subsists between this malady and The treatment of this boy consisted of splash- ing him with cold water every morning. as if by some power over which he had no control. the early symptoms which manifested themselves in this way was difficulty of deglutition. beyond the object of his Among search. and that he was quite helpless. and was very lar days after admission — On this case Dr. — movements diminished. 14. to bed as well as usual. which came on and continued for some days The dysprior to the more common and characteristic symptoms. from the marked connection which emotional excitement. disease seldom occurs without such as fright. set. she was surprised to find that he could not hold his cup. and two months before affected. Todd remarks that. when his mother went to give him his breakfast. in many instances. in- deed. the irreguing him well. the patient. at the time. details the Dr. Todd gives one a girl. who was met and accosted about three weeks before the appearance of the symptoms by a drunken man." None of this boy's family had been similarly but there was a tendency to rheumatic complaints. of two other cases of emotional origin. his arm appeared to be violently jerked.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 192 Although a of sudden fright with the origin of these cases certain diathesis seems to be always present in cases of chorea." In the next case. " I think we may fairly refer much alarmed the excitement of the disease to this cause . which came on suddenly. phagia was due partly to the want of full contracting power over in the right direction. with a history of rheumatic fever when two and a half years old. the motions of his limbs Avere exaggerated and ungovernable.

adds that he having a girl of ten years of age under his care. a peculiar tem) as the : more or less enfeebled nutrition thirdly. and influence over. and he observes on these cases. of the peculiar be regarded as phenomena of chorea. both these cases recovery followed the splashing treatment. 428-39).UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. and through it deranges the action of more or less of the nervous system. occasionally induce the disease suddenly. the same evening (xxxiv. and was seized in consequence with chorea. Bartholomew's Hospital on the following day. chiefly in the language of Dr. irregushe lost the power of standing or lar movements became general walking. Todd 's Lectures. She was admitted into St. and her articulation was almost completely destroyed. then a . The chain of phenomena would then be as follows First. Romberg. Todd pp. larly the seat of the disturbance. 13 . and of a corresponding portion of the muscular system. violent mental excitement must have lently produced such a change in the nervous tissue. p. especially fright. diathesis. II. remembers who had been vio- alarmed one morning by a dog jumping and barking at her. In these cases. "If I were to refer to any particular part of the brain as more particu- which gives rise to the development it would be to that which may The remarkable frequency the centre of Emotion. or perhaps co-ordinating power 1 is suspended. a woman. of Dr. tremities and in the course of a fortnight from the time of the fright. which disturbs the centre of Emotion. 59). In felt pain in the right fingers. as to the seat of emotion has been re- ferred to at p. points clearly to this part of the brain (which has the most extensive connections with. after stating that the emotions." One of the worst cases I have seen was caused by fright in consequence of fire in the house in which the patient. a strong mental impression. followed by quinine and iron The opinion 1 (lxxiii. and the sensori-motor apparatus left to its uncontrolled it would be more correct to say that the automatic action. arm and 193 and experienced a tingling in the fidgety. with which the attack of chorea is traceable to fright as its cause. Soon after. . 118 of this work. which became leg. for automatic action is not neces- These cases are abstracts of the original. restless and . lived. that the normally superior power of volitional over muscular movements was suspended or destroyed. other parts of the nervous sys- primum movens in the production of choreic convulsions. the left exaffected then came became similarly twitchings in the face.

St. 1 is a determining cause of St. according to the general condition of his health" 791). For example. and other convulsions. what part is in an abnormal condition. The disease was developed to a pretty high degree. p. who was sent into my ward by Professor Jobert. can scarcely walk in the street without being liable to the induction of paroxysms of this kind. ward. gence.: INFLUENCE OP THE EMOTIONS 194 As sarily spasmodic. in epileptic it is easier. this. . an excited imagination as to what might occur. within a also mentions a case in few weeks after- which any. afforded an instance of been good . aged 17. and she was so frightened that she and from that moment became affected with St. gives the following " The young girl. a man of education and intelliand a mind habitually well regulated. acting through Fear. Trousseau. than to determine in regard to vascularity and innervation in what it consists. no sign of cardiac A man caught disease). and her case could be regarded as typical. normal disturbs the tional and motorial and nutrition of the relative vascularity voli- centres. Carpenter says that a remarkable number of cases this result. 1860. he was one day seized by one of these attacks in consequence of seeing a man miss his footing (as he thought) in descending from the top of an omnibus and the pleasurable excitement of meeting a friend usually induces the same result. after observing that deep emotion from any cause and more particularly fright. of extreme benevolence of character. all we can say with certainly. to say from our knowledge of the physiology of the ner- vous system. produced Dr. "Several among you may recollect another girl. Bernard's Her previous health had always she had never had rheumatic pains (and careful auscul- tation detected fortnight back. The tendency varies very considlimbs and face. there. going downstairs without a had a nervous Vitus's dance. however. She . fit. erably in (viii. caused the most extraordinary contortions of the "This gentleman. even trifling agita- tion of the feelings. who lay in bed 30. Popular tumults are well known troublesome complaint. were admitted into the infirmary He wards. Vitus's dance. in December. 6 years old. is that the shock which the brain receives from a violent emotion like Terror. its degree. by causes that could scarcely have been supposed capable of thus operating. to During the have occasioned attacks of this Bristol riots of 1833. and how it is Probably brought about. and her complaint dated a hold of her one evening as she was light.

as if by magic. I. set. which had rendered a She had always been very nervous. and not genuine St. that this was an ex- ample of hysterical chorea. in the absence of other proofs. the cause was intense grief from gether. and convulsive jerkings of the limbs trunk. may have 18. 434). and for a pretty long time without stopping. surgical operation necessary. inas- emotion occasioned by a stranger increases the violence case. the last syllables of the word she attempted to say. that she grees also. which was very grave. articulating the first syllables with difficulty. 19. however. the piano. Fear. her aspect was that of perfect health. I. She could spend an hour or two at the instrument. This single fact . In a second case. set. more or less nearly allied to it. The patient was a lady. Vitus's dance. repeating with extraordinay volubility. She stammered in a singular manner. would have been and without missing a sufficient in Trousseau's opinion to show. When she wished to seize an object.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. Trousseau puts the practitioner on his guard against exaggerating the gravity of a case of chorea seen by much as the of the convulsions. and had a strange temper and she was so alarmed by the operation was immediately seized with St. she could do so at once. The was two instances" in these invasion of St. and denominated "hysterical. in the . We pass on now from well-marked cases of chorea to a few other examples of spasm. It was a remarkable fact. similarly affected and Her tongue was hence she was unable to connect the syllables to- . and no modification of speech could then be suspected (liv. in excellent time. Strange conmovements of the head and upper limbs were the most prominent symptoms. Vitus's dance. When Trousseau saw her. was attended with delirium. although she could articulate sister. so violent as to prevent her from standing. of quieting all this agitation. however. and got well by slow de. that she did not stutter when she sang. An attempt to arrest them by taking hold of her hand made them worse there Avas one means. had an artificial 195 anus in the umbilical region. that of a girl." the order of events was: Fright. is rarely sudden as it 397-8). and with the death of a vulsive — : the greatest regularity note. p. p. Vitus's dance (liv. 434). but her whole left side was the seat of violent choreic movements so that she was in danger of hurting herself against the furniture. suppression of the catamenia. and would never drop it (p. playing to perfection. them separately. however the disorder In a him for the first time. this physician. reported by originated. namely.

gradually became stronger and more troublesome." Dr. started out of sleep much terrified. after calomel of the complaint is strikingly apparent." He had also had much anxiety. 1861. " The influence of emotion in exciting the trembling and spasms of the muscles was most striking in this case. Althaus. from which she used to shut out the light. Dr. benefit. when she suffered far less ened . following and apparently due to the circumstance that when " driving. and valerianate of zinc but slight. which gave him a great shock. not a trace of the affection being observed. makes a remark which deserves " In cases in which the emotional nature to be preserved here. faradization of the skin. but if The patient said that she was alone and if the room was dark- she thought herself observed and the object of wonder and pity." There was no pain unless the contractions were unusually violent.: INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 196 form of a vivid dream. has produced spasmodic action of the musThe case of a peasant is related by Tissot. in the "Medical Times and Gazette. and returning frequently in the course of the day (lx). almost retired from society. his horse fell and broke his neck. that a snake had coiled itself round his arms. and was afterwards subject to spasmodic movement of the arm. or if spoken to." May 25th. reports the case of a lady suffering from spasmodic contractions of the left trapezius and cleido-mastoid muscles. case. therefore. a last couch. which produces a powerful impression upon the nervous system. but it ought in fairness to be mentioned that shortly before the attack he slept on damp He was benefited by the remedy employed in the and laudanum. Dr. blisters and leeches had wholly failed to give relief. A. consequent by witnessing an accident in the a violent emotion excited upon street when the The affection " At first the contractions were slight and only occurred patient was excited. while faradization of the muscles and skin soon . fara- . It may be added that blisters and purgatives produced no. A. and was only with difficulty induced to leave her rooms. while the nutrition of the cor- responding muscles of the other side of the neck is impaired. Dr. sometimes lasting for an hour at the time. who having dreamed cles. even when she was excited. is preferable. and the reflected muscles are only slightly rigid. says. Althaus also gives the particulars of a case of the same disorder in a brewer. she became much worse she had. effected a complete cure. If the influence of emotion is less marked. when in society.

caused by depressing emotions. Stokes. in the face. The grief this circumstance occasioned produced Emotion of any kind a painful sense of constriction in the larynx. p. reported by Romberg (xxxiv)." The spasm of the muscles of the is well illustrated by the following case from the "Annales MMico-psychologiques. it was particularly loud and spasmodic throwing back of the head. to We may here introduce a case of obstinate Singultus the result of Emotion. at Berlin. had a violent fright at the first outbreak of the CracroM7 revolution." (" Treatise on Diseases oftheChest. In three such cases reported by Dr. Three years afterwards she was admitted into the Policlinique. p. lieved.) first dentition. the attack was so violent. Paroxysms of cough of an hysterical character are Often. attack. there was evidence of meningitis."p." adds. He was of a very excitable temperament. as is wellknown. "It is a curious fact. Trousseau. during each to a showed the participation of other nerves than those involved . 356). to whom she was greatly attached. set. Lyons." he says. scarcely conscious. speechless. 21. A Polish Jewess. after having suffered from her She only remained in the hospital about three weeks. and left re- malady for seven months. and suffered from hiccough in consequence. under Dr. Lavirotte's care. stridulus generally comes on who. cated. from the beginning to the end of his was subject such seizures. but it is not so well known that apparently hysterical cough may accompany and mask really organic cerebral disease. two hours. and the least annoyance brought on an attack" (liv. I. glottis at once aggravated occasion. "that in three of the most extraordinary cases of hysteric or nervous coughs which I have witnessed. " I was once consulted for a little boy. after observing that laryngismus "under the influence of some mental emotion or of a fright. during which she was very simply treated. there was evidence of such an occurrence. that she and in fact all one was blue but suffo- the following day she was admitted into the Hotel Dieu." 1849. and in the other cases by very suspicious symptoms. plication with sonorous. 450: Marie Meyer lost her child. 197 dization of the latter ought to be performed in order to restore the lost equilibrium. 266. influence of emotion in causing larynx and ("asthma thymicum"). but not cured. for it. A Owing comspasm of the glottis. in one case by post-mortem examination. On On causing great difficulty of breathing.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. eight months old.

In a fatal case of physical origin. Spasmodic contractions of the — muscles of the pharynx have been frequently caused by fear. often. the noise and alarming appearance of a mill-hopper having been em- Romberg specially mentions vexation ployed to frighten a child placed in the corn-bin. is said to have been when he spoke at his trial. an emotion. and owes so as we have rate before much had occasion them and study the It of its is so frequently associated with force to this element. am ways. Vocal spasm [stammering and stuttering) are constantly aggravated by bashfulness. chiefly Such cases illustrate the the body by what is popularly exerted upon remarkable influence connected with the idea of hydrophobia. nal cause. but I (risus convulsivus) direct emotional may arise in both not acquainted with any case of psychical origin in which it assumed a serious form. on the other hand. obvious that the emotion of Fear had seized with the conviction that he much had been inoculated with the ." Marshall Hall observes. Spasm of Pharynx ." and he likens it it to the nervous tremor which often renders almost impossible for some persons even to sign their public. understood as the Imagination. It All the remedies previ- not stated whether the treat- is ment at the Policlinique proved more successful. the medulla oblongata was found to be the principal seat of disease. as happened with Charles I. leucorrhoea. There was tenderness of the epigastrium and of the spinous processes of the lower cervical and upper dorsal vertebrae. that it is. while fright. while the courage excited by an emergency may remove them. name in I have not been able to ascertain that any cases of per- manent stammering have owned emotional excitement as their origiThe spasm of sternutatio was in Gall's personal experiAmong the exciting causes of perence excited by erotic feelings. used to be a popular remedy in this disorder. and was hydrophobic of several assisted in the dissection purely intellectual faculty of imaging. Yawning is produced by sympathy rather than Spasmodic laughter influence. Hydrophobia. who. regarded as the In the following cases it is to do with the symptoms physician at Lyons " who of a Chomel the case from cites Romberg patients. though a stammerer. "would scarcely exist without entirely free from the affection emotion. tussis the emotions are well known to play a considerable part. with regular menstruation. and alarm. to observe. impossible to sepa- action of the Imagination. " Stammering. ously tried had been ineffectual.: INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 198 in hiccough. in which this was a prominent symptom.

last his friends succeeded in convincing him till malady had that his at its foundation in his mind" known —men of strong minds and courage—who. have suffered from the and not from fearful anticipation of the disease only. the solely to the Imagination. on the scenes It 692). He virus. p. the strong probability is that the disorder is not due to any virus. were subject for several months and even years dissecting persons suffering after attending from hydrophobia. p. I. and no emotional excitement cases that the When effects may of the outbreak of the symptoms. may here be observed that. that cases of spontaneous hydrophobia have arisen from these causes. any canine virus the inference drawn in such is laboring under the disease being too hasty. after. undoubtingly. Trousseau says he has I. let loose As Dr. and no general conspasm affecting the pharynx alone. . especially should a animal wound has have followed be the occasion it be in the form of Fear. by a been inflicted until many months really rabid animal. for three days he wandered about the streets in a state of despair. "Time alone got rid of their nervous susceptibility which manifested itself in the shape of spasm of the pharynx. 183). and should "the nerves " at the time be in a susceptible state. hydrophobia dysphagia only. tressing attacks of dysphagia. drink he was seized with choking and spasm of the pharynx. well aware of the conditions needed for the development of rabies.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. It is possible that persons who have been attacked with hydro- phobic symptoms after the bite of a dog doubtfully mad. in which he assigns an important of "Fear" and "an involuntary on role to the influence He association of ideas. and they cured themselves of it by appealing to their knowledge of the disease and by forcing themselves to drink some liquid whenever they felt the sensation coming on" (liv. to lost his appetite and was 199 when he attempted sleepless. Rush wrote an able essay (and when are his essays not able?) hydrophobia. according to this physician. effect " It is of of the saliva . If the dysphagia extends beyond four days. the man's fears are then and rapidly produce a dread of water which appears to be wholly unconnected with the previous no consequence whether the dread of water be the bite. while the respiration is unaffected. although physicians (xxxiv." affirms. Rush upon graphically expresses his system it. to more or and less dis- mere recollection of the awful which they had witnessed. but there is in nervous vulsions.

Then all the details cited the disease. II. . Learning on his arrival that his brother had died from hydrophobia. in the largest number the duration was four relates to the Imagination — — days. or of a morbid excitement determined to those parts by any other stimulus " (lxi. 203). Romberg- cites a case from Trolliet in which mental emotions ex- months and a half after the bite had been rehad been leading a very quiet life. if the virus A is to the disorder ap- latent in the system. 145). from six to twelve months. but after yielding to excesses at a fair. it is stated that in 147 cases in which the exact period of incubation had been accurately ascertained. p. No. 239 in number. In the majority of cases (93) it was from one to three months it being rare for hydrophobia to develop itself after Death followed in all the cases to which the Report this period. p. by the house dog. In Tardieu's Report on Hydrophobia (" Gazette Hebdom.3). as originating in causes independent of the virus. II. Trousseau is in- clined to limit the influence of the virus to a period of about twelve months. third day (xxxiv. and died (lx. of which the young woman went into her of the birds was picked up it. few months ago a painful case of this kind was reported in the "Daily Telegraph" following father's is as occurring in the a condensed account: farmyard to kill chickens. Emotional excitement not related in any way pears able to develop an attack. in one instance nine. it was in 9. occurring subsequently being more probably due all cases and Fear. p. and carried him off on the of his . he regarded all cases that spontaneous hydrophobia might end of hydrophobia. he was seized with hydrophobic symptoms himself. to that time the patient own former accident recurred to his mind a few days hydrophobia made its appearance. and did not return for ten years. 143). and "to the well-demonstrated it influence of the Imagination in the production of rabiform hydro- While admitting phobia. he was in returning met by a dog which suddenly attacked his horse. terminating in recovery. The Memoirs of the Royal Society of Sciences of Montpellier contain a history of two brothers bitten by a mad dog. three Up ceived." 1860.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 200 of a rabid animal acting upon the fauces." fatally.. after. and on being pursued by . Chomel held that in such cases highly improbable that the it is original virus causes the attack after the lapse of so that it is much more reasonable to refer many years. one of whom went to Holland. which ran off A United One with States.

On the following day she drank nothing except a little broth in the evening. and complained After a restless of heat and a sense of constriction in the throat. but at the end of that time the usual symptoms made their appearance. Her quently spat. received the intelligence of the death of her set. and she expressed a horror of liquids the .: UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. Although the symptoms were so alarming. girl. and after a rapid succession of sight of water . died in her husband's arms. lacerating the arm. On expression was wild and wandering. brother. who came wounds of to her assistance.) So remarkable a case should. For a fortnight after her death it showed no signs of madness. and she fre- Any the bright object induced a paroxysm of fury and confifth day the patient clied^ completely exhausted. which assails the ject of either sex —but which may prove the notably the crisis indeed —the approaching marriage of the gentler— -just human sub- before an event of a lifetime. and four days after the doe. nevertheless. died. 590. followed by other symptoms of a hydrophobic character. The woman and her friends were certain she had not been bitten by a dog." t. vulsions. She was violently distressed. It is no bad effects. 201 Her mother and The severely bitten. ing became more difficult. and the matter had been almost forgotten. which (if free from any source of fallacy) is an excellent example of hydrophobia of emotional origin. the sense of constriction increased. she went through the ceremony but scarcely was it over when she was seized with spasms. may we . were also healed in the course of time. the girl bit her frightfully. In the evening swallownight. when memory the wedding till the mental excitement. husband. be received with caution. and recorded by Chomel. There is one remarkable case reported by Busnout. sight of fluids or a current of air causing a shudder or convulsive twitches. added that the other members of the family who were bitten by the same dog had as yet paroxysms. 1 ("Diet. unless regard it as confirmed by similar cases. morning. however. She is stated to have communicated the malady to a pet dog which often licked her face (including the lips) during her illness. But this was not all. pushed out of by a much more interesting event All went on well for about two months. 1 cle Med. xv. brought on a shiver at the when she was about to wash. proving fatal in its felt termination A woman.. 34. p. but lived in hourly dread. all three.

(lxx. for an epileptic aura. Finlay has reported a case of nervous hydrophobia occurring in a simply by mental anxiety and terror boy of 12.1870) Dr. INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 202 Copland cites from Pinel (without a reference) the case of a soldier alarmed at midnight by his comrades. dread of and expectoration of a copious frothy saliva. g. unless allowed to when threatened with a whipping if he would not stop barking and biting. he would seize the pillow with his teeth. but without alteration of the intellectual functions.. which he attended the Brompton Hospital. June 18. The wound was slight. spects imitated the actions and gestures of a dog. and As he had not slept for and continued the bromide. Next day he attempted to bite and scratch all within his reach. two nights he was ordered chloral. burning and constriction of the throat. Art. Salivation marked the close of the fit. and in many reSometimes. In the beginning of March he complained of severe pain in the leg. at first stationary. fierce. He described this sensation as a peculiar creep- ing pain. feeble intermittent pulse." . but afterwards it assumed the form of in the interval he complained of pains in the chest. and his expression was wild. Quite recently (xlv. accompanied with a sense of weight in the head. at and about the bitten part. the horror of fluids and the burning pain in the throat were more intense. . rat. having reached which. accompanied occasionally by twitching movements of the extremities and of the muscles of the neck and Bromide of potassium was ordered. but the and spat blood. growling the while as a dog face. and haggard. A week afterwards he said that after the aura had crept up to the abdomen. Occasionally he refused food. while. which progressed gradually to the heart. " In the morning. he felt as if the dog that had bitten him was in his inside scratching violently while during the fit he barked. ance of light. He was certain that he was never bitten by any animal. e. he would turn round and whine as a dog does when struck. does with a lap it. No ill effects were observed. hurried and irregular respiration. "produced : In the beginning of the year he was bitten by a small terrier on left leg. and healed without difficulty. The symptoms increased and he died. of mucus only was found in the throat" "Rabies"). On symptoms were aggravated. for two months. and intolerliquids. The examination presented nothing A quantity extraordinary. insensibility occurred. as regards the bite. Two the 10th day the the saliva at times thick and glutinous. who was immediately attacked with convulsions.

wife. is decidedly of opinion that the was innocuous. Finlay ultimately destroyed. in fact. a had died of A few months that he was who rabies. at break- seized with hydrophobia. but was more violent than ever after he awoke. water. interesting circumstance. It is — a hydro- rather the effect of mind upon mind. till some of its peculiar effects were in reality bite in itself produced. conjuring up all the horrors of the actual disease. that the matter was decided in court. fast. the action of action of the if is. Pulse rapid and weak. however. than what I intend mind upon the body. The patient Handfield Jones. he became violently convulsed Similar convulsions were produced by at the sight of the glass. he refused all fluids. but yet he sometimes barked during sleep. Difficulties. the barking and howling being loud enough to be heard in the street. and that the boy's symptoms were referable to the "Imagination. . when his him only believed that he had eaten too much. where he soon completely recovered under the care of Dr. When presented with another dose of chloral. occasional. wrought upon by intense mental excitement and overpowering Fear. was very violent. dog which had He was already beginning to rave. and the boy had quite recovered. After taking 30 grains of chloral he slept seven hours. the fits end of a were only The latter is an was now removed to St.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. Dr. and there phobia-phobia. To the foregoing show no should be added that the dog appeared to it boy constantly asserted that he it was decided to kill it. for he could not swallow either fluids or solids. &c. have most influence upon the fits. hours' sleep followed the second dose of chloral. and it was not until some weeks had elapsed. many beasts that tleman." Sometimes there pharynx. were thrown in the way. one. persuaded . Finlay attributes this refusal simply to a suspicion that the chloral would be thrust on him peared now to in commencement of the fortnight from the The bromide ap- some other mixture. Mary's Hospital. properly speaking. tried to bite the bitten a arm this good of a gen- afterwards he Suddenly exclaimed. no spasm whatever of the is little more than a delusion present the term be allowable. showing him wine. 203 Next day the lad and in the evening was with difficulty restrained. a very mild example. Dr. to convey by the Trousseau records several cases of imaginary hydrophobia of In kind. and at the attack. nor is it stated whether the dog was signs of rabies. but as the could not recover till he saw the dog dead.

p. and the last everything. and from his observations in that hospital. "who are acquainted with . an extra large breakfast (after fasting in Lent) halfto induce vomiting who at once recalled the mad dog. as is well known. came hydrophobia as "nervous" and That they died was. So evident is the influence of the Imagination in the development of hydrophobia. which can and does frequently kill. and of the disordered state to regard the patients admitted for fanciful. that some distinguished medical professors have. was utterly skeptical as to the existence of any virus. he most justly held. that persons seized with rabies died very rapidly." "Those. symptoms to a . He then bit dogs and oxen. of Edinburgh. held that hydrophobia in man "is not the result of any poison introduced into his system. but merely the melancholy and often fatal results of panic fear. swam across a river. and fully believed he had hydrophobia. range themselves under one of two exclusive extremes —the first at- tributing nothing. be rabid. he no longer dared to touch water. of the Imagination. and Physician to the Hotel Dieu. in vain. he allowed him- his dread of water vanished (liv. had a strange aspect. At last. Professor Dick. In another case a judge was out riding with his dog they met a flock of sheep. soners. and that he could not. or to shave himself. to calm his fears . being told over and over again. a psychical virus itself. a Professor of Medicine. Shortly after the judge heard that many of the beasts bitten by the dog had died of rabies. The malade imaginaire was relieved. and a few hours afterwards choked the poor ferred the fellow. because he remembered that on the same day the dog had licked his hand several times. — is Bosquillon. and no more was said about rablies." he adds. A medical man tried. and rewrong cause. Seized with terror. to this cause. gone so far as to maintain that it is always due to The strange tendency which exists among many reawhen investigating the causes of morbid phenomena. I. died. and although he obeyed his master's call. We need not suppose that here there was even spasm of the pharyngeal muscles . since his dread of water dated already ten self to be persuaded. and the dog bit those which he could catch. 691-2). to the Imagination strikingly exhibited here. for the Imagination is.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 204 by tickling his throat with his fingers. and he now found some scars upon it. He was alarmed. therefore. and days back. as we see. no proof that the disorder was not imaginary. for several days he was excited and delirious.

again. will readily apprehend our meaning. if any. in the production of nervous disorders. and due effects of cauterization are. is effect. and if our view be correct the immense importance of disabusing the public mind on the subject is apparent" (lxii. and others. As is denied by a great chemical authority. benefit derived from the diversion of the patient's mind by music. will now and a genuine. hydrophobia. <fec. must have already entered than to the destruction of a poison which the circulation and commenced its The deadly work. Eberle. as Demangeon observes. few. 205 and panic. differing in this respect from small-pox. it must be admitted that its effects do not differ in a single characteristic sign from those of the Imagination and certain inflammations of the brain and throat. and as sometimes followed by no symp- toms whatever. altogether uncertain. countenanced this theory. The advocates of this view supported their position by such facts The existence of any virus has never been demonstrated. I. as these The assertion of Wright. however. it was said. it was alleged that it is illogical The period of incubation. if injected into the blood. these arguments to favor the relegation of hydrophobia to the domain of the Imagination. 367). there may be in (lx). that the saliva : of rabid animals and angry people will. and it is indisputable that it is often sufficient to calm the Imagination. such grave doubts should have been started is in itself a sufficient proof of the remarkable power exercised by the definite mental imagery of a particular disease. Elliotson con- and imaginary that in the latter the fear of swallowing only rabies is com- . to the distraction of the attention to a painful to the definite hope inspired by vigorous treatment. is to attribute them to any virus. Lastly. and from various superstitious practices. p. which to me seems highly problematical. as recommended by Desault. be hardy enough to deny an actual material virus as distinguished That from a nervous. and adopt an antiphlogistic course of treatment to stop the development of the disease " Whatever force.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. and apparently depending upon the strength of the Imagination in The good the individual. intensified by sidered that the great distinction between real lay in this : fear. Hunefild. more likely to be sensation. produce hydrophobia mann. the effects of sympathy and irritation. while the belief that a been received bite has alone is sufficient to cause all the symptoms. " If the hydrophobic virus has any existence. Leh- the same cause ought to produce the same the bite of dogs regarded as mad.

his eyeballs glared and seemed ready when crying out dog?" to start in from their sockets. and rage. self were agitated by various spasmodic contortions. extending his arms in a defensive posture. Copland admits that may be produced by it is " not impossible " that true rabies mental influence. Dr. hemispheres are obviously often involved. or even a dread of water hydrophobia —are — sufficient proofs of the presence of a disease iden- mad animal causes. are at least in many of the symptoms. B. inquired the cause. that words can describe or imagination paint (lxx. and which. by central excitation. he suddenly threw him- on his knees. that is surely not the greatest which acknowledges the power of the Imagination in combination with Fear. and then with a sudden and violent emotion buried head underneath the bed-clothes. v. refers to the imagination as Lawrence thus graphically the immediately preceding cause of . with a difficulty of swallowing. great as can be expected from the operation of a physical agent in the one case. but to originate a group of symptoms. p. d. but he does not allow that spasmodic symptoms. and The muscles and face forcibly throwing back his head and body. to excite not only a paroxysm in the course of the disorder. howmust admitted that the approximation to identity is as be ever. I have said nothing in the foregoing remarks of the terrible emotions which in genuine hydrophobia although not the cause. distress.a INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 206 plained of. in rabies. One of Dr. tical with that which the bite of a it The is region of the cerebro-spinal axis morbidly affected. Kolk with approval the observation of Romberg. of the disorder." Dr. that the corpora But olivaria are very highly injected in hydrophobia. not see that black and attitude exhibited the most dreadful pic- ture of complicated horror. is no morbid irritability of the surface to the and that there is no sudden catching of the breath. 247-8). generally spoken of as the medulla oblongata. his countenance "Do you at that moment. and an agonizing tone. Bardsley's patients "fixed his eyes with horror and affright on some his He ideal object. which in a susceptible state of the nervous system closely resemble those of genuine rabies. independently of the operation of an inoculated virus. that there impression of air. eagerly asked if the Doctor had not heard " howlings and scratch- ings ?" On being answered in the negative. cites Sch. I think. but the effect their turn the apparent cause of afflict the patient. and a psychical one in the other. difficulties Among the cerebral the admitted attaching to the pathology of this disease.

on rabbits." Tetanus. Why not. states. then. for 1861. the first convulsions may be entirely tonic. and every phantom of imagination disappears. as to cause tetanic rigidity of the muscles. — centres. nor yet whether. . and epileptiform convulsions of the posterior. As regards the medulla. and at once he begins to talk as calmly and connectedly as in perfect health" (lxii. says Chelius. Brown-Sequard confirms these experiments by his own. 1 For Van Deen's opinion on the stimuli but the will or emotion. in tetanus. and the sensori-motor apparatus excited secondarily. 56. 1 (" Researches in Epilepsy. including the spinal cord. from elec- of the corpora quadrigemina and mesocephale. Soc.) However. These thoughts through his mind with wonderful rapidity. there seems no difficulty in believing that certain emotional states may induce the same followed. and subsequently clonic. convulsions. and convulsions. p. as Brown-Sequard points out. and to keep in a state of the greatest distress. the former effect medulla tric is According to caused by the application of the current to the as well as the cord. he he fancies himself sur- . unless he is quickly spoken to a moment the charm is broken or addressed by his name. present the same form of spasm tetanus itself may arise from disease of the former and in epileptics. tetanic movements of the anterior. ." p. in these several nervous centres are affected. and . as in epilepsy." New Syd. from Imagination and Fear ? That emotion may so powerfully act upon the motor " beyond doubt. in the greatest distress. can admit of no doubt. limbs But. disease may be spontaneous is. see " insensibility of the spinal centres to Year-Book. supplied by nerves arising alike from the encephalon and the cord. Todd. symptoms in the course of the disease. UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. condition is It is not so clear why this tonic developed in one instance and clonic spasm in another. by exciting the corpora quadrigemina and the pons Varolii. I. Here we see the higher or ideational centres poisoned by the virus. any . the muscles. and to the dulla oblongata by epileptic. bia. Theoretically. hydrophoand epilepsy. then in there is no reason why the former should not be spontaneously the source of such dreadful mental images as to cause all the foregoing That the symptoms. " The 207 patient is pursued by a thousand phantoms that intrude themselves upon his mind holds conversation with imaginary persons rounded with seem him to pass difficulties. while the latter effect results stimulation Dr. 370).. different portions Weber found that an electric of the stimulus me- applied to the cord of a frog was followed by tetanic. a tetanic spasm being produced by a current passed through the cord..

it . which however nary tetanus certainly a . or the idea of them. a poor girl. trivial it may seem when is truly tetanic in a disease. It is remarked by Carpenter that although tetanus and hydropho- bia are nearly allied. as Handiield Jones well remarks. it is whether called into action through the senses or through the cerebrum. predisposing element is. the hyperemia. has already been given among the cases met with in the Irish Revivals. illustrates a ing gaze. A good example of opisthotonos. But.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 208 exalted excitability of the gray substance of the cord. will not be surprised to find matical to it said that "the eyes presented an enig- phenomenon beyond the power of philosophical reasoning expound. as proved by the well-known fact that the sight of fluids. as essential to the arousing of tetanic symptoms from emotional excitement. but intense rigidity. 244). which lasted about an hour. in the latter it is frequently transmitted from the ganglia of special sense. p. described by the same writer." Those who know how such a condition of the muscles can be artificially induced. are must be inferred that there exists some peculiar invisible modification of the undamaged nerve tissue. no doubt. In another case. in which there is commonly no spasm. breathless. set. or even the cerebral hemispheres. causes convulsions both affections in their relation to a may clear that they alike be excited common by . in more severe cases. and her face colorless. but when we regard cause — Emotion— this stimulus. seeing that Clarke " expressly notices that the lesions of the cord in cases of paralysis. which conditionates the particular character and quality of the phenomena" (lxxi. was For a short time her body was struck prostrate in a single moment. " without the slightest appearance of any previous agitation or uneasiness of manner. that while in the former the stimulus acts through the spinal cord. &c. character." state of transient. In this case clonic convulsions were also present. found to be perfectly rigid. whether traumatic or idiopathic. escape of blood-corpuscles. by is supposed irritation of the peripheral nerves in is it difficult to imagine. This conditioning. they differ in this. which much more formidable affair its contrasted with ordi- than anything that is is usu- . the effect of a violent impression upon the feelings. and unwaverThis condition. as it is from the irritation of a wound in both cases the (apparently) same exciting cause may entirely fail to induce the dissimilar to those of tetanus. as by Clarke to be aroused traumatic tetanus nor . order. albuminous exudation." and that there was a " long. 7.

" spas- Whether. in his "Principles and Practice of Physics. again there was trismus. Watson. diathesis. the exciting cause of the disorder being the disappointment of the affections. p. in which the jaw was held open for half an hour together at another period. but when. Not that any composition of blood being as in the caSe of a religious revival. Nor is toms. which causes. with paroxysms of the most violent and prolonged cramp We in one of them" (viii. without any other spasmodic action or loss of sensibility this sometimes alternated with fits of yawning. accounted for without refDoubtless. p. Laycock. and the limbs agi. preceded anxiety and excessive mental exertion. mental action upon the nerves. in stances. if not eliminated. during the whole of this succession. 11 . 209 ally witnessed as the result of emotional excitement. tated. " Complete opisthotonos coexisted with perfect coma . the effect may.. indulgence in morbid feelings acts as a predisposing cause. . a psychical cause at once produces certain nervo-muscular phenomena. in cases of purely or the symptoms are due to a is affected. and others. (iv. a paroxysm of gout." states. observes that The is supposed to depend by Carpen- latter. while in others. and movement occurring during the expiratory . anomalous other effects. hysteric disease in modic action" women. the face being distorted. which may fairly be adduced here in illustration of the action of certain emotional states upon the motor system. perhaps. do not forget the altered condition of the blood upon which the convulsive action in hysteria ter. . by then . among to the idea of the changed by emotion. 879). there was paralysis of the extensor muscles of both lower extremities. Dr. the influence of emotion confined to hystero-tetanic symp- Dr. UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. connecting an individual so affected it with the gouty suffers from an ex- cess of urea or other urinary constituents in the system. without insensibility. but without laryngismus of laryngismus. the convulsions had more of the epileptic character. Hystero-teta- nus mostly affords examples in point. 169). accompanied by a tetanic condition of the muscles. whilst. many in- and emo- tional disturbance as the exciting cause. is doubtful. difficulty attaches or. emotional origin the blood direct including. the condition of the blood acts as the predisposing. be sufficiently erence to qualitative sanguineous change. lasting for five consecutive days. . failing this. however. concurrently with a with this alternated fits state of coma. Carpenter records a case of hysteria.

He remained senseless and immovable. I. INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 210 on the authority of "Hennen's Military Surgery/' that "terror is frequently the immediate antecedent of an attack of tetanus. great anxiety. and among the latter. ons enthusiasm. a Polish the harvest of the year 1677. during which he took no kind of nourishment. or religi- uncommon . this disorder (one regarded by Cop- land as paralytic in character but which seems intermediate between . among the former. terror. II. The moment he was apprehended he was so much terrified that he gave a loud shriek. there was no evidence of any strong or unusual mental impression having been received. cause. he then became as immovable as a statue. Copland enumerates the following predisposing and exciting ones. a few days afterwards. violent and continued sorrow. vestigation under case.. H. but would show that no doubt careful in- not an infrequent cause. my own this is observation. drinking and making merry in a common alehouse. and immediately was deprived of the power of speech when brought to a court-martial it was impossible to make him articulate a word. in- tense and sustained mental application. soldier. deserted He and appeared not to be conscious of anything which was going forward. but then gradually sunk and died " (lxiii. the passion of love. as observed by Dr. but all their efforts were in vain. His irons were struck off and he was taken out of the prison. nay. Among the causes of cataleptic seizures. move. its share in causing the rapid course of one case fatally in a quarter of —The occurrence of an hour (lxxii. nor had any natural evacuaIt is to tion. 24). unrequited affection. some violent mental impression. p. 569). in Since writing the foregoing I observe that Crichton has recorded work the following case from Bonetus under " Catalepsy :" in his from his regiment in was discovered. The officers and the priests at first threatened him. frights. be regretted that more particulars are not given in regard to the muscular system. In the prison to which he was conducted he neither ate nor drank. p. In one which I was able to trace the history." and he thinks fright had which ended Catalepsy. and I am not aware of any case dis- epilepsy and tetanus. Jones) is rare from any phenomena which are sometimes inby Braidism. excluding the cataleptic duced artificially tinctly originating in emotional excitement. and afterwards endeavored to soothe and calm him. namely. but he did not Twenty days and nights were passed in this way. "George Grokatzki. and religious contemplation .

they feel a pecu- drowsiness. After observing that he has had several opportunities of examining the phenomena of catalepsy from the commencement to the cessation of the attack. The effect is immediate as that produced by lightning. disappears as soon as the patient wakes. and as though the power of motion often but sibility is little al- and universally lost. "If one lays one's hands on their eyes. concealed mental emotions. and most medical writers have re- them when treating of the etiology of this disease. namely. marked by the external the present section ence when it signs of convulsive action of the muscles . he says. It is may accompany evident. complete or incomplete. ("Biennial Retrospect" for 1865-6. and the motor nerves.— Loss of Muscular Power last section we have : Soc. seen the influence of the emotions in causing irritation of the sensori-motor centres. the other died. Art.) Lasegue practice states that among he met in one year with ten He hysterical females. is seized with upon it being startled or affected suddenly and unexpectedly by any cause. or rather symptom of disease. but no morbid appearances were covered. more or less fugitive. if men his manipulations It is is It evident that Las£gue produced a condition of the system similar "Two not identical with. . subject to catalepsy. "Violent emotions of the mind" were enumerated by Aretseus among the causes of paralysis. passed into the state of cataleptic rigidity.) Paralysis. well-known forms of hypnotism. They have not. "Catalepsy"). however. The cataleptic rigidity general or partial. yet senimpaired." p. always discriminated ferred to between the different pathological conditions which emotional paralysis. . as soon as any one One closed their eyes. those. who were sluggish and more disposed to shed tears than be excited. dis- p. if not exclusively." Both fell into the deepest somnolence. in a large found one class specially. how instantly a female. "It is very remarkable dread. did not sleep. in we have to consider the effects of the same influ- causes loss of function. indicated by muscular paralysis. cases. 119. and presently pass into the deepest sleep. liar and closes the lids. 211 and ungratified passions (lxx." ("Palsy and Apoplexy. however. entirely is 229. SECTION In the New Syd." had by to.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. III. liable to this affection. that these conditions . from which hardly any stimulus will arouse them.

while in others. however healthy. there may be a shock. An ordinary stimuli. of the motor centres. merely. Thus. which in- That in this way the higher often affect would seem highly probable. powerless to stimulate the nerves of motion as is galvanism have is as to excite a frog's nerve poisoned by woorara. however." Brown-Sequard suggests that the irritation is in these cases transmitted through nerve-fibres to some cells at the base of the brain. that in is only apparently or secondarily cases of hysteria. the motor centres affected. and from them reflected upon the neigh- tion. a from thinking. I believe the motor and nerves are frequently enfeebled by the abnormal play of centres emotion upon them. at least. or been subjected to intense is light. by acting upon the motor centre. INFLUENCE OP THE EMOTIONS 212 widely vary —that some in cases there is what is ordinarily under- stood as a functional derangement. nor by its pressure on the latter. July 20. not by the former's loss of function. the irritation of certain fibres hemiplegia result of one region may. It is easy to understand how. as when the rupture of a vessel occurs from the vascular excitement induced may be and. or of ideas. again. am far itself. palpable organic changes take place. to the motor centres by which some part is rendered unable to respond to the stimulus of the cludes the corpus striatum. alter its nutri- and so cause paralysis of a limb. In order to satisfy "our craving for explanations. We may here refer to Brown-Sequard's Avell-known opinion that may from a special influence exerted by one part of the brain upon another. the Will paralyzed or suspended. as in many function of the hemispheres. from Fright or sudden Joy. just as a days after firing a cannon. Dr. of so-called hysterical paralysis. more or less temporary. emotion may also be con- ceived to cause structural change in the higher centres of the cephalon. man is sometimes deaf for for a time blind after his eyes The Will. boring bloodvessels by means of other nerve-fibres (xlvii. injuriously the lower centres Will.. In considering the changes which occur in the tissue of the brain . and in this way induce paralysis eiir by a sympathetic in- fluence. 1861). On the contrary. in all cases is which the Will I at fault. and that they are for a time really unable to respond to. or emotions. consists in supposing that it induces disorder of the circulation in an arterial region. Jackson's explanation of the effect of disease of a portion of the hemispheres upon the motor tract.

voluntary motor These changes are severally indicated by outward signs of nerves. doubt that emotional paral- not unfrequently due to extravasation. or rupture of a bloodvessel. producing transient or permanent effects. and altered vascularity and nutrition. spinal. we are ourselves conscious of the rapid alterations which take place in the circulation in the brain —the vertigo. and. may cause the morbid condition of the nervous tissue which entails paralysis. the frequently felt difficulty of order of sequence arises mental shock.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. and the vessels. and to the vaso-motor nerves. This disturbance of the doubtless arise. So. from an overwhelming seems most natural to conclude that. ansemia. either indirectly from the increased force and frequency of the heart's pulsations. or sympathetic nerve-centres. occasioned by Emotion. the throbbing. causing sudden vascular changes in the brain which interfere with its nutrition. whether in speech or limb. independently of those which arise from congestion. That the brain rush. much Handfield Jones has done to demonstrate the possibility of exhaustion of the nervous centres without appreciable physical change. through the vaso-motor . is determining their but certainly when. muscular paralysis. cases natural enough. the tinnitus aurium. may Violent emotion well cause what he calls primary paresis of ganglion -eel Is in the encephalic. as indi- cated by the pallor of the face. cerebral circulation may of blood. and the weakness or proclivities of the part upon which it falls. In regard to the vascular changes occasioned by emotional excitement. &c. the first event in the series —the molecular arrangement which tissue. Frequently. then. the sympathetic worthy of notice that is of shock. it seems very probable that a mental shock may directly produce molecular changes in the brain and motor system. man becomes paralyzed. at the very instant when there is at the moment paresis of the voluntary must be in an opposite condition. through the fibres. a it . or directly from the influence exerted by the emotions on the vessels of the brain. indirectly. as mind tion 213 is is the function of a change in the normal condi- —of some portion of the brain- transmitted simultaneously to the conductors of voluntary motor power. therefore. mental shock causes paralysis directly. brain. as well as the op- posite condition of deprival. . in a certain proportion of (those in which the cerebral vessels are weak or diseased). according to in its force two ways. is suffer. It nerves. the tissue should and paralysis should supervene. ysis is We cannot. as vascular changes.

— — A very ancient synonym for paralysis —aphonia— indicates the frequency of impairment or loss of power over the vocal organs in Paralysis of emotional origin this affection. but without effect. and is there being. as is more have ideas. may result from disorder (loss of function) of the gray matter of the convolutions. from which we drew such striking examples of convulsion. or the motor nerves. 1869." in the " Journal of Men- say. tal Science. which prevents the Will being transmitted 1 to the central ganglia. these ganglia themselves." sight." January. in the night she slept three hours. &c. We are told that " a great number were smitten down suddenly. indeed. Maudsloy would motor centres of speech by See his able paper. similar to those which caused. . so affect the intelli- his muscles. course. ning . Speechlessness. no motor paralysis. the fibres which connect them with the sensori-motor ganglia. emotional paralysis probably be sometimes referred morbid influence which mental shock to the over the quality of the blood is -capable of exerting altered blood being able to modify . paralysis of the laryngeal muscles. and fell as nerveless and paralyzed and powerless as if killed instantly by a gunshot." — — A girl. . while singing. and down 14." Dr. mental impressions. General loss of muscular power not what is generally understood by actual palsy as the result of emotional shock. instantly. although a person can has the right idea at sequence hand to employed emotion move may in speech. " Concerning Aphasia. or. quently seen in connection with loss or impairment of speech. and remained so till the next day eighteen hours altogether when she regained her voice and sight as suddenly as she had lost them. fell set. he communicate. this symptom may be tions of the nervous system Of associated with widely different condi- —with lingual paralysis. proceeding thence to the muscles Thus is it clear that a violent gence that. deprived of speech "the mind as active as ever. he may communicate them by vocal signs by speech this condition arising from a break in some of the fibres passing from the convolutions to the motor centres.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 214 may Further. is well illustrated by a reference to the sad scenes in Ireland during the Revival. associated with a certain idea organized in the education. and may be unable no longer speechless in con- Again. in short. most fre- is. the functions of the nervous centres. This occurred in the eve- and awoke in the same condition. cured the malady. or with inability to recall words. and produce the effects which more usually proceed from primary disorder of the encephalon itself. Medical remedies had been tried. in fact. — — i to Or the fitting word recalled — the " motor intuition.

the function of which " Loss is. Or keep him from heart-easing words so long. loc. coming of themselves in the course or agitation of some other question. disturbing influ- of a part of the brain. Without the aid of tone or gesture. Of ("Junius") Sir Philip Francis it is said in his biography. with clenched ted brow. namely." says Brown-Sequard. For betrayed had burning words of repre- but his spoken comment scarcely got beyond a hand and knitHe. admits of application here. not motor. that sorrow should bis use control. probably the from such a change case.). the hound !'. base ! cases. itial faucibus hsesit" occurs to every and Shakspeare's description of Collatine now of the influence "The is a perfect description referred to. muttered as if to himself. cit. in his poor heart's aid That no man could distinguish what he said. Mild and transitory forms of speechlessness are familiar to all. Francis's description of the eloquence of Fox." Hath served a Who . mad. rendered so by emotion. that inarticulate utterances. own A striking proof of this is given in Sir P. p.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. too. that this very association of the emotions with im- portant muscular movements is an actual disadvantage. 395). II. deep vexation of his inward soul dumb arrest upon his tongue . in these ' Base. and starting from it as if they had escaped him a breathless pause. those. . 215 motor centres that the in the nerves supplying the muscles engaged in speech. Recurring here to the remarks formerly made in regard to the purposive character of emotional acts. just press ourselves? It may Is not the when we most desire to ex- be replied. to. as if for an his forte. a broken sentence. are paralyzed. "Indignation would at times master his utterance.. are themselves more effective than the best chosen words." he says. "was not and when he attempted "Panegyric. but they indicate the inlobes one. "is a symptom induced more fre- quently than any other by a sympathetic influence from the cerebral upon the base of the brain " (xlvii. utterance constantly choked thereby. it might be objected single word. upon one which of speech. The Virgilian "vox stage. it. he must often have been misunderstood" (xiii. was none the better A few words of sorrow or applause. so thick come. and then a rapid return to his subject. confidence or violated friendship he hension on paper . Begins to talk but through his lips do throng Weak words. and may not deserve the name of paralysis. of and vocalization ence already referred is The articulation. it for preparation. ...

I am sure it made little impression. or in These nerves no longer respond both. Duke of Bedford.' was struck dumb on the spot. threatening immediate destruction to all One of them. and the less because it was the result of pains. unpremeditated burst of passion." Sept. A violent storm arose. Haudfield Jones gives from "Casper's Wochenschrift. the actor. to volition. to add which we here. a healthy Dane. when surgeon on -board a vessel. Had he unexpectedly heard of the duke's death while he was speaking in the House.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 216 . and the scene. callous enough not to have been affected by the subject. Sanguineous perspiration followed. and accompanied with an emphatic delivery. and from ^ase lias cient to a special interest. the pathological condition may. A case lately occurred at Alclershot." When men are struck dumb by Terror or mental excitement of any kind. light hair. 30." 1848. During the period he was deprived of speech. he was our prisoners. witnessed by Paulini. could not but have audience. made a deep impression on any For who can resist the inarticulate sorrows of a ivounded His eulogy of Francis. vary. there were had failed him. symptom view the It is suffi- disappeared the power of speech returned. the case of a sailor. the Governor of the Military Prison there: "One of drill by one of the warders. levelled at another. and the sailor was perfectly well after the storm had passed away.) Dr. and did not recover his speech for seven days. 1870.. . of fair complexion the crew. and sudden grief had made its way in a natural. possibly. infer there has been a involving temporary paresis of the nuclei of the nerves supplying the muscles concerned in either articulation or vocalization. even." ("Good Words. but gesture-lan- guage and writing remain. set. was so terrified that he fell speechless on the deck. Major Miller. which illustrates the effect produced by passion the passion of a man which. enough to touch the anIf in a transport of grief drogynous heart of William Pitt abruptly. It is reported by . I think he would have succeeded much better. as we have said. we may usually shock to the motor centres. seemed to me a heart f performance very unequal to the subject and to the speaker. strictly and watched. on being checked at There was no feigning whatever . even in the House of Commons. recoiled upon himself. but instant relief. wished The prisoner that 'God Almighty would strike the warder dumb. that as this this point of shall again refer. or his speech had ended his voice but few men. the man was most wretched and alarmed. which alone can be pathetic.

but there is no reason to suppose they could not have expressed themselves by gestures or by writing. of irri- A question. and consists in a simple loss of speech. he became hemiplegic on the matter equally left side. and his mental faculties seemed unaffected only he could not speak. the fingers and leg very slightly. . .' man between 50 and 60 years of age. UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. and the sailor powerful emotion produced concussion of the motor centre concerned in the expression of ideas by the muscles employed in speech. without any other treatment than that of removing. The affection. so far as possible. 283). respecting arise one evening in his temper and hypochondriacal habit. in a very short time. . the indeed generally very rapidly after the patient has regained the ability to The follows pronounce one or two words. and thus he became power of speech completely abandoned him. He continued in this speechless state for about a week. the attack. occurring citement. . . . . After a little for left he could move time. Dr. he recovered to a great extent the power over the arm and leg but although the principal recovery took place about six weeks after is now. without mental side of the face. covered. some one present held out too strongly against his views. four months after the occurrence of the hemiby no means quite well" (lxxiii. as observed in acal habits. p. Todd gives by way of case " illustration is as : " The patient was a table 'no. instead of becoming speechless. paralysis but with decided palsy of the was not complete. The patient had full use of his muscles he had full power over his hands and feet he could sign a check. Todd's "Clinical Lectures on Paralysis" contain a definite reference to emotional paralysis. and when once he began. 217 — — Iu three cases the Revival girl. and in women. excited to such a degree that his .a. which was met by a counter-statement and a rejoinder. some very trifling matter. Two when he re- the power of speech returned fully years after this occurrence the same gen- tleman got into a similar argument and difference of opinion upon a and became again strongly excited but this time. and this led to a vehement contradiction on his part. such as 'yes' and which Dr. and whenever he tried to do so. happening to family party. he plegia. He men of hypochondri- remarks that " it most commonly under some strong expower of speaking returning usually in a few days. all exciting causes. There was no power of articulation. the soldier. . trivial. the attempt would end in a fit of crying.

She became unable to walk or support herself. Skey (functionally) paralyzed. the polarity of a certain portion of the brain exalted is of a morbid condition of the brain-tissue. lips. judging from the first seizure shock. as excessive may be inferred that the brain was already disordered. effect —and is muscular action exhausts and depresses the muscular condition. Lavirotte attributes. 451). At the end of six months her speech had gradually returned. from the "trifling" character of the ex- vascular change. and being herself in a great passion. possessing a strong constitution and married. but the patient's intelligence was unaffected. affected (as also the intelligence) is mentions in his "Lectures on some Medical Subjects" (xlv. the invasion of pa- Anger but he thinks also that it may have been only a symptom. subsequent attack. Todd adds that. The muscles generally. aged 28. he could not say how far there had been tients suffering in this but he thought lesion. Two years ago she had a violent altercation with her husband. A different class of cases —those — in which only the vocal cords are and palate remaining unillustrated by a case Mr. and she She has subsequently could walk a little and grasp large objects. and in walking she is obliged to She has never experienced any pain with the seek some support. the tongue. 1859. only paralysis. p. ralysis to . if any. In these cases he discards the vulgar and convenient explanation of congestion. or of the blood. but has great difficulty in turning over the pages of a book. an or of its In emotional circulating force. Dr. and resemble that occurring in the transient hemiplegia which follows epileptic seizures. it This this case. Francoise Classin. as in the previous cases. the arrest of nutrition involve soft- the transient form to which this explanation has ening it is disturbed is immediately followed by exhaustion. she lost her speech. including those of articulation. believing that the vessels only play a secondary part in Hyperemia the production of such functional derangement. was not an but of some Indeed. but may by . . if prolonged. according to this view. exception of amenorrhea. in the following case. it In seems probable that the example of mere nervous citing cause. as he had never examined the brain of paway. or eat without assistance. the bodily functions are healthy (xxxv. were paralyzed. it must be slight. more especial reference. and on the brink of changes involving paralysis. . recovered some power over her muscles. force.— INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 218 Dr. however. Sept.

immediately lay down. and from that time remained for three days . origin. Habershon. when sufficiently excited. 22d. As a contrast to these cases of loss of power over the vocal muscles. having handed her to another person. and ran and caught her in her arms. and in an instant that a of the room.UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. take the air. and Remorse: "There was no other symptom but that of aphonia about him. which was under the care of Dr. seen the Imagination. cause loss of speech in an instant. besides general lan- guor and despondency. she general system. health. during which he became satisfied that there*was no return of a complaint. in some instances. 1870. as showing the sudden influence of the mind on a particular nerve in the recovered her voice. 327). by a too powerful galvanic cur- rent applied to the larynx. A week afterwards his voice had fully returned" (lxxiv. that I was obliged so entirely lost the approach her and to put my ear close. in "The It affords a 219 good example of aphonia of emotional an hysterical subject. Fletcher records a case of aphonia in a gentleman. The case is interesting. 1866)." Evidence to the same effect may be adduced from the French ComThey report "We have — mission on Animal Magnetism (1784). He was directed to rise early. then. of pale feet. and having cold hands and in conversation relative to marked mouse was running about under the table at the end She uttered an exclamation of alarm. Fear." effect This is powerful enough to exactly analogous to the produced. p. "was a young lady of about 20. Mr. I held a long cheering and soothing conversation with this very stout and healthy person. to hear her. loss of all it possessed Had this person been in sound and vigorous would probably have sustained the shock to her nervous system with less derangement of it. the lady. take the following illustration of the influence of fright in causing serious cerebral mischief and "aphasia. the report of the case. the thoughts of which weighed heavily on his mind. caused by indulgence in solitary Grief. power of audible speech. Whilst I was engaged her health. His voice had been gone for five weeks. The patient saw one of her children scald herself." I abridge from the "Lan- cet" of Sept. 17th. in the course of an hour. and drink a few glasses of wine after dinner. I somewhat imprudently re- complexion. subject/' he says. cause of the mischief having paid the penalty of its The to ferocious intrusion by the on earth. enter society.

structural difference in the likely to give way under such as fright. her physical powers unimpaired. were quite beyond her utterance. and though her vocabulary was limited. from cases be. When still addressed as " mum. occasionally happens. they differ of aphasia produced by a structural lesion. " Yes'm . after. that after fright. requiring no more than two or several despairing shakes of the head. but days. are not. hemiplegia. "No. effort. sometimes." correctly. apparently in perfect health. follows fright. she appeared perfectly intelligent but replied to almost everything. and her speech sometimes hesitating. She still complained of pain at the top of the head." sometimes with a little hesitation. On her pupils were equal. four days walking about the ward. whatever their explanation may which can be properly called very much clinically. Five days after. Callender has brought forward evidence to that lesions of the right hemisphere are convulsion than lesions of the left the exception proving the rule. are ever solely caused by emotional disturbances. and after some failures. she could make almost any reply. to write she was later. he admits. would end in the She remained quite unable either to read or write. show two hemispheres may render one more the influence of a general bodily disturbance (Mr. or the symptoms Possibly the normal developed by fright would not be one-sided. this is only substituting a physiological . months. she indicated that she had great pain at the vertex of Three days the head.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 220 motionless. being questioned. and was able again seen. On admission at Guy's. He does not believe that such one-sided symptoms as hemichorea. it is more hemisphere. Jackson holds that there must of necessity be change in the central nervous system. weeks. some local Hemichorea very frequently but Dr. she succeeded in answering. Dr. but these cases." and once or twice she. three weeks after. but the interrogator was She also read one or her name two short words distinctly. and after reply. and without food. cases aphasia At any rate. &c.) likely to produce But if so. the pain in the head was less severe. a great effort almost invariable "Yes'm. expressed one of the first two or three numerals. according to him. and years. to a question requiring a negative two or three times repeated. It &c. the patient does not talk. m'm. however. she could say two or three Avords very imperfectly. with great. anxiety. Hughlings Jackson informs me that he has not met with any evidence to prove that emotional disturbances produce aphasia. unconscious. she was in a fairly convalescent condition." three short words.

:

UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES.

The symptoms which Dr. Jackson

for a pathological difference.

believes

may

be attributed to emotional disturbance are

as nervousness, depression of spirits,

and

1st,

such

sleeplessness; 2d, such as

of voice and tetanus-like convulsion (so called hysterical tetanus).

loss

As

221

to the last

two symptoms, he remarks that they show that parts

of the central nervous system are affected which superintend move-

ments largely involuntary.
the head of " Emotional Paralysis,"

Under

employment of the term here
is

is

the report of a case

Aug. 11th, 1860, by Dr. Wiblen, and although the

in the "Lancet,"

is

perhaps open to criticism, the case

not without interest, and, undoubtedly, the immediately exciting

cause was emotional

A. gentleman, after being exceedingly desponding for ten days and
attaching more importance than usual to ordinary affairs of business,

became, on the 4th of July,
trivial occurrence.

and by

to speak,

much

excited in connection with a very

This excitement was followed by entire inability
facial paralysis.

During the following night his
when a slate was given

condition was comatose, and on the next day,

him, "he wrote ciphers perfectly unintelligible, but in the course of

During this inwas seized with several paroxysms of sobbing and crying,
after which he again fell into a comatose condition, from which, however, he could at times be readily aroused."
On the third day he
was able to say "yes" and "no." From the 10th to the 20th of
a few hours was able to express himself in writing.
terval he

July he progressed slowly but

satisfactorily,

with tolerable distinctness.

With

and was able to converse

the exception of slight loss of

motion and sensation of the right angle of the mouth, and deviation
of the tongue, he had recovered at the time of the report. Dr. Wiblen
ascribes the

symptoms

change at the
and glosso-pharyngeal nerves,

to slight pressure or structural

origin, or in the course of, the lingual

but the higher centres appear to have been also involved.

The

from our present standpoint, lies
any apparent cause for the despondency. This depression of mind appears to have been itself a symptom of, and caused
by, some cerebral mischief.
It is true that some irritation in busidefect in this case, viewed

in the absence of

ness occurred just prior to the attack, but

was trivial.
were alike the
it

the case
ysis

is

The emotional
results of

it

is

expressly stated that

condition and the paralytic seizure

an abnormal condition of the brain.

Still,

valuable, not only because the exciting cause of the paral-

was an impression on the mind, but because emotional disturb-

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS

222

ance (originating ab intra) preceded the motor

dency of morbid emotional

The

affection.

ten-

whether arising originally from
within or from without, to pass on and affect the motor ganglia is
states,

exhibited in this case.

Since the above was written, Dr. Wiblen has kindly sent

In reply

short report of the subsequent history of this case.

me
to

a

my

inquiry whether the despondency Could be traced to a sufficient cause,

he says (Nov. 5th, 1870),
stances,

and had no reason

"The

was

patient

in very

to be otherwise than

which confirms the foregoing remarks

good circummost happy," a fact
primary cere-

in regard to the

bral origin of the patient's mental condition.

This

further borne

is

out by the sequel of the case, which proved to be of no merely functional

" It went," he states, " from bad to

and transitory character.

He

worse, and the patient died about two years afterwards.

the same

symptoms

as described in the

'

had

all

Lancet/ up to the time of

He

was a very careful man as to mode of living. His
gray convolutions were drilled with small cavities." He adds that
he has seen two other cases since both died and that the late towncrier of Southampton was in a similar condition.
I am able to add, through the kindness of Dr. Lockhart Clarke,
his death.

a report of his examination of the brain.

The

pia mater generally

was very much thickened. The gray substance of the convolutions
had an unusually pink color. On the right side from behind forward, through the posterior and middle lobes, nothing more un-

At the deeper

usual was observed until reaching the optic thalamus.
part of this

body and

in the cerebral substance,

there was a great deal of red softening.

were also found
left

on

its

outer side,

Patches of red softening

at the anterior part of the corpus striatum.

side of the brain there

was found,

in the

On

the

middle of the optic

thalamus, a cavity or cyst about the size of a pea, and containing a
yellowish fluid outside the thalamus; the cerebral substance was
softened, reddish-black in color,

and

infiltrated

with

fluid,

which,

under the microscope, was found to be loaded with exudation or com-

pound granular

corpuscles.

The

cerebral matter itself contained

these bodies in abundance, besides a vast

number of molecular par-

In the central white substance of the cerebelluni, around the
corpus dentatum on each side, there were two or three small cysts.
One of them contained a perfectly milky fluid which consisted of
The medulla oblongata was softened and unfat and oil particles.

ticles.

a

UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES.

223

Nothing remarkable was found

healthy along the fourth ventricle.
in the spinal cord.

In the "Lancet," February, 1871, is reported a case of "Facial
Paralysis from Fright," under the care of Dr. Wiltshire, in the West

London Hospital
" The patient was an

intelligent little girl,

days previously she had been
absence from home.

On

much

Four

aged 5 years.

frightened during her mother's

the following morning, the mother noticed

mouth was drawn

and thinking that
it soon became
evident that the distortion was not voluntary.
On admission it was
found that, when the face was at rest, the paralysis was not betrayed,
but during crying or laughing, the mouth was considerably drawn
that the child's

to the right side,

she was playing with her mouth, scolded her; but

over to the right side.

not be closed.

The

left

There was no

eye watered considerably

ptosis,

;

it

could

nor were there any decayed

teeth, enlarged glands, or evidence of the existence of worms.
There
was no otorrhoea or other symptom of disease of the temporal bone,
nor squinting, nor paralysis of any other part of the body. The
child was rather restless during sleep.
A grain of bromide of potassium was ordered to be given three times a day and thirteen days
;

after

since taking the medicine.
left

much

better

is

decidedly less paralysis.

The

is

not inflamed.'

admission the following note Avas taken

There

eye discharges a good deal, but

second day
ralysis

it

:

'

Has

slept

On the

thirty-

was noted that there was scarcely any evidence of pafact, the only sign is a slightly quicker and

remaining; 'in

more complete blinking of the right eye than the left when one pretends to give the child a blow in the face.'
On the forty-sixth day
the child ceased to attend.

"Three months after, the child was brought again to the hospital
from scarlatinal dropsy. It was ascertained that she had
had no return of the paralysis, and presented no trace of it. No
form of electricity was employed; the treatment consisted solely in
the administration of bromide of potassium in three-grain doses
therapeutic agent to which Dr. Wiltshire thinks the recovery can
suffering

hardly be attributed."
I have not met with any other good instances of the influence of

emotional excitement on the portio dura of the seventh, but Dr.

A.

J. Sutherland states that "paralysis of the seventh nerve is a
well-marked symptom of disease of the brain from severe mental
shock," and I. observe the remark in Romberg, that " violent mental

:

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS

224

emotions have, in some instances, preceded
refers to

cepta,"

its

occurrence," and he

Joseph Frank in confirmation ("Prax. Medic. Univer. Pre-

2d

edit., vol.

p. 556).

i,

A case of ptosis from
den shocks,

as

is

grief

is

recorded by Dr. Sutherland.

" Sud-

well known, cause local paralysis; thus ptosis of

both eyelids was produced in a patient of mine,

when

she heard of

whom she was engaged,
under more than usually painful circumstances the ptosis of the eye-

the intended marriage of a gentleman to

;

lids

soon disappeared, but the

symptom was

followed by an attack

of melancholia, with a strong suicidal tendency" (lxxi, p. 120).

Hemiplegia.

—A

case

from Dr. Todd has already been given in

connection with the loss of speech.
plegia are clearly of emotional origin.

Many

cases of hysterical hemi-

Dr. Todd considered absence

The case of
from
woman,
hysteria,
is
cited
Tissot,
set. 30, subject to
by
a young
Hoffmann (" Opera omnia," t. iii, p. 202, xxxv, 1865, p. 162). Terror
of face and tongue palsy characteristic of this affection.

suspended the uterine functions and caused,

first,

painful spasms of

the limbs, and then hemiplegia of the right side; of what duration
is

not stated.

In the following

case,

under the care of Dr. Stewart, reported by

Dr. H. Jones, hemiplegia was accompanied by impairment of speech

"Mr.

set. 40-45, of gouty family and very nervous temhad
long been subject to attacks resembling laryngitis.
perament,
Just before his illness on this occasion, he had been in great anxiety
on account of his wife's health had been fatigued while nursing her,
and with various cares. He had no renal disease. While going up
,

;

bedroom, in advance of the medical attendants,
he suddenly staggered, and would have fallen backward had he not
been caught. He was now found to be quite hemiplegic on the
right side, consciousness unimpaired, speech nearly lost, face very
stairs to his wife's

much distorted. He was put to bed, slept tolerably, and next morning when seen at 8 a.m., all symptoms of palsy had disappeared, but
The paralysis ceased and recurred
same manner, but he was always free from
Some time after it ceased to recur, any nervous

returned again after breakfast.

again several days in
it

in the morning.

the

excitement or extra fatigue would reproduce the disorder in a greater
or less degree.

Shortly afterwards he was seized with complete

aphonia, and the same has repeatedly occurred subsequently, but has
twice been removed by galvanism.

In the winter of 1861-62, he

UPON THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES.

225

had a return of the paralytic symptoms, accompanied by rheumatic
pains"

(lxxi, p. 481).

Dr. Jones adds, that in the opinion of three eminent medical men,
there existed no organic disease, and remarks that the paralysis
fairly attributable to the exhaustion of

is

nerve power, the chief cause

being great anxiety.

Marshall Hall records in his "Practical Observations in Medicine," that

two

and Gazette,"

under his care at the time of
by parental anxiety. In the " Medical Times

cases of hemiplegia

writing, were induced

May

23, 1868, there

Sessions,

"The prosecutor
The mother of

lation.

witness.

a short report of a striking

is

by Fear.

Limerick
where two men were charged with having assaulted a re-

case of paralysis induced

(Roche)

It occurred at the

summoned

his

own

father as a

the prisoners, exasperated at the prospect

of her sons being sent to prison on the evidence of her

own

relative,

gave expression to her feelings in a malediction, praying that when
the old

man

left

the witness-box, he might be paralyzed

;

and paraSuch

lyzed he was accordingly, and had to be taken to the hospital.

miraculous illness not yielding readily to ordinary modes of treat-

ment, the old lady has been requested to remove her curse by spitting on the patient; but this she sternly refuses to do,

and the man

remains in the hospital."

Of

the prognosis of emotional hemiplegia Dr.

although

it

promises ultimate recovery,

Paraplegia.

it is

Todd remarks

that

often very slow.

—Dr. Brierre de Boismont adds

to a case illustrative

of mental action upon the liver and stomach, one which similarly
illustrates the effect

for

produced upon the motor system:

A
peasant girl, Lucia Marini, eight years old, was separated
some time from her mother, a patient in the hospital. She had

"

little

often begged to be taken to see her mother, but her relations, think-

ing

it

only

'

caprice/ always refused.

The

child often repaired to

the church to pour out her grief, and was one day found at the foot
of the altar, sobbing and almost deprived of consciousness.
after

Shortly

appeared symptoms of an affection of the cerebro-spinal axis,

delirium, headache, and inability to stand.

Leeches were applied to

the head, and a seton inserted in the neck.

This treatment relieved
symptoms, except the paraplegia, and on account of this she
was removed to the hospital. Scarcely was she in her bed, than she
begged again with tears (' caprice P) to see and embrace her mother.
these

The doctor

(kinder, as

is

so often the case, than the friends of the
15

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS

226

patient) immediately ordered her request to be granted.

Carried in

the arms of the nurse to her mother's bed, she threw herself upon

her neck, covered her with

tears, earnestly

inquired after her health,

and seemed as if she could not caress her enough. After awhile she
was requested to leave her mother and return to her bed. On their
attempting to carry her, she sprang to her feet and cried out with
delight that she had recovered the use of them.
She regained her
bed without effort or fatigue. During the time, about ten days, that
she remained in the hospital, no unfavorable symptoms returned,
and she occupied herself in assiduously waiting upon her mother"
(xxxv, 1853,

Another

may

p. 537).

be found in Hoffman

In

from mental emotion

illustration of paralysis resulting
(loc. cit.).

conduct of a young man was discovered by
and the chagrin of the former caused paraplegia, which

this case the vicious

his father,

proved incurable.

The

nerves that control micturition are, so far as the sphincter

vesicce is

concerned, subject, as

from emotional
to put

causes, but I

When

on record.

is

well known, to temporary paralysis

have no case

sufficiently well

the vesical muscle

is itself

marked

paralyzed, the

and the sympathetic are involved, and will be referred to in a subsequent section.
The same remarks apply to the
rectum and its sphincter.
non-striated fibres

Having now completed
in the range of the

the survey of the influence of the emotions

motor nerves which supply the voluntary muspursue the same inquiry in regard to those mus-

cles,

we proceed

cles

over which the Will has no power

and the heart.

to

Here

also

we

—the

non-striated muscles

might examine the

phenomena accord-

ing as they assume the form of simple contraction, spasm, or paralysis,

but we shall only refer incidentally to these

states.

UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES.

CHAPTER

227

IX.

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS UPON THE IN VOLUNTAS Y
MUSCLES.

The

Emotions

act

upon the heart and non-striated muscles with

a power similar to that which they exercise over the voluntary or
striated muscles

;

causing contraction, spasm, and paralysis.

Hitherto we have as far as possible restricted our attention to the

movements caused by the action of the emotions upon the muscles,
over which the will can exert more or less control, whether muscles
of a purely voluntary or of a mixed character, all these being striated,
and supplied by nerves undoubtedly derived from, and forming an
essential part of the cerebro-spinal system.
From the compound
character of some acts, as Respiration, it is impossible to avoid their
consideration, in both categories of muscular fibre, the voluntary and
the involuntary. This must not, however, be allowed to obscure the
important facts, that while all muscles are liable to be influenced by
the emotions, only some can be influenced by the Will and that
these derive their nervous influence from cerebro-spinal nerves, while
those which respond to emotional, but not to volitional stimuli, de;

rive theirs chiefly, if not entirely, from the sympathetic.

Claude

Bernard, indeed, refuses to admit the distinction indicated by these

and says they ought

terms,
science

;

but

it is

to be

expunged from the vocabulary of

sufficient to reply, in justification of retaining

them,

that (as he admits) the sympathetic ganglia enjoy certain special

powers, that although the sympathetic nerves arise from the spinal

cord (including the medulla) microscopists believe them to be derived

from a distinct order of
tinctive use of the

"it

is

cells,

that he himself cannot escape the dis-

word against which he

highly probable that in the

the nervous system,
vessels are placed

we meet

difficult

protests,

and allows that

and complicated study of

with two distinct orders of nerves ; the

under the influence of the

first,

while the histo-

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS

228

logical elements obey the

power of the second

;

nutrition depends

on the former, and physiological activity is aroused by the latter."
Although he adds, that "the sympathetic nerve may therefore be
viewed as a complementary apparatus placed by the side of the
cerebro-spinal system,"

and

refers the different results of excitement

of the two, to the different nature of the elements on which their action

is

exerted, there

is sufficient

we

reason,

think, for continuing to

use these well-understood terms, while not denying the spinal origin

of the sympathetic.

Passing then from the voluntary muscles, we proceed to consider
the influence of the emotions upon the heart and non-striated muscles.

The Heart

—The

remarkable, that

it

influence of the emotions

determine the nature of their relation

why

ical facts,

it is

most

this

organ

is

sO

;

and to ascertain from anatom-

that the feelings and the heart are, and always

The

have been, so inseparably connected.
said, is a

upon

has always been a problem of great interest to

prolific source

heart,

it

need hardly be

Indeed

of figurative modes of speech.

the fact from which this arises, that of the heart being regarded by

mankind

as the organ of the passions,

is

itself

an indication of the

intimate relation subsisting between certain states of the mind and
" Heart-rending " dethe movements and sensations of this viscus.
1

scriptions, " cordial " expressions of good-will,

trembleth and
tary

is,

"The

is

moved out of

heart

heart therefore

is

1

le

Lactantius", in

this also

my heart
:

a hard

"Lorsque Dieu," says Bossuet, "[[forma

cruelty."

de l'homme,

y mit premierement,

il

la bonte

making some acute remarks on the state of the mind in ecstasy,
the Workmanship of God, or the Formation of Man," says,

On

The mind which

exercises control over the bocty, appears to be placed in the

highest part of the head, as
flection, it

At

Dr. Johnson's commen-

propre caractere de la nature divine."

in his treatise "

"

his place."

considered as the seat of tenderness

is

le coeur et les entrailles

comme

and numberless cognate

said, "

Elihu

terms at once occur to the mind.

appears to pass

to

God

is

in

heaven

the Ireast, and, as

;

but when
it

it is

engaged

in

any

re-

were, to withdraw to some secret

and draw forth counsel, as it were, from ahidden treasury.
are intent upon reflection, and when the mind, being
occupied, has withdrawn itself to the inner depth, we are accustomed neither to
hear the things which sound about us, nor to see the things which stand in our
way. But whether this is the case, it is assuredly a matter of admiration how
But if it
tin's takes place, since there is no passage from the brain to the breast.
is not so, nevertheless it is no less a matter of admiration that, by some Divine

recess, that

And,

it

may

therefore,

plan or other,

elicit

when we

it is

caused that

it

appear

to

be so."


UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES.
Gesture-language

who
ing

expresses fear

how

is

229

equally significant, whether in the wild Indian

"by putting

the hands to the lower ribs, and show-

the heart flutters and seems to rise to the throat" (Tylor),

or in the civilized white

when he

desires to

man who

"lays his hand upon his heart"

emphasize the force of the gesture under which

he labors.
It

is

what the physiologist

which they

them

since the brain doth lodge the

How

makes

it

is

how

this

comes to

true, that the feelings

powers of sense,
spring?"

in the heart those passions

poet's reply

"The mutual

love, the kind intelligence

'Twixt heart and brain,
if

should wonder

tells

associate with the heart are really seated in the brain.

"But

The

men

not surprising that

pass, if

vague,

more

scarcely

is

this

so than

sympathy doth bring;"

what we

Burdach, writing in 1726, observes, "it

with

my

all

heart," " this tears

my

some medical
you

find in

works.

heart," &c.

is
;

said I love

not because those

sentiments are produced in the heart, but because in every violent
affection, either the heart or other parts,

we

the

describe

affections,

in

by the movements of which

our language, act sympathetically.

de Anima Humana," cap. vii, p. 198, xxii, II, p.
But Burdach was opposing the v&lgar error that the heart is
Plato had placed one of his three
itself the seat of the passions.
in the heart, and Aristotle had
faculties of the mind
the irascible
Others
and
the
origin of the nerves.
made it the seat of the soul,
It is remarkable that while Unzer
followed in the same direction.
and Prochaska entirely avoided this error, later physiologists like
Virey should have returned to the old and vulgar idea. "See,"
(" Meditationes
75.)

says Bichat, consistently with his location of the Passions in organic
life,

" see the

man who

is

agitated

by anger or fury

;

his

muscular

powers doubled, nay trebled, exert a force which he cannot even
check.

Whence

the heart"

(li,

this increased

p. 46).

power?

Manifestly the source

is

in

In Fear, on the other hand, the heart, also

the starting-point, sends less blood than usual to the brain, and causes
feeble action of the voluntary muscles

treating of grief
vital spirits

and

fear, observes,

and syncope.

"An

Unzer, when

irregular influence of the

on the nerves of the heart, renders

its

movements

time excessive, at another enfeebles them even to syncope"

He

clearly does not locate the emotions in the heart.

(i,

at one

p. 170).

Virey, after

and justly asserted that "emotion being in certain parts. the passions act on the heart by means of the nerves of the eighth pair. the first question to be determined is the effect produced upon the heart by irritation and division of these nerves. nervous system of the chest. that the ganglia of the sympathetic are themselves the seat of the passions. remains to inquire here. we are met by so much contradictory evidence . Here. of the brain. p." It is not necessary to repeat the observations already made discard- ing any hypothesis in regard to the localization of the passions. " but may it not be maintained. and as it is impossible to make satisfactory experi- ments upon these nerves in connection with the transmission of purely emotional influences. of the senses. The may is term in as clearly attach to the sensation. . . a func- and in close rela- application of this view (or of any modification of this view. tion with the medulla oblongata. on the contrary. in fact. 76). it acts without the concurrence of the brain. is obvious. . it is in acting on the localization of the centre of emotional medulla oblongata that lix. 226). cites these Gall. whatever probability view that the emotional element is. the abdomen. in connection with the affections and felt passions. referable to the hemispheres. that the emotions of the heart ascend to the brain by these same nervous branches For Vauve- ? nargues said with reason. which does not refer their seat to the encephalon its most comprehensive —employing this Their ideational element sense. proves nothing as to their seat.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 230 observing that "according to Prochaska. unfortunately. Gall as strongly combated the notion with which these views were closely connected. confounded The this affection or this passion acts. great thoughts come from the heart. are in order that they may put in communication by nervous branches. in common with tion of one of the ganglia at the base of the brain. such as the restriction of it to the movements in the medulla) to emotional disturbance of the heart and lungs." adds. the spinal marrow. p. II. It only it has such a powerful effect" (Brown-Sequard. organs of who life ." passages only to indignantly refute them. replies. " When a violent and sudden emotion causes death." " Instinct is innate in the breast it emanates from within the internal . upon each other" act reciprocally (xxii. through what nerves do the emotions influence the heart? As this organ is supplied by nerves from the pneumogastric and the sympathetic. " The organ which produces an affection or a passion with the viscera on which is.

or at least that is some of the it possesses motor M. according to Valentin Schiff suggests this action. heart. and —the organ being Mechanical irritation of others. Jackson has pointed out that this confirmed is in accordance with. On the other hand. Weber found 1872). with the pressure of an enlarged bronchial gland upon the great cardiac were connected. really seems hopeless to arrive at it however. V. as sympathetic nerve These and other it (viii. Lockhart Clarke's observations.. accelerates the heart's maybe due to of the sympathetic system contained in cavities electric current trans- mitted through these nerves. p. and endeavor to the main truth. its cessation giving rise to the most fearful anxiety. Physiologists have been greatly divided in opinion as to the motor or sensory character of the pure and unadulterated vagus. elicit Claude Bernard says that division of the pneumogastrics disturbs the heart's motions. or both. UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. and to acute pain passing up the head from both sides of the chest. 475). Let brought forward. we see the evidence is in favor of the conclusion that the pneumogastrics. and that the same effect that is it arrests the produced by an these roots. that us. facts leave no room to doubt that the sympathetic nerves are concerned in the motion of the heart. just as they do from that of the spinal accessory (lxxvii. fibres before the spinal ac- Dr. Kempen asserts that cessory joins it. and that through the cardiac branches they affect the motion of the heart but this does not destroy the evidence in favor of sensory may the pneumogastric from its therefore be a nerve of fibres also compound character origin. by. these symptoms proved on a post-mortem examination. when accelerating or retarding the movements of this organ. contain motor fibres." 1859). Year-Book. Weber found movements by Dr. . and produces coagulation of blood in (lxviii. pure and simple. fibres of the hypoglossal nerve appear to arise from the pneumogastric nucleus. glance at the facts any 231 definite conclusion. divided at their origin relaxed ("Syd. in a case quoted from "Muller's Archives. its movements of the its exciting the reflex centres substance." in which the heart's pulsations were occasionally checked for an interval of from four to six beats. Soc. Carpenter that stimuli conveyed through this nerve accelerate the of the heart. 1864). So far. With regard to the influence of the sympathetic. and the question is whether the emotions act through them or the pneumogastrics.

" May 12th. in which the two freely inosculate in the neck. first. "to ascer- by experiment upon the lower animals. and thirdly. would affect the pultain sation of the heart after section of the pneumogastrics . it own latter. unattended with struggling or other exertion. whether simple emotion. in his Croonian Lecture. which from some points of view seems highly probable. the opinion that the pure pneumogastric is a sympathetic nerve. secondly. it would seem probable that the central organ of circulation itself would form no ex*spinal and sympathetic systems. This conclusion its and they regard many of the is. Kirkes and Paget observe that the pneumogastric enters into so anastomoses with the nerves of the sympathetic that it is hard many to say whether the filaments own. especially in such animals as the dog. action on the heart " suggest.). ganglia as sympathetic in character. and the cerebro-spinal force contending to bring about dilatation of their walls. we can scarcely doubt that both may serve as the channels of this influence. from their origin. if we regard the cardiac nerves as acting in accordance with that antagonism sup- posed to exist. 504). 499. the upper cardiac nerve sends numerous branches to the pneumogastric. near the base of the cranium: this sympathetic ganglion is connected by small branches with the second ganglion of the pneumogastric. of that . to believe that there are these ception to this principle. may seem to militate against the alleged inhibi- tory character of the pneumogastric. like that of the sympathetic spinal nerve" (liii. 1870. or are derived from the filaments originating in its and conclude that its contains are. A. Waller. as its structure would more than that of a cerebro- pp.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 232 "It is difficult/' as Dr. cit. there are at least three points of communication between the pneumogastric and the first or upper cervical ganglion and nerve. Dr. Again. an abstract of which will be found in the "Proceedings of the Koyal Society. Carpenter observes (loc. does not appear to be confirmed by more recent observations. in the bodily organs and vessels. and when it is also remembered that irritation of the roots of the upper cervical nerves stimulates the action of the heart through these. it will be remembered." In man. but when the large proportion of the sympathetic nerves proceeding to this organ is considered. the sympathetic contracting. between the cerebro- If in the capillaries we have reason two opposing nervous influences at work. and certainly does. a branch joins the ganglion of the root of the pneumogastric.

leaving those of the former intact. mechanical irritation applied over both the gastric pneumo- and sympathetic nerves in the neck. Waller destroyed all the fibres The pneumogastric of the latter. He found that although most of the observations made by Weber. in connection with the theory of the inhibi- tory action of the pneumogastric. they did not prove the alleged distinctness of A function between the vagi and the sympathetic. to the sympathetic nerves of the heart. be the true one. and were not really inconsistent with his own. Further. Wagner. of Zurich. when and the vagus was cut through and the peripheral end of the nerve was excited. some motor fibres separate the pneumogastric or vagus from the spinal accessory. If the stimulus of continued. The same to 232 occurred slight stimulus in the rabbit. corresponds to the posterior root of the spinal nerves. caused oppresand more or less complete stoppage of the sion over the prsecordia heart's action. and this he attributes to the itself pressure of exudation. opposed to this alleged influence. could be repeated. but that generally in rabbits the pulse was slower after section. if his conclusion. he found that the fact was not correctly stated. Let us now consider. in man. and see how the emotions might operate. Bell. the On only result being to induce slight movements of the larynx. Dr. as held by Sir C. the pulsations of the heart are retarded. and As ultimately are entirely arrested. that section of the vagi and conse- for assigning to the alleged fact quent paralysis cause frequency of the pulse. and the reverse current a diminution of the heart's action. Bernard. of the former quickened the heart from 190 from 30 to 42 in the frog. Moleschott sees no reason With regard an inhibitory function to the vagus. was then galvanized but at every part of its length. 233 year. it was found impossible to affect either the action of the heart or the stomach. states that his experiments lead to the conclusion that the pure vagus. although seem to be mixed up with To it. &c. show- ing that it is the vagus is not merely a reflex phenomenon. this is what would happen if the anterior roots of the spinal cord were similarly excited. Moleschott's experi- .UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. It is only some time after the operation that frequency of pulse is observed. the experiments of Professor Moleschott. with its ganglion. the other hand. he demonstrated that the direct galvanic current produces an increase. as holds good are acted As upon in the when motor nerves same way.

If we were to substitute Emotion for the stimulus applied by leschott to the nerves proceeding to the heart. which may be easily over-excited these four nerves. fair to conclude that the emotions act the heart both through the vagi and the sympathetic. an increased stimulus gradually retards the action of the heart. through either the vagi or sympathetic. produced in one of the nerves is transit is not possible to exhaust perma- but nently the other three by over-excitation of one nerve singly. The ganglia of the heart appear to act in the way of communica- ting the condition of one of the four nerves supplying the organ to the other three. not excessive in character. have a peculiar consensus. two vagi and two sympathetics. would soon kill the excited portion of the one nerve. "is animated by four very excitable nerves. In regard to emotional stimuli. now arresting to derive illustration action its upon Their modus —would seem from these and similar experiments. observes Moleschott. therefore. as stimulants which would be powerful enough to effect this. impossible to decide whether one is it seems more influenced than another. We may be allowed to surmise that the ganglia and the fourfold supply of nerves to this organ are designed to lessen " The heart. which is no doubt due . excited mildly and strongly and he concluded that these two fluence upon this viscus. and the heart's action be restored to its normal frequency and force. stand how we Mo- can well under- the former should produce the various and opposite dis- turbances of this organ. operandi — now accelerating. including spasm and paralysis. Secondly. so. First as a feeble or moderate stimulus of the vagus (whether electric or otherwise) causes a considerable so does an emotion which is rise in the pulse. while a very powerful one immediately arrests it from the fatigue as which succeeds stimulation. to the action of the ganglia of the heart. and in view of Professor Moleschott's experiments." its liability to fatal paralysis and spasm by Emotion. however. a violent may be gradually recovered Thirdly. with which we are familiar. as in the by galvanism. the fatigue from. and therefore lose their effect . it is evident that the emotions may act precisely in the same way. so that the state of irritation or over-excitement which mitted to the three others is . just emotion would act. of nerves exercise the same in- sets It appears. we can well conceive.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 234 ments demonstrated that the same phenomena occurred when case of the vagi.

at least. or Dr. lastly. 1 sions produce palpitation of the heart. Cyon and Ludwig and depressor nerves of the. depressor nerve. stances." This conclusion accords with the opinion of Kirkes and Paget. is a remarkable movements of or- or. and the blood regurgitates to the heart (vide Biennial Retrospect. S. on the contrary. that the pulsations of the organ are partially or wholly arrested. under ex- heart. N. MM. and the latter arising (in rabbits) from the Since Moleschott's experiments. 1 may thus cause death. mode in attempting to explain the injurious certain emotional states upon the of action of normal connerve is. the contraction of vessels to exert their full unop- posed force. In the " Medical Times and Gazette.heart.. of its excitability. we must." July 27. those of indicate the existence of accelerator pneumogastric and superior laryngeal nerves. that the sympathetic constitutes the channel through which the pas. 388). that the cardiac branches of the pneumogastric are one.. blood in this organ. according on the general to circum- circulation. from which the foregoing is derived. have adopted this view. able to regulate by exerting a much blood little is and reflex action its volume. and Too consequent lessened sensibility allow. though not the sole channel through which the influence of Emotion is transmitted to this organ. in the heart excites (reflexly) the dilators of the attracts the blood to the surface of the body. 1861. II. that every stroke of the heart in emotion occurs under the same influence as that which secretes bile (lv. Thus. Baly's statement that the disturbed action of the heart. gans supplied by the sympathetic nerve . is ^resume of the Pro- . fessor's conclusions. suppose that the which is constantly being exercised by this cessive Emotion. S. A provision by which the heart is prevented sending more blood to an organ already too vascular from trol emotional excitement. 1869). Carpenter already cited and it does not contradict the judgment expressed by him elsewhere. p. UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. the former emerging from the cord with the third branch of the inferior cervical ganglion. too capillaries and Bernard is stated to with this sensory to hold that the heart. during Emotion. If the inhibitory view of the pneumogastric nerve be established. so intensified by increased stimulation at its origin in the medulla oblongata. 235 upon the other three such an effect being only possible as long as the nerve acted upon retains part. the forcible ob- instance of the influence of the passions over the servation of Professor Laycock. and with that of Dr.

doubtless. regularity of the heart's beat will be increased under the former.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 236 It appears to the author. result being produced by opposite emotions. and is no sign of power. that so long as such wide differences of opinion exist among physiologists as to the functions of we cannot speak with any the nerves supplying the heart. but this explanation appears a doubt- and certainly does not help us to explain the increased beatWhen. we speak of the same ings of the heart from Joy. languidiorem" (Opera. 193). motor or. Simple acceleration of the heart's action is the most frequent and obvious result of emotional excitement. in this respect. — decreased under the latter condition. One runs thus: "Tristitia. p. and very little observation show that opposite emotions produce. we find. that the palpitation of Joy . may be alike But take moderate and continuous Joy a joyous frame of mind and compare its effects with those of a permanently fearful or sorrowful state of the feelings. It . and painful ones depress them. i. frequent circumstance. Thus Terror and Joy alike cause palpitation. however. . Terror in- duces an irritative frequency which. however. if Moleschott's views be adopted. if continued. and of the contractions of the organ . torn. It has been said that palpitation from the former is explained by supposing suffices to it to be the precursor of flight . be laid down as a general principle that pleasurable emotions increase the activity of the vital functions. the influence of these opposite emotions in causing increased fre- quency of the heart's pulsation offers no real exception. but must be content with the general conclusion that they exert this influence. directly through fibres of this nerve. the same result. et of Hoffmann's aphorisms sanguinis circulum reddit Irregular contraction of the heart from emotion. — prejudicial. cordis motum. is of that of Terror of simple irrita- may. and probably through the pneumogastric by the reflex action which it may be supposed to exert when excited centrally by certain emotional states. on closer ex- ful one. is a It arises sometimes from a particular cause. that this sameness applies to the frequency of the pulsations rather than to their character the nature of increased vital action tion. precision of the distinct modes of action by which the emotions influence this organ. amination. if sudden. and the result will undoubtedly be The real force and the in harmony with the foregoing principle. just as it is alleged to do from the state of the heart at the periphery. certainly through the acknowledged sympathetic. To this rule. from slight intermission to actual spasm. ends in cessation and Joy.

. which one of his colleagues thought it necessary instantly and flatly the admitted. His biographer. . — times during heart. — when mode his of death am is remembered.UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. " is at the mercy of any scoundrel chooses to put me in a passion. which appears to involve a more pow- Active anxiety or suspense has a special tendency to erful emotion. inadmissible under the new rule. When Let us is it clear. it seems the condition induced the heart. he exhaving been educated in the profession (a regulation pressed his apprehensions to a friend " lest some unpleasant dispute might occur. affected his he used to say. states that. lest it should happen before I set off for town this brought it on. I. when I became anxious lest she should get away before my return this likewise brought on the spasm other states when my mind is much more affected will not bring it on" (ii. and is 237 not excited by another. George's Hospital decided that no person should be admitted as a student without bringing certificates of which appeared designed to exclude Hunter's countrymen). its this results from muscular is irritability —of the organ. which. The cats tease me very much by destroying my tame pheasants. followed by death. Whether taking place in consequence of the withdrawal of an antagonistic nerve-force." " Arrived at the hospital he found the Board already assembled. and was going into the house for a gun. tion of nerve-force Be this as it may. before the meeting. if it did. . in cases may be difficult to decide. John Hunter says he was subject to "spasm of his vital parts" when anxious about any event a circumstance of interest induce it. it would certainly prove fatal to him." who Passion. . and entering the room. . " its relation. My life. of death like Hunter's. and rooting up my plants. presented the memorial of young men. that one of spasmodic contraction of the walls of refer to the record of his death and post mortem. and proceeded to urge the propriety of their being In the course of his remarks he made some observation. Mr." The nerves supplying may be so affected by emotion as tonic spasm the heart — to cause more violent contraction from occurrence in a vital part. the Governors of St. &c. Palmer. Hunter could tell an affecting story without experiencing any spasm but it acted upon his power of articulation he had to stop several have bees which I very fond of. he advocated at the Board the admission of two young men. p. partridges. or from the direct ac- upon the muscle. "At my country -box I and I was once anxious about their swarming. and his conviction that. I saw a large cat sitting at the root of a tree. as well as anxiety. 336).

and their branches. were thickened and ossified (p. The aorta and wanting pliancy. such as he had before experienced but in vain life had fled." The post mortem revealed a condition of the viscera such as might have been expected. The pericardium was unusually thickened. Hunter immediately ceased speaking. and its valves thickened tubes. ventricle were two opaque white spots The coronary loose in texture. . . the inner surface of the artery studded with opaque and elevated white spots. and all their efforts proved useless. retired from the table. severe and persistent spasm of the heart death.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 238 to contradict. Tissot asserts that dilatation of the heart and the aorta has been caused by Anger and Chagrin. paralyzed and the result only differing from that of cardiac spasm or paralysis. contents. It seems equally probable. appeared to have wasted. Morgagni. under the hope that the attack might prove to be a faintingfit. Zimso operated . and were converted into long and the mitral valves were much was somewhat dilated. The organ and becomes dilated and power- These opposite conditions are seen in the voluntary muscles. . . in the circumstance of the hand not being a vital organ. p. in one case. rigidly contracted. and the carotid arteries within the skull. and was strongly contracted. 454). and did not contain much fluid. On the left auricle and for . Robertson. It was small. one fell lifeless into of the physicians of the hospital. hurried into the adjoining room. Various attempts were made who chanced to be present. the hand being. in another. The viscera of the abdomen and head were loaded with blood. . and from like emotional causes. Pettigrew quotes from Senac's "Traits du Coeur" (torn. and he refers for proof of the former to Bonnet. upon by distress and terror. and death enUpon examination. and struggling to suppress the tumult of his passion. 132). the heart was found enlarged. ossified. and others and of the latter to Harvey. that palpitation of the heart was succeeded by oppressed breathing and syncope. with a deep groan. —the muscular arteries tissue pale. the case of " a person who being witness to a dreadful shipwreck. in such fatal cases as the foregoing. he which he had scarcely reached when. inducing a very different condition of the ceases to contract is on the other hand. We have said that it is highly probable that. was less. with difficulty cut across. the arms of Dr. upwards of an hour to restore animation. The heart was found to be extensively diseased. that the same upon its muscular tissue of the heart. or. fatal effect may the cause of follow from emotional excitement. . ii." sued.

428 in 1870. that they are sudden and in- results are Fear heart is and tense.553 to . The number of deaths from heart-disease. but where it is easy to understand nothing more serious already quite enough work tumultuous passion. on the Heart." when the Gy-ei will have fully engaged in the arena of public life. and that almost exclusively in males. in the days of "The Coming Race. or their similars. 1869).UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. sorrow. with case upon case in which the sufferer has been I have met able. Quain's recent tions.709. for 1000 of population living. at the College From Dr. to register the precise moment when the injury causing it was inflicted " (xxi. Speaking of intermittent pulse. age has risen from . appears to have as decided an influence as Fear . Sudden Joy. is rather more than doubtful. March 23d. too. Bichat cites Desault's statement that diseases of the heart and aortic aneurisms are multiplied in revolutions.. Between 20 and 45 years of cause in males under 25 years of age. We find here. It is not surprising that in the present day. that similar — produced by very opposite forms of emotion Joy and both however agreeing in this. diseased and has to any strong or as in other instances. it succumbs — is a healthy. taken place wholly in connection with the working years of active There is no change in the number of deaths from this social life. Oct. Richardson observes. they will enjoy the same comparative immunity. from his own perception of the intermittency. increased in was . The disturbance of the heart's action indicated by syncope common phenomenon it is as the sequence of emotional excitement.085 This increase it must be observed. to 12. " I have never met with a case in which the disorder was not sequential to some anxiety. shock. are so vastly intensified. that show the increase of cardiac affecLumleian Lectures. the total of deaths of males at all ages from heart-disease has number from 5746 in 1851. 239 mermann. to perform. and it has risen to 1. of Physicians. it for there is scarcely any increase in the percentage of females dying from heart-disease during the twenty-five years of life from 21 to 45" (xxxii. Dr. Whether twenty years hence. in proportion to the evils which they produce. fear.755 between the years 1851 and 1855. how in cases where the may occur. we learn that " during the last twenty there should be strong evidence to years. &c. when the worry of life and strain on the feelings in all ways. has from 1866 to 1870. indeed. 1872).

was no doubt of a mixed character. p." In the foregoing case it would seem as if the mind.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 240 or Grief. screwed up (so to speak) to the highest pitch of suspense. it is who do the right thing So familiar a fact may seem scarcely to deserve an illustration. the former Yet faint away. were so acute. That intense by the case of Lu- pleasurable emotion relaxes the system and favors pleasure may induce a fainting fit illustrated is cretia Davidson. It might hardly have been supposed that if we take two persons and subject one to the operation of a depressing. and syncope averted. presented itself. so delicious were the sensations produced" (lxxviii. cause of the heart's temporary failure. the system yields it operates. but one to receive a pardon. Jan. either when plate subject calculated to occupy of present or future Whereas. saw her door open. 1855. and her perceptions of beauty so when listening to some of her favorYet notwithstanding this serious impression. the other to that of exciting emotion. while the one to be shot re- Sir Philip Francis referring to an important crisis my observes. the event being decided by their throwing dice. when no tion. to a reaction. once clear ruin was in suspense. and a servant of the house come in with a pistol in . was the proximate exquisite. however. as to cause her to faint ite melodies from Moore. I had felt in- mind than now when it was determined. The influence here. the precocious American poetess who died "Her susceptibilities set. mind was aroused to contem- a certain fate was impending. both emotional and sensational the former element. having been resolution. We Fear prevents often see that the above-mentioned stimulus of fainting for just so long as drawn. " While finitely greater distress Extremities. reduce a man to take his of and the very act of resolving gives vigor to the mind. . the one procuring a reprieve mained calm. the it. and unavoidable. but the following related by ("Posthumous Papers") omit it: "A is so much with- Persons perform deeds of heroism in the immediate presence of danger. It may perhaps be said that the pun- gency of some painful emotions really prevents fainting. Egliuton informed John Hunter that when two soldiers were con- demned was to be shot. at once collapsed. 17. and that danger is over — swoon away. many in may remain calm and instances such is the latter Lord the actual result. 219). in his life who proved successful —thus — generally fainted. nevertheless. or rivet the atten- it interest. after the directly to the purpose that Hunter we cannot lady sitting up after every one was gone to bed. while a it. she would beg to have them repeated.

UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES.

241

She immediately blew out the candle, pushed the bed
from the wall, and escaped between them. The servant in the dark
pushed down the table she had been sitting by. This discomposed
him; she came out of her hiding-place, got out at the door, and had

his hand.

She awoke the house, and as soon
it.
was secure, she fainted, and none knew
what was the matter till she came to herself. The man was secured,
and it was found that he was out of his senses" (p. 265).
Tissot quotes from Water (" Miscellaneous Natural Curiosities,"
pp. 162-298) the case of a military man, who being about to possess

the presence of

mind

to lock

as she found assistance or

the object of his desire, was so overjoyed that he suddenly expired.

A

post-mortem examination was made, and the pericardium was
found to be distended with blood, although no rupture of the heart
could be discovered.

Joy caused actual death, according to Hume, at the restoration of
Charles II.
Dr. Rush says there was a time when he doubted the
truth of this assertion, "but," he adds,
lieve

it,

political

"I am now disposed

to be-

from having heard of a similar effect from an agreeable
The
event, in the course of the American Revolution.

doorkeeper of Congress, an aged man, died suddenly, immediately
after hearing of the capture of

was universally ascribed

Lord Cornwallis's army.

to a violent

emotion of

His death

political joy.

This

species of joy appears to be one of the strongest emotions that can

agitate the

following,

human mind"

it is

(lxi, p. 132).
In this case and in the
more than probable that death was the result of car-

and not cerebral mischief:
curious and sombre incident is reported from the gamingA middle-aged man
table of KSthen, in the Principality of Anhalt.
After a run of great luck,
entered the room, and sat down to play.
equal
his winnings had augmented to the sum of a thousand ducats
which the croupier pushed
to nearly five hundred pounds sterling
over to him.
The fortunate gambler did not appear very anxious
to have the gold or notes, and made no response when he was asked
if he wished to continue playing.
One of the servants of the establishment touched him upon the shoulder to draw attention to the
unheeded winnings, and to the croupier's question, but the man remained strangely immovable; and when they came to look closer,
Rien
they found that he was dead. He had 'passed' like the red
diac

"A

!

ne va plus had proved
the ball.

Was

it

his

true of himself, as well as of the last roll

good luck that had been too much
16

for

of

him ?

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS

242

A

thousand ducats

a pretty sum, the thought of which varies,

is

doubtless, in proportion to the state of the pocket

hardly adequate to

kill

man under any

a

events the gambler was dead

of

life

stop in

—some sudden

—but

it

circumstances.

seems

At

all

'click' in the mechanism,

had spoiled the works and made the subtle pendulum of being
its mid-swing.
Even such a grim comment upon the wor-

ship of

Mammon

did not take away his presence of mind from the

The croupier no sooner perceived that
Death had backed 'zero/ and won, than he raked the dead man's
gold and billets back into the bank, declaring that a corpse could
have no engagement or rights.. The heirs of the defunct gamester
chief priest of the temple.

are not satisfied with this axiom,

the recovery of the sum."

and have commenced an action

March 7th,
follows: "The

(Daily Telegraph,

Sweetser reports a case of Pelletan's as
this record

was an Irishman,

passions.

Having experienced during

set.

36,

for

1870.)
subject of

and of the most ungovernable
the revolutionary struggles

various misfortunes and sufferings, he at length, on the affairs of

France assuming a more favorable aspect, obtained a pension of
12,000 francs, but which was immediately taken from him on the

whom it had been procured. This last miswould seem, completely overthrew him. 'He has told
me a hundred times,' says Pelletan, that on hearing the news of his
His respiloss he immediately felt a dreadful weight in his chest.
ration became fatiguing, and. the palpitation of the heart assumed an
irregularity which had no' interruption during the two years and a

death of the patron by
fortune,

it

'

half that he survived his misfortune.'

"On

inspecting the body,. the heart was found colorless and

whole substance in a remarkable

state of flaccidity,

tinguished narrator never before witnessed.
ties fell

together,

The

its

such as the dis-

parietes of the cavi-

and the flesh of this organ might be compared to

the pale and shrunken muscles of an old

woman.

There was an

as-

tonishing contrast between the flesh of the heart and that of the other

muscles of the body.

M.

Pelletan did not hesitate to believe that

the heart, in consequence of the violent mental shock, was struck

with a sort of paralysis, and that death ultimately took place from
the complete palsy of the organ."

In death from sudden emotion "an excitation

is

produced," says

Brown-Sequard, "on

the roots of the par vagum, which appear to

have their true origin

in the

scriptorius,

and

neighborhood of the seat of the calamus

in consequence the bloodvessels of the heart contract

UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES.

243

and expel the blood they contained, and with it the natural excitant
which causes the movements of the heart. So that a complete syn-

He

cope and death take place."

also speaks of death

lungs from morbid action on the branches of the par

organs

(lix, p.

Dr. Carpenter explains the

may

change

:

operate (by

mode

in which emotional shock destroys
" Just as electricity developed by chem-

correlation with chemical affinity) in

its

may

producing other chemical changes elsewhere, so

which has

of cell-formation in other parts, and thus influence
festations of the various tissues,

upon the

all

the vital mani-

whatever may be their own individual

After applying this law to the influence of mental states

and the composition of the

properties of the various tissues

secretions,

nerve-force,

origin in cell-formation, excite or modify the process

its

characters."

in these

226).

the heart's action as follows
ical

through the

vagum

he proceeds: "Further,

it

not only appears that a simple

withdrawal or disturbance of the nervous force supplied to particular
organs, occasions a retardation or perversion of their vital operations,

but there also seems evidence that an influence of an opposite kind

may

be transmitted through the nervous system which

and

directly antagonistic to the exercise of the vital powers of the

several tissues.

Such, at

mode of accounting

least,

positively

appears to be the only legitimate

for the extraordinary effect of

cal or mental, in at once

is

"a shock," physi-

and completely destroying the

contractility

of the heart, and in bringing to a stand the vital operations of other

If the nervous force be regarded as a polar

parts.

in

its

mode

of transmission to electricity,

it is

stand that the reversal of the usual direction of

duce the

effects in

that the direct

and

question; especially

In regard

character,

it

analogous

when

its

it

is

action

may

pro-

borne in mind

shown by Prof. Matupon the nervous excitability " (viii,

inverse electric currents (as

teuci) exert opposite influences
p. 346).

force,

not difficult to under-

to the idea that the

certainly

is

nervous force

is

polar in

in accordance with the character of the trans-

mission of emotional influences ; this transmission being the result of
" a molecular change," taking place instantaneously along the nerves,
in consequence of " a disturbance in the polar arrangement of
ticles, at

its

par-

one extremity, which causes a similar disturbance to mani-

fest itself at

the other.

ab

ab

Thus
ab

if

ah

ab

ab

ah

ah

represent the arrangement of the particles in the condition of equi-

,
:

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS

244

librium or quiescence, and this condition be disturbed at one ex-

by the operation of a new

tremity,
a,

a

this

new arrangement will
may be represented by
a

ba

ba

attraction

upon the

first particle

instantaneously take place throughout

ba

ba

ba

ba

ba

b

which shows 6 in a free state at the opposite end, ready to exert its
influence upon everything submitted to it." (Op. cit., p. 354, and

Todd and Bowman's "Physiological Anatomy,"

We have

outlet for emotional excitement.

organs, as
to

vol. 1, p. 240.)

spoken of the influence of the lachrymal secretion as an

is

When

this is arrested the bodily

well known, suffer, and the heart appears to be the

receive the shock

;

cases of death are

first

on record which appear

to

be referable to this cause.

In

cases of exclusively cardiac paralysis the balance, as Dr.

ardson would put

it,

between the heart and lungs

and we may have the

circulating side,

illustration

is

Rich-

broken on the

he adduces, that

of cardiac apncea, in which this disturbance of the normal equilibrium
is

The

exhibited.

respiratory apparatus intact and in full play, the

and the tissue is more or
sudden death from this affection," he

patient breathes into lungs almost ansemic,
less injured.

observes,
filtrated

"In one

"I found

case of

the bloodless lungs as white as milk,

with air as to distend the chest-walls, and

emptied of

air

by the

firmest pressure of the

and so

hand"

(xlv,

in-

being

to resist

Feb.

2,

1867).

In some

cases of death

from emotional excitement, it
been the first organ to

to be certain that the heart has

may be deemed

impossible
;

but

it

highly probable in the following instances.

Several years ago a

man named

witnessing the death of a neighbor.

who

is

suffer

Filbey died at Twickenham after
I

am indebted to Dr. M. Ward,

attended him, for the following particulars of this case, which,

accompaniments (four deaths in all), was rather tragical.
called in on February 17th, 1870, to a Miss
He found she had been suffering for
residing next door to Filbey.
She
several days from fever, but had been out up to the day before.

with

its

Dr.

H—

Ward was

had only returned, a few days, from attending the funeral of a sister
who had died of typhus. The symptoms became rapidly worse,
and she died the same night. Filbey himself, who was a butcher,
came for Dr. Ward shortly before her death. During the night
who
(3 o'clock) the doctor was called up to see a sister of Miss

H—

,

;

UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES.

245

was suffering from hysteria. Dr. Ward saw Filbey at the house he
appeared to have been drinking somewhat, but talked rationally,
and made the remark, " I suppose it is only what we must expect
from the shock she has received." Mrs. Filbey sat up with the patient, and Filbey himself went backwards and forwards between this
house and his own, during the night. He appeared quite well,
though depressed, and remarked, " I have never seen any one dead
;

and hope I never shall again." Between 6 and 7, his wife came
and found him dozing in his arm-chair by the fire he conversed
with her and she asked him to have some tea, but he seemed more
inclined to sleep, and she left him and went to bed herself;
his
daughter, however, an intelligent child of eight, remaining with him
before,

in

;

About 7.30 a.m. she found her father was slipping
and called the cow-man to lift him up, who came
and then left. An hour after, Dr. Ward was sent for

in the room.

down

in the chair,

and did so,
and found Filbey quite dead, sitting in an arm-chair with his feet
on another. His face was calm and he looked asleep the extremities were cold, but not rigid.
The daughter had been in the room
the whole time and had not observed any change.
Dr. Ward, assisted by two other medical men, made a careful post-mortem examination thirty hours after death, and could find nothing whatever to account for death. He says he never examined a more healthy body.
Both ventricles of the heart contained a little fluid blood, the heart
itself being normal in size and very firm in structure
its structure
was not examined microscopically. The brain and cord were examined and found quite healthy, without appearing drained of blood
they were not at all congested.
The stomach, which contained a
little brandy and water, was healthy, as were all the other organs
" in fact," adds Dr. Ward, " we could not decide from what the man
had died, but I gave it as my opinion that he had died from a sort
;

;

of gradual syncope, produced by the fright, aided by the sitting posture.

I certainly never met with a similar case, though I have often

noticed the susceptibility of butchers to the sight of
or on the occasion of any sudden illness."

He

human

blood,

appears to have been

much was greatly exand even dangerous. He had suffered from idiopathic tetanus
years before, since which he had enjoyed good health.
To wind up

a tolerably steady man, but when he took too
cited

this tragedy, at the

time of Filbey's death, his wife was expecting

month, and after apparently recovering well
from the shock, commenced flooding in about a fortnight, and died
to be confined in about a

:

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS

246

undelivered on the day three weeks after her husband's death
case of typhus fever being the

first

;

a

of this series of unhappy events.

The "Medical Times and Gazette/' of July 28th, 1866, under
the head of "Death from fear of an Operation," reports a case of
death from apprehension

;

the

more remarkable because the

sufferer

appeared to be in nowise a nervous person

"A distinguished veterinary surgeon, about 60 years of age, of
good constitution, and possessed of great moral force, had suffered
for a considerable period from multiple stricture of the urethra and
After the urine had become purulent
a highly irritable bladder.
and ammoniacal, the presence of four calculi was ascertained. In
the hopes of being able to perform lithotrity, M. Cazenave persevered

an endeavor to relieve this painfully spasmodic condition of the urethra. These attempts were most courageously borne by the patient, but he was excessively disappointed
when informed that lithotrity, which he was very desirous of undergoing, was out of the question, and that some form of lithotomy was
Of this he was known to
the only operation that was eligible.
entertain a great dread, but, nevertheless, at once gave his consent
for a considerable time in

to

its

performance, retaining to

appearance his habitual calmness.

all

patient having been placed and held in position

The

M. Cazenave was on
when the patient, who had

ants,

by the

assist-

the point of introducing the catheter,
exhibited entire calmness and serenity

during the preparations, was observed to become pale and
in the course of ten minutes, in spite of all that

faint, and
was done, he died."

Dr. Currie, of Edinburgh, engaged to perform paracentesis ab-

dominis in the case of a
the

room the

We are
question

is

laboring under ascites.

patient fainted.

found she was dying.
(lxi, II, p.

woman

On

On

entering

attempting to restore her, he

"She died of a sudden paroxysm of fear"

114).

not aware that in any

work on Forensic Medicine,

discussed whether death can arise from Chagrin.

it is

one of practical importance

case,

which appeared at the time

di Torino," Jan. 27, 1868,

the

That

may
it

be seen from the following
occurred in the " Gazetta Med.

and the "Medical Times and Gazette,"

Feb. 22.

A station-master

of one of the Italian railways, 55 years of age,

was awakened one morning with the news that
had been robbed. He felt his responsibility so acutely
that he immediately became ill, and died within twenty-four hours,
and

in robust health,

his station

UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES.

247

the assurances of his superiors and the encouragement of his rela-

all

failing to reassure him.
There was utter prostration, spasmodic action of the stomach, with obstinate vomiting, hollow voice,
and failing pulse; consciousness continuing to the last.

tives

The railway

administration, in a circular to

its

employees, narrated

and oifered its homage to the honorable susceptibility
manifested by the deceased.
It was also determined that his widow
was entitled to a pension, her husband having met with his death as
an immediate consequence of his service. The railway being in the
hands of the Government, the court whose duty it was to carry out
the

facts,

this decision

demurred, and ordered that the widow should only be

paid an idemnity of 1944

lire (£80).

She appealed against

this as

an unjust judgment, and the case was referred to Signor Laura, Professor of

Legal Medicine in the Turin University,

This he does at some length, but
clusions

we can only

to report

upon.

present his chief con-

:

That sudden mental emotion may induce death within a brief
space of time, or even immediately, and even in persons in robust
1.

health,
2.

is

a fact freely admitted in science.

The

phenomena induced by such moral cause, indiand are generally of

physical

cate a deep perturbation of the nervous system,

a dynamic character.
3.

The

intimate connection of the mental emotion and the fatal

shown by the facts, that the evening before,
the patient was perfectly well, and when awoke from a tranquil
sleep by the dreadful news, he immediately became ill.
JSTo other
possible cause could be assigned for the train of symptoms that followed, as the action of his heart prior to this illness was known to
result, in this case, is

have been healthy.

The

is no
by the mental emotion. In
analogous cases, such as death from lightning or from poison, death,
Mental emousually sudden, may be delayed in some individuals.
tions may not always operate with the same force, and may meet
with a varying amount of resistance, and there are also various conditions operating, which the present state of science does not enable
It is very possible that had the news
us to appreciate correctly.
been brought to the patient during the time when his mind was
occupied with his duties, in place of when just waking from sleep,
his powers of resistance would have been greater.

4.

fact of

proof that

it

death being delayed for twenty-four hours

was not caused

solely

"

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS

2-18

Professor Laura's conclusion therefore was, that the

man had

un-

doubtedly died solely from mental emotion, induced by his great
anxiety for the safety of the property, no preceding or accompany-

The

ing cause of death being present.

court of appeal agreed in

which was also approved by the faculty of Bologna,
pension was decreed to the widow as if her husband had been

this opinion,

and

the

killed while

performing services for

Bloodvessels.

company.

the

Passing from the heart to the muscles by which the

supply of blood to the body

regulated,

is

we

find

them

to be strik-

ingly influenced by emotional states.

Fletcher (Ixxiv, p. 256) records a case of " bellows-sound of the
arteries from irritable brain," in which, " on the application of an

uncommonly

mental

severe

irritant,

the stream of blood passed

The sound,
loudly, like a rushing torrent, through the vessels."
"
then in
gentle
stream,
like
a
softly
sometimes
floated
however,
bounds or

jets

synchronous with the action of the pulse, over the

from the abdominal aorta to the arch in the
The patient was a lady of forty-six.
chest and both subclavians."

cavities of the trunk,

The

ailments of this person

originally a spoiled child

—appear

to

She made an unhappy marriage. " Disappointment fell heavily. Every feeling was certainly not now indulged perhaps few, or probably she expected too much. Something, too, might be said concerning a certain green-eyed monster
and his fatal and malignant sway in married life." She eventually
became insane. Mr. Fletcher refers the sound to a " strictured
condition of the vessels, but it is more likely to have arisen from
have been misunderstood.

;

the state of the blood, or from a relaxed condition of the vessels.
" Arterial relaxation with murmur," observes Dr. B. W. Richardson,

"

is

the result of injury involving the emotional or organic nervous

centres.

I have seen

it

follow a direct physical injury, and I have

It is a common result
seen it follow a mental shock as distinctly.
changes of vascular
sudden
of intense grief, and is characterized by
tension, coldness, chills, frequent perspirations, irregular actions of

But the most

the bowels, and, often diuresis.

of

all is

[this

the arterial

was so

in

murmur.

Mr. Fletcher's

aneurismal tumor.

It

is

This
case],

is

distressing

usually heard

and

is

symptom

by the

patient

sometimes mistaken for

produced at those parts of the arterial tract
rigid canal, as through the abdomi-

where an artery runs through a

nal opening of the diaphragm, or the carotid canal in the base of
the skull.

In rigid canals, the

arteries

being relaxed, the sides of

:

UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES.

249

the vessels press, with each impulse of the heart, on the surrounding

and murmur is painfully
In these cases the symptoms are often develaudible to the patient.
oped in the most sudden manner, and recovery, again, is often as
Thus, there

resisting wall.

is

vibration,

equally sudden" (xxi, Oct., 1869).

Mr. Fletcher gives another
ing

is

A

interesting case, of

which the follow-

a condensed report

lady,

when young, experienced an extraordinary degree of fright

from a fall from her horse. It was a fortnight before the nervous
system at all recovered from the shock. There is no doubt, however,
that subsequent moral causes had a share in the full development of

The anomalous sounds were preceded and accompanied by

the case.

a sensation in the lower part of the bowels, which resembled the
crawling of worms. The sound consisted of a musical bellows-sound
from the descending aorta, which the patient not unaptly called "the
chimes." The sound was composed of an irregular succession of

musical tones, just as the varying breeze gives melody to the .iEolian

harp

;

or

it

resembled the sighing of the wind through a chink in a

door, or notes

drawn
away

at

random

across the string of a violin.

It

and be no more heard until some
causes of mental agitation or sudden motion of the body would reproduce it. About the same period was occasionally heard a musical
sound proceeding from the left carotid in the shape of an octave, run-

would then

die

into silence,

ning regularly upwards.
distinctly hear

The

it

(op.

cit.,

Standers by without a stethoscope could
p. 323).

attention directed, during the last few years, to the muscular

and to the vaso-motor nerves, has thrown
upon the long-observed fact of the influence of Emotion
upon the vessels. The pallor induced by Fear, the crimson blush of
shame (" O Shame where is thy blush ?") are psycho-physical phenomena universally recognized, and indicate the remarkable local
vascular changes caused by various feelings of the mind, independently of the general disturbance of the circulation which emotional
excitement may produce, by acting, as already described, upon the
heart itself.
The influence of Emotion on erectile tissues belongs to
the same class in fact, the increased action of the heart and rapidity

tissues of the bloodvessels

great light

!

;

of the general circulation
onistic to local

may

hyperemia.

in this instance

prove actually antag-

CI. Bernard's demonstration of

two

distinct circulations

—the cardiac and the capillary —the

directly controlled

by the nervous system and acting " separately

latter

being

finds. have sackcloth and Genius and Inspiration in immortal beams. while others are morbidly affected or exhibit cer- phenomena. Opposite emotions. but and never no stronger expression than "I should blush to do will." There Hatred contracts looks earthly. contractors of the minute vessels or simply permit their action by suspending the antagonizing cerebral influence. . its of . in Such cases must not. too. the In our own language there man who never blushed in his charged with a shameful it. that clothes itself in black. chiefly when sudden. as it is seen representations of and the. it follows . there Anger there . It helps how some parts of the system may remain in their us to understand ordinary condition. their dresses there great passion did bewray. own drawer its the Love puts on its celestial rosy red. when for the denial of it. no corresponding term. whether with or without extravasation of blood. be confounded with those which violent contraction of the voluntary muscles occasions in- jury to the vessels imbedded in their tissue. forms one of the prominent signs of inflammation. And chaunge Wilkinson skin of the which is Shame " There proper hue it is ." is applicable here." Increased vascularity under the influence of Emotion. and consequent effusion of blood. there Jealousy picks from green hew (xlix. either stimulate the . encinctured ness of the dead . stand forth as present Spirits In a word. the compass of human na- in the supremacy of light. felt. 321). according to the same theory." Language derives several figurative expressions from this source. lovely Shame blushes and mean its wicked white bodice of constant and Despair in the gray- its there Hypocrisy plunders the rest. of course.. INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 250 upon each individual spot of the body. his visage waxed pale. there with the unsought ancient halo. p. says of face. and takes all by turns Sorrow and Penitence. As vascularity. is all to be referred to the inexhaustible skin. "Thus as he spake. act. frequently causes extravasation or rupture of the small bloodvessels. is life. Blushing is usually referred to as a example of the momentary paralysis or suspension of that vaso-motor nerve influence which induces the ordinary contraction tain physiological typical of the capillaries such suspension of the contracting power by an emotion being followed by congestion of the vessels of the face. in his usual pictorial style. of which the German word for blushing schamrothe is a striking — — example. ture.

. on the authority of Hoffmann. that the illustrations given. own system One day she was walking an iron 1 give the following example. as if it had been painted with red-currant juice. coming out through She saw that he let go the gate after opening it. 164). and was terribly frightened. will more or merge less 251 into examples of an inflammatory condition of the part. and in taking off my stocking I found a eircle round the ankle." she says. p." 2d edit. See also " Manual of Psychological Medicine. the case of it none the Although the emoless acted upon her past a public institution. and close upon him. all. 1865. for such intense pain came on in the ankle." A very interesting example of a local affection. in any case. A man believed that he saw and was seized by a spectre. on the outer part. inflamed. remains. that I could only put I am ness. In tenderness. "by word or act to be quick happen. It is not stated distinctly whether he fancied the spectre him by the > If such was the case. that locality imaged in the mind. in that known to myself. caused by an excited imagination. fright produced inflammation and suppuration of one of the feet (xxxv.. for its object another person. the influence of mental states upon the bloodvessels is exhibited. and. attended by swelling. I shall first a highly intelligent lady well tion had whom a child. and afterwards suppurated. Sept.: UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. He became also convulsed and delirious. p. The — — walk home a distance of about a quarter of a mile was very laborious. corre- sponding to the one which I thought the boy would have injured. the The fact. in fact. 174. and concluded that it would gate. The same authority records the case of a young man who was thrown into a passion. this did not "It was impossible. and corresponded to. I found I could not move. and I was a prisoner to my bed for many days. and heat. and observed she was particularly interested. . to meet the supposed emergency . with a large By morning the whole foot was spot of the same. however. the narrative would derive additional interest from the circumstance that the site of the bodily affection was determined by. however. upon which his left seized 1 affected foot. sure I my hand on it extreme painful- to lessen its did not move so as to strain or sprain it. In illustration of the influence of Fear or apprehension upon the vascular system. seemed likely to it do so with such force enough as to crush his ankle . One of his feet immediately became red and swollen. is reported by Tissot.

scarified the part. aged 24 years. The wound healed in a short time. . 1835. is A man. and mouth became suddenly enormously swollen. Fear during sleep is stated to have caused local inflammation cor- responding with the image present in the mind in a dream. and then he found that there was on his chest (dans le meme endroit) a round mark. p. having the appearance of a bruise. as the organ affected was the same as the one for the apprehension How for which. healthy and robust. physical effects corresponding in their locality to those anticipated in another person In the "Medical and Surgical Journal. the nervous horror was experienced. Had there been anything incredible in the dream acting as a cause. or some other poisonous insect. in the following instance. and others equally well authenticated. The knee was similarly also affected afterwards. of a lady. Next day there was so much swelling. there was no possibility of having occurred. The vivid shock awoke him. tome vi." by Planque. 103. a corded "as having happened in France. we might have thought it possible that the man had unawares received a blow. in the region of the bruise and that it had suggested the dream. who. the previous day." May. which is represented to have had an appearance similar to that produced by the sting of a wasp. which This case is curious. but looking at the previous one of the spectre. and itself. and relieved it. in the child. Its admission as evidence must then be determined by the following case saw : in a the authenticity of other examples. A powerful mental impression produced. thirty years of age. fearing a slough. of course. 51). Without more definite information it would not be safe to build a theory upon this case. Madame G is re- Diez. whether occurring is awake when a person or during sleep. nature acted in this case it is. that a surgeon was requested to see it. dream a Pole with a stone in his hand. impossible to suppose" (xli. whose lips who is designated as case M. there appears no reason to doubt that the dream and the inflammatory action of the skin stood in the relation of cause and effect. in the practice of a French surgeon. which he threw at his breast. In the " Bibliotheque choisie de Medecine. p. &c.: INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 252 ankle became swollen and painful. . from having seen a child of a few years old pass the sharp blade of a knife between intumescence it its lips without even cutting required the usual applications to which subdue.

almost incredible at first sight thing. indicated by some external signs more or less marked according to the age. no direction of the thoughts at the though determined by the spot. we may class of augment the the thoughts are directed . Although repeating what has already been said in the chapter on the influence of the Intellect upon the involuntary muscles. — health. and naturally to the corresponding one. but this local afflux of blood. less striking in their results. witnessed the lancing of and not only did she immediately experience that region. must depend upon the force of the impulse conveyed from the and the sensibility of the individual's system. Thus. seem an extraordinary. brain. my thought and by an inevitable association of ideas. 154). in this case. would have . that the action of the emotions should produce inflammation in any clearly circumscribed facts of the same kind. or experience a sensation of dis- Yet so simple a phenomenon involves the same principle as the other more striking fact. or cause intense pain. it is also directed to my own limb. (lx. Thus. it ous facts which appear at does. that spot being one would regard dangerous position limb should —the . if I see an injury done to the limb of another. for instance. hardly sufficed to do pain in cided swelling It A young woman so. p. .cir- may cumstance of thinking of any part of the body. the localization of thought or emotion in the body. — decided as to leave its mark upon the tissues. Hence some effect is almost sure to follow whether slight. mental excitement from a slight cause produced signs of local vascular disturbance probably mere Attention. in fact. are familiar to all. or to require more complete explanation. or comfort or actual pain. occur in the locality to which exciting cause. Avithout an emotional state being aroused. Simple as this law is. tends to vation. first embrace and explain numer- sight inexplicable. observe that the fundamental principle nomena now under upon which the consideration depends is this : that the phe- mere . on the far-reaching law of self-preservation. or both.UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. remarkable that on picturing oneself in a as it moment but foot. caught in a mantrap —the start spasmodically. constitution. or so is turned to it. sex. whatever be the and innerMotion or sensation. but this was followed by inflammation and a de- an abscess in the may axilla. effect is greatly intensified if ac- companied by a powerful emotion. based. 253 In a case recorded by Lauzanus.

which we instinctively we observe a man receive an injury to any part of the body. his brain protruded greatly. not plunge a dagger in may his. it may be inferred from the relation existing between the vivid image in the mind of a certain person's limb. In this connection happens that. or sympathy. it is also curious to observe how constantly it without the occurrence of any accident calculated to direct the attention strongly to a particular limb of another person. these external move- ments constitute an independent series of facts. or anger. that a like relation may exist between the former factor and internal movements. — Rupture of Vessels of Brain. If. the explanation we seek to maintain. there is every reason be hidden movements in the muscular coat less definite. 366). that we can have little difficulty in inferring changes from the same cause in those parts which cannot be seen. Thus.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 254 The evidence which can be adduced to establish a concurrent af- between the same limb or region of our own body as that of another person upon which our imagination is riveted. there change in the inner man. fear. A. or imagi- power which it exercises is so obvious body which can be seen. we instantly apply our own hand to the corresponding It may be said this is the consequence of a part of our own body. not hidden from the view. "When robust young man lost a considerable portion of his skull.'s hand is instinctively placed on the nation. If A. 46. to believe that there of the vessels. arms akimbo. a proof of the position on the other hand. but if so. every-day if there facts But the bearing of upon the subject under consideration be so marked a change in the outer another person's condition. excited by pain. perform. if sensation of a painful kind experienced Possibly. the attitude of the person we are conversing with. and his corresponding member. B. is witnessed in cases in which the surface of the brain is exposed by accident. and resulting from a common law. scratches himself. we assume places his hence the importance of good example. the in those parts of the breast when he sees B. is by ourselves in the itself part. automatically does the same. so as . A. or will. in the brain and lungs in connec- The occurrence of hemorrhage tion with emotional excitement. The stimulating influence of Emotion on the cerebral vessels. short of rupture. may here be briefly referred to. what you Call is it man no reason to is these simply this: corresponding with doubt an analogous imitation. p. One is re- A corded in the " Medico-Chirurgical Review" (No. Hence the contagion of bad habits. follows his example. B. is confirmed fection by the movements.

of which he died in about twenty -four hours. complained of her hand feeling numb. 264. Dr. side. between corpus striatum and optic thalamus. went up threw herself upon the bed. 1870. and on removing the brain.UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. was taken at once with an apoplectic stroke. and that an unusually powerful heart. and became about 7 p. am indebted to had previously threatened violence to some woman This woman." easy to understand an apoplectic sequence.m. the cellar. suddenly acting upon weakened cerebral arteries. which had of both lateral also burst through Nothing apparently amiss with the medulla. went across the road to lived. ing apoplexy.. but suppose such must have been the case. set. in accordance with the arterial pulsations. when it was before the Committee of the Society of Arts and Sciences." ("Posthumous Papers.m. Bell. 56. On after open- ing the head. make threw a stone against nimbly came up from inquiry. — "Very fat. which were necessarily applied loosely." In such a "Blood and revenge it is state. seven hours Autopsy.. She had been remarkably healthy. p. The left ventricle of the heart was considerably hypertrophied and contracted no disease of valves or aorta did not notice any disease of the vessels of the brain. there were several ounces of bloody serum about the medulla oblongata. the attack. . and who. the case of "the person who invented or applied the steam-engine to the sailing of ships. a from Fright or Anger oc- case of apoplexy curred at Bradford. Bell saw her at 9 p. seen a large pitchy black clot equal to size of opening into left lateral ventricle. bursting through septum lucidum into right ventricle and filling it with bloody serum. i. own stairs. the superficial vessels were found very full of black blood. The descending cornua ventricles were filled with bloody serum." vol.m. This occurred insensible. and it throbbed tumultuously. . when he found the right but not the face paralyzed. The patient occasionally opened Died about 2 a. Nothing unusual was observed about her immediately before she ran up stairs. caused their rupture. crossed to her house again." John Hunter adduces as an instance of "mental emotion" inducthe base of the brain. for the particulars of which I A man Dr. who persons in the house where a one of the windows. are when hammering in my head. On fist slicing. 18 hours after death. In March.) . 255 sometimes to disturb the dressings. her eyes and looked about. there was in left middle lobe.

the wife of an overlooker. " I should have hesitated in rehad I not found the observation supported by a fact of the same kind and produced by a nearly similar cause. or war with all its terrible and distressing consequences was to The apoplectic fit which deprived the world of the talents and virtues of Peyton Randolph. so that the strongest heart could scarcely bear the thoughts of anxiety it. a civil take place. Rush. Baglivi. and perhaps some part of this epidemic illness was owing to the universal grief and domestic care occasioned by all Europe being engaged in All commerce was disturbed. After a very wet season in the winter of 1694-5. appeared to be occasioned in part by the pressure of the uncertainty of those great events upon his mind. uncommon Every countenance wore the marks of painful solicitude for the event of a petition to the throne of Britain." states that more instances of apoplexy occurred in the city of Philadelphia in the winter of 1774-5 than had been He says. he informs us that apoplexies displayed their rage. certificate after clasping and expired twelve hours the case was returned as It recalls the observation of Haller that "excessive and sudden joy often kills by increasing the motion of the blood. 131). her child in her arms. Alarming reports concerning the accident had reached the mother as she was waiting at the station for her daughter. was more than The mother her physical organization could bear. • . "apoplexy. in 1775. and all the avenues of peace a war. aged It appears that the daughter of the deceased was travelling by railway when a collision occurred. 43. which was to determine whether reconciliation. who soon arrived unhurt. supervening on a state of mental anxiety.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 256 In the "Lancet" of Nov. known in previous years. 1867. Professor of Physic and Anatomy at Pome." fell down In the medical in a fit. several others might be added who were affected by the apoplexy in the same memorable year" (lxi. occurs a good example of the Joy succeeding Anxiety in inducing death. which caused injury to a large number of passengers." Dr. cording this fact. ' blocked up. in the Appendix to the practical works of Dr. To the name of this illustrious patriot. Lancashire. and exciting a true apoplexy. subject was a female. I. in his essay " On the Influence of the Revolution upon the Human Body. p. 16. The trans- port of joy. while he filled the chair of Qongress. afterwards.' among The winter of 1774-5 was a period of the citizens of America. recorded by influence of The the registrar of Preston.

— UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. but for face. the fingers were 17 made quite bloody." "a broken heart?" Vessels. her large jugulars were distended. nose. her face was injected. he was astonished to see fresh ones On up drops in their This colored perspiration oozed out from different parts of the foreherd. whether lesion of the heart or brain has been the cause of the fatal result. In many cases of death to determine. The rupture of the cutaneous capillaries. Sweetser cites ing a living frog from Broussais "the case of a lady. from emotional excitement 257 it is impossible from the absence of particulars. who was so alarmed by a storm that he on the deck speechless. 28). as for example with Isocrates. or the transudation through their walls of blood so as to occasion " sanguineous perspiration. cheeks. Paulini sailor. fell observed large drops of perspiration of a bright red color on his At first. Killed with report that old Did he die of apoplexy or Rupture of Pulmonary woman. or that the on opening it was not confined to these formed on the neck and parts. chest. who on fall into feel- her bosom from the claws of a bird of prey while she was sitting on the grass. only refer to one well-marked case of the kind that of "a not only aged 30. but on wiping off the red from the start place. p. I can. and a violent fit of coughing brought up in ence bloody expectoration of a bright color. he imagined that the blood came from the man had injured himself by falling." my pres- She was relieved by bleeding." should be enumerated here among the results of emotional ex- citement. he distinctly observed the red fluid exuding from the orifices of the sudoriparous ducts. fatal to liberty. and chin . face. however. So deeply stained was the fluid that on taking hold of the handkerchief with which it was wiped off. "her little eyes man eloquent. &c. to which Milton's lines refer: "As that dishonest victory At Chaeronea. 64. in one of which sparkled. Dr. but on going to him. set. his dress he found it wiping and carefully examining the skin. . —Descuret subject to violent fits records the case of a of passion. was instantly seized with such a profuse bleeding from the lungs that she survived but a few minutes" (xliii.

It may be noted that the modern doctrine respecting full The interesting fact has recently been recorded by Mr. his eyes were clear. Of Augustus it is said that. and was well pleased if when he fixed his eyes upon anybody. 'I caught/ answered the Sutherland Highlander. usually discover them by the same circumstance " (Canto iii. cette passion" (xv. . " Like Apollo. induced by the shock of fright. l'oeil semble regarder alors dans pupille contracted ne convient pas a Here it would seem that the action of the sympathetic nerve supplying the radiating fibres of the iris. he became solicitous to know how his retreat had been discovered. lest foemen spy The sparkle of his swarthy eye. they held down their eyes as if overcome by the glaring brightness of the sun. is allowed sway by the temporary suspension or paralysis of the function of the antagonizing cerebro-spinal nerve (corda tympani). in which the Irish rebels were defeated. Before passing from the bloodvessels." Scott remarks on these lines. liancy of the eye caused by we should notice the bril- certain emotional states." that a hippopotamus. the perspiration being the color of blood. while his head was concealed by an impending ledge of turf. The appearance Rokeby scribed in of the eye in fierceness and fear is beautifully de- : " Hiding his face. de Une p. 379). l'iris . one of their most active leaders was found in a bog in which he was immersed up to the middle.' Those who are accustomed to mark hares upon their form. avoir envahi le cercle entier des tenebres profondes. the man's speech returned. and he affected to have it thought that they possessed some divine irradiation. being excessively savage after her con1 " finement. 'the sparkle of your eye." (lxxi. P eiy . Being detected and seized notwithstanding his precaution. Stanza iv). Frank Buckland.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 258 As the bloody perspiration ceased. Gratiolet calls it the pathog" Son disque noir semble quelquefois nomonic sign of this emotion. partly due to tension of the muscles of the eyeball. —The Emotion upon the influence of iris is shown in Terror by the widely dilated pupil. "After one of the recent battles. and partly to the heightened vascularity. perspired profusely. in Land and Water. Gulliver found on examination that it Professor contained numerous blood-corpuscles." The Iris.

nutritive processes. Terror dilates the pupil allows the sympathetic free play upon certain muscular fibres of the and induces pallor by allowing the sympathetic iris. frightened by the shade of Creusa. unearthly figure." as Bernard observes. The Skin." Grief is said to result being due have the effect of making curly hair straight . tells the same story. Joanna poetical illustration in The former so familiar to all." The talis in the latter is no doubt assisted by the action of the occipito-fron- producing constriction of the scalp. refer to the marked effect on Expression induced by the motion of the mustache from This is assisted by the play of the muscles beneath in Anger. that of the circu- Thus. this to a cause of a different kind. —Cutis anserina and horripilatio (observe its synonym horror) are the well-known eifects of emotional excitement. has sprung from the supply of nerves to the radiating and circular fibres of the iris from these two systems. and to mine eyes Rush stranger tears. on cutaneous muscle. "obstupui.. especially Fear. "the phenomena which take place in vessels being assimilated. however. the compared with the lower lip. "the hair of my flesh stood up. finds a Baillie's lines " Yea. when the cold blood shoots through every vein When every hair's-pit on my shrunken skin . but this could not cause phenomenon of " the hair standing on end." without the contrac- tion of the involuntary muscular fibre surrounding the roots of the hair. as . there is a joy in Fear. " Why do I yield to that suggestion horrid image doth unfix my hair?" Whose Eliphaz and iEneas alike afford familiar illustrations of this phe- Fear came upon the Temanite when he saw nomenon. contraction of the radiating fibres of the iris answering to the contraction of the capillaries lar fibres to their active dilatation." The it in his dream passed before Trojan. it is — difficult to deficient vigor of the speak of the changes which take place in the hair from Emotion without confounding several distinct causes. "to those which occur in the iris" (1872). 259 the antagonism of sympathetic and cerebro-spinal nerves. UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. &c. A knotted knoll becomes. a mysterious. We may. steteruntque comse. and he says that as him. and to mine ears Strange inward sounds awake. to contract the superficial capillaries. because it . Indeed. the greater mobility of upper.

Oesophagus. but doubtless Romberg speaking many instances do occur. Carpenter cites from Brachet the exof these muscular fibres. p. 197). that he never came to a public meeting to deliver an address without "fear and tremWe have already trenched upon this section when speaking bling. the circular fibres supplied by the pneumo- the longitudinal supplied by the splanchnic (Biennial Ret- 1865-6. may be it —As regards loss of motor observed that emotional shock does not cause paralysis in the course of the alimentary canal so frequently as in that of the respiratory tract. 1859. although not the immediate result of mental shock. but are quite free from it when once they commence." occasioned by anxiety or nervousness. but I am unable to verify this reference. Here should be enumerated cases of spasmodic croup and spasmodic asthma when excited by emotional " nervous cough. in part. and merely adding that dyspnoea is notoriously induced or aggravated by emotion. Under this head some One will be found given. tems for the gastric . is Petrowski believes there are two motor sys- intestines.. by the contractions of the muscular coat of amount and character of the gastric juice. remarks that it has been occasionally observed associated with dumbness or aphonia as a result of violent mental emotion. Stomach. Bright said only the other day. Public speakers frequently suffer from this annoyance before speaking. and Intestines. nerve in which " some hours after pneumogastric periments upon the Digestion is affected the stomach as well as by the ho nerve on both sides. 10. rospect. vol. 1. ISTew Syd. fections of the alimentary canal. the remainder of the section of I . Soc). states that the course of their action beyond the thoracic sympathetic and towards the cerebro-spinal centre. in observing that psychical influence in such cases probably acts through the splanchnic nerves. causes might be added. 126). power." of the spasm of the larynx (p. in which the disorder was certainly of emotional origin.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 260 — Trachea and Bronchi. not certainly known. Anstie. and therefore the disturbance of this process which so often results from emotional changes is due. Dr. the surface only of the alimentary mass was found to have undergone solution. Med. of paralysis of the oesophagus. to abnormal contraction Dr. and refers to the works of Joseph Frank (Prax. cases of hysterical tympanites might be in the " Medical Times and Gazette." for Dec. This is not to be wondered at when even an experienced orator like Mr. we pass on to af.

" and he observes that "the moderate excitement of pleasurable emotions may be favorable to the operation. however. Emotion 408). fits of Anger and of Fear and of alarm have been presently followed by jaundice. in "Henry VI:" " I may revolve. increased action of the muscular coats of the stomach. but and regularity to the muscular contrac- also in imparting firmness tions of the Of the stomach" influence of (viii. small intestines." Dr. A young medical friend of mine had a severe attack of intense jaundice." Under the division "Spasmodic Cholera. Mr. This appears to be the proper place to refer to those cases of icterus. became in a very short time yellow. p. and therefore we shall have to return to the consideration of these speak of secretion and excretion. in increasing the peristaltic action of the intestines. Shakspeare. liver mon and com- duct. Watson "Certainly the pathemata mentis play their assigned parts. the fatal issue being mainly due to the exhaustion of the vital manifestations of the sympathetic nerves. Illustrations of metaphoric language derived from the connection between the emotions and the viscera have already been given in the chapter on Sensation. —the muscular contraction result of this discharge of the contents of the bowels — is rarely unmixed with increased secretion from the intestinal glands. It effects must be noted when we here.UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. not only by giving firmness and regularity to the action of the heart. which could be traced to nothing else than his great and needless anxiety about an approach- ing examination before the Censors' Board at the College of Physi- . the gall-bladder. on . 261 mass remaining in the condition in which it was at first ingested. the ordinary effect of Fear and Fright affords the The simple readiest illustration. which probably arise from spasm of the gall-duct. and the profuse dis- charge. that the involuntary muscular fibres of the gland-ducts which dis- charge themselves into the alimentary canal are acted upon and contribute to the resulting diarrhoea. and ruminate my grief. North witnessed a case in which an unmarried . its being accidentally disclosed that she had borne chil- dren. and thence promoting the circulation of the blood. female. says. Dr. but more we may add here one (rumination) having particular reference to muscular action. Copland enumerates among the pathological changes. Thus. and the increase of the gastric secretion.

&c. and complaining of acute pain in the hepatic and gastric regions. was somewhat disturbed by attending to them. to the ordinary cares of the household. 19. is the report of a case of " Jaundice after Anxiety. less intense. yellow- color. p. II. but Next day the jaundice was ness less frequently. and the urine was of a natural Mr. Churton. Ten grains of bromide of potassium were given. Shakspeare recognizes the truth of the occurrence of icterus in con:" sequence of mental states. subject to asthma. Next morning at five o'clock. had a severe attack one evening. The first dose cured and was in considerable distress all night. rocking to and fro. therefore. and does not adopt Mr. ? creep into the jaundice ' But probably peevishness would be more likely to cause jaundice directly on the secretion of the liver than by acting by causing spasm of the gall-duct. 30." by Mr. every four hours. Watson seems inclined to connect the to the icteric fluence propagated through the nerves causing the formation of bile in unusual and rapid amount in the blood (lxxii. one of her children. T. 1870." and mental symptoms with spasmodic constriction of the gall-ducts. — her of all pain at once. however. set. bromide was continued. She had several visitors staying in the house. Six months afterwards she had another which appeared to arise from similar causes. Churton adds. I found her sitting up in bed. On the following day. but the discoloration some weeks.' INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 262 same effect. the had entirely gone. of Erith: "A after married lady. She showed slight but unmistakable symptoms of hysteria quivering eyelids. 557). In the midst of this anxiety.4 deg. and by the addition persisted for attack. and having little inclination for society." do not pretend that the aperient pill had . had an attack of jaundice. Pulse 72. Mayo's suggestion that jaundice in such cases is due to the inThere are scores of instances on record cians. temperature 98. I found her completely jaundiced. —" I The and an aperient given. October. The ordinary remedies were used. mental and physical fatigue. in the " Merchant of Venice " Why should a man whose blood is warm Sit like his grandsire cut in alabaster Sleep By when he wakes? and being peevish ? within. Dr. 1868. Two days after. the nitro-muriatic acid being the most useful. In the "British Medical Journal" for Nov. and the urine of a dark brandy color.

tells me that he has several times used the bromide with equal success. He : " that a prayed adds. in order to be able at There was another who had heard by frequent micharass him. Jessop. on the other hand. but. as it were." — and Urethra. given by Romberg as following is an example of spasm of the bladder from the A Judge of the Criminal Courts related man." "Even certain mental impressions are capable of inducing a greater inclination to frequent contractions of the vesical muscles. to be allowed to gratify the urgent desire to micturate. neutralized by the bro- tion of the nerve-centres ultimately depended. tleman of this description under the vicinity of his house my care. 263 nothing to do with this rapid recovery.—the influence of violent emotion in causing miscarriage. is generally impeded Yet medical men often strangely forget the importance of avoiding unpleasant mental impressions under such circumstances. been Nevertheless. UPON THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES. but that Mr. in causing spasm of the expulsor muscle Ureters. of the rectum. 31). to whom on a single case little stress I am indebted for the sug- gestion of this plan of treating nervous jaundice. we know how little Neither do I think purgatives avail in such cases. had ceased to by an annoying sense of strangury" (xxxiv. of Leeds.. The of the bladder and inducing urgent micturition. I believe the patient did not find the exhibition so . they would have availed anything in this case. the progress of labor uterine contraction ceasing for hours. convicted of highway robbery and murder. Bladder. Hence. when he took once to follow the call of nature. I should have laid mide. as in other instances they affect the We muscular fibres occasionally meet with hypochondriacal patients nothing else but the state of their evacuations. who was executed some years ago in the town. familiar effects of Fear. before mounting the scafapproaching death fear of to me fold. who think of I have had a gen- who always remained in a walk. I have known an accoucheur. Uterus and its Appendages. after the impression often reminded of it II. —Under -this head we shall only refer to the fact familiar to every general practitioner. improve the occasion by coolly bringing out of his pocket an adder which he had just secured in one of his country walks. traction in labor. he was still that the formation of calculus could be prevented turition . p. if and of arresting uterine con- an accoucheur leave his patient and another take his place. We shall only notice here the &c. had not that condi- upon which (no matter how) the jaundice first. devoted to natural history.

p. Gooch records the case of a lady whom he attended. . brought on uterine pains in a female. Gooch's practical conclusion mind we must keep up nancy and at the is. "In many this state of the spirits of our patient. Gooch gave her. in spite of all the interfered with its upon the course of the encouragement Dr. In a case recorded by Professor Laycock (iv. 181). in consequence of an imagi- nation that she would certainly die should she become pregnant. who was attending her daughter during a very tedious labor. The death women of the Princess Charlotte. 112). who with great difficulty was persuaded to marry. by anecdotes of the most favorable accouchements of those who have entertained equal apprehensions. set. and by every species of encouragement in our power" ("A Practical Compendium of Midwifery. progress in so marked a manner as to protract it it to a period of thirty-six hours. Such was the influence of this apprehension labor. 48." p. that. Dr. both during preg- time of labor. Dr.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 264 make her useful as to particularly desire to have the same medical attendant again. acting on the imagination of similarly circumstanced. Attention and emotional excitement combined. injuriously retarded labor in instances.

act upon these processes directly may through the nerves as well as through the capillary circulation. 99). The important part played by the vaso-motor nerves has been dwelt upon. have in the consideration of the influence of the emotions upon the heart and bloodvessels anticipated. and excretion. and felt along the heart. chiefly in connection with the vascularity of the skin. CHAPTER 265 X. whether these variations in the circulation of the blood in the organs and tissues adequately ac- count for the alterations in nutrition and secretion which follow. or suspend the Organic Functions. Dupuy's exfit it . that varying mental states and the conclusion been arrived at. The emotions powerfully excite. the action of the emotions in in- ducing well-marked changes in nutrition and secretion ordinary. The of the blood through the various organs of the body being affected by the same cause. to some extent. INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS UPON THE ORGANIC OR VEGETATIVE FUNCTIONS. —Pleasurable emotions by their influence on the heart and respiration favor oxygenation of the blood . has already been considered (p. the principles We which underlie the phenomena of organic life referred to in this chapter. which so manifestly circulation results from emotional excitement. causing changes in nutrition. modify. The is not extra- question which arises. Blood. direct influence of emotional excitement upon the blood itself —that of a appears to be exhibited in the case recorded by Hunter man who as in died in a of passion. and thereby affecting the development and maintenance of the body.— UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. and in whom was found fluid death from lightning or a blow on the stomach. secretion." depressing emotions producing the contrary The effect. and we are all conscious of the " Sensations sweet Felt in the blood.

now so many occurring upon a severe shock He of the nervous system. Those who explain everything by the varying calibre of the bloodvessels. That changes in the chemistry . but also thereby nard tries to prove. So in overdriven animals. — results induced by section and galvanism — it phenomena by —the contracting and which may be artifi- follows that even if we go no further than Bernard's mechanical views. But in these instances it is quite possible that Fear may have had its share of influence. would fully admit that mental states influence. the quality of the blood is injuriously changed. and as he accounts for these the opposite action of the two classes of nerves dilating cially —which supply the vessels . by our application of Bernard's experi- Increase of temperature. 1868) hear sometimes of fear turning the whole mass of the I believe this blood. that I have no doubt of the fact. varying emotional states would readily affect the relative amount of oxygen and carbonic acid gas in the blood. but frankly confesses his ignorance until physiologists will inform us in what part of the body the blood is manufactured. without regards the blood cases of ansemia. becomes of a bright arterial scarlet. how the CI. Changes of psychical origin in the quantity and quality of the blood. during this process. Feb. as actually occurs when unchanged the sympathetic nerve is into the divided. must also be included. ! 1. elements of the tissues. inordinately quicken the circulation.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 266 periments on animals (after being hunted) are adduced to show that mere rapidity of the circulation diminishes the fibrin in the blood. and consequently in secretion and nutrition. which is usually dark in color. " We man Dr. how Emotion may in the lungs. On how many occasions does active bodily exercise in any bad effect as observes. and therefore a certain stagnation of blood for the operation. and As chemical composition." then modus operandi. is literally some of them I have seen correct. taking place in the capillaries. the blood in the veins of the glands. fatal. As the transformation of the effete ma- terials of the tissues. requires time. and thereby of certain chemical phenomena. Wilks (xlv. may thus receive at least a partial explanation ments. it is easy to see that there will be a tendency for arterial blood to pass veins. not only the amount of the blood in a vessel during a given refers to the period of time. if the emotions interfere with this condition. Ber- nervous system controls influence) the absorption of its oxygen combination with the histological on the relation of his experiments se- cretion to the blood prove that. (and therefore by the blood its experimentally.

so long as no anatomical proof is forthcom- ing that there exists any connection between the nervous system of the mother and the foetus in utero. and the mother of two healthy children. 1. of good constitution. far from being so complete as we could wish. question of the changes produced in the blood by certain conditions of the mind. to raise a strong is it is certainly sufficient presumption in favor of the action of mind upon blood in this instance. From she saw this she wished to leave the place. A few cases recorded by medical observers alluded to. obviously bears upon the alleged influence of While the evidence the mother upon the embryo. them are fair examples of a class of facts frequently reported in the medical journals." as well as in "affecting the secretions. who published They in the " Annales MMico-psychologiques " (1851. horrible! at her fright . Since Bichat wrote. stillborn and hydrocephalic. be produced in a more direct manner to say the least. and many a question on appear unable to see any alternative between admitting all the absurd stories about "mother's marks. A woman. knowledge of Bernard's ex- periments did not prevent Brodie remarking that the influence of nervous power "in causing the blood to undergo changes in chemical composition. to p. 43). however. What upon nutrition. among which was a hydrocephalic cat. I give the first four on the authority of Dr." and denying maternal influthe extent ence altogether. and even which the blood is supplied through the pla- their influence foetus. the blood it is in regard to If the effects are granted. Bayard. 478). and character of this influence are. for may here be briefly the purpose of illustrating the point at issue. the growth. aged 24. crying out. Her companions laughed it is just like a child!" and insisted upon her remaining. however. Eight months afterwards she had a child. very probable. p." very analogous to the The effects its is produced by the voltaic battery. the inference that the channel through which they are produced appears the only legitimate one. is.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. 267 of the blood may. The is. nothing has is by the modificawhich the mother's blood receives from vivid emotions that we been discovered to disprove his position that "it tions must explain the life centa" of the (li. which much difference of opinion exists. and monsters preserved in the moment "How spirits. went to a fair and entered a show-place where was exhibited a collection of living and stuffed animals.

he considers. and was naturally formed. Mr. his This lady gave birth shoulder —a to a child. 5. Three months afterwards she gave birth to a child. Madame B — . when enceinte. saw a cart pass containing three faint. fully in reporting this circumstance. the place was passed without any definite tidings. The child was born on . Baer. she saw them. Child records a his case illustrating.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 268 Madame C 2. and part of the occipital bones were wanting and at the space corresponding to. which were like those of a rabbit. and that he had heard her complain before her accouchement of having a flame continually before her eyes. her father's home. and little hair over the eyes. red. which had on the forehead a mark. "The parietal." August 26th. The eyes. was the brain. A woman. Towards the third month. of violet color. but larger than the anterior fontanelle. Mr. and undulated like a flame. the mother of four well-formed children. early in her fifth pregnancy. pistol. In the "Lancet" of November 7th. and was without reason. and . palate. — . not even being covered with arachnoid. and tonic contractions of had a strong the muscles. and she constantly saw a flame before her eyes. This mark was not effaced until she was seven years of age. seeing that the lady was own sister. frontal. had a mark upon its left leg. except the nails on the thumbs. witnessed a fire in the direction of . 1868. 1868. disgust took the place of desire. tongue were similar to those of a rabbit. 4. This uncertainty acted power- upon her imagination. morbid contraction which was permanent. as regards the body. and of the size and appearance of the mussel-shell. When. during the second month of her pregnancy. however. however. — — ever afterwards she felt a great repugnance to them. Madame B desire to eat mussels a longing not gratified until the end of a week. to death. experi- enced. having the head turned to the right One of them. A dummy was then thrown penny show. none elsewhere. Child then found the mother went to a in . appearance indicating the the right. 3. various nervous sensations to which she was a stranger such as spasms. says that he does so because he has the best means of knowing all the details. the influence of " maternal impression." that during the second month of pregnancy which she saw a trained horse pull the trigger of a pretending to shoot a rabbit. entirely denuded of skin There was a or membrane. As much alarmed as the event proved. not many miles distant. had his men condemned head inclined to most complete mental prostration. pointed. a long time . Her accouche- ment was easy the child.

for twenty years after. Bartholomew's Hospital in 1865. This poor infant. there- fore. and . in a paper on " Mother's Marks. in Paris. as the mother-in-law declares. After some time. is that of a witnessed a criminal broken upon the wheel months advanced in pregnancy. to the off. This case. out. having to all appearance been This corresponded. she seemed no ways mindful of her former terrors. she seemed perfectly recovered from her fright. harsh. from which grew an abundant crop of brown. T. Paget's observation. almost swooned at his cries. mark on its 269 the child's head. She was at that time twelve years old. : . that had suffered the pains of life even before its coming pains in labor more than usual in such circumstances. however." He then adds " I will show you a striking case that came under Mr. My patient seems never to have forgotten the circumstance during the remainder of her pregnancy. 1867. and for some days. We woman when in Paris she was two are told that she was of "a tender habit of body. Smith. and which will be found in Goldsmith's "History of the Earth and Animated Nature. the back of shot head was bleeding. Bartholomew's Hospital. varying in length from 7." was in a downcast state. Mr. but lived in a hospital. She felt.UPON THE OKGANIC FUNCTIONS. When and had almost forgotten the time of her delivery approached. Avas the ! into the world. 6. in altering and distorting the infant in the ii. 244). very easily moved to pity and compassion. nor were her But what amazement of her friends and assistants when the child came It was found that every limb in its body was into the world broken like those of the malefactor. a wretched instance of the supposed powers of the mother. and though led by curiosity to this horrid spectacle. On her return. her former uneasiness. womb" (vol. lank hair. and was considerably frightened at the time. which we owe to Malbranche. p. The left upper extremity and the greater part of the corresponding side of the trunk and neck were deeply stained with dark brown pigment. This child was admitted into St. all those strong emotions which so terrible a sight must natu- rally inspire shuddered at every blow the criminal received. Assistant-Surgeon to St." observes that " one cannot doubt that these marks occasionally appear on children in connection with mental impressions received by the mother during pregnancy. In the "Lancet" of August 17th. and just in the same place. she and "her imagination still wrought upon by the spectacle she had lately seen. did not die." is one not unfrequently referred who It to.

her back as she was passing by. fairly be allowed to explain some of these occur- likely. On the other hand. Fisher. in the " American Journal of Insanity " 1870). long. that when three months pregnant with the child. In fact. pro- upon the unborn child. the mother of one should attend a fair. the upper limb. thin . He speaks of 1200 cases. for instance. . not from there being any reason to doubt the good faith of the reporters." Mr. and be affected dis- agreeably during the time of her pregnancy ? Further. The number remen is large. see an exhibition of monstrosities. it must be borne in mind that there are a very large number of instances in which accoucheurs have carefully noted the expectations of the mother before delivery. united more or less with Emotion. shoulder and back. " I need scarcely say that such a case does not stand There are many well-authenticated alone. than that out of the considera- number of children born hydrocephalic. Smith concludes his report by the remark. and make them square with a preconceived Coincidence rences ble : may what more theory. and by far the larger number expressed their fear of such a result. it must be admitted that these reports ought to be received with great hesitation. and maintains that Dr.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 270 The skin was rough and harsh the arm was and withered the scapula was unnaturally prominent. and frequently specified the nature of the deformity and yet only two cases of malformations occurred during this period. and (for this reason) frequently made. practice of ask- ing his patients whether they expected any deformity in the child. Ham. bore a very strong resemThe mother stated blance to the corresponding part of a monkey. &c. imagination are impossible. she was much terrified by a monkey attached to a street-organ. of pregnancy. can be fairly attributed to strong and persistent mental impressions in the mother. objection that such effects of the maternal is easily. cases where marks and even bodily deformities in the foetus." Such cases as these appear to countenance the conclusion that the Imagination of the mother. . Thus Dr. and these did not appear to be in any way connected with the longings. but on account of the peculiar liability which obviously exists to color the facts. without the slightest fulfil- ment of such expectations in any corresponding bodily affection of the child. and undoubtedly deserves medical ported by various duces corresponding effects The shallow consideration. says that during twenty years he has made a (Jan. which jumped on one to two inches..

" 1865. through the blood. their strike us in the same way as when concentrated in a narrower space. in a letter to the " Lancet.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. " The only hope of the Parisians which they fondly cherished. A lady informs me died from fright. "You their health. writes : 1 In favor of the influence of the mother on the embryo. phenomena do not Disseminated throughout the organs. esting examples of the same I know several inter- influence as the results of the late war in France. Dr. Hunter also made inquiry in 2000 cases before the birth of the child. as witnessed in the bodily contrast between the him who passes it in man who passes his mental tranquillity. is attributed by him to the absence of a distinct focus or viscus. and remarks that she has never been able to keep her feet warm since that day. affect the nu- 1 by Bichat. need not be frightened. whose state we can compare Nutrition. Boggs. with that in which security and abundance excited the gayety so natural to his countrymen. and some lady was standing with her father at who down could the tranchee. fact pointed out with that of the mind. they will not hurt you." dated June 21. circulation. see a paper by Dr. ." but she had received a shock from which she became quite blanched. 1871. although we may not be prepared to accept the evidence in favor of the production of special marks in the child answering to definite mental images in the mother. Sadness. and lost her sleep and flesh. we must admit that the mental condition of the trition latter and therefore the —The may. and the desire of revenge seemed to hover over France. vitality of the former. and Bichat (writing in 1800) and contrasts the time when Fear. and failed to find in a single instance any connection between a mental emotion in the mother and an abnormal develop- ment of the child. digestion. and feel her trembling. and recalls points to the difference in the exterior aspect of their bodies in proof of the influence of the emotions on nutrition. and respiration. However. She has not yet fully recovered her strength. that nutrition does not seem to receive so direct an influence from the emotions as secretion. mond 271 has failed to prove his position that maternal states cause mal- formations. but they are not less real. life in misery. Meadows in the < Obstetrical Transactions. her father said. the window when was that at Tours A young many lost the Prussian soldiers came seized with shivering.

words ran high on both sides.' "Such as he was described I found him: his hand was hot and and withered. stating that he was in a deplorable state and wished to see me. in shire. over at least ten years of their existence in half as A many months. remarks while on a shooting excursion. I at once consented. from the and aunt carried effect of which within a to their graves. to whom he was much attached. 'heard of his unfora medical friend I said I had heard some vague reports of his tunate accident. of course/ said he. a distinguished practitioner in this city. a struggle ensued. and we walked on together. . . nearly years of age.' having shot some gentleman accidentally. detailed the events. and you may imagine their disappointment when the capitulation of the city was announced the mental shock some was such that they almost lost their reason But the most remarkable effect of the siege was the aged appearance of some men and women alike seemed to have passed of the inhabitants . about only child. who could not interfere. as to give him the ap- man pearance of a of sixty. to . was most cruelly blighted. stances are these : He was ' that was him. shot his cousin on the spot. and his strength scarce that of an infant's. He then returned. you is see him reduced to The circum- spending the shooting season at his uncle's his cousin. nervous circulation was suspended yet his thinking principle was feverish.' in the University. and his frame a perfect skeleton his voice was deep and hollow.INFLUENCE OP THE EMOTIONS 272 and which in a great measure. and such other fifty changes have taken place in his constitution. friend of mine. 'Yes. he 'Alas/ said he. to his uncle's house. yet he complained of nothing. has become so gray and wrinkled. kept them alive during the siege. in which the poor victim we are going to see." The influence of a violent and painful emotion on well shown in the following well-told case: nutrition is " Returning from a professional visit late one evening. the cheek pale . his form a skeleton. I was met by who begged me to see with him a gentleman whom we both had previously well known. and they being only attended by a little boy of ten years old. 'You have. not You must remember all. while month he saw his uncle he exists a miserable wreck. one of the handsomest young I said. and his expression agonized and It was clear that his wretched. when scarce conscious that he did so. soon to follow them. irritated him by some frivolous and an his own age. men is 'Wait until truly a victim to mental distress.' now.

I would not care if I was you. silence. The mental or nervous stimulant was withdrawn. seated with her back against the light. in the very prime of the morning is a picture Of a brilliant August day out of doors fessor's study the incoming What a was. mysterious air and abrupt news. her wee white hands. young lady. as if Not a the hand of Death had passed over it and turned it to clay. We always morning have you heard of it. and a general stagnation ensued. De I avail myself of the graphic pen of a well-known writer. word breathes from her white lips . in the quiet churchyard behind the arches of the Abbey. ! . . having by the shock of the accident been directed into another channel. all died away from the sun.: UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. and his darling Vic's close by it. tufted greenly over. M. I case of a M— . on one finger of which gleams an emerald ring —symbol that her heart plighted already. while a blank gaze steals over her beaming hazel eyes and quenches their lustre forever. caring about !' And then the chatterer subsides into a frightened for out of Vic's face die away the roses and the sunshine. sturdy . Vic ?' cries one. thought you and Willy were engaged did you really break off when you quarrelled ? It is that widow she has nothing but her money. which just faded and faded and all is . that face of Vic's." to describe this case. p. She does not help her father that morning. and props her dimpled chin in the palms of level with her books . Olave's opens. the disastrous influence of disappointment in love in causing malnutrition in the form of pulmonary disease.grave and There class. which was necessary keep in activity the to animal functions. 273 awake. they only stir with a dumb fluttering pathos. the daughter of my may refer to the old French master. No one ever saw Vic smile again. 50). and her maiden promise The door and two scholars enter with 'There's a wedding at St. but to-day bright face it white and daisied with the spring. and shall not apologize for in- troducing so florid a sketch into a medical work "There is his grave. is quiet. and he is a little testy over 18 . just on a comfortable and pretty Vic. until exhausted nature sunk from inanition" Of (xli. Vic he was never worth this ' . and the roses of her cheeks all in full glow under the shadow of the dark grape-clusters of her richly-tinted hair. who has attained to the dignity of helping her father. is given away. and consciousness alive. ! Here but in the Pro- and the long table is cleared for little Fan. " Holme Lee. She rests her elbows on the big dictionary.

if is as she had had no p. they had quarrelled. we showed that all the signs of those changes in nutrition which are comprised under the term "inflammation" may be so caused. but they had made it up again. at which a hen when hatching. at home. and perhaps by practical people she may be considered a little fantastic and sentimental now but by caprices in her . The chill October winds have begun to blow. as regards man. 140). He will know why soon enough soon enough "And this is a day in the fall of the leaf. if those chickens are taken from her she will they are allowed to stay with her. very lean time she is soon get fat." vol. We proceed now to give illustra- convict is sealed may grow . he kissed her the last time they said good-by they were quite friends. and jarred all out of tune. for it begins to be whispered amongst us that she is going off in a decline. it is said. When considering the influence of the emotions upon the bloodvessels. Care. he will have the window shut. the fat even on prison fare. silent sympathy to the old. is pointed out by Fletcher. and As i. — ! . but if . Hunter considered that nothing shows the influence of the Mind upon the Body more strongly than the effect of maternal anxiety in "A hen shall hatch her chickens. will kill a cat too patent to need illustration. p. talking to my eldest sister very seriously and sadly. I fancy I can hear her still! 'Yes. she will con- tinue lean the whole time she well fed and eats as much is as she rearing them. ! — says . 261). and Vic is sitting by our parlor fire. and by every adverse tongue is hushed. simply because his doom and he has no anxiety. and she thought it was over. yes. myself listening with an awed. and marrying anybody else. sultry as can hear the wedding-bells ringing at St. Olave's while it is we . and he is fidgety and fretful that anything should ail his darling and he not know why." 1866.! INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 274 our lessons . Oh. quite friends She had no more idea of his leaving her. old story she is telling. And before the snow-drops come again she is gone" ("In the Silver Age. She had her pretty happy days. although she would have done chickens" ("Posthumous Papers. for we are gath- Her mother has told him hurriedly Vic is not and he must do without her. its effect. than she had of the Minster falling Her grief would kill her. well. . sharp accent as might thrill from the cords of some fine instrument when overworn. is killing her her heart is broken/ she ered at our work. speaking not in her old sweet voice. but in such a querulous.

from which he remained free for six years. "L'odeur qui s'en degageait le right breast . treated for syphilis. Bateman mentions two cases in which great alarm and agitation of mind caused In his lectures. Guislain mentions two cases bearing on this subject a woman. the case is In reported of an engineer who. Cazenave. this affection. &c. 24. In connection with the influence of the emotions upon nutrition.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. Mr. . tions should occasionally eczema. severe neuralgia nerve. he says that Grief and Fear sometimes produce the disease. impetigo. 1867. 166). 275 tions of definite lesions of nutrition." July 13. The relation between some cutaneous diseases and the distribution of nerves bears upon this subject. when enumerating the causes of skin-diseases. one in which seen her daughter violently beaten. set. is it is moral causes perspiration. and other not surprising that definite erup- have a similar origin. Biett used to relate to his pupils several cases which showed this influence. we can see When followed by herpes in the course of the affected is how possible it is for distress of mind to occasion this cutaneous disorder. the subject fall beard. M. he had became. of a bridge of "syphilitic impetigo of the scalp and ." Speaking of impetigo. and hair. suffered in consequence from gangrenous erysipelas of the the other in which a woman. see the influence of upon the functions of the skin. remarks that " strong mental emotions. In particular he referred to a striking example exhibited in a very severe form of lichen agrius. as observed in the changes which frequently take place in the skin we As. and was much frightened." Gratiolet observes that Melancholy dries induces a number of up who had the skin and herpetic affections. a week after hearing of the built. referred to in connection with the nerves engaged in nutrition. d^celait suffisamment" ("Lecons Orales." p. Fear checking emotions causing congestion. occurring within twelve hours of the receipt of unwelcome intelligence. The transition to not difficult to understand. in connection with his experience at London Skin Hospital. exercise a re- markable influence. die. saw her brother and was greatly affected. and Grief in particular. that patients frequently attribute the affections of the skin under which they labor to fright and other moral causes but I have not been able to obtain any statistics. the "Medical Times and Gazette. The instance of shingles has been already the . without actual disease. A wen which she had on the head became gangrenous in a few days. Hutchinson informs me.

150). become attacked with scirrhus. used to light work. the son of a milkman. I. and rather inclined to curl. wiry. " For deadly fear can And Time outgo. Hatred. interesting case : W— tall. for his brain was on fire. but I do not believe them and will give in illustration the following which occurred in the practice of my friend. known alternations in the color of the hair (brown I have and gray) cor- Some responding to alternations of sanity and insanity. W. He but disgrace coming from every angle of the room. Bichat maintains that cancer of the stomach frequently owes its origin to powerful emotions " l'impression vive ressentie au pylore dans les after violent — fortes emotions. His general appearance was that of a healthy and well-formed man. and the its power. The announcement of her child. —The influence of Grief or Fright in blanching the hair has been generally recognized. which was being gradually developed (xxxiv. One of his thoughtless companions told him (what was not true) that a young woman in the town was going to swear before the magistrate on the morrow that he was the father Poor was dumbfounded. from moral causes. en conserve quelquefois " p. mental excitement. saw nothing Such was the . whose right mamma says he at- had four years previously. good-looking. . Sleep was denied him. entered his heart.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 276 generally recognized effect in inducing cancer should be mentioned. Mr. had given his whole frame a severe shock the gall of bitterness had W— . entertain doubts as to sudden blanching of the hair." No one doubts that the hair turn gray. and Chagrin (lxvi. 40. which he attributes to the maleficent action of Romberg Jealousy. of Falmouth Thomas about 20 years of age. p. hair intensely black. Descuret young woman who had cancer of the reports the case of a breast re- quiring operation. P. fleshy. Cocks. 621). but much exposure in the open air. and sought relief in his bedroom. slightly bronzed. was to be well founded. set. l'empreinte ineffacable qu'il (li. blanch at once the hair. tended a lady. gradually. He mind was under the baneful influence of hastened home. 40). Hair." It has been a popular rather than a physiological belief that this can occur "in a single night. p. stiff. and this is sufficient may proof of the mind's influence upon the nutrition of the hair. its a predisposition in the system being probably necessary.

subject to nervous headache." has recorded the case of a lady with dark brown hair. or are ultimately associated with trophic nervous debility of certain unknown nerve-centres. and it was but too clear that he would carry the marks of this folly to his grave. Dr. a woman who suffered in the night from and found in the morning that the inner half of one eyebrow and the corresponding portion of the eyelashes were may Laycock points out the fact jaw is almost always gray earlier than that over the upper jaw. and on the morrow. On the first who suf- occasion (in which he lost all hope) his hair quickly turned gray. under forty years of age. I know of a captain of a vessel. Dr. fered shipwreck twice. "carried round the head. and that tufts on the chin generally turn perfectly white. already referred to. the forehead and the vertex. A lady travelling in France subsequently to the Franco-Prussian war heard of a considerable number of cases of hair blanching (more or less marked) in consequence of fright. who morning afterwards. be mentioned. in his "Lectures on Nutrition. 1871)." him was a stupid trick was explained. In a few days it regains its color. resolved never to go to sea again. and leprosy. ending at a line which. his hair was perfectly gray. it had always finds. mental agitation produced by a no its Early morning brought ! he looked careworn. patches of her hair white. some considerable time afterwards. case. Lay cock. the occipital ridge posteriorly. from silly trick 277 natural tint to that of a light "iron gray color. when seen in bed. the beard. in speaking of pigmentation of the hair. Wilks says he has on more than one occasion had a lady visit him with jet black hair. distressed. but the Nearly twenty years period. as if powdered with starch. Paget.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. the mental powers retained signs of the severe shock they had received. &c. and his hair was changed relief. herpes. and kept his resolution. fair. his hair He became still further blanched. the . that the eyebrows are a clinical region in brow ague. and on the second. asks whether grayness and baldness are due to loss of tone of the hair-bulbs solely. of a severe attack of tic. May 13. would touch the and the eyebrows anteriorly. that the hair over the lower white first (xlv. Mr. He points out that the regional which characterizes trophesies baldness it extends from two is sympathy well marked. ill effects of it lasted for a long although his health was after. and that as regards points. This to In the course of the following day the great mystery." So with In connection with a succeeding remark.

opposing the skepticism of Haller. but the accumulation of air-globules veiled the normal color and structure. But I have not any particulars at hand beyond the fact that on carefully examining the hair. Laudois. observation. We have it on the authority of Montesquieu himself that his own hair became gray during the night. he found that there was "an accumulation of air-globules in the fibrous substance of the hair. evidently arose in a very short period. in consequence of receiving news of his son which greatly distressed him. the white opaque and dark. There was no absence of pigment. probably less than a day. would explain those remarkable instances. Bichat. Mr. There is no reason to call in question the statement that Marie Antoinette's hair rapidly turned gray in her agony. the colors of the hair were reversed. filled with atmospheric air . of Griefs- walde. Wilson observed that as the alteration in structure. and this opinion was corroborated by the remarks of Dr. Dr. April 20th. and brown became Under light and was further obvious that the vast accumulation of air-globules. to escape reported in the "Lancet" of tration 4. Sharpey and others of the Fellows who took part in the discussion. the occurrence of a similar change throughout the entire length of the shaft. which gave rise to the altered color. in good health. the transparent. asserted had known that he lost its color in less at least five or six examples in which the hair than a week. of which so many are on record. as well as in the medulla." Erasmus Wilson read a paper at the Royal Society in 1867 on a case of much interest.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 278 changed to gray. reported not long ago a case in "Virchow's Archives. and the white 1 to end. it opacity of the white portion was due to a packed closely together in the fibrous structure of the hair. the two together measuring about one-third of a line. portion the night growth. A case 1867. and that the vacuities Iff't by this process of exhaustion might be suddenly (xlvii. a resume of which I subjoin in a note. on receiving some distressing news. in unison with the generally contracted and collapsed state of the surface. Mr. of sudden blanching of the hair. 1807). forms an excellent illus- : A man 1859. the microscope. Wilson suggested the possibility of the brown portion representing the day growth of the hair. and that one of his acquaintance became almost entirely blanched in a single night. and he ventured to suggest that during the prevalence of a violent nervous shock the normal fluids of the hair might be drawn inwards towards the body. or other depressing emotion. The 1 falling off of the hair is too frequent a result of anxiety. though Every hair of the head was colored alternately brown and white from end The white segments were about half the length of the brown." in which the hair turned rapidly white. May common At of nervous temperament began business as a draper in that time he was 27 years of age.

no eyelashes even the short hairs of his arms and legs had gone. — advised to do nothing. raised his head from his pillow in the morning. has been sufficiently illustrated. only could the old man Not puff away in glorious style. and her hair as white as the snow on Mont Blanc. to show that hair which has turned gray in the natural course of life. The and influence of painful emotions in causing gray or white hair. a (set. the function of a tissue W— again. by the stimulus of specially favorable events.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. but on the scalp there could be This was in seen. hair. About six or seven years after their departure. should accompany them to the land where God's creatures were per- — to follow his mitted to inhale the pure old invigorating atmosphere of freedom. For two years he was in a state of 'per- petual worry and anxiety of mind. 279 not very robust. alopecia. his business became and when Mr. and he was finally 1861. the hair refused to grow. or by sudden shock. But it is series and it would have showing the opposite a very different thing to restore to its healthy whose pigment has been removed by slow malnutrition. patches of very fine short down. So long as his anxiety continued. I may adduce such a circumstance as the following. Medical treatment proved of no avail. Then his hair so that began when he come to He declares that it literally fell off off. may. 276). coincidently. toothless for years. and his diet was very irregular. of Erith. unmarried. . the hair left on the pillow formed a kind of cast of that part of his head which rested on it. however. rather better eye- brows. also aged (about 70). Churton. thorough out and out Radical —even the were so impregnated with a thorough disgust of the Government of George the Fourth that he threw up a lucrative cancelli of his bones situation in one of the Royal Yards. reported the case. and compelled his youngest son example insisted that his wife. a friend living in New York gave an excellent account of their proceedings. and the eyelashes pretty good. in a good light. he had a moderately good established. his hair reappeared. In a month's time he had not a single visible hair on any part of his body no eyebrows. been interesting to adduce a reverse effects of Joy. An old man 75). and had the usual quantity of (dark) whiskers and beard. become dark and plentiful habit. and. as described to me by the same medical man who attended Thomas (p. quantity of hair on the head. but by the latter part of 1865. very slight whiskers. and the son do .

"I have recently known. p. "the teeth to decay in an extraordinary manner well as a portrait painter. as the effect of painful emotion. teeth. 40).! INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 280 had cut a new set of and her poll was covered with a full erop of dark brown hair Teeth. more allied to Fear ." says Marshall Hall. than any other" (xvii. Many observations might be made in reference to the nutrition of the teeth but I must content myself with adding to the favorable results stated in the last case. a single example of the effect produced by unfavorable influences. hut old Mrs. — . in a few weeks.

INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS UPON THE OKGANIC OE vegetative functions {continued). as to cause the capillaries to contract. we are told that " the sweat ran down For example emotion. is lowered. Copland classes such cases under " primary asthenic anasarca . the shock occasioned by the loss of a small sum of money." p. Passing on to the influence of the emotions of Secretion. there augmented The are so influenced is medical authorities have referred to the fact of ana- sarca following violent emotion of a painful character (innervation lowered). interest in connection with an experiment of Bernard. Bateman witnessed the extraordinary influence of alarm upon a poor woman. the temperature insensible is converted into sensible transpiration.281 UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. ' Sweat. suspended. and If the amount is probably an escape of fluid rather than Checking of secretion is seen in emotional an- actually increased. is : Of an extraordinary manner. CHAPTER XI. Many asarca. which was all she possessed ("On Cutaneous Diseases. in some. and serous effusion from the bloodvessels follows. —The ordinary action on mental excitement in accelerating the cutaneous circulation and secretion of the system may passion by his recall his face " in The familiar enough. this serous effusion remains in the cellular tissue. the excretory function of the skin is Why. be aroused by painful no less state than by pleasurable when Warren Hastings was thrown into a home. which showed that division of the cervical branch of the sympathetic in the horse caused increased perspiration on the corresponding side." the vital tone of the small vessels being lowered. a sudden universal anasarca following. in 1851. in one night. is the record by Gratiolet of a case in which emotional excitement had the effect of causing the perspiration of the head to be afterwards limited to one side. The vaso-motor nerves sweats of terror are cold. secretion. . we commence with the sudoriferous glands. 150).

tion. hopeless . In a subdued voice. As to the disease. a surgical and that as speedily as possible. Such a case is full of interest and instrucerous glands to excessive action. . and it becomes a question simply in exciting the sudorif- this case did not act The man's fear was of an anxious. My nine-tenths of the articles mentioned in the Materia Medica. wept much. it was a matter of no moment the longer he lived to swallow — "They looked on and their trash. not with pictures. Alarmed. — . Cocks. like that from boiling water." it was replied. neatly . lethargy ." cordingly Mr. which was more likely to arouse than to check the function of the glands. called on him. and was very restless. and (in his case) to save life. but with empty physic vials. grinned. and the steam. issued from every pore in the skin. grinned and looked on again. after his departure. C. A copious perspiration was produced. friend advised to him to throw physic submit to the only remedy to the dogs. but the scene was changed. he shook like a poor wretch under the influence of the cold stage of ague. Twelve months afterwards he was discharged from the Naval Hospital as incurable. He had been well drugged his system was saturated with nearly The room was tenance. The nurse said that more than two gallons of fluid had passed from him during the . In the following instance. an officer in the Royal Navy. he was under the paternal medical care of a host of ichneumons.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 282 and say. to me by Mr. in others is poured forth through the ducts. who fed on the exchequer of his profits secundum artem. a miracle. John Ford. for the present. and gallipots. all I will visit the drugs in the world will not save you. fidgety kind. " I never can submit to an operation I would rather die !" " If that be your determination. " your case may be considered operation. Cocks says he found him propped up in bed at an angle of 60°. you to-morrow morning to know your At all decision. he said (as his excitement partially subsided). This roused him from his it was like a powerful electric shock. with an anxious and cadaverous counand profusely embellished. the better for them. was invalided home from the West Indies for dropsy. from which date to the time when first seen by my friend. in George Ill's time. related amount passed away through the ducts whether Fear in it is difficult to may have something to do with it. pill boxes. The word " Operation " had worked wonders in fact." Mr. events AcSoon he appeared to be greatly distressed both in mind and body groaned aloud. a very large Possibly spasm of the ducts .

morbum . " is familiar enough to all. sweat broke out profusely in drops from the slightest exertion of speaking." and was no doubt eaten by the land crabs effects fever.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. we presume. and certain of their destruc- a circle of friends. 178). with the analogous occurrence in animals which in flight from the pursuit of the enemy —The curious is often secured. Fear. et imaginatio . but odor. p. set. upon the renal secretion (or upon Urine. was buried in one of the " Campos santos. " Many an one sweats for fear and thinks he has the English sweat. Some emotions cutaneous secretions. and the floor was flooded with The it. strictly defined by the median line. the other side remaining in its The complaint had natural state. their blood curdled. especially animos omnium terrore perculit adeo ut multis metus conciliarit " (Erasmus). he died from the produced by yellow and was ap- Two pointed to a ship in commission going to Jamaica. and when he afterwards hath slept it (Bayer von Elbogen. in less than a week. The bedding. years after. blankets. eating. and of good health. off acknowledges that it was nonsense" all p. referred to by Shakspeare in the well-known pasinfluence sage in reference to the bag-pipe. exceptional. Sometimes. patient recovered. In which occur when Fear and the this vitiated intestinal secretions acts powerfully sonable to connect what in man upon the system. except that. is. Holland there actually became a prey 1 records the case of a gentleman. away home and tion they quietly slunk death" to Sir (loc. 283 consisting of feather-bed. as might be expected. existed four or five years. were saturated through and through with serum. and indeed highly inconvenient result. when the result of central emotional origin. and sacking. the power to retain it) of a sound which grates upon the mental ear of the listener. . or emotion of mind. cit:). mattress. night. on the mere mention of the subject "amidst first one and then another was seized with a tormenting anguish. The copious discharge of pale fluid i . lxix. not only in regard affect the to amount. This one-sided affection is. coming on without obvious cause" (xvi. During the "sweating sickness" in the 16th century. the right side of the face. frequently induced excessive action of the skin without the development of all the graver symptoms. 259). of especial interest. action of mental anxiety or suspense (not fright) in causing a . it is rea- appears to be a useless. however. H. "on 36.

Muller calls it an example of "suppression of the urine. in his "Stomach and Renal Dis- erroneous conclusions. at least. but the sources may lead to very of fallacy in their investigation are great. the amount being in a pretty direct ratio to his fear of being plucked. although confirming the conclusion that during a maniacal paroxysm the urine very acid. scanty. Carpenter refers to the increase of alkaline phosphates in the urine after much wear of mind. whether emotional or intellectual. with the aqueous char- whole excretion. and Dr. 352). and con- ducted with great care. is The former ob- . alleged changes in the chemical composition of this secretion. and alludes to "more than one case of this kind occurring among young men. cause emotional and is to observations from time there is is on the to time been how much how much of the With regard purely intellectual. Adam Addison. will in many Anxiety or predisposed individuals cause a deposition of the triple phosphates in the urine. are of much interest. compared. is and the kidneys have usually checked. whose anxiety for distinction had induced them to go through an excessive amount of intellectual labor during their student life. and who found themselves forced to pay the penalty of that excess in a subsequent prolonged abstinence from all mental occupation involving the slightest degree of effort It impossible to say in such cases (viii. Those of Drs. there a non-elimination of the substances usually is in fact separated from the blood. the result of mental disturbance. eases." INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 284 to the medical student about to present himself for examination." states that the depressing passions. particularly Fear. arise from nervous irriwithout increased. made. Prout. however. while those more recently made by Dr. state of the urine in the insane. Still. The odor may be affected by the acter of the urine. I emotions. Sutherland and Rigby would accord with what one might expect from the foregoing statements. and the difficulty of determining the priority of the mental and physical phenomena. they are somewhat which have contradictory. or even with diminished tability of the bladder secretion. Of complete emotional suppression of do not know an instance. p. the action of the skin tremities are cold. the exto pump off the extra amount of fluid retained in the circulation. lead to a different result." and though this seems paradoxical. and of higher specific gravity. The frequency of micturition may. In adducing proof that the funcits disintegration by the tional activity of the nervous tissues causes agency of oxygen (in the blood) Dr. in The man as in animals.

Addison found that the excretion of urea was. of As regards the mental excitement upon the urine." With fear. and a minus quantity of in the blood of general paralysis. for a greater than the average excretion of the phosphates has come to be regarded as a pathognomonic phenomenon of maniacal excitement. denoting increased expenditure of nervous force. Addison thinks that these and other facts "suggest that the quantities of the urinary constituents excreted under such conditions. influence." he adds. result w as. a plus quantity of phosphorus being found in the brain. we cannot. in the third stage of general Drs. and dementia. . Sutherland and Rigby showed an excess of urea in mania. in fact. large amounts may be retained in the blood from want of water to dissolve and wash them out. speak any longer of an excess of phosphates in mania. with these observations before us. condition and weight of the body appear to aifect the excretion of phosphoric acid more than the action of the brain. excitement to be less than after convalescence." differ widely from that of health. and a slight excess of albu- men in the blood of maniacal patients. with- out exception diminished during a maniacal paroxysm. Addison eleven years later repeated these experiments. in two cases. paralysis. "is perhaps the most important fact elicited by the investigation. ancholia (eleven cases) the amount was." The tissue change . the amount of urine discharged The in a given time. The observations of Drs. r he found the quantity of phosphoric acid excreted in cases of mental " This. Addison observes that. but took into account what Drs. "according to the prevalent theory. but Dr. regard to cases of chronic melancholia and monomania of Dr.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. in acute dementia. especially in melancholia . one would have expected a large excretion of phosphoric acid as the consequence of mental anxiety. a minus quantity in the stage of exhaus- and tion of mania. In mel- about normal. melancholia. Sutherland and Rigby omitted to do. Also. Sutherland and Rigby regarded these results as in harmony with analysis of the brain and the blood. but such does not appear to be the In dementia the amount of phosphoric acid did not case. are not to be regarded as anything like an absolute measure of that. therefore. Dr. 285 servers found a plus quantity of phosphates in acute maniacal par- oxysms. and minus quantities of these albumen substances in the brain of idiots. not inflammatory action. Dr.

and sometimes diabetes mellitus. wound tricle. more of the amylaceous substance which is produced by the liver and afterwards converted into sugar. April 27. also cavities at the root of the facial nerves. dilatation of the arteries. Dickinson if of the corresponding secretions is the sympathetic had been divided. followed by degeneration of the nervous substance external to them. in the vicinity of the of the floor of the fourth ventricle. 1865). Watson specifies "distress and anxiety. the gray matter vacuities. and this surplus being excreted by the creased. Bernard. while in dementia it ranged above and below the normal mean of health. kidney (CI. and which were most marked and constant median plane of the medulla. at skin least. Dr. 18G1). first. in explaining the pathological symptoms which arise from the changes induced in the nervous system by definite surgical lesions. also. with destruction of the nuclei of the vagus 1 A . is ven- suddenly accelerated. how the emotions may produce the same results." The presence of grape sugar in the urine is thus referred to the acceleration of the hepatic circulation. xlv. results were identical with Dr. Dickinson's post-mortem examinations of cases of diabetes 1 have confirmed these observations. is inflicted on a portion of the anterior surface of the fourth the abdominal circulation region become turgid. and the vessels in this the result. Dr. the reaction proved more severe forms" (xxi. in part to the increased action of the They from muscular excitement). just as Dr. July. and. being formed than the system can dispose of in a given time. . in causing diabetes appears to be clearly proved.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 286 in the remainder below the healthy standard. They all arrived was in maniacal excitement than in health. if prolonged. influence of certain mental states. "This is the case when the circulation of the liver has been also accelerated. Lockhart Clarke has ob- served degeneration of the floor of the fourth ventricle. a spot just internal to the origin of the facial nerve." nerves and the centres which control them. Sutherland's acid — "very intensely The found the also specific Further. for in the milder cases it is not nearly so great" (due." and Copland "great mental exertion and the depressClaude Bernard's experiments on the vaso-motor ing passions. as respects acidity. so in the . a decrease less at the conclusion that the amount of urine which "appears to have an inverse relation to the rapidity of development and the intensity of the paroxysm. He found. and erosion of the calamus scriptorius. and the flow of urine Acceleration is much in- Albuminuria sometimes accompanies this flow. It is satisfactory to turn to some points in which these observers agreed. in particular. show. Addison's gravity raised in mania.

quotes from Van Swieten the case of a young man who died of Also rabies after having bitten his own finger in a fit of anger. — We have spoken of the influence of simple ideas upon the secretion of saliva under "Intellect. whether correct or not. un funeste poison. " Know I am he that may searcheth the reins. manifestly. 287 concludes that the nervous changes are antecedent to and productive of the glycosuria. derived." and will alleged influence of Anger on the now refer to the quality of this secretion. The comme vraiment dans Findique l'expression com- saliva of an enraged animal and the venom of a viper are. In Hebrew and Greek the kidneys are frequently employed metaphoric sense: "I was pricked in joice. that of an old woman who died with all the symptoms of rabies.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. conjectured that the cock had been bitten by a mad fox. March 19. perhaps. dence of rabies. secretion. there remains the use of the word. 1870). 1860. 9 J." Parkhurst observes in vsypoi." I think. and. thereThis fore. have a very remarkable effect upon the reins or kidneys. In the "Lancet" for July 14. according to Eberle. including the Imagination. It is rather remarkable that our language supplies no corresponding metaphoric term. which was not present in an animal. essentially the same. p." are a few of the many in a reins shall re- illustrations which be cited from the authorized version of the Old Testament. and that diabetes is primarily and essentially a nervous disease (xlv. and." "I my "my reins/' try the reins. so from their retired situation in the body. He was seized with hydrophobia Trousseau forty-eight days after the bite. and died in 24 hours. lesquelles distillent fluides mune" (li. however. from the in- upon the renal fluence of the emotions. veppoi is cret thoughts and used in the New Testament affections of the soul. the lumbar region. 43). but the boy died. could by it be communicated. particularly the passions of joy and fear. serves that Van Swieten could not admit that a virus. is the report of a case of a There was no eviset. the same metaphor is made use of. boy. The and their being for the most latter suggestion seis. seems rather far-fetched . In the New. He obafter she had received a wound from a cock in a passion. hidden in fat. rather a doubtful one . who was bitten by a boy in anger. but it is difficult to understand why anger . loco: "As expe- rience shows that the workings of the mind. Bichat entertained no doubt that Anger and Love do inoculate the saliva with something "qui rend dangereuse la morsure des animaux les agites par ces passions. Saliva.

care and sourness. While Anger increases and poisons this secretion. hard to get down. Gaubius records several woman. which is spit upon meanness. Speaking of the says. Beaumont found in the man with the fistulous opening sions. and too good not to be There is the saliva of rage. who asserts that his own mother died of hydrophobia a few days after being bit by an bitten angry epileptic. Prochaska admits that it is pestilent In reference to quite possible that the by anger. as is indicated by nerves. the opposite effects being produced by depressing pasDr. and full of ters. as if bitten Gaubius confessed himself unable to explain how "such corruptions of the fluids are so suddenly excited. which froths and sputThere is the saliva of grief. choking. and carries the badge from soul to soul where it lights. " salts of the saliva. however. They become — as different at different times ." this observation. which eats. and poison those who are by angry persons or animals. p. unable to revenge himself. irritated secretions render the parched mouth. and the dry tongue cleaves to the palate. There is saliva full of or the sweetest milk from deadliest poison. character of the secretion was altered. Pleasurable emotions increase the amount of gastric juice secreted. as the billing of the dove from the bite of the rattlesnake. There is saliva charged with contempt. may by virtue of their influence over the them impure." Gastrie Juice. and ayenges our disgust upon the ground.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 288 does not more frequently affect the saliva. but that those who were bitten were in a peculiar condition of health at the time. but the stomach itself. Of these cases. the true interpretation may not only that the be. into the stomach " that anger or other severe mental emotions would sometimes cause its inner or mucous coat to become morbidly red. and in one cited by the same author from Malpighi. There is the mouth of fear. soldier He quarrelled with a was seized with rigors enraged Italian youth. although we cannot determine in what this impurity consists (i. which is vomited from the loathing blood. who thereupon and died. not the food. There is the spittle of selfcomplacency. which foams violently forth swallowed. There is the saliva of disgust. 421). and that of haste and hurry. upon the beard. An A cases. elicited by the happy tongue. from which the saliva is frightened. bit his hand. Fear checks or suspends it. seized with a deadly fear of water. bit his own hand and was by a rabid dog. Wilkinson (xlix) forcibly and in different persons. Mr.

and the exciting motions dilating the capillaries Whether a depressing of the stomach. contracts the vessels by stimulating the sympa- by paralyzing the vagi. (See Summary at the close of this chapter. returned force. appetite. ble an illustration of the influence of fit of forci- abnormal mental conditions. tongue became brown.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. found that division of the vagi during digestion caused blanching of the membrane of the stomach (xxxii. a distinguished one. but that morbid feelings acting directly on the stomach through the pneumogastric and sympathetic nerves. Professor of Physiology. and organic nerves which oppose it. and irritable indigestion " . p. may be doubtful. a may change in the character or amount of this secretion. the appetite vanished. while the same stimulus applied to the sympathetic arrested " it. if His anxiety once removed. Dr. Fear. Avhich constitutes so (xliii. and "his with such uncontrollable humor of his otherwise stomach" (lxxiv. or may not be the principal cause. ing emotions contracting. p. in limb of the Law stops at a the limb of an animal less some measure. or painful emotion. 19). his tongue cleaned. dangerous than himself who when satisfies. We therefore meet with two orders of nerves in the stomach as in the case of all other motor nerves which accelerate the secreting process. King's College. 1870). and also the remarks on the action of the vagus on the heart in connection with the emotions. as those solar plexus — is which influence the digestive process. cannot in his lectures in 1860. that this half-way house in his return home. dry. in his "Sketches" mentions a barrister perfect health except when anxious during the assizes." In accordance with the above. galvan- ism of the vagi excited secretion of the gastric juice. and severe pain in the stomach succeeded. 289 occasioning at the same time a temporary In dyspepsia. enjoyed Then the food was taken. do form one important element in the psychical genesis of the dismal symptoms comprised under Claude Bernard. two nerves of which the sympathetic — admit of doubt. glands : Rutterford. 22).) Fletcher. for example. showed that taking the composed the vagi and the this term. the capricious most respectable and certainly very capacious Brierre de Boismont records the case of a convict 19 who was greatly . but the would seem to be that it suspends the action of the latter thetic nerves or probability and allows the former full sway. mucous have every reason to suppose that the emotions act powerfully upon the digestive process through the nerves composing the solar plexus the depress- . May We 20.

plied when we say that a man the same cause originates the word choleric. vomits vitiated bile of every color and acridity. the supposed order of events being sometimes psycho-physical. Bile. and suffered from continual nausea. " Achilles bears no gall within his breast. j'etais un j'etais him) — "Si homme mort" (xxxv. as in Juvenal " Quid referam quunta siccum jecur ardeat ira ?" But such passages bear more especially upon the supposed seat of Anger in this organ an idea mainly springing. perhaps more thoroughly than any other psychical and physical facts. He was removed from the prison. with astonishing rapidity. he improved he was able to take a few spoonfuls of soup. Z<>h>s This latter is im- displays a great deal of bile. and at others physico-psychal. —Popular opinion connnects bile and bad temper or melan- choly together. said (and his doctors agreed with restehuit jours de plus dans la prison. from the It was not Anger influence of the mental states upon the viscera. this feeling youth in It is Plautus terms "morbus hepatarius. and from of Achilles in the "Iliad" (ii. virulent asks. He scarcely took any nourishment. Dr. however. In a week. Homer speaks of the 241). and it was thought he would die. Gastric and symptoms followed. The Latin poets abound with references to the connection between the liver and the emotions." "my liver Gaubius." : INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 290 surprised and distressed with the verdict he received." in a passion. Carpenter ." be so altered that. He ually recovered. and frequent vomiting. and the salubrious hurtful nay. "Do you doubt it? — — I give you the example of an hysterical woman who. And it may be noted. poured upon the earth." Solomon speaks of the misguided whom " the dart " of passions " strikes through his liver. 1853). Organic lesion of the stomach and hepatic tumor were diagnosed. that it is the interchangeableness of bodily as fitting to speak of "the gall of bitter- ness" as the bitterness of gall. the bland becomes acrid. in asserting that the natural properties of the juices may is to Grief that Jeremiah alludes when he complains. as marking and mental terms. the matter thrown up being chiefly mucus. and he eventhepatic . The alone which was supposed to be connected with the liver. however. — "jecur ulcerosum " of Horace was induced by Love.

the "Breviary of Health. she almost immediately England left at an ad- without his lady. and feare for the spleen. Budd. Dr. spleenless. After death in such cases portions of the liver are sometimes found completely disorganized. in- and so oc- adduced by Bichat as a striking proof of the Emo- connection between mental states and the secreting organs. The English it is cause of this impediment named : is not good the passion of the This impediment doth . to take posession of his office." published in 1552 by Andrew Borde. and soon as she heard of his de- became yellow. bile. and thus reacts upon the nervous system by impairing its healthy nutrition" (viii. Wilson Philip asserts that depression of mind. may. and died in a very few weeks (xc)." adds. after ob- serving that "melancholy meats. tional jaundice.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. Dr. Badeley records the tracted. Anthony Todd Thompson states that "a young man in Paris had a musket pointed at his breast. 262). be also caused by abnormal action of the muscular coat of the would be hard refer the symptoms. in a Dr. is The 982). remarks that it is 291 " perhaps not an ill-founded opinion that melan- choly and jealousy have a tendency to increase the quantity. in his "Diseases of the Liver. or spleeny (Shakspeare) a mild and • gentle person." observes that jaundice. spleenful. alters the structure of the liver. for which he was taken to a hospital and died. sudden fright in checking the secretion of fluence of casioning jaundice. Dr. hard chese. It ivould seem that some virulent poison is generated in which deranges and then paralyzes the brain. long-continued anxiety. and to and that "it vitiate the quality of the biliary fluid. As without even bidding her farewell. to which division to it to decide. the liver. now and mental by any has existed for some often unattended is then. if pro478). p. he became suddenly deeply jaundiced. and given case. the writer. or grief. which proves rapidly comes on." certain the is indulgence of these feelings produces a decidedly morbific effect by disordering the digestive processes. which in our language is so frequently employed metaphorically." Passing from the liver we may here refer to the spleen. "but. case of a certain great military officer who vanced age. "in splene. gall-duct and the intestines. refused all food and medicine. and after death comes softening and disorganization of the liver itself" (p. following shock. after it time without any symptoms indicative of especial danger. A fretful person is splenetic. like emotional cholera. alarming symptom. took to her bed. as already stated (p. parture. fatal. In a curious old book. disorder of the brain.

Mr. of under surgical treatment in King's College Hospital. He replied. He brooding over what he had done and died next morning of cholera. who believe that contagious would not admit that. When The woman who opened . or solytudnesse to study. specially those thynges that reason can not comprehende. defecation may Intestinal Secretions. Certain cases of choleraic diarrhoea (although. and to be iocunde and nat to muse upon no matter. and was shaved. however. in this case. and for lack of meat and drynke. but to leaue of al pleasure and nat to study upon any supernaturall thynges. asked the barber if he knew whom he had been shaving. When. The terrified barber was seized with cholera. of course. Those. some whom were placed in beds falsely said to have been occupied by Mr. as the polecat. he's a man from Newly n !" It was enough. of Falmouth. G. the cholera was prevalent at NeAvlyn a fishing village near Penzance. nor use not to lean or stoupe downe to write or ride. of And it may feare and dreade. he did not. of the "Lancet" 4. or to be occupied about many matters. in the " Athenaeum. complicated with other pathological The states) may be referred to here. some years ago. cholera is its probable consequences. "Why. or occur involuntarily from various causes. some one. of imprysonment." Sept. On leaving. well. he went to the Lizard for change. who carried down the bed on which a cholera patient had died. 1871). 16. . Fear was more than the exciting cause of the attack. and died within twentyfour hours. who had recognized him. and in some cases from the altered character of the secretion itself. become urgent. One day a man entered the shop of a barber in Penzance. cines the — Apart from muscular action. or sorrowe. will occur to the reader. some years ago.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 292 come by thought. had the cholera. 1866. intercourse was forbidden between the two places. story of the Russian convicts under sentence of death. Smith reported in cholera patients. it naturally assists escape in some animals. of the case a fine hale blacksmith Aug. and beware of slepe the afternone and use the medi- which be expressed in the chapitre named Splen" (Antiquarian Notes. as from Fear. He sat up until late. come of great solytudnes. anger or care. While in this respect the influence of Fear may be inconvenient in man. A remedy: The chiefest remedy for this matter is to use honest and mery company. one being the increased secretion from the intestinal canal.

it furnished a substance resembling casein. the —The influence of emotional mammary gland is in meeting with cases examples must excitement on the secretion of generally recognized. Remedies failed to relieve her. she was exorcised. is A no difficulty few striking suffice. 56). Paracentesis was performed. He also cites from Parmentier and Deyeux. Milk. 593). and had an attack herself. When tapped six weeks afterwards. and exhaling an acidulous odor. exceedingly healthy and robust. I was called to see a child aged seven or eight months. was drawn off. a young suddenly lost woman her two children and a foster-child from giving them the breast immediately after being in a violent passion (lxvi. followed by ascites and anasarca. complete suppression of the milk. was exceedingly alarmed. 1851. Dr. 189). It had suffered . that tional excitement. which up to a short time before in my being sent for. Kellogg. — It would be tedious enumerate even a small pro- to portion of the cases which are on record. medical treatment restored the uterine functions. Descuret states that during a period of four years. instead of one possessing character. Regarded as possessed. of a lady who was thrown into a furious passion by some circumstance in consequence of which suppression took place. and. and without the least trace of casein " (lxx. as the result of some exhausting disease. gives the following cases " Not long since. 293 the door of the house to which he went. p. Catamenia. "a bucket of fluid resembling whey. are a fruitful cause. woman who Copland cites received a fright a week This caused after delivery. Canada West. but without effect.: UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. had been a most thriving condition. and there which forcibly illustrate it. in a condition much resembling that which results from hydrocephalus. there can be no confusion between cause and of the Subsequently. the fluid was of a greenish-yellow. secretion. of Port Hope. the mammary after powerful emo- gland secretes an insipid yellowish its normal white saccharine from Graeffe the very striking case of a serous fluid. having heard that he had had the cholera. Upon being boiled with dilute sulphuric acid. I. I found the child in a state approaching complete coma. or ansemia of the brain. and she became insane. her mental health (xxxv. p. p. 'concurrently. and in such instances effect. The sequence phenomena is also clear when Rage operates. showing the influence of moral causes on the suppression of this fections. Disappointed af- every one knows. as in a case recorded by Brierre de Boismont.

however. after retiring to her room. was. After. completely recovered which shrouded was this case. and appeared to thrive well for four or five weeks. gave birth to her which had evidently been led by the servants during her confinement. though not weaned for several months after this ocif she currence. for in conversation with a near neigh- bor I learned that the mother. had for a number of days been giving of very violent way to most intense paroxysms of rage. The child was healthy. and as the coma had come on suddenly. it green stools for a number of days. explained. of which she was passionately fond. bathed its face. to suspend nursing it under such a state of mental excitement. I immediately requested the mother. the mother of and who had frequently been under the medical care first male child about one year since. and not allow its force to be expended upon the frail being who was innocently drawing its nourishment from her bosom. and after passing dark tion of the bowels. as is frequently the case with careful housewives. who was a woman temper. soon. while giving the reins to her passion.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 294 none such. Its mother. as the child did well. more careful for the future. on the same day. She was much alarmed and had the child brought up to her room. if she wished to rear her offspring. most imprudently. by the arrival of some friends. somewhat excited and vexed with the condition of things in the kitchen. ignorantly and innocently suffered the infant to nurse Its bowels became imafter this crowning excitement of the day. I felt puzzled to determine the true cause. it would be advisable to wean the child. with its nose bleeding and broken. " Another lady of a highly excitable temperament. constipation of the bowels only having been observed as its forerunner. and. During all this time she was nursing her child. or employ a wet nurse. and after stanching the hemorrhage and quieting the child to sleep. she. however. The mystery to unravel at first. screamShe took it upon her lap. however. ing. In addition to this. and make up her mind to be quiet and cheerful. she heard the child next in years to the infant fall down a flight of stairs. a free ac- which large doses of cathartic medicine were rapidly regained its consciousness. She was also excited. which had been expended upon her husband for selling a piece of property against her wishes. and the 'high life below stairs' three children of the writer. for required. . and could not control herself. She appeared to feel the justice of the reproof and was. though a highly intelligent person. doubtless. on first leaving her room. and which I was not able .

mistaking. Exhalation and Absorption.— UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. " I am confident that I have frequently seen the death of the nursing infant result from ignorance of the mother of the extraordinary influence of mental emotion upon the secretion of milk. do." what the says Hunter." quality of the secretion seems to be altered tions. Dr. as. the secretion may be checked. The by powerful emobeing increased. nor could not cry" (Posthumous Papers. too. "to see full conviction that I should be very but unfortunately I had not put a handkerchief in pocket. symptoms of violent inflammation of the bowels" (lxxviii. are unable to answer so does a certain state of secretion of this gland? probable. April. is. that tears result that . or through nerves. Which you simple a question by as well as reflex irradiations to say. and I was even ashamed I did not. its tributary drops belong to woe. and the distress I was in for the want of that requisite and a kind of fear I should cry. your native springs confess with Brodie that channels. the saline ingredients Lastly. inability to cry. gland. and excited natural excitant. directly exciting their functional activity. p. 557). causing " a strong brine." Tears. why or how we acts first But is mind aug- Gratiolet inferred. offer up to joy. intensity of the feel- the most frequently witnessed Daily observation shows that the intelligence much is The result of distressing first — See. grief. —As all dropsies may be referred to . the is which emotion of Joy or upon the heart or other viscera through motor then reflected upon the sensory nerve supplying the this track does not Much more likely seem anatomically or physiologically is it that the influence motor nerves. i. when one is crying. high fever and convulsions supervened. is the negative one want of a handkerchief may Mrs. p. Siddons acting." traverse the fifth pair of nerves Sorrow to we know. partly from from sensations. stopped up every tear. 295 mediately deranged. vol. "I went. I had a my affected. Kellogg observes. ing or the suddenness of the sorrow cause. —The secretion of the lachrymal gland by joy (and tender emotions) "Back. and the child died in great agony in with all the less than three days. the stools green. 1856. 313). Your We must ment the his own back foolish tears. lachrymal to the is transmitted by actively dilating directly either to the capillaries of the gland cells themselves.

— INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 296 increased exhalation or diminished absorption. ! doctors walked back to the surgery to consult. The abdomen was bandaged. therefore. and the action of the kid- neys increased: A woman. physician to the hospital at Narbonne. blanched and as thin as a lath. an expression which receives an illustration from Shakspeare. imagined in a dream that he returned and embraced him. and to the acid eructations and flatulence. discharged chiefly by the bladder. reported in the "Gazette de Sante". and the abdomen painful and tender. as the lad completed by local frictions and diuretics. for the genuineness of which I can vouch. town aged about 45. and the worthy out of her wits. which arise from the same cause. Medicines having failed to remove the effusion. In the following case of ascites.the case of a boy. hand (his first essay) at paracentesis. the fluid was rapidly absorbed. officers He was a pupil at the "Hotel of the establishment were surprised next morning to find the abdomen distended (enfle du ventre comme had played and taken his food as usual the preceding day. in whom ascites oc- curred under the following circumstances: Pierre Peyrel. the breath being rendered notably offensive by distress of mind." and the fright. which alarmed her much. in fact. their division accelerating. the pulse small and hard. was attended by Dr. determined to try his He invited two of his medical friends to assist him The trio were duly ushered into the sick-room but no operation The fluid had vanished. He was found by the doctor to be feverish. the cure being un ballon). A passing reference may here be made to the influence on pulmonary exhalation of emotional states. under this head to two we would briefly refer cases illustrative of the influence of emotional excitement in checking and exciting these functions. useless. which gave him a great de la Charite. and unriddle the mystery. in the operation. The influence of the sympathetic nerves upon absorption has been demonstrated by Bernard . Of heartburn. 11. the surgeon to the hospital drew off ten pints (Paris measure) of clear fluid. set. in a small and was. "partly exhaled from the digestive mucous surfaces" (Copland). and galvanism suspending the process. nearly frightened her in Devonshire. He found medicines perfectly B— . Py. He intimated to the patient what he intended to do on the following morning. indicates . having lost his father. They found the poor creature exhausted. Dr.

rapid pulse. The latter febrile state answers also to that caused by action section of the sympathetic. but actively produced in superficial parts. But an equilibrium between the external ceases in those internal is. venous pulsation being also observed. The production of heat organs whose functions are suspended. having the appearance of arterial blood." heartburn only be implied. are no functions. "If. very M. "How the popular belief. Bernard. In these conditions the sympathetic system is in a state similar to which section has been performed. on the contrary. Before concluding the consideration of the influence of the emotions upon the organic functions. the metaphor the relationship between the two states 297 is itself I never Though mental a recognition of —bodily and mental. a sense of oppression. The same thing occurs in certain pathological states. by —According rigors is to CI. by galvanizing the central termination of a cerebro-spinal nerve. the principal sources longer performed. this being followed by elevation of temperature in consequence of the vascular dilatation which succeeds the vaso-motor excitement." says Bernard." have seen besides that on the side on which the sympathetic has been divided. brilliancy of the eyes. the early stage of fever analogous to that which is artificially marked produced by reflex upon the sympathetic. we should have a true fever — increase of heat. in these conditions there is phenomena of heat and the intestinal also internal temperature. Thus. the blood preserves ersing the capillaries. Bernard adds increase in the fibrin of the blood in fever. be enumerated here more appropriately than in any other place. perspiration. and which may.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. can see him but I am gentleman looks! tartly that heart-burned an hour after. and consequent constriction of the vessels. cases of malignant fever have been published in which the blood passed on into the veins. a remarkable elevation of that in the temperature of the surface of the body being also present. perhaps. I wish to refer to several disorders of the system which are important illustrations of this influence. "we only suppose phenomena which we have observed as the of the ascending branch of the great sympa- the generalization of the result of the division thetic. " We &c. Fever." The hepatic and of animal heat. is paralleled that the by what he has observed in animals in which the great sympathetic has been - . the its bright red color while trav- phenomena of nutrition do not take place. they should be studied in connection with the action of the vaso-motor nerves. since I made known my experiments.

his statement of fact "I am certain. which led me not to conceal from my patients the true name of this fever when I was called to them on the day of their being attacked by it. It was an early discovery of this fact. disease arterial system " (lxi. Rush on the "Bilious Yellow Fever" which raged in Philadelphia in 1783. p. the other hand. So long as there was hope. and a general relaxation of the energies followed. in this fever. 49).INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 298 The divided. only too favorable to the invasion of fever. in functions which and upon Many it short. and says. p. interesting observations were made by Dr. more liable to many became days. and among the causes of attacks of this fatal malady he enumerates " a sudden paroxysm of case in fear. 1872. " that Fear did no harm after the was formed. he saw more remarkable examples of nervous or timid people escaping. but whether this explanation is which follows is of much satisfactory or not." says he. Jackson. collapse." Indeed. But when hope was most of extinguished. of mental upon an object exter- nal to themselves was no longer required. in those cases where great morbid excess of action had taken place. Dr. were observed to be them- by the prospect of the patient's recovery. Attendants upon the sick. an opposite state of mind to that of Grief also produced the disease. mark alone" produce its all the disorders of the organic course by acting upon the nervous system. For affected in a after few no doubt." states that the garrisons of Savannah and Yorktown remained healthy so long as when the those towns were besieged. conjectures that a moderate degree of Fear helped to counteract their injurious influence. a healthy equilibrium resulting from the opposition of two stimuli. (lxviii. Their hopes were fulfilled. 347). III." But while he observed this to be the many instances. although constantly exposed to the mias- He mata. or rather rendered persons nursing a relative who recovered. "Fear co-operated with some of my remedies in reducing the morbid excitement of the interest. We may. in his " Treatise on the Fevers of Jamaica. this inference being that "fever ought to be regarded as a phenomenon purely nervous. attention it. while Savannah became affected . in consequence. general inference drawn from physiologist as to the nature of fever. is by these facts very important in its this bearing on the influence of the emotions upon its production. they often escaped. he goes further than this. notwithstanding their joy. they were frequently attacked by the disease selves materially influenced — the near relations of the deceased falling victims to On it.

finding her petitions unheeded. He died in a few days. p. and they fall under well-understood psychological laws. In the reports of Continued Fever given by M." occurs that of a menting on this case. and there was actual contact between the child and the ladies. So complex are psychical causes. . woman apparently miserably poor. 50). — with the expectant dread of having it. really produce it ? For ex- ample. and she prayed Heaven to send the malady to these hard-hearted ones. Small-pox. The patient had been told that the plague reigned in the Paris hospitals. of the inhabitants ceased to be wholesomely maintained Joy in the it . had attacked some ladies who were driving in a carriage. Andral. III. in her "Beaten Tracks" (1865). that opposite events will occasion the same results. 299 French and American armies retreated from it. set. exclaiming with a fearful imprecation that her little one was ill with the small-pox. . but when analyzed there is no real inconsistency in their operation. says. and he regarded himself doomed to inevitable death.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. . as the disease was raging in that locality at the time. especially of epidemics. Avhose disorder did not originate in Emotion. I know not. and Grief or Disappointment in the latter produced its natural fruits. It was only too true the fearful disease was raging at the time. she flung her infant into the carriage. and. would it be possible that the circumstance related in the following story should result from mental Emotion alone? Miss "A Tuckett. says. Andral. a moral excitement acted on him he all at once presented symptoms which indicated considerable disturbance of innervation. 22. He was very much alarmed by this news (which was false). " When convalescent from a dothinenterite. stupor appeared. and he died three days afterwards. but one of the ladies speedily sickened and died. no inference can be drawn with safety but it is very probable . comin his "Clinique MeYlicale. is The perception and recognition of these laws by the physician important in the invasion of disease. former did not prevent the deleterious influence of the reaction. 782)." Of course. Could merely dwelling strongly upon this disease. and anatomy discovered neither in the nervous centres nor elsewhere any lesion whatever to account for the alarming phenomena which hurried him to the grave" (p. with a sick child in her arms. and Yorktown when In both instances the mental tone capitulated (lxi. and whether from contact with the child or terror at the woman's words. The pulse became frequent after having improved. but whose death appeared to be hastened by Fear. cases of young man.

660) is reported a case of "Tertian Fever ples of ague induced tive of the morbid effects caused and cured by a vivid moral emotion " which falls under this was engaged in needlework at the window when she saw a neighbor precipitate himShe was instantly seized self from the upper story of his house. some days occasioned her family great alarm. with nervous tremors which nothing served to lessen. and Avas cured by the usual anti-periodic remedies This is an admirable ducing the thing feared. and that the distance between is supposed to have been about a yard. we find exam- by sudden fright which are strikingly illustraof this emotion. took the small-pox under the She was walking along the lowing circumstances. as interesting in connection sion or sudden fear with the psychical element in the history of the disorder. In the "Annales Medicopsych ologiques" (1851. fol- and saw It was a a strong impression upon her mind. and that it had an that the child effect . disagreeable object and She was taken small-pox as ill. Mademoiselle Elizabeth. cine. not far from her a child in the small-pox. (lx. although exposed to the variolous miasm. A young persistence for lady. from as severe an attack of (confluent) informant had ever attended. A medical friend informs me that a near relation of his. p. It is worthy of remark. 295). that it was a mere threat on the part of the offended mother. however. have induced an attack which would not otherwise have occurred. illustration of a fearful imagination pro- And when we extend the examination of psychical disease-producing causes to those which induce disorders not connected with any disease in the person's mind. Her revulalent. that the lady has from that time been subject to epileptic attacks. if not from the child. that variola was not prev- had been vaccinated. the subject —Nebelius was lecturing one day upon Medi- being a description of ague. p. a young lady about seventeen years of age. from other sources of infection in the town. my and made suffered much street disfigured. had three or four paroxysms of tertian fever. He was laid up. At . began to shiver. Still there was the possibility of her having caught the complaint.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 300 was not laboring under the complaint. and at last had all the symptoms of intermittent fever. and by their category. that she her and the child may. It may be remarked that she lived at some distance from town. Intermittent Fever. one of his pupils (doubt- less highly susceptible and nervous) became pale. perhaps by depressing the spirits it predisposed the lady to take the prevailing epidemic.

and was fain to get him to bed with- spiracy.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. and "fell into an ague. Such instances serve to mark the different effects of contagious diseases upon those who come within their influence. at the time. danger in a voyage. observes that "any severe action of the mind. upon him. 394). and was of an intermittent type. found his heart him. when suspected by Queen Elizabeth of conand anxious to clear himself in her presence. p. —she 301 —prolonged baths." after describing the symptoms of the fever which prevailed and proved frequently fatal in Africa. Dr. — caught in fact it. course of the disorder except in the intermediate time of uterine repose. her eyes fixed never returned. Rheumatism. The Duke of Norfolk. just as full occupation of mind was found to act as a prophylactic against it. a period of six more or less stiffness of the joints. under the treatment adopted last. Bouygnes. antispasmodics. who was accident. became calm and was considered cured. when. according to their mental condition. on a rheumatic —I that her husband. 473). Demangeon says he has knowai Avomen nurse their own children in the small-pox without any feeling of repugnance. p. The attacks of ague so intense that she remained motionless. " parfaitement caracterisee. and unable to speak a word. had a severe have known two cases in which fright brought In one case a woman heard affection of the joints. i. at work She was the shock she had received. a boy. and not take the complaint. on the approach of the catamenia. her in in a man who at some distance. an attack of tertian fever supervened. fail out his dinner" ("Froude's History. is almost certain to be succeeded by fever in this country" (vol. aged about painful. She afterwards said that at that moment she underwent an extraordinary change. and had after w rists and ankles became swollen and 7 Ever since. who Her emotion was captain of a vessel." The attacks returned at the same periods in spite of appropriate treatment (" le plus varie et le mieux Her physician. failed to modify the indique"). town good health years. but did not succeed . she has been subject to 16. such as Grief or Anger. one night ran after him with a was alarmed by a drunken stick. Samuel Baker. &c. We may add that she was cured by home of a brother. ix. the the sudden return had been exposed to great a purely psychical agent." vol. In the other case. in his "Albert ISTyanza. but the same persons having to nurse other children Sir towards whom they felt differently —disgusted.

(lxi. . because he allowed a miserable vehicle to pass and his English nobleman in Paris dismissed his coachman. Badeley says. even without the artificial aid of makes the proper preservation of the economy of the body an impossibility for which reason (as seems to me) gout rarely atThose who choose may except the present writer" tacks fools. Syd. II. an old wn equipage on was admitted at La The poor man. Sydenham. ing altogether from nervous shock. business. himself a martyr observes that the disease follows the over-application of the it. 149). the violent or long-continued and passions. is pre-eminently the inseparable com- to serious matters. so-called. lordship. George is . in overtaking him. An faithful servant." In speaking of the causes of gout. p. "George to converse with Consumed by your at the hospital G— . and begged "I have taken the you about a patient who interests the chagrin of having displeased your dying at the hospital. or terror" "A by fretting.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 302 The boy on reaching home was pale and sufferFeverish symptoms followed. or pleasure . coming greatly. when the interne. the foregoing I add an abridged report from Descuret of a melancholy instance of death caused by Grief. him liberty of me hastened to the house of Lord "My to forgive his servant. Todd. and several of the When swollen." he said. ii. Rush enuGout. (Works. with Chagrin." proud Anglais . Soc. "but this interrupts the unfortunate !" lord. which ended in chorea. imagination. " Melancholy. To vol. perhaps. combined. p. tire that excessive exertion of this sort. The very similar to several reported by Dr. joints shortly afterwards from exposure to the case is became painful and recovering from the attack he suffered a relapse air. Hence. those who are liable to it are so wont to and overwhelm the animal spirits by long and deep thought. anger." paroxysm of joy. and among the exciting causes. to mind and deep study. thing preyed upon his mind. reading. in study. Charity. soon becoming ill. — Among the remote causes of this malady Dr. friend of fire. mine had a fit of gout brought on and cured suddenly by the alarm of a house being on Dr. 148). traced the cause of his symptoms to He their root. and was laid up for some weeks. merates " public and domestic vexation. convinced that some- the road. " a sudden exercise of the understanding. panion of gout.

"One died while embracing her son. "George is no who returned from the hospital "How is more. victs. to be treated at he only requires one thing to make him all die happy. but your George cannot be removed ." I may add that quite recently similar fates. "he died during the night. effects when excessive." he replied. The ill of Joy." sorry he was a brave man. expense. and in the full possession of his intellectual power. their husbands having been reported as certainly lost and then turning up. . 803 Let him go out at once. has often been a subject of philosophical re- mark. I have seen it stated. " The pardon of my lord alone can save my life !" — one morning. so contrary to its beneficial influence in moderation. "And Lord G by sending some money to the widow of the man who had the misfortune to allow him to be overtaken by a fiacre /" dans blesse' ses his conscience (lxvi). at an advanced age. have awaited several women in connection with shipwrecks.: UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. undergoing imprisonment for life. and departed indignant. That this influence instances of human may be would resolve itself into one of sorrow in some suggested by the cynic." I wish him "Your generosity does not surprise me. fell down dead on being informed that they were liberated. and to have he wants." But you cannot know that he has disGeorge and pardon him graced me by allowing me to be passed on the road by a fiacre. the other was suddenly surprised by the sight of her son while she was deeply lamenting his supposed death. The following well-known instances may here be added Valerius Maximus states that two Roman matrons died with Joy on seeing their sons return in safety from the battle fought near Lake Thrasymenus. but we decline for the honor nature to accept this explanation. History also records that "Sophocles. composed a tragedy which ." coolly The worthy French who doctor. whom "I am indeed very I used to like very much. adduces the foregoing as an example of "orgueil et vanity d'un Anglais — thought to satisfy chevaux. responded his lordship. not take the begged in vain. of his valet. saying. and "I see that is that your lordship will come and pardon him. the result of a rebound from Grief to Joy. miserable man wishes still to dishonor my me. George?" asked Lord G sadder than usual." adds. that several con- Irishmen. within a few years." ! The interne. George did money his master sent him. in an almost in- audible voice.

died from Joy while embracing his son. as a rule. to whom a triumph was decreed for subjugating Corsica. Although. the second tyrant of that name. by causing a larger amount of blood to be transmitted to a gland. 7. increase sensibility and warmth. In regard 3. upon the gland. it may this stimulus be act directly through the latter. upon the efferent nerve. restore healthy action and remove abnormal growths.INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS 304: was crowned with such success that he died through Joy that Chilon. p. modify. or of others. the activity those glands which bear special relation to an emotion. and so stimulate its function or they may directly excite the process by their influence on nerves supplying the glands. 96). or inflammatory nutrition by emotional disturbance. either tion of blood through a gland. The emotions may check direct influence by extreme acceleraby unduly lessening its afflux. in is. an athlete of Rhodes. so when Emotion excite the central nuclei of such afferent nerve. when of peripheral origin. transmitted not only through vaso-motor nerves. respects Secretion. Juventius Thalma. 6. if definitely directed. the excitement is upon Nutrition and As. all probability. or alto- hearing the award of a poetical prize to his Summary. to an affected part. upon receiving the intelligence of Louis XIV having re. fell down dead at the foot of the altar at which he was offering up his thanksgiving. . who died on own tragedy (xliii. by altering the chemical composition of the blood. a sensory or afferent nerve ex- cites their function by reflex action. gether suspend the organic functions. him stored down dead " to liberty. and Dionysius. Fouquet. The emotions powerfully excite. are caused primarily As 5. reflected Secretion. defective. — 1. or it may and arises. fell may amples (lxxvi. Various forms of disease originating in perverted. p. To these ex- be added those of Diagoras. the emotions. who died from seeing his three sons return crowned from the Olympic games . 18). is of in a direct . This influence 2. Hence emo- the excitement of certain feelings may. 4. may modify the quality of the secretions. but by the direct action of certain of these nerves (the dilators). Violent emotions may modify Nutrition. who had borne away the prize at the Olympic games. or by Secretion. or by di- Painful emotions either rectly influencing the functions of the gland. to the processes of Nutrition. by virtue of their mere action upon the calibre of the vessels. the pleasurable tions tend to excite them. of Lacedemon.

then. 305 checked when the emotion ratio to its force. from difficult to say whether the activity of the glands that Fear has the effect on secretion from facial pallor. the secretion is is ex- cessive. the be checked by Fear. which we should have expected In the opposite condition of the cheek. Either the (sympathe cheek (apart from its action on the heart). 8. may its secretion checked. latter. if so. lachrymal. thetic) contractors of the minute vessels have been stimulated. occur. however. arrested. of the skin is lowered. taking the place of Fear. we find be less vascularity and secretion. the parallel holds good. Salivary secretion testinal secretion is often increased. ascend from the known and visi- ourselves to the action of the vessels. Consistently with this. The pleasurable emotions tend to act only in one direction. it is true. when. but the painful emotions act Thus Grief excites the both in stimulating and arresting Secretion. we should infer that there would. this condition of the may exercise its normal cheek and glands we assume influence. shame or guilt. it is •tends to increase or decrease. that of increased activity of the secretions. although cold sweats. and as already explained. and Joy. The is to augment the special action of Grief in exciting the lachrymal secretion cannot fairly be regarded as an exception. 9. gard to these. is but probably this In- may be explained. causes pallor of the conclusions arrived at by Bernard. The temperature the secretion of milk lessened by Fear or Fright. or the external surface of the active (cerebro-spinal?) dilators have been paralyzed —probably the Assuming that the capillaries of the glands are similarly affected by Fear. see that the general action of joyful emotions activity of the glands. with this emotion. even in this instance. or the active dilators have been stimulated —probably the latter. and the gastric by Anxiety. so as not to form a real exception to the general rule. If. and. We have here confined by no means exclude the With reaction of nerves which may act directly upon the glands. but 20 . In that either the vaso-motor contractors have been paralyzed.UPON THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. may the other hand. we may endeavor what we do know to apply upon Se- to occur on the body to the internal organs. supplemented by Fear. Lastly. it the influence of Joy restores vascularity to the cheek. we cannot. we we regard further. but probably the former. and Rage salivary secretion On the salivary glands. although may it be doubted whether we are yet able to construct a consistent theory of the action of the emotions cretion.

Fear paralyzing the dilators.306 INFLUENCE OP THE EMOTIONS UPON ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. the opposite emotions of Fear and Joy would both act primarily through the cerebro-spinal system. and controlling the influence of the sympathetic. . but if Bernard be right. and allowing the sympathetic full sway. ble to the unknown and invisible. As to the relative share taken the sympathetic and cerebro-spinal systems. and secondarily through the sympathetic. in referring the contractors of vessels to the former system and the dilators to the latter. we must be in by doubt until physiologists decide the character of the dilator nerves. and Joy stimulating the dilators.

" And Dr. despondingly observes that " the acuteness of ancients that human lie sense concealed is . Lactantius. serves.SPECIFIC INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS. " Homines splene rident. to this important aspect of the inquiry. ESPECIALLY THE EMOTIONS. there has been a marked diversity of sentiment among physiologists. " no single these things speak falsely. although briefly. but we wish we have to refer already answered this question more definitely. the affections it is psychical organism. however. and only a false tradition sions act 1 Some thought wisdom. recognizes tolerably between the several emotions and the bodily organs. ETC. "In shown that the entire body is a makes the special pasexclusively upon special organs. While popular sentiment. and Joy in the spleen. cunter. DO MENTAL STATES. and over the animal and organic nervous system. CHAPTER 307 XII." It is singular that in modern times the above notion concerning the spleen should have been reversed. as are obviously related to special Emotional except in reference to such glands States. ACT INDIFFERENTLY UPON THE SEVERAL ORGANS AND TISSUES OF THE BODY? To a considerable extent in the negative. jecore amant. Eear 1 in the heart. but only tradition. A. felle irasothers courage. Only in the affections. because their but we cannot. corde sapiunt. pulmone loquunt. . prove that they who offices discuss " I know. definite relations and the spermatic — —the lachrymal." says Miiller. a passion acts more upon one organ than upon another. the mammary. that in the healthy . ancient and modern.No special passion acts regularly upon the stomach or the heart in a sound person their effects extend radiatim from the brain over the spinal cord. referring to the very widespread notion Anger among the placed in the gall." man. or Desire is unable to perceive these things. Zeller obproof. .

Again. does a special current towards that organ occur. . experience of in the life .: SPECIFIC INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS.. what Ave the Emotions cinctly It 1. ETC. we find Domrich stating that "the assertion that the several quantitative and qualitative." 1 Let us now. by un- prejudiced examination would ever come to the conclusion that the bodily phenomena of amazement and of cheerfulness. the more firm is the con- viction that as well the kind of excitement as the most special nervous which that stimulus proceeds are peculiar to single emotions. in the first place. 308 which require a distinct member for the realization of an urgent idea or craving. or varying influence upon this or that organ. and Damerow. not only do they not act exclusively on a single organ. is it is stir the heart an error to say that every passion false to it is one-sided and in contradiction to the not true that Sorrow and Joy say that only in the case of those may who already have diseased liver. both affect the special . example. and of the rest. 2. constant. 1 For the foregoing opinions of indebted to Delitzch. or an innate and excessive tendency to disease of the liver. Zeller. special." In the same direction Damerow expresses himself: "An entirely lines in distinct consideration is required in connection with the bodily effects of the emotions and passions. are the same The more more ? the affections are considered without prejudice. is really know admitted. This is true even of those which are admitted to be directly related to special glands . clusively equally certain that the Emotions do not act ex- is it upon any one organ. one Emotion will specially influence them exists a specific relation also state suc- in regard to the particular direction of . I am . Domrich. it is same manner rise into weeping movements of do not feeling organs of the body in a different manner. and of unrestrained joyousness. for some glands. as between maternal tenderness and the mammary glands. of persistent heart-breaking sorrow. Rage appears to act more directly upon the salivary secretion than upon any other. Miiller." In direct opposition to these opinions. and the closely they are psychically analyzed. for the altogether individual. but the organ most affected is mainly determined by conditions which are inde- pendent of the distinctive character of the Emotion. there between Grief and the lachrymal glands. passing from these conflicting sentiments. does Anger disturb Who that organ. as respects that.. that.

while Sorrow has a very certain influence in dis- ordering the digestion. as the Tender Feeling. that of Anger first flushes the eyes. another is the presence of actual disease in an organ. induce an . It is justly expected that a man should be "off his meat" from receiving mournful intelligence. Shame specially affects the skin. 5. 7. the forehead. that of Love 8. support from the fact that the most strik- of Joy on the body are undoubtedly those referable to the heart and lungs. as Fear. Of these conditions. Joy. 6. 9. on the other hand. more particularly the cheeks. one is the temperament or diathesis of the subject of least stances. It may. 8). affect the action of the heart in all. produces an effect upon the liver and stomach. &c. stimulate the movements massive Emotions. as Wonder. a remark which may be applied to disorders of the motor and secre. but this is not in the act induce different diseases.UPON DIFFERENT ORGANS AND TISSUES. while no one supposes that it will cause bronchitis. It is a common remark that while the blush of Shame commences at the cheeks and ears. inconsistent with the position that. p. are more connected with the action of glands (Ixxix. Certain Emotions. under the same circumsame Emotion will produce the same disease. the emotional excitement. Bain makes the forcible observation. Grief affects the heart very injuriously and what is the sigh of Melancholy but a sign of the influence of Sorrow upon the respira. of truth in this. 3. may As any Emotion may 309 upon any organ. but it is certainly far from being a universal ride. It is generally held that the abdominal viscera are affected most by the painful or depressing Emotions. 4. that acute Emotions. Laura Bridgman did not require to be taught how to mould her features in Joy. tion? So of the breathlessness of painful suspense. it has been shown that certain emotions affect the same muscles in all. the same Emotion and vice versa . tory systems. persons Different Emotion —a corollary may be differently affected by the same from the preceding remark respecting tem- perament. both in health and disease. this opinion derives ing effects much Still. Anger. and the thoracic viscera by There is a measure those of a pleasurable or stimulating character. As regards the action of the muscles in Expression. indeed.

11. namely. and Volition. ETC. we can successfully carry out the parallel. Glen (lxxx). Mr.SPECIFIC INFLUENCE OF THE EMOTIONS. the fibre. on the other hand. as we have seen. although this correspondence or cor- beyond a limited extent. in regard to the lungs. the. with an ingenious writer. with each. these emotions. and the serous and glands the second.. the opinion that a disordered liver. the Intellect. affect other organs in a manner also so that it is only within a very limited range striking that . 310 attack of asthma. For if. and muscles and the nervous system being developed from the third. but for once that followed by this affection it is it will induce loss of appetite hundreds of times. is with the primitive tissues of embryonic — this inquiry life by commencing —the mucous. . and the tube. renders its possessor irascible. phthisis is proverbially associ- ated with a sanguine condition of mind. cceteris paribus. rather. tion to ancient and popular notions about the connec- between Anger and the liver — "felle irascuntur" observed that while they were chiefly. we take the essential structural forms represented by them. general relation between them. vessels. the would imply the converse the influence of the mind upon the bodily organs. and would existence of such a relation. in fact. we find a certain . the heart. the Emotions upon the cell the mucous tissue as shown in the various glands enumerated in the last chapter. Again. the vascu- the first representing the skin. On the same principle as affections of the heart frequently induce anxiety of mind. The intimate connection between the viscera themselves also interferes with the isolated action of emotional excitement. more than a diseased lung. Emotion. But. 12. the Inmay be said to act specially upon the tube the nervous tissue. perhaps. relation cannot be pressed tellect — — — — . if established. and endeavor to compare the action of the threefold states of mind. cell. and conversely said Hope and Joy exert a marked it may be influence over the respiration. might fairly lead us to suppose that Anger more immediately acts upon the liver than the lungs. However. Some thrown upon light. through the first. to cause cardiac than hepatic disease. lar. alimentary canal. action) endeavoring to trace such special relationships. or. In reference 10. assist us in Thus. Thus. if — it may be not wholly. and the Will upon the muscular fibres the muscular tissue. reverse the physico-psychical phenomena. we think that Anxiety would be more likely. founded on the supposed influence of bodily disorder upon the state of the mind. it must not be forgotten that it is.

whether 311 we term them And intellectual. this rily much is Lastly. exerts its influence over the muscles engaged in the motions of the body. will generally serve to explain the changes induced in the body by varying mental states. act in the first instance. prima- perceptive and intelligential is in the closest relation with the nervous system that Emotion. be stated with more truthfulness that. does functions. and do not equally influence the voluntary muscles. while the Intellect confines its operations mainly to the brain. the vessels and the glands and the Will. which. glands.UPON DIFFERENT ORGANS AND TISSUES. the Intellect. having Motion for its main functional result. that. spinal. which falls under the vascular or fibrous division of further. acts principally upon the muscular fibre. and alimentary canal Organic Functions Volition muscular contraction Motion these. Still. the alimentary canal. developed and that Volition. broadly speaking. — . . in glancing through this work. Emotions operate with remarkable force upon the skin. they as powerfully affect the heart. either by character or its its suddenness. do bear a broad special relation one to another. gans. or volitional. that all states of the mind. allows of the irregular or excessive action of the encephalic. Probably we cannot go much beyond these general principles. that while the primitive tissues. the Emotions act with by far the greatest force upon the heart and lungs. the nervous tissue and the mucous true. powerless in regard to these tissues and orexercise a special influence from the mucous membrane — — — — . although capable of exciting motion and the organic functions. . . dependent upon Sensation for its is as tissue is not alone cellular. depresses the activity of the controlling power of the cerebrum. or sympathetic nerve-centres. one which. combined with the law that any emotion that. . so strikingly operative upon the Organic Functions. included in the same category. the nervous tissue. emotional. It may. Intellect nerve Sensation Emotion the skin. — . and the glands. however. much cellular as tubular. may with advantage be present to the reader's mind Avhile employed in the study of psycho-somatic phenomena. it will be seen. if not unduly pressed. upon the glands and tissues.

and the power to perform his legs A it. arisen from not distinguishing between the wish or desire to do a certain thing (in accordance with the etymon voluntas). is in morbid condition or a physician says that. the term Will often put to signify the act of determining. Reid says unusual in the operations of the mind to give the to the power. called Volition. we shall speak terms. GENERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES. man wills to walk. THE WILL. under other of what by many is regarded as belonging to the into their psychology ever." put indifferently to signify either the Then again. In regard to Volition. signifies the act of willing and determining. in a paralyzed. systematically entered at some length and physiology. Indeed. therefore. there is more than the . no doubt. which more properly Volition. and to the act of that power. case of hysterical paralysis. treated province of the "Will. . the chapters on the Influence of the Intellect and the we were led by the of this publication (that arranged. the action of interest of the subject of illustrating by Mind upon Body). " as it same name is is is powerless to yet the Will in the sense employed in the is to move when Will a limb is is is in a move first clause. inasmuch as we have. he means that the wanting. howmore briefly. Some confusion in regard to the term itself has. In tions. and Will power of willing or the is act. and Emo- beyond the design Cases. is On paralyzed. but his will It full force.PART III. CHAPTEE XIII. the very wish or desire that. the motor centre which the other hand.

but consisting idea into existence. the sight of a precipice. Bain separates from the movements brought forward by James Mill. . the consequence of which and he refers to Bain is pain and not pleasure. Mill. 313 mere employment of " the Will " in two different senses there is a real divergence of opinion as to whether it constitutes an independent and separate mental faculty. when The law at work here has been referred to considering the tendency of ideas to result in corresponding acts. with the Will as a Cause and the action as an Effect. of the higher intellectual faculties is The Will" (xxii. S. and judged. and those which arise the It is among we sometimes observe from Imitation. to desiring merely. Gall held that the Will resulted. movements excited by the last class. motives must be weighed. 328). is called Will " as cause. itself the action of a muscle. to which reference has just been made. The in consequent of an appropriate idea. Expectation. .THE WILL. Thus. . many but might will also." he the combined operation of desire and intellect. may. which comes between the two. then points out that. lead to the painful result of precipitation. II. as of the action. 40). so far as it applies to distinguishing volun- This analysis is accepted voluntary acts produced by motives of pleasure and pain. those which are of reflex and consensual character. VI. decision resulting from this operation called the is p. says. but have added an item called Force or Power. not from desire alone. but from " That man. James Mill observes. our immediate over a muscle. "The idea of an action of our own. its effect . takes place is Desire. and Imagination. compared. as exhibited in Sympathy and Imitation action of the hemispheres is (p. p. or is the balance of all the other faculties . men have not been content. that the remarkable tendency to act even in the direction of pain. — that which ward in the finally results from the struggle continually going for- mind between the contending functions of Thought and Emotion. J. 267). " might not be confined the concurrent action of required . proximate cause power of willing not being power of calling the in the The only circumstance tary from involuntary actions by Mr. The automatic the physiological aspect of the law. strongly associated with the idea of a pleasure as It excites to action. from the operation of the idea aroused. He (six. but as insufficient to explain those bodily movements. according to Mill. as probably the first psychologist who has succeeded in effecting a complete and correct analysis of the Will. .

the above." a law of association by which origin" That this accidental assoally automatic acts become voluntary. idea B. to stimulate muscular movements with reference to the pleasure or pain. that every kind of voluntary action must. ' wait upon the accidents and improve come. or muscular motion c. In some able papers " On the Nature of Volition psychologically and physiologically considered. law of pleasure and pain retains or continues them is when once begun. Bain considers that J. ciation is the means by which a great number of movements neces- sary for the alleviation of suffering and the procuring of enjoyment are originally discovered by the infant. and the very muscular motion F. and in pain as such. other sensation D. 314 Having withdrawn these three classes of cases of miscalled voluntary power. the very idea E.' so that without these accidents find a starting-point' —appears ' them when they voluntary control could not to be entirely opposed to what may . it will at last excite D. but " by virtue of the fund of power residing in the active organs themselves." 1862-3. and more. the prolongation of law of the Will —the it is "The concurrence not fortuitous. as Mr. but that this still is the only means —that all such movements. For the spontaneous beginning of movethis he refers to two laws ments. " The element of the AYill remaining unexplained is the selection of movements in each case." Here the direct antecedent of an act of Abolition than the idea of the action to be performed forms. it is something more may assume various object of gaining pleasure and escaping from pain. and the retentive or associative process. 385. Bain contends. the simple idea belonging to the sensation D. idea E. The former implies the tendency to act. or muscular motion r. but follows the abiding by whatever movement is giving pleasure. although all have the common . Mill's position." published in the " Psychological Journal." The latter implies that after a certain number of accidental associations between the proper — such actions and particular sensations. II. is the nearest approach he has made to a clear statement of the law of Volition. there can be no doubt. Mr. pp. as when we start up and walk in the direction of a pleasing sound " (xix. that there is a power in pleasure as such. 389). Lockhart Clarke combats Bain's views as too and he points out that they are essentially included in Hartley's proposition that. not from sensation.THE WILL. " If any sensation A. in fact. be associated for a sufficient number of times with any exclusive. fortuitous.

315 be observed and learned by every day's experience that there is an infinite . the exe- could possibly accomplish. While. tastes. the balance of which results in a volitional act. special faculty. to explain how the decision is arrived at to exercise and trains of thought one motive Lockhart Clarke. in accordance with the foregoing view. aroused by external ciation of certain efforts or impulses with the requisite co-ordination. complex combination or co-ordination of muscles as never could have occurred accidentally. however. It certainly is. may modify or neutralize the force of another motive. formed. Volition after " result immediate Volition is the exertion in consequence. but is not quoting Brown's observation." but " by the asso- muscular and rendered perfect by repetition . or rather the desire to the feeling. " desire itself. it which is is true that volitional from complex combinations of the various emo- intellectual faculties. it must be remem- bered that ideas and emotions co-operate to constitute volition. or inclination. it. discovered on trial. but that it composed of an emotional or active element. is present. to the mind or the body. are similar to the subsequent desire. such a peculiar and of our daily avocations and transactions in life. acts necessarily arise tions and do a certain While. it is not the less true that our feelings — may be controlled and directed that is to say. those instinctive impulses which in the infant excite muscular contraction without the intervention of any idea." in short. we speak of volitional states of mind." and he adds number of movements which " have no im- mediate connection with physical pleasure or pain. the course and which frequently in accordance with the end in view. and which nothing but repeated trials Thus." remarks. which is not checked by some stronger or at least . a very difficult thing to understand how this control is exercised. act. easy as it may be." cution of by far the greater number of particular movements by volition " is not learned by a previous accidental association of those movements with particular accidental sensations. and an intellectual or regulative element. unless feeling.THE WILL. then. but are expressly intended to be subservient to the endless variety of desires that are excited by the wants. whether in regard of a desire to act. We some generated by think. which in combination with the idea of the action to be perShould this be the correct mode of regarding: its nature. however. or ideas constantly arising in require. it is obvious that the Will is not a objects. as expressed by Clarke. but our thoughts alone do not result in action. constitutes the Will or Volition. independent of the other is mental faculties. wish.

THE WILL.

316

more

influential desire, arising out of

some

feeling or emotion that

reacts through intelligence for the attainment or avoidance of its object,
is

and what

called the exertion of volition or the sense of effort,

is

the coincidence and approval of the intellect in the

felt

impulse,

and the consequent combination and concentration of both in the
desire itself or upon the desired end."
The reader will find the
arguments in favor of this view of the nature of Volition most clearly
laid

down

by Dr. Clarke, and those in support of a
works of Locke and Beid.

in these papers

distinct faculty in the

We may

now

briefly refer to a

have been held by physiologists

few of the various opinions which

as to the encephalic seat of the Will.

Gall, while endeavoring to find organs for all the mental faculties,

maintained, consistently with his opinion, that the Will was the out-

come of the combined operation of the

intellect

and the

there could be no distinct organ for the Will.

no special
function is mind.

yet everywhere
so far as

its

;

in

It

desires ; that

nowhere, and

is

locality, in all localities of the brain,

And would

not this be essentially

the teaching of the physiology of the present day

This must not

?

be confounded with the encephalic centre of motion, upon which the

Will

is

impressed in muscular movements.

arisen here

from confounding

reflex

Endless confusion has

with volitional

acts.

"The

Will," says Brown-Sequard, " or at least the faculty under the influ-

by which the so-called voluntary movements are
produced, is considered by Gerdy, Miiller, Longet, and others, as
having its organ in the pons Varolii and in the brain. The reasons
given by these writers to prove their views are far from being satisence of the

factory"

Will,

(lviii, p.

231).

Flourens held that the cerebral lobes alone

and volition (in the sense of the motor
Brown-Sequard opposes on the ground that the
constitute the centres of voluntary motion, as main-

are the seat of intelligence
centre), a conclusion

corpora striata

tained by Todd, Carpenter, and most physiologists, of the present

day.

Many French

Varolii

is

physiologists, however, maintain that the

the centre of volition as well as sensation.

pons

Dr. Carpenter

observes that "all those muscular movements which result from
voluntary determinations, have their origin in the vesicular substance

of the hemispheres, though the motor impulse

is

immediately fur-

nished by the automatic apparatus, upon which the cerebrum plays,"
i.

e.,

the corpora striata, although the motor tract

pear to have a higher origin than these ganglia,
to

imagine that the

fibres

itself,

"and

does not ap-

it is

impossible

which converge towards the surface of

THE WILL.

317

these bodies from all parts of the cerebrum, can be so closely

com-

pacted together as to be included in the motor columns of the spinal

The fact would

axis.

rather seem to be, that these converging fibres

(Reil's 'nerves of the internal senses') bear the

same kind of ana-

tomical relation to the corpora striata and the other sensorial centres

of motor power, as do the fibres of the afferent nerves which proceed
to

them from the

747, 776).

retina, <&c." (viii, pp.

Hence, instead

of acting immediately upon the motor nerves, the force or impulse

from the cerebrum

is first

directed to the motor ganglia, exciting

there the same kind of response as

is

given to an impression trans-

mitted from without through a sensory nerve.

Kolk

also says,

"The

Schroeder van der

orders of the Will do not pass directly into

cells, whence the peripheric
from the movements of the muscles" (lvii, p. 137).
we put the levator palpebral into action, it is by willing to

the motor nerves, but into ganglionic
action arises

When
raise

the eyelid.

Dr. Carpenter observes that

the case of vocal sounds that
cles

of the larynx, but that

we have no
it is

in fact

it is

easy to

show

in

power over the musthe same with all so-called
direct

The Will determines, but the automatic apWhether fibres pass between the brain and cord

voluntary movements.
paratus executes.

through, or terminate
is

in,

the corpora striata, the volitional impulse

transmitted thence through the anterior tracts of the crura cerebri,

the anterior pyramidal columns, and anterior portion of the olivary

columns of the medulla oblongata, and the anterior columns and anterior portion of the lateral

columns of the spinal cord.

INFLUENCE OF THE WILL UPON SENSATION,

318

CHAPTER

XIV.

INFLUENCE OF THE WILL UPON SENSATION, THE VOLUNTARY
AND INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES, AND THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS.

SECTION I.— Influence

The

upon Sensation.

reader will find in the chapter on the Influence of the Intel-

on Sensation, various

lect

of the Will

illustrations

of the power of Attention

strongly directed by the Will to a particular region of the body.
not, however, so

is

much

It

that the individual wills that certain sen-

sations shall arise, as that he voluntarily directs his thoughts to cer-

The term Will

tain parts of the system.

somewhat confused way

to describe

as has already been said, that

by

Volition, the expression

two

is

when we say we
is

here employed in a

different ideas.
act

upon

It

is

true,

the muscles

not, strictly speaking, correct,

and

that the Will only excites the actuating ganglia from which the

motor nerves proceed
tention, that

is,

;

but

when we

act

on a muscle by simple At-

only willing the direction of the attention, not the

muscular contraction, we are conscious of a very different mental
act.

In

fact,

the difference in the nature of the act

in the different result, for the

is

clearly

shown

motor ganglia with which the voluntary

muscles are in relation are scarcely at

all affected,

while the centres

of sensation and the nerves supplying the involuntary muscles are

notably excited.

While, therefore, in an act of Attention followed

by corporeal effects, the Will in one sense may be said to operate
upon the body, it is much less truly so than when the Will directly
acts upon the body, however true it is that even in that case the action

is

not direct.

Whether
rect or not,

the above distinction in regard to the Attention be cor-

we may

call the

following case an illustration of the in-

fluence of the Will, as direct as can well be imagined.

Zanglois, a distinguished artist of Rouen,

who was on

Hyacinthe

intimate terms

;

:

THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES, ETC.
with Talma, told

M.

319

Brierre de Boismont that "this great actor had

informed him that when he entered on the stage he was able, by the

power of the Will, to banish from his sight the dress of his numerous
and brilliant audience, and to substitute in the place of these living
When his imagination had thus filled
persons so many skeletons.
the theatre with these singular spectators, the emotions which he experienced gave such an impulse to his acting as to produce the most
startling effects" (lxxxii, p. 41).

"

The

hallucination

is

thus, in

On

some

this case

cases,

M.

Brierre remarks,

under the control of the

Will, and would seem to be excited instantaneously."

At

p.

43 of

this

work,

we

referred to

Newton's experience in

re-

gard to seeing the spectrum of the sun, under certain circumstances,

when he meditated upon it, loithout any effort of the Will. Here it
may be added that Dr. Wigan mentions a family, each member of
which "had the power of forming a voluntary image of any object
at will, on shutting the eyes, and that each could draw from memory
a representation of it, more or less accurate."
Dr. Guy, in a note to his " Hooper's Physician's Vacle Mecum,"
states that,

"when

a feeble and sickly child, I possessed the power

of creating ocular spectra at will, in a very remarkable degree.

I

could design on the dark ground, and on a small scale, any picture,

however complicated, filling in object after object with all the outand colors true to nature. During this period my imagination
was uncommonly active in sleep, occasioning dreams of the most
fearful kind.
As my health improved, I lost this power of creating
images at will, and since my seventh year have never regained it,
though I have suffered occasionally from false impressions on the
sense of hearing." With Goethe also, ocular spectra were voluntary

lines

with Miiller, involuntary.

The Will may, in some cases, influence
way referred to in a case reported by

rect

"An

hallucinations in the indi-

Griesinger

intelligent patient (a medical student),

who had

throughout,

hallucinations of the left side during a violent attack of insanity,

had the impression that the voices did not come from the immediate
neighborhood he had estimated them at a distance of several minutes.
He also made the remarkable declaration that he could, by his
;

belly, exercise voluntarily

ing.

On

an influence on the hallucinations of hear-

closer investigation it

was seen that he meant the respirait was by means

tory function of the abdominal muscles, and that

of the respiration that he exercised the influence.

On

holding the

;

INFLUENCE OF THE WILL UPON SENSATION,

320

breath, the voices were often changed

We

point nearer or more distant.

—appeared

know

come from

to

a

that in expiration, the cere-

bro-spinal fluid rises from the spinal canal into the cavities of the

brain and subarachnoid space (owing to the filling of the numerous

venous plexuses of the canal of the spinal marrow), and that

it

again

subsides during inspiration" (lxxxi, p. 90).

SECTION II.— Influence
The

influence of the

of the Will upon the Voluntary Muscles.

Will on the muscles has

not, for us, the

interest as that of the involuntary action of ideas

inasmuch

as

it

mainly

refers to those ordinary

from

their essential

mind

the typical examples of the influence of

same

and of the emotions,
movements which,

and patent character, constitute in the popular
Mind upon Body, and
which require no illustration, and but little commentary beyond
what has already been made in the previous chapter.
The acknowledged conditions upon which the successful exercise
of the Will upon the voluntary muscles depends are that there

should be a clear conception of the thing willed in the hemispheres
of the descending fibres, motor centre, and centripetal
and generally, a full belief in the power to exercise the Will.
The power of the Will over the voluntary muscles, as shown in

integrity

nerves

;

the successful attempts to simulate nervo-muscular disorders, should
not,

however, be overlooked in this section.

There are two admirable instances

to

which we will

briefly refer;

the one, that of Dr. Calmeil himself, the other, that of a malingerer

who

has recently

made himself

notorious in the

London

Hospitals.

Esquirol maintained that no one could successfully feign an attack
of epilepsy, not even those
the symptoms.

"One

who were thoroughly

familiar with all

day," says Trousseau, "Dr. Calmeil and I

were talking with Esquirol on this very subject, at the Asylum of
Charenton, when suddenly Dr. Calmeil
violent convulsions.

fell

down on

turned round to me, exclaiming, 'Poor fellow! he

But he had no sooner

said so, than Dr. Calmeil got

him, whether he

insisted

feigned"

still

(liv, I, p. 42).

The

tration shows, not only the
cles into

the floor in

After examining him for a moment, Esquirol
is

epileptic!'

up and asked

on thinking epilepsy could not be

Doctor's reply

is

power of the Will

not given.
in

This

illus-

throwing the mus-

seemingly convulsive action, but the shallowness of the ob-

TIIE
jection sometimes

VOLUNTARY MUSCLES,

made

ETC.

against hypnotic phenomena, that they

be feigned, and, therefore, they probably are

so,

or at least that

321

may
it is

and the genuine that it is
Mr. Braid used to say that if any
not safe to accept them as facts.
one was silly enough to play a trick upon him, it was quite possible
he might be deceived. The inference that Braidism is an imposture,
so difficult to distinguish between the false

is

just as reasonable as to infer that all epileptic seizures are feigned,

because Calmeil succeeded in deceiving so practiced an observer as
Esquirol.

The

other case referred to, will be found reported in the "Lancet"
February 17th and April 13th, 1572. The patient, who usually
professed to have been a medical man, contrived to deceive "many
for

physicians and surgeons of great eminence," so well did he force his

muscles to assume the condition of paralysis, convulsion, or rigidity,
" Who," says the above journal,
to simulate.
" would have believed in the possibility of simulating tetanus for a
week, or ten days, or more ?" and adds that " the case has always ex-

which he desired

cited the greatest interest both in professors

and students, and the
and voluminousness
His symptoms were

notes have always been taken with that care

which the

rarity of the case

demanded.

.

.

.

usually those of hemiplegia, with great rigidity of the paralyzed

On one occasion
he presented the appearanoes of true traumatic tetanus, and the surmuscles, and tetanic spasms of the opposite side.

geon under whose care he was at this time, said he could hardly discover a flaw anywhere in his imitation.

During one of his series of
and painful carbuncle formed on the back
of his neck, and his life was really endangered, his pulse being 150.
He was evidently alarmed at his condition, and his strength was
much reduced; and yet he never forgot his ojnsthotonos, but pertinaciously ground his carbuncle against his pillow."
As showing the

simulations, a very large

influence of

Mind

over

Body

in another

way, one physician observes,

" I think the case an interesting one, for he

is

clearly not an ordinary

He

must have much of that mental condition seen in hysterical women."
It having been observed at one hospital that, notwithstanding the tetanic spasm of his limbs, the muscles of the abdomen were lax, these became subsequently " as hard as boards." In
rascal.

one hospital he presented

few days

after

all

the appearances of left hemiplegia.

A

admission he became affected with convulsive spasms

slight, at first, to the

"

The gradual onset of his symptoms from
most grave in the end, was admirably assumed,

of the paralyzed side.

21

INFLUENCE OP THE WILL UPON SENSATION,

322

and was so

like the

book description of

'

ingravescent apoplexy,'

that the idea of imposture seemed really absurd."
year, having fallen

was taken

down

in " a

fit

During the same

" near St. Paul's Churchyard, he

to a hospital, where, soon after his admission, paraplegia

Some months afterwards, he fell down again in London,
and at another hospital was treated for hemiplegia during two
months. Three months later he was admitted at a provincial hospital with well-marked symptoms of hemiplegia, the paralyzed limbs
appeared.

In

being rigid.

less

than a week he stated he

wished to be discharged.

On

felt

much

better,

and

the same day he was seen walking

He was subsequently a patient in
and was very successful in his simulations.
In one instance "he had an attack of tetanus, complete in
every particular. Every spasm was noted, and it is certain that the
amount of sleep which he got during the time was incredibly
small.
A student sat up with him almost every night, and the
about the

streets perfectly well.

at least four

more

slightest changes
it

was

hospitals,

were taken note of and recorded.

really beautiful to

the poor patient's agonies.

watch the

On

effects

We are

told that

of remedies in relieving

the 19th he

left

the hospital in a

fit

of indignation, because he heard a nurse say she thought he was

shamming.

During

his fourteen days' sojourn, he

ounces of whisky or brandy,

and on the

first

consumed 234

four days he had

eighteen hypodermic injections of morphia, containing one-third of

a grain each."

Voluntary power over the muscles may be lost, and yet Emotion
be able to excite their action and vice versa, emotional influence
be suspended and voluntary power remain.

may
may

;

Thus, a gentleman, A. B., in middle

life, is

the subject of paralysis

The

came
on rather suddenly, but for many years before, he had suffered from
the effects of a serious accident to the head, in consequence of which
There was not, however, any
the brain was permanently injured.
sign of paralysis. The paralytic attack above mentioned was marked
of the nerves supplying the tongue and palate.

affection

chew his food, while the muscles supby the portio dura and the third pair, were unaffected. He had
no difficulty in expressing himself by signs or in writing. This

by

inability to articulate, or to

plied

state has continued for several years

Now,

without material alteration.

in this case, emotional excitement frequently has the effect of

enabling him to articulate a sentence or two, although muffled in
character.

THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES, ETC.
Romberg gives two interesting
now referred to.
The first was that of " a widow,

323

cases illustrative of the class of

facts

set.

through two apoplectic attacks, causing
of the

left side,

50,

who had

already passed

and paralysis

loss of speech

The

the former occurring after violent vexation.

face of the patient

was perfectly smooth, without

either furrow or

expression.

All the muscles of the face were deprived of voluntary

movement.

She was neither able

to contract her forehead

eyebrows, to raise the nostrils, nor to

was incapable of closing the eyelids

;

nor her

move her cheek and chin. She
when required to do it, she used

her finger or looked on the ground, by which the eyeball was directed

downwards

;

the levator tarsi relaxed in

On

upper eyelid also moved downwards.
not able to raise or close her

lips, so

and the
the other hand, she was
contraction,

its

that the

mouth

opened slightly, and the saliva ran out, rendering

it

Avas constantly

necessary for the

lip.
The lower jaw was movawas able to open her mouth and chew but even
these movements were not quite of a healthy character, for she was
unable to open the mouth wide, and she was equally incapable of

patient to be constantly wiping her
ble, the patient

;

performing rapid movements of the lower jaw upon the upper jaw.

The tongue did
to protrude
sides

not obey the Will in the least

between the

lay in the

it

;

it

deglutition

teeth,

mouth

nor to move

like a wedge,

;

it

backwards or

to the

and rendered voluntary

and mastication almost impossible.

as well as tactile sensation,

she was neither able

The

sense of taste,

were unimpaired, both in the tongue and

throughout the surface of the face. Speech was impeded, but there
was not complete aphonia, for the patient was able to utter an inarticulate sound, but it was out of her power to modulate its pitch.
The sound was not a distinct vowel, but something like ang or ong,
for even when the mouth was wide open she was unable to say a
distinctly, much less to articulate any other vowel."

On the

other hand, while the Will could not influence the contrac-

tion of these muscles, their action

stimulation, if

we may

call

which arose from without,

excitor

at

was excited by

direct or reflected

emotional excitement direct, and that

reflected.

A

—an

ludicrous idea

once excited the muscles employed in laughter.

internal

"

The

and laughed, passing through all the shades of the
movement without any difficulty, and at the same time the lips, cheeks,
and nostrils went through the same movements which a healthy
patient smiled

person can perform, but over which our patient had no control.

;;

INFLUENCE OF THE WILL UPON SENSATION,

324

They were

induced by any external stimulus, as pricking or

as little

When

pinching the cheek.

she laughed, she was also able to pro-

duce other sounds besides those mentioned.
inarticulate,

but

still

These sounds were also

they varied in their elevation according to the

character of the emotion that caused the laugh, a circumstance not

But it became evident how little these sounds
were under the voluntary control of the patient when she laughed
otherwise observed.

violently

;

she then uttered a peculiar, grunting, animal sound, of

which she was in a measure ashamed, and would willingly have
suppressed.
She therefore tried to shorten it as much as possible
however, the sound continued even after the movements of laughter
had ceased, at a time when in a healthy individual no further sound
would have been emitted" (abridged from xxxiv, II, p. 278).
This patient subsequently died of cholera, and a post-mortem examination disclosed a hemorrhagic

cyst, the size

of a small walnut,

edge of the right hemisphere, at the junction of the
anterior and middle lobes.
at the external

In the following

case, the

Will retained

muscles supplied by the facial nerve,
less

when

its

influence over the

the emotions were power-

:

The

right side of the face of a girl,

set.

12,

was "expressionless in

emotions, and showed no increased action in accelerated respiration,
after running, &c.

Nevertheless, the child was as able to control

the muscles on this side as those on, the left

;

she could

move

the

angle of the mouth, dilate her nostrils, wrinkle her forehead, and

There was no marked change in the
The movements of mastication were undisturbed at either side when the child was regarded full in the face,
while in a state of repose the mouth was found to slant, as in the
contract her eyebrows at will.

sensation of the right side.

usual instances of sudden peripheral paralysis of the facial nerve

but as soon as the features (of the sound side) were altered by emotions or

by talking, the unequal action of the two

sides of the face

became manifest.
"

The

ally.

child

was

delicate,

and the malady was developed gradu-

Besides, there was a deviation of the vertebral column, be-

tween the scapulae, of about one-third of an inch from the straight

and the right half of the thorax appeared sunk to
same extent" (xxxiv, II, p. 280).
The various forms or modifications of respiration sighing, yawncan be performed,
ing, sobbing, laughing, coughing, and sneezing
line to the left,

the

is sufficiently well shown in the familiar instance of the resistance which can be offered to the contraction of the orbicularis. in defiance of various active remedies suggested by Dr. it stantly engaged. Hunter. Sir George Baker. An involuntary malediction half escapes the mouth. namely. The mus- — cles engaged in urination and defecation fluenced by the Will. during which he was able to keep up respiration by the Will. In the early stages of insanity." controlling. We read in his biography that " he once suffered from an alarming spasm attended by a cessation (?) of the heart's action. as we all know. sensations. in controlling consensual movements. 45). is greatly influenced by the sense of hearing. as he afterwards observed. Although ideo-motor acts presuppose the Will's abeyance. and is checked by the forcible repression of the Will. the reflex action cles. It are. ETC. the conflict between the Will and automatic cerebro-muscular action is often. if foredirecting. the action of the I. power of Human Physiology. are usually induced by the mental stimuli comprised under our second division of mental . by supplying the required stimulus: the saliva or food. whether excited by ideas. when not 325 or at least imitated. (ii. who. in limiting. Hunter. and the muscular movements resulting. excited by local —Emotion. the continuance of respiration was probably of no . not only by his writings. intense. . and controlling the automatic or reflex action of the brain. had ceased" service. refer here to The Will is of course. persons born deaf being unable to direct their movements so as to produce intelligible sounds. but by the disorders of his own body. states but. as the circulation In vocalization. largely in- unnecessary. and Hunter continued to respire by a voluntary effort. except in sleep may and be said that the Will allied and the is con- conditions. or local irritation without sensation. p. The influence of the Will. within certain of the voluntary and semi-voluntary mus- both in health and disease. Will on the vocal muscles. had a remarkable attack. The immediately exciting cause was a violent mental &c affection. the Will can only be said to act indirectly. which lasted three-quarters of an hour. therefrom. During this attack. serves a useful purpose in the present investigation. to do more than such works as Carpenter's " also possesses the limits. In deglutition. the sensation and voluntary actions continued unaffected.THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. by the Will irritation. however. with a view of keeping himself alive though. cerebrum's automatic action.

or rather cord. from whatever cause. sole of the foot. and in no long time. deglutition. allows of the below the cerebrum. and thus explains the which occur after mental shock. following simple example. vigorous exertion of the Will. urination. but she could not prevent occasional coughs. anxious to be perfectly quiet. she was now lively and excited. but was notably checked by it. from the volitional derived forces. which would effectually frighten away her intended victim. to extend the muscle in spite of powerful reflex action to the contrary. by the . after which it itself. when she sufficiently recollected herself. occurring in The tice. serves to : muscle did not contract little. as in respiration. For example.INFLUENCE OF THE WILL UPON SENSATION. for a time success- the end. 326 we resolve not to yield to the attempt to startle us into winking. This contraction of the sterno-mastoid it was always in her power to prevent by contracting the muscle of the The affected opposite side. strucwle occurred between the two and respiratory centres. The other day. the Will can free play of the centres reflex or automatic acts exert a certain active influence over those of the semi-voluntary class engaged in respiration. Voluntary efforts to control or ments. John Hunter's pracshow the power of the Will in antagonizing reflex action A woman. continued unless she accidentally contracted till the full effect it a was produced. In addition to its action through the nervous system upon the purely voluntary muscles in producing movements. The suspension of the Will. She stood ready for a spring. &c. my bad cough. though. which comes on in paroxysms. when one of these attacks occurred. or to the motions which naturally ensue from tickling the warned . and was most arrested. . A good illustration sleep of the same power occurs when aroused from by simple cramp of the gastrocnemius we are able. man. are in suspend true excito-motor move&c. she heard a mouse behind the skirting board near her. defecation. was troubled for some years with spasmodic wryneck. Reflex action was not entirely under the control of the Will. and defecation. aged 46. defeated by the irresistible force of the spinal nerves. ful. however. . Her attention was immediately We may see this in animals as well as in cat is troubled with a and the cough ceased the moment before in a state of disAfter awhile. a tress.

to the heart of physiological interest. however. it increased in fre- his health. The alleged occasional direct action of the Will over and non-striated muscles is A distinguished from 10 make much effort. the pulse was." the heart number of is sufficient. and partly to an action upon the As. and way it may and does affect the organic functions. by directing the course of the emotions and ideas to them. the cardiac symptoms resulting from a peculiar condition of the nervous system. SECTION The 327 III. of too rare occurrence to be of he could. Carpenter inclines to this view. Fellow of the Royal Society (set. Dr. 63. and resembling that occasionally caused by Artificial Somnambulism. ration. to increase the beats. if it ceptional. I found.— Influence of the Will upon the InvoluntaryMuscles and the Organic Functions. in the same sense as we speak writer not. "for in this self-induced. although. condition/' he observes. case. regular. accompanied by an internal shiver. is altogether ex- powerfully influence them indirectly. 79) told me that the frequency of his pulse He 20 beats in the minute. with some reluctance. the but that effort. the mere direction of the Attention to breathing. pulse by the concentration of the Attention. its under certain circumstances. however. " there is sometimes an extraordinary re- . it does not seem necessary to suppose that the Will acted directly upon the muscular tissue of the heart. Will upon the heart and non-striated direct action of the muscles of organic life. soft and In the course of about two minutes. able himself to increase the frequency of the is of its acting upon the voluntary muscles. requesting him to describe how he attempted to he said that he could hardly describe the character of accelerate it seemed to be partly due to " a sort of impulse. quency to 82. his experience is the same. from a sense of danger accompanying it. any apparent increase The case of Colonel stance of the In regard to the respi- nor was there in this gentleman's in the respiratory Townsend has been power of the Will The movements. although it may can be ever exerted. but interesting and remarkable as the phenomenon he exhibited was. the Will possibly acted only indirectly on this organ. mitted. by voluntary in this acceded to my request to the experiment. On it. often adduced as an in- in controlling the action of the heart.THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. or at least a conviction that it was not desirable for On being seated. ETC. increase if ad- practical importance.

(viii. gustine gives a case of voluntary trance in the (Opera. apparently. to throb at his bidding. to that of Colonel Townsend. important. which. ita se auferebat a scnsibus. p. is to leave the colonel. p. "There Transactions heart ' when he of a man who pleased. to influence his heart that " he possessed the remarkable The faculty of throwing himself into a trance at pleasure. 39). when (See Appendix. Cheyne and Dr. trance it casion that life was extinct. In this connection. Darwin says. voluntary rumination has occurred. while his face became colorless and shrunk. similar. as being is probably induced by the Will forcibly concentrating the Attention upon one subject. 231). respiration heart seemed at an end. vol. Dr. ceased. for during the was as utterly devoid of consciousness as his body of animation. 328 movements and of the pulsations of the would produce a state of complete tardation of the respiratory heart. expert! sunt. 15G9. Libel .) an instance told in the ' Philosophical could for a time stop the motion of his and he adds the case of a gentleman who could so far increase the peristaltic action of the bowels by voluntary " effort. ut non solum vellicantes atque pungcntes minimc sentiret." INFLUENCE OF THE WILL UPON SENSATION. need not occasion be able to suspend certainly. p. Civitate AuDei" incredibilius. and referred to by Mr. qui homines voces. itself. that he could cause their action at any time in half an hour (lxxv. v. in some and leading to a condition of the organic functions respects. Baynard believed on one oc(Ixxxv. the prolonged suspension of active vitality in the Fakirs. et jacebat simillimus mortuo. and some it cases. collapse" much Calmeil thinks that 1103). I. and ghastly even his mind ceased to manifest . surprise if the Will should. if carried further. 796): (piod plerique fratres "Jam memoria recentissima illud "De multo St. there no reason why an have enabled Colonel Townsend The statement is exceptional distribution of the nerves should not respecting him is even directly. In this state he would remain for hours. if in at least one instance about to be mentioned. Braid and Dr. ad imitatas quasi lamentantis cujus fecit Pestitutus in paroocia Calamensis ecclesise. authenticated by English officers and medical men. p. his whole frame assumed the icy chill and rigidity of death. Edit. when these singular phenomena wore away. Presbyter quidam nomine quando ei placebat (rogabatur autcm ut hoc faceret ab eis qui rem mirabilem coram scire cupiebant). glazed. and his eyes fixed. in the action of the heart . and were about signs of returning animation appeared. and he returned to his usual condition Dr. Carpenter.

329 sed aliquando etiam igne ureretur admoto. apparent examples of this power being attributable to rigidity of the surrounding muscles. si clarius loquerentur. sed non sentiendo non movere corpus. in any instance. quod tanquam in defuncto nullus inveniebatur anhelitus hominum tamen voces. : the Will. with which . but this is due to exhausting the cerebrum. tanquam de longinquo se audisse postea referebat. and by the concentration of the Attention /which are both dependent on . the abdominal are. in the following passage. Ipse tanquam de sum saccido. p. it will be observed. sine ullo doloris sensu nisi postmodum ex vulnere non autem obnitendo. Of the muscles concerned in vomiting. eo probabatur. revocantque cum volunt. II. in that it it is cannot be performed by all persons voluntarily. Voluntary rumination is incidentally mentioned by St. Sunt qui eorum quce tion : voraverunt incredibiliter plurima trectatis. deponunt ad frontem. directly nor is upon the calibre of these there sufficient proof that. in consequence of some of the mus- by the act being altogether of the non-striated class. hominem expertus. In that muscles in some instances. -pendulum prcecordiis con- placuerit. Voluntary perspiration. at one time or other. 14). In considering the possibility of the Will acting upon non-striated we must not omit to mention that Peter Frank and Blumenbach record two cases of great interest. Notum est. more or less under the influence of the Will. case tion (xxxiv.THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. vessels. no doubt. also finds a place in the above enumeration. frequently classed. atque ubertim lachrymas fundere " (loc. or to emotional states. integerrimum proferunt. et quod varia. sudare sol ere cum vellet. by the former. ETC." In hypnotism. vel ambas simul. excited by the Will. the whole of Avhich is " Sunt qui et Sunt qui totam csesariem capite immoto quantum capilli occupant. by straining the muscles of the eye. however.). Augustine worthy of preservaaures moveant vel singulas. the power existed of commencing the act of In Blumenbach's arrest it by volirumination able to was patient affected with a related rumination by the direct exercise of the Will. states that Bichat possessed the power of voluntarily vom- cles required Romberg it differs such as defecation. cit. It does not act. but from the semi-voluntary acts. the indi- vidual Will has been able to act directly upon the arteries of the body. the process suspends the influence which antagonizes that of the sympathetic over the calibre of the cerebral arteries. quosdam flere cum volunt.

were. in the Glasgow Medical Journal.' some remarks on the case of Dr. they only prove that exceptions may occur to an almost universal rule. is thus described in the "British Review. heart. not that the motion of the iris is voluntary. the pupil dilates. for example. stomach. Thompson 'that although. From the same source I take the following: "Pro- fessor Allen Thompson. 330 iting. as it Braid make either of these motions seemed [Mr. and that Richerand cites an instance of it also. of Glasgow. It would be know whether this power was exerted in these cases interesting to without any previous nausea whatever. however. very similar to the motions for adjustment. at most. is exhibited in the power possessed by some persons of contracting or Professor Laycock states that a dilating the pupil at pleasure. with apparent ease. on the contrary." The reviewer holds that from such cases we It is added. he brings about only through certain ideas . "Budge has met with several other persons must conclude. alleged to be voluntary and independent of any Dr. The case of Prof. Paxton. or attempt to fix the eye alternately on a near and distant object. The examples. Paxton. of alleged voluntary control over the and oesophagus. ' power of contracting and dilating the pupil. at will . Beer. yet the effort to to him. is able in the same This change in the at will. in producing the motions of contraction and dilatation of the pupil. Thompson effort at adjustment of the eye. but not another who can contract it also. the pupil contracts." who can dilate the pupil in consequence of such ideas. 'alternately contracting and dilating the pupil to a great extent. upwards or down- . he did not actually make an effort of adjustment. and are of no practical utility. He does not say whether the action of the Will was direct.' states that ' by directing the eyes loosely. gentleman now living (1860) possesses this power. of and Foreign Budge Medico-Chirurgical "He : Bonn.INFLUENCE OE THE WILL UPON SENSATION. who possesses an unusual Dr. Possibly he refers to Dr. are so rare that. he thinks of a very dark space. difficult He finds it more to induce contraction than dilatation. he thinks of a very light place. when. Paxton showed Dr. however. the motions of his iris. When. but that the idea of a sensation can bring forth motions as well as the actual sensation itself. The exceptional influence of the Will over non-striated muscle. has lately published." on the authority of light to contract or dilate his pupil size of the pupil.' and he informed of Kilmarnock. or through the medium of ideas. mentioned below.

must always begin the movements in a slight effort of what appears to he dilates the pupil. become very much dilated. he can. irrespective of the of light passing to the retina. dilating that he By question. has the ordinary action The under the influence of light and shade. and while eyes continuing to look at a distant object he can pupil and contract it eye for near vision. such as thinking and shade. there may be consciousness and the strong desire to awake. when successful. but he can always at will dilate it. The desperate effort to awake from partial sleep which we are at times conscious of making. October. Thompson. Dr. Crichton gives such a case.' a letter. ETC. up any idea is him to be relaxa- dilated. the voluntary muscles are gradually excited to action.] Dr. and an escape from the grip of the sympathetic. without the power. in . Paxton in the mind. 36). much ' at will. that he calls forth the movements of his pupils. Paxton that. contract not by raising it. the fearful struggle may at last end in cerebro-spinal victory. Dr. Paxton himself informs us in he can alternately dilate and contract the pupil with as facility as he can open and shut his hand. an of light by distinct instance of the influence of the Will over the vessels of the brain but what happens ? The Will acts in two ways — first. uncontrolled. 1857). In still further dilate the without any attempt at adjusting the short. that of a young lady who. cause the contraction of the cerebral vessels as referred to at p. wards. the pupils tity 331 as if looking at a very distinct left. in proof of his possessing a power greater than usual of moving the iris independently of adjustment. which. hut efforts. dilate the pupil without any effort for adjustment for distant vision. "It by is tion. . the very effort to arouse oneself from sleep. without This he can do also more rapidly the slightest effort at adjustment. to the right or to the object. and when the pupil a slight effort says that it is of bracing up. might seem to be.THE VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. both by the state of vision and by the sensation in the eye. But if the brain be in the peculiar condition present in trance. Paxton further stated to tract the pupil at will' (vi. and. p. whether the eyes be exposed to light or shade. itself for near and distant vision. whether the pupil is in its normal condition or not" (vii. secondly. 94 of this work. In other cases. excites the inhibitory action of the brain upon the sympathetic ganglia. and that he is always conscious. says. while steadily looking at it. by Furthermore. as Dr. that he 'can fix the upon a near object.' and than the pupil can adjust pupil. so that in this manner quan- we can con- Dr.

and heard her friends lamenting her death. gradually freed from the excessive contracting influence of the sympathetic ganglia. the indication of the relaxation of the capillaries. It was equally impossible to her to stretch out her arms. during which fresh appeared. ETC. but her mind was without power. it may be said that the great fact to be borne in operation cases) is that. and on her corporeal frame. was "On laid in a coffin. In concluding the consideration of the Will. although she continually endeavored to do so. kind of convulsive motion was observed in the hands A of the corpse. She tried to cry. 87). she at once opened her eyes. or to open her eyes. The thought that she was to be buried alive was the cause it to opsrate first one which gave activity to her mind. through its employment of other mental forces. signs of returning life few minutes after. 332 this state. p. and uttered a most pitiable shriek" first Just as the people were a kind of perspiration was observed to ap- lid. however.INFLUENCE OF THE AVILL UPON SENSATION. hymns were sung the day of her funeral several She was conscious of all that happened around her. . before the door. and could not act on the body. at its utmost height when the funeral hymns began to be sung. and lay her in the coffin. (lxiii. In this case. while it mind in regard to the range of its cannot influence (unless in a few rare the organic functions directly. and when the lid of the coffin was about to be nailed on. it can indirectly. as to cry. which produced an indescribable mental anxiety. and and at last a feet It grew greater every moment. was perspiration. and can exert immense influence over the irregular movements of the muscles and automatic cerebral action. The internal anguish of her mind was. She felt them put on the dead-clothes. II. about to nail on the pear on the surface of the body.

excited by A.. another state of by he meant it may imply that a different kind of required to remove a disease from that which caused it. the healer to B. that in those cases in which the individual's It own emotion is obvious (e. the healed. we proceed stated the truth of the case partially the mind effect is is when he said. g. Having considered the influence of varying mental states upon the bodily functions. INFLUENCE OF THE MIND UPON THE BODY CURE OF DISEASE. if this to may be. are due to a foree proceeding from A. It would therefore be more correct to say that as in health certain menwhereas the character of the mental excitor tal states may induce disease. both in exciting their physiological and pathological action. THE IN CHAPTER XV. and often is. in the au- thor's opinion. of great importance on several grounds.PART IV. but they are. Fear) causes changes in the body. a cure/' emotion same influJohn Hunter only to illustrate the effects of the ence upon morbid conditions of the system. but especially so in regard to the question whether the psychical cures of disease performed by Mesmerism and kindred processes. the same in both instances. "As the state of capable of producing a disease. there can be no influence derived from . GENERAL PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES. so in disease certain mental states may restore health. Fear may heal as well as cause disease. The Illustrations which we a thrice-told tale and of little shall bring forward may seem to some practical use.. or are simply the result of the particular mental state of B.

to threaten and command. although it is he had an impulse to heal by stroking. 664: the hypothetical disease-healing emanation of another person . by designedly exciting his Imagination. or his Hope. for it is certainly the most difficult circumstance to explain merely by the action of the patient's mind upon the jecture disease. which takes effect in a larger number of instances an effect which is more powerful in its operation. by the touch of his hand.— CURATIVE INFLUENCE OF THE MIND. or if while an ordinary mortal can act upon a patient's disease. and that the mere process of stroking may be of the partj in of great use in altering the capillary circulation the same way as the metallic tractors prove beneficial. as witnessed by Boyle and other acute observers. exert a eifect in — the suppose action of the Imagination may be suggested. or faith in A. for An much more if destitute strongest eye like Mars. why At the same time. his Will.'s fear of. and is practiced without any regard to as Fear. is work at in preceded by some particular action on the other hand. the cause of his applying his with disease. though certain emotions. reason to expect any remarkable there was the least effects from his This early success. exert entire and instant influence. It may fairly be asked. argument in favor of the possession of a distinct the part of Greatrakes would be The power on drawn from the circumstance that the sense of an overwhelming mental force or impulse was. beneficially. which is asserted to be an accidentally discovered gift." likely to influence the nervous system of B. and if the cures are as frequent and as complete under these conditions. ought at least not to be overlooked by an honest investigator of the success of his method. but the question it is whether still arises —then B. there is no occasion assume that any other principle to those cases in which the cure on the part of another. difficult to it is con- certain that no one could be stroked without having the attention more or less strongly directed to the seat of the disease. is If. in the first hand to parts affected why was he successful before instance. marked it is found that al- removing morbid conditions of the system. a Valentine Greatrakes can. does not even then constitute the real explanation of the man certainly than effects A produced. of an expression indicating force of will. . In neither method must the physical element be overlooked. taken in connection with the im- "stroking?" pulse which he experienced. possessing " is a different principle not proved by these circumstances.. the presence or contact of some individuals possesses a still greater influence.

for they will show what can be done without the contact of another person.CURATIVE INFLUENCE OF THE MIND. on a certain day fixed upon by the patient long before. So p. 335 But even should it be eventually shown that a power emanates from some persons as is alleged. which when applied to disease exerts a salutary influence. is and the powers have been exerted. the late Dr. if the patient is order to induce it is effect in violent in- flammation of the eyes. the cases collected in this chapter will not be useless. of a magnetic fluid themselves admit that the Imagination may. by the physical effects of fixed gazing on the nervous system of him Avho gazes. 1853. "induced by an inby what may be called an appeal to the Imagination. different emanating power electricity to see . with a severe eruption on the skin. and when he is in that state. I this nation" (xxxvi. as regards certain phenomena. "If a mesmeric says. if the phenomena in question can be ex- Only. not the result of Imagina- Whether Imagination could induce a it. in other cases. it aware of mesmeric means being employed tion. also Dr. and many such apparent predictions are of nature and no predictions at all. Such We recognize animal not intrinsically absurd. I will not say that the idea of a fit of convulsions. but results of a strong Imagi- told. Gregory. occurring on to excite it at the ." says he. 358). produce in some instances the same results. the very character of the phenomena now to be described consists in their connection with and dependence on the Imagination that is. pain. but a certain very time fore- have no doubt. The most able and promi- nent supporter of Mesmerism in this country." Again. or in other words. January. Elliotson. correlation of physical forces why animal magnetism makes it difficult should be regarded as impossible. candidly admits that "the impressible state" appeal to this faculty. the late Professor of Chemistry in the Uni- versity of Edinburgh. on ternal change in the patient's nervous system. caused — . and will serve as a warning not to conclude hastily that. effect —an —we cannot be sure when has once been produced questionably of mesmeric agency even under mesmeric processes. would be altogether unphilosophical to have recourse to or any odylic agency. is sufficient &c. " It is certain that in the greater number of cases the impressible state is produced by means of an appeal to the Imagination of the patient. "It may may be caused by an be. this it plained without The advocates it. in urging the proofs in favor of the occurrence of certain psychical phenomena independently of the Imagination. that un- recurs. future day and hour.

whose cases are cited by Carpenter in his . in the cells of a voltaic battery" (xxx. medium of the influences transmitted from a nerve-centre to the periphery. which some are disposed to find in Dr. adopting this hypothesis. so far as the means adopted may concentrate the nervous ether in one part.. entitled "The Principles." have an excess of with any special healing the following. April. surrounding. pass son suggests is may be remarked it that this but be incapable of passing from A. 336 mental impressions made on the patient. but such force The admitted may not pass from A. and you have already ventured to compare the generation of it. Arago is not credited electricity. that the nervous force is some modification of phenomena of electricity and magnetism. Richardson's "Theory of a Nervous Ether. p. to B. in an of Spiritualists Exposed." 1804. and from the periphery to a nerve-centre. be present in unusual degree in those cases in which the power to heal disease by the hand is alleged to exist and those persons who. has a nearer resem- blance to the effects produced by the imponderable agents than to anything else. it All Dr. in a report to the at Academy of Sciences. indeed. . among gifts. observes that "the transmis- sion of impressions from one part of the nervous system to another. disease ether is to the explanation. under peculiar 1 Sir Benjamin Brodie. on a case more remarkable than the foregoing. or suggestive phenomena" the (xxxvi. or exist. as an enveloping atmosphere. and yet not be a curative agent. the lady and the "Human Physiology.CURATIVE INFLUENCE OF THE MIND. pervading the whole nervous organism. are stated 2 to have arrived other conclusions. equally true when applied to the cure of disease. but I have been unable to verify the reference: "That. each molecule of nervous structure. like monk. but this is quite a different thing from supposing that it escapes from the tips of the fingers. anonymous brochure. a gas or vapor." of the relief of by mesmeric manipulations. 1 So. may might thus. 159). Richard- that there exists. W. 2 Among other works. them For this reason we call phenomena of Suggestion. The foregoing In regard B. This theory might be applied to explain the cure of disease by Mesmerism. by the action of oxygenized blood on the gray substance of the brain and spinal cord. in regard to the resemblance of nervous to electric force. to the production of the electric force by the action of the acid solution on that force which produces the may recollect that I the metallic plates. to man does not appear to evolution of electricity in B. in addition to a nervous fluid. and formthe ing. this affinity may be true. It seems very probable. or from the nervous system to the muscular and glandular structures. and exerts an influence over another person. 1852).

interest at present excited in so-called It is to be hoped that the "Psychic Force" will lead to a more extended and patient examination. the human organization gives forth a physical power which. of such phenomena. Will. to B. 22 . and pro- duces the phenomena of sound. without visible instruments. believed that a peculiar sensibility to the magnet sometimes exists. assume any other curative agent it to be present is . as regards our immediate inquiry. that it does not follow that because the Emotions or the Imagination can . overturns them. first. Braid. secondly.CURATIVE INFLUENCE OF THE MIND. conditions. that if B. from A. according to the same report. or Emotion. on the part of competent observers. repels them according 337 to a lifts heavy bodies. cure his disease as effectually without as with the presence of A.'s Expectation. will not be the less true." Contrary to the opinion of Mr. unphilosophical to and. he. it Whatever may be eventually proved. that therefore there can be no beneficial influence proceeding. attracts or law of polarity.. cure disease.

Gerbi states that by this process. begins by doubting whether the pain is after all so very bad. Millingen's power of the influence in question an influence not only well known to the dentist. but to every one on his way to that dreaded personage. means the . iii) : stood in Devonshire but in the neighborhood of Exmoor. but —toothache— removed temporarily or permanently Odontalgia. convinces himself that he And so he Sciatica. and cited in Brand's " Popular Antiquities" "The Boneshave. a time. in a pamphlet entitled "Storia Natu- un Nuovo Insetto" rale di by him —the insect here referred to being called Its virtues curculio antiodontalgieus. and by the time he sets his foot on the step of the dentist's door. INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES 338 CHAPTER XVI. to the Imagination of the sufferers. It is I so notorious a fact as the magical am indebted to Dr. which clearly owed its efficacy he cured 401 cases out of 629. work unnecessary to multiply examples of for this reference. were wonderful. instance of the influence of the Imagination be found in a practice said to have been once "The Anatomie of the Elder. —We know how one common. common at any rate. sciatica. upon is . for —A singular may is entirely free from it. Dr. Martin Block wick." of in Devonshire. Ranieri Gerbi. —Influence of Mental States upon Disorders of Sensation. SECTION I. tion or painful.. a word perhaps nowhere used or under(vol. affec- all is by the Imagination. for if squeezed between the fingers. who. Professor of Mathematics in Pisa. INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES UPON DISORDERS OF SENSATION. MOTION. wishing to believe that the operation is not requisite. by Fear Familiar with instances of this kind. related in Dr. AND THE ORGANIC FUNCTIONS. they had only to be applied to the tooth to relieve its aching. we can readily believe the statement made by Dr.

" Painful Joints. Boneshave straight. but who immediately lost all her symptoms on being thrown lady from a donkey which she was riding. if not with experienced hospital sur- geons. so closely resemble may "many one involving organic disease." They are not to be persuaded but that this ridiculous seldom fails to form of words give them a perfect cure. " Boneshave right. functional in character.. 287)." says Mr. I attended the case of a I was less familiar with young lady of nineteen (suffering from a painful affection of the knee) in conjunction with Mr. sciatica. He adds : " Another case has been published as an example of a cure by Divine interposition —the immediate cause of itual instructor. with a straight by staff his side. "when hysteric affections. As the water runs by the stave. and conjointly adopted the usual remedies so indis- 1 Brodie confesses he had often made the mistake himself." 1850. . Copland says. and his ' p. and the Exmorians. Stanley. MOTION. "Many years ago. there are few less under the control of medical treatment. The case which follows not only shows that the symptoms of an may emotional disorder. We both deemed the disease to belong to the class of inflammation. must patient lie upon his back on the bank of the river or brook of water. with general practitioners) ample of the cure of an hysterical T but it good exby an exclu- also presents a affection of the joint sively psychical remedy. viz. that two distinguished surgeons confound them (and years ago" it may be added that what happened may happen now. we can scarcely exag- gerate the importance of attacking Disease psychologically. — Sir Benjamin Brodie records the case of a young who had long labored under hysterical neuralgia of the hip and thigh. : UPON DISORDERS OF SENSATION. she should get it being the prayers of the patient's spir- command. between him and the water. in the name of the Saviour. Skey. cure a disorder of which Dr. that up and walk'" ("Diseases of the Joints. ETC. when lowing charm to be freed from 339 affected therewith. and must have the following words repeated over him. Good for the Boneshave. When we see that the mental emotions caused by the fall from a donkey. use the fol- The it.

fact Dr. This have a wonwas exhibited in action. in like manner. I. cost what her mind to attend the wedding. without pain or discomfort in the joint. grief. said. I determined to give stability to the joint for the occasion. to cure or to suspend hysterical complaints " (lxi. had joined the party at the breakfast. wholly ical engross the female mind. and had returned home Within a week her rehave been complete" (xlv. instead this to your side. derful influence over nervous affections. A parallel case of colic is mentioned by Dr. She told me she had stood throughout the whole ceremo- ny. of Edin- He ordered a laboring man some medicine. B. covery may be said to 1866). Rush. demanding individual Stirring political events. and with a clean tongue and cool hand and a happy face. expatiated to no purpose on the probable consequences of so rash an act. and burgh. p. Dr. " Take that. adds " This was the case in a more especial manner with hyster: women." of obtaining the prescribed plaster. and ultimate amputation of the limb One day my patient informed me that her sister was ! going to be married. of which he had complained. and I strapped it up firmly with adhesive plaster." from the colic . or even devotion. free and sinking at the stomach. destruction of ligaments. who were much interested in the successful issue of the contest. Having At it might. with all the force of language I could command. On the following day I vis- ited her. to add that when either love. It may. 132). was you will be well. September 22d. As he returned at that time hearty and well. help to extend our ideas of the influence of the passions upon diseases. but. perhaps. were restored to perfect health by the change of place or occupation to which the war exposed them. saying. and come back in a fortnight. tion on the table for a lady suffered "Put the patient literally did so. and that. the first American war. The same effects of a civil war upon hysteria were observed by Dr. Many weeks elapsed without improvement. after stating that many whose habits were infirm and delicate. they seldom fail. Every one has heard the story of the doctor who and how who left his prescrip- from pleurodynia. in spite of this mistake. Cullen in Scotland in 1745-6. absorption of cartilage. she had made up this proposal I shuddered. jealousy. and I remember that we discussed with some anxiety the probable issue in abscess.INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES 340 criminately resorted to in all painful affections of the joints. derived great benefit from the application. John Brown. and giving him the prescription.

I suspect. we by the same charm which produced to agitate sion effects it. 76. This division. guide. " I took it. " Let me see what I gave you. But the story is somewhat purpose the by patient." vol. as the corresponding one in previous chapters." In like Madame girl treated by referred to at p. latter. — Sweetser cites from the "Medical and Surgical Journal. the least important of the remedies. "but the prescription?" I swallowed it. A variety of medicines had been tried in vain.it.UPON DISORDERS OP SENSATION." say they. xviii. the disease entirely and finally left The her" (xliii. on receiving a dreadful mental shock. powerful alike have. correct to take the nervous system as our It will. and said." "I took. in the case of the poor epileptic de St. the power of the Imagi- nation. when. MOTION. is is the report condensed : Marie- was very much frightened when about four- . the case of a " lady in the who was for four years afflicted prime of life. that they could produce convulsions by acting upon But more than this. and to the Imagination. complete the picture of the of the Imagination. p. and the case was considered hopeless. continuing for some hours." " Yes. of a case of epilepsy from which the following Anne Saverat. "To prove incontestably. Auxerre." said he.— Influence of Mental States upon Disorders in- volving Excessive or Defective Action of the Voluntary Muscles. by the circumstance of her daughter being accidentally burnt to death." that is. In the " Annales Medico-psychologiques " for 1846. with epilepsy in a violent degree. 28. having been ordered to discontinue it. the paper itself! ! tion was. course.) old French Commission on Magnetism found. as you bade me. " put an end to a convul- and to calm. and live on broth and milk instead So that the Imaginasaid the doctor. " Levez-vous" said the manner. as I have already stated. however. Epilepsy. ETC. they found they could by the same talisman terminate them. sufficiently serve our preseDt purpose. " vous etes guerie" and the fit subsided. and leaving the patient in a state of stupor. Amour. of based on a mere symptom. open to the objection that and that would be more it it is is. 341 very proud of the wonders his prescription had effected. SECTION II. of robust health." " Oh. who was accustomed spoiled for our present to relieve his troubles by whisky. the paroxysms returning three or four times a week.

for thirty-eight had been closed as firmly as the fist of a boxer. or effects of of organic cerebral and yet a cure may be performed in a few minutes by what is ordinarily understood by the Imagination. In the evening she had another attack. she exerted and force came inoffensive. and other symptoms which indicated a critical period of life. indefinite pains. she remained free from epileptic attacks. in spite command. not stated. Bertrand knew a woman whose hand. is Amour. Though she of She escaped three months remained at at into action . years. its fingers. opened in response to the appeal of Whether it relapsed eventually into its Madame de former condition St. which in a milder form (Fear). the catamenia appeared. severe that it as epileptic. can how this case. This alarm occurred when she was subject to headache. it is not confounded with the inflammation of the tendons or their thecse. by a sudden thrill of Hope or Faith which masters the tonic spasm. edge. to escape detection the self-control at her all care. He remarks that epilepsy and intermittent fever both belong to the neuroses. so serious a malady. and obstinately resist any attempt to extend them. in consequence of which she lost her consciousness and was convulsed. true nature being recognized. . and sets the fingers disease . length from the establishment. All the orthodox pharmaceutical means may be employed and fail. Dr. Girard's moral and medical treatment in a variety of forms. explanation of the cure of an ague by acting powerfully upon the Imagination. For about three years she remained there. maniacal attacks occurred and became so was found necessary to place her in an asylum. in reply. Dr. She had no return of these convulsive attacks when years of age. coherent. benefit. Girard scribed incoherence. and as followed by momentary Soon after. he should. and became calm does not appear to have entirely re- covered. and for Here a new moral large. and spond to the Every it is same psychical practitioner is no*t astonishing that they alike re- influences. a moral influence. and could only be opened by very considerable force. yet her hand. familiar with hysterical contraction of the A young woman's fingers are firmly flexed upon the palm. having become one of the most violent and dangerous patients under Dr. demand an or even cure. until she The was 22 seizures are de- by Dr. to his knowlfree. irritability.INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES 342 teen years of age. he were asked provoked the attacks of epilepsy. even if. and her habits were industrious Girard observes that if and In reporting regular.

In despair her father excessive Fear The girl. had rendered dumb. is but too chirurgeon. says " got half well at the sight of a fine ship. men now wish suffered to from scurvy. city. made some their knees. in whom most trust. but to no purpose. In the evening I saw her dumb and paralytic. among others. and as serviceable in regard to such cases (whether hysterical. reported to the Medical Society of London. Louise Parguin. gave down as paralytic as before. at as the other. . in the Paralysis. precepts. to keep the It is. was brought to him. MOTION. spoken of only in the most extravagant way. the subject of paralysis agitans. doth silly more gives a reason because the patient puts his confidence in him. last. or is the remains of old disease) that Burton's pithy observation "An true: 343 empirick oftentimes." he large fires as signals of distress. arrived full of faith to be cured." sailors on like cripples. a ship unexpectedly came in sight. it remained relaxed. displeased at finding came with his child to Paris. unless you went or they tried to exercise themselves to regain the use At of their limbs. Moore. according to Hippocrates. and then sat to the child. Kingdon's case. by Dr. walked across the room." left. fires some even beginning and gathering up anything that would going. it to see been him. to crawl about on burn. but in in a sitting posture with no pain. for they were all drawn up their heads resting to move them. — Some years ago an intelligent sailor. and so greatly delighted child of a friend was he that he filled a paper with small shells. and the " The sick men. "For two months everything had been done by the physicians. Southern Ocean. and suffered greatly A portion of in consequence. its great physicians. to definite cases of paralysis that we Probably. It least." however. and. on one of the desolate Crozet Islands. 'Tis opinion alone (saith Cardan) that makes or mars physicians and he doth the best cures. . but for three days. Bouchut states that in 1849 a whom little girl. of an old man.UPON DISORDERS OF SENSATION." p. ETC. in the above instance. who had heard of the great and the Hotel Dieu. which Avicenna pre- and all remedies whatsoever. or a Nymannus strange cures than a rational physician. the refer. influenced his by emotional excitement." Mr. "Power The long unable to walk. Dr. the crew he describes as "seized with a strange sort of sickness. 310. and paralytic in all her limbs. was referred to is of the Soul over the Body. who was strikingly fers before art. whom I know. in He "had was admitted arose. all fours.

Davy inserted a small thermometer under the tongue of the The paralytic man. He placed a thermometer under the tongue. Beddoes having inferred that the oxide must be a specific for palsy. mentioned by Diemerbroeck. Beddoes in his experiments : " Early on the inhala- Dr. .. declared that he already experienced the effects of its benign influence throughout his whole body. The same ceremony was repeated. recovered the use of his paralytic limbs during a violent paroxysm of anger" (xxviii. and was making violent efforts to escape from a chamber in which she had been left alone. but deeply impressed by Dr. Her faith had saved her" (lxxviii. 74). Abercrombie relates the following " A woman. when it ceased to be required. a patient was selected for trial. recovered the use of her limbs when she was very much terrified during a thunderstorm. Dr. no sooner the thermometer between his teeth than he concluded the talis- felt man was in operation. : . Sir Humphrey Davy's well-known case of cure of paralysis was due to aroused hope and expectation. and on the third day she walked about the halls completely cured. recovered as suddenly when his house was on fire and another who had been ill for six years. . Jan.. The opportunity was too tempting to be lost. 399). who had been many years paralytic. Davy did nothing more. She was in the same state the next morning. and Previously to administering the placed under the care of Davy. simply to ascertain the temperature. for the patient was This case is of interest from the application not having been well. the treatment was continued for a fortnight. gas. p. no remedy of any kind except the thermometer having ever been used" ("Life of Davy. Beddoes with the certainty of its success. A man affected in the same manner. the day after to move her limbs. ignorant of the process to which he was to submit. I put off all treatment during the During the day she began to speak. As the patient at once experienced some relief. but desired his patient to return on the following day. tion of nitrous oxide. the same result followed and at the end of a fortnight he was dismissed cured. and. in a burst of enthusiasm. Paris relates the circumstance in the following words in life he was assisting Dr. 1865). the paralyzed limb. INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES 344 such a patient in the hospital. wholly patient. . to ascertain the temperature." p. made to the part affected local excitation was not an element in the treatment and the Attention was directed rather from than to day. Dr. made no prescription.

however. ex- claimed aloud. —Influence of Mental volving. do not kill Croesus!' time (?) he had ever articulated from this event as long as from Van . Precisely similar a case which I give on the same authority (Demangeon) is monk that of a for whom some purgative had been prepared. about to The him. SECTION III. upon the effect produced by the Imagina- action of the intestines. a Persian meeting Croesus was. UPON DISORDERS OF SENSATION. 27). The daughter of the Hanoverian Consul. overwhelmed by this calamity. Sweetser quotes Swieten a case of hemiplegia of some years' standing. 345 The following and the last of these Illustrations has done duty so many times that we are tempted to omit it.the Involuntary Muscles We States upon Disorders inand the Organic Functions. medicine . Herodotus relates that " during the storming of Sardis.. two showing the action of mental states on constipation. &c. upon the involuntary muscles (especially the muscular fibre of the intestinal canal). man. and the other on asthma —probably In the illustrations given. is tion. but his dumb son. to a large extent. p. MOTION. and was copiously purged . and will only add here three cases. ETC. which she especially disliked." tome a good example of the sleep. kill king. Constipation. when he saw the violent designs of the Persian. during —In the " Bibliotheque choisie de Medecine. vi. have already seen the influence of the Imagination. through ignorance of his person. to be He dreamed that he swallowed the taken on the following day. dreamed that she had taken the hated dose. p. aged 18. 84. bearing subject. spasmodic. of other diseases. action on the muscular coat of the vessels is. This was the first but he retained the faculty of speech he lived " (xliii. took no care to avoid the blow or escape death . this exemplified. having to take a rhubarb purge on the following day. who was cured by sudden Terror. 'Oh. overcome with astonishment and terror. in a man. the consequence of which was that he was aroused by the necessity of attending to the calls of nature. and the bowels acted freely five or six times. Griped by her imaginary rhubarb she awoke. but we insert it for a reason which has determined the same course in many other similar instances —the convenience upon the cases hand upon the same to the reader of being able to put his which he may be in quest of.

would engage man who All must admit that any medical same operations from imaginary as from rhubarb or senna. but a party of Mahrattas broke into the camp. 149). Moore gives the following: was confined to his certain death. " were always famous for they were so in Lucian's time . one case. The influence of the Imagination upon warts.INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES 346 eight times (lx. " Old women. within my own knowledge. it remained in statu quo for some time. (op. rubbing your warts with burying it . " Count them. but without effect. but thought about a dozen. however they may be explained " (viii. p. As Dr. and in shaking hands with Miss C remarked upon her disfigured hand. will it is a by the day named. therefore. A surgeon informs me that some years ago his daughter had about a dozen warts on her hands. would enjoy a fashionable purgative practice. . After they were discontinued. when a gentleman " charmed " it away in a few days. " the charming away of warts most vulgar kind " belong to those " cases which are real facts. he sprang out with amazing activity. p. and could only breathe in an erect posture. . and used horse. his — it seems. " not be troubled with your warts after next Sunday. it away or I daresay that the excitement of the theft was one element in the cure. 984). that of stealing a piece of beef from a butcher's shop. that I could hardly suppose the cure was only post hoc. p. their disappear- ance was in such close connection with the psychical treatment adopted. trivial as Warts. real to insure the "An officer in the Indian army bed by asthma." fact that You Now. Carpenter by spells of the says. then throwing the warts decay. and fearing Dr. They had been there about eighteen months. 309). it. mounted his sword with great execution. for which I made use of the usual local remedies." says Brand curing warts . although the day before he could not draw it from its scabbard" (xxxviii. will you ?" said the caller. the warts had disappeared and did not return. One day a gentleman called. then as the beef rots. and in some instances.). a relative In of mine had a troublesome wart on the hand. room for page in the history of this power as a really a curious is curative agent. and her father had applied caustic and other remedies without success. He asked her how many she had she replied she did not know. and taking out a piece of — . paper he solemnly took down her counting. cit. remarking." and he refers to the time-honored cure for warts. They are so apparent that there cannot be much mistake as to whether they have or have not disappeared.

says Hunter. but the going away of that which had stayed so long doth yet stick with me " (xiv. MOTION. little Bacon attributes this result. "After Dr. " a wart upon one of my fingers ." he says. but to the sympathy supposed to exist the lard and the warts after they had once been in contact. sent word to Imagination or Expectation. the curing of warts by charms. The executioner. p. and that wart endured for company. p. and adduces his when I was about sixteen years old. this vulgar error investigation " is which Bacon himself initiated. II. nervous diseases are not alone influenced by the is well shown by the effect produced upon blood diseases. between The lard having touched the warts. as has been often stated. and rubbed the warts the lady. I. who whereupon she got a piece of lard with the all over with the fat side and amongst that wart which I had from my childhood then she nailed with . because they came in a short time. The success was that the warts went quite away. Scurvy. p. 347 in his " Natural History. we —That are not told whether the application was successful. (ii. " have yielded Even tumors. and might go away in a short time again . had from my childhood." Unfortunately Scurvy. one day she would help . . 147). stroked the part affected several times therewith. the piece of lard. the melting or wasting away of the former in the sun." dead man's hand " superstition is The explosion of one of the triumphs of the inductive process of to the stroke of a A curious illustration of this given in Brand's " Popular Antiquities " (vol. was a woman me away The English Ambassador's from superstition.UPON DISORDERS OF SENSATION. 73). was cured solely by this means at the Siege of Breda in 1625. But at the rest I did marvel. upon a post of her chamber window. when the city was almost obliged to capitulate. Dodcl had hung about ten minutes. The Prince of Orange. iii. ETC. skin on. Lord Bacon. with the fat towards the sun. but " I does not see through the charm the effects of the Imagination. . being then at Paris. a very decently dressed young woman went up to the gallows in order to have a wen in her face stroked by the it being a received opinion among the vulgar that it doctor's hand is a certain cure for such a disorder. at the least an afterwards. having untied . grew upon both my hands a number of warts. told far my warts me rest. not to the expectant action of the mind upon the warts. which was within five weeks' space which I had so long all to the south." does not fail to refer to own experience. 360). in a month's space. the doctor's hands. from a newspaper published in 1777. there hundred. caused the disappearance of the latter.

. Cheerfulness again appears in every countenance. would be most affected — but produce a Lectures.— . month before. upon every one soliciting . states Van der Mye (who was present). —and nervous naturally ex- those in which in the action of parts. : and he will scamper about like a lamplighter. and provided them with medicines pronounced to be very efficacious in the cure of scurvy. " This. result of the Imagination as the said.. the terriblest circumstance of all. As Smollett tells us.. " who is almost unable to move with pain shock on his nervous system by telling him that the house is on fire. that three or four drops were sufficient to impart a healing virtue to " a gallon of liquor. dropsies. and the no less general surprise. that part let into the secret of the cheat put flocked in crowds about us might be reserved for their use. the prospect of a naval engagment between the British and Allied of checking the scurvy Such a (lxi. " You may see a person with gout. upright to be their gracious Prince's cure " (Dr. gave rise to and every hence proceeded fluxes.. while we should pect that diseases connected with the nerves is had the restricted to affections of the John Hunter observes their alteration fleet 129). INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES 348 the sufferers that they should soon be relieved. " nor sams. .. attended with a great mortality.." It is stated on good authority that in 1 744. recovered in a few days. that its operation is not system." continues the narrator. to their inexpressible joy. p. effect above shows. not enough for the recovery of two was publicly given out It patients. not in their structure by the Imagination. and a universal faith prevails in the sovereign virtues of the astonishing not moved . " Three small vials of medicine were given to each physician. a variety of misery species of distress (omne chaos morborum). Before this happy experiment was tried they were. I. Such as had were seen walking the and in perfect health. "we find that there are other diseases with which they appear to have little connection that are much affected by the state of the mind " (ii. I." p. Frederic were even the commanders They the soldiers. They boasted of their cure by the Prince's remedy . Dr. " On the Scurvy. 360).. in a condition of absolute despair. by taking (almost by their having brought to them) what we affirmed streets sound. p. Lind. The many quickly and remedy for their limbs for a effect of the delusion was really perfectly recovered. as we have that. 352)." We now displayed our wonder-working balVan der Mye ." says Abernethy in his Gout. Many who declared that they had been rendered worse by all former remedies.

drove the tongue of the wagon with such force against the window." says Dr. Many similar cases are upon record in books of medicine. this occurrence as to But an illustration locomotion being temporarily overcome. who went into a house and cried out to an old gentleman with the gout.UPON DISORDERS OF SENSATION. and elbows were much swollen and inflamed the fits lasted long and were excruciating. In the second adduced in the following an actual cure would appear to have been "A illustrations. that a strong mental image or impression infuses ' ! !' ." by Judge Rush. one in which the cure effected by a fright eradicated Here is the disease from completely as ever afterwards to prevent the system so the case. a native of Germany. but the disease remaining. Mad dog mad dog when he jumped up and ran out of the house even into a pond of water opposite. the year 1773 . however. which in a healthy person may produce excessive muscular contraction will serve to nerve the limb of the crippled poa convulsion new power — — dagric just sufficiently to enable were him we could not adduce this all. case. communicated its return. in one of his novels. . seventy-three years of age. The very fear into the nervous and muscular system. and eagerly inquired what was the very hearty man." In such examples it is immaterial whether the terror arise from a real or an imaginary cause the remarkable. that he instantly leaped out of bed. though familiar fact is. This fact was communicated to me by a gentleman who was a witness of it. . the last fit in 1785 was so severe as to induce an apprehension that it would inevitably carry him off. His feet. Rush. near which the old man lay stretched on a bed. effected. captain of a British ship of war. In particular. of Captain 349 Lismahago. is now alive. in turning a wagon and horses. I shall in another place insert an account of gout in his feet. the Doctor's brother "Peter Fether. forgot that he had ever used crutches. it happened that one of his sons. MOTION. ETC.. when he was suddenly relieved by the following accident. and a The first fit of the gout he ever had was about and from that time till 1785 he had a regular attack in the spring of every year. the person cured. To such a degree was he alarmed by the noise and violence. of the cure of the gout . an obstacle to escape from danger. as to beat in the sash of the window and to scatter the pieces of broken glass all about him. As he lay in a small back room adjoining the yard. been confined for several weeks to his cabin by a severe "who had fit of the was suddenly cured by hearing the cry of 'Fire !' on board his ship. a : householder in Reading. hands.

180). and the most inveterate and incurable disease radically expelled. but as he was out again in a couple of days. are often . it He earth could possible would never cure gout. II. wife. nobody would have been surprised at it but that he should be absolutely cured. and must be acknowledged a very singular and marvellous event. I am toothaches. to bawling against the author of the mischief with the most passionate vehemence. hearing the uproar. From moment he that has been entirely exempt from the gout. is a most extraordinary fact. totally at a loss to account for" (lxi. hiccoughs. is surely a different thing. state &c. he might have been as suddenly cured as Peter Fether.INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES 350 His matter. . Probably no one will be disposed this case. —Terror has appeared to benefit even patients in con- . headaches. I leave the task of developing the principles on which this mysterious resto- from the lowest decrepitude and bodily wretchedness ration of perfect health. Unfortunately (for science). whom " had been howling with pain for the last twenty -four hours. He at once replied that. by a mental shock. p. has a good appetite. But to see a debilitated gouty frame instantly restored to vigor to see the whole system in a moment. and that they return again. whose case was chronic and much more severe. ran into the her astonishment. and says he was never heartier in his To you. where. room." ventured to down him tell I said he I had no doubt he would be able to run if the house were on fire. I mentioned several denied the facts. than I once called upon a physician happen again. He found powerless on the couch from an attack of gout. neither fire nor tiger tested the correctness of his opinion . had died of mere fright. If an old man languishing under disease and infirmity. and now enjoys perfect health. while I am compelled to believe by unexceptionable evidence. has been accomplished. or a tiger from that I stairs into the street a menagerie in the neighborhood should enter the room. undergo a perfect and entire change. and asserted that no power on make him move. although such an event might cure a nervous or hysterical disease. who have been life long accustomed to explore diseases. Phthisis. there is nothing improbable in the view that. which. and his constitution renovated by it. that it but will it is to question the genuineness of often easier to believe a thing has happened. cases in point. know I well to a that removed by the sudden impression of Fear. has never had the slightest touch of it. as it were. she found her husband on his feet.

Sept. Dropsy. especially that ob- must not be taken for the cases related by Van tained from the stethoscope. such a statement more than it is worth. 83). Dr. the hectic returned. state of her soul discourse It is effects The important to observe. cit. and inclines to think that in both instances fright and consequent exertion produced a beneficial result observing that this is only one of many proofs which might be — brought forward. who labored under all the symptoms of confirmed phthisis. p. ETC. and was for- tunate in other ways. excitement. the emaciation and other unfavorable symptoms disappeared. and was threatened with death. MOTION. At this period he happened to obtain fresh literary distinction. perhaps more pious than enlightened. and led to the hope of cure. threw her into a state of religious insanity. the sweats. the consequence being that he was greatly de- The lighted. and attracted to the brain. Tissot records the following: A man of letters reached an ad- vanced stage of phthisis. when he consulted a physician.).UPON DISORDERS OF SENSATION. the different produced upon lung disease by different states of the mind. Rush refers to Swieten and Smollett of consumptive patients recovering their health from falling into cold water. physical effect was that his pulmonary affection was suspended and remained stationary for a long time (xxxv. II. when exaggerated fear about the began to torment her. The passions excited by war are regarded by him as explaining some of the cases of phthisis which are said to have occurred in camp life into general (lxi. and the patient died in the last stage of consumption (op. them withdrew the forces marshalled in the thorax. the pulmonary disease progressed. — badoes in 1780 had one salutary curing others who labored under tubercular disease of the lungs. 167). acted as a counter- irritant. Of course in the absence of more detailed evidence. although in the form of distress. The same writer cites from Mead the case of a young woman. 1867. The consequence. But the form of the mental affection having changed to simple melancholy. in the foregoing case. 351 According to Dr. aged 28. Alarm. of partial or unequal action being suddenly changed and equal excitement throughout the system.. Blane a frightful hurricane in Barthat of benefiting some and effect sumption. p. —Fear may be regarded as the digitalis of our Remedia . increased by the and exhortations of friends. the expectoration. was that the hectic fever. as respects the bodily condition.

for that she had discharged two quarts of water. Two We On the occasion of a second paracentesis." Dr. with a smile on her countenance. which in a few days perfectly removed her disease." as more. Johnson of twenty pints of fluid. physician. he was frightened half to death. Dr. no doubt. great was the fear of this operation. will occur to the reader. Pennington observes. and re- lieved of her burden. that she hoped she should get well without tapping. One remedy was wearing round the neck the mysterious word "Abracadabra. that it but so it sud- brought on a plentiful discharge of urine. p. to be the cause of a remarkable stimulation of similar cases fell under the observation of this (p. a lady with dropsy in Philadelphia was informed that tapping was " I saw her two necessary. days afterwards. the weather being calm he was taken up unhurt. Fear again appeared the kidneys. fell off the told me " A end of the yard into the sea. which the proposal of denly excited in her mind. Dr. in this case the operation was hours" subsequently performed. as recorded by Sir John Hawkins. sailor's the story. For many days we had before she had not discharged more than two or three gills in twenty-four (lxi. 114). the illustrations which we gave for this purpose were necestional excitement sarily examples also of the cure of disease. and as soon he was taken out of the water. when she told me. and immediately proposed that the operation of tapping should be performed." Again. Hull was consulted. upon the influencing the tone of the vital powers. but to use the who : words. the cause of the cure. circulation and the absorbents rapidly and Abernethy's case of the poor woman (as may act frightened by a bull. through the kidneys. II. —A chapter might be written simply on the charms supposed to be of efficacy in ague. in the course of the day after advised her to submit to that operation. records the following sailor in an ascites. and was much terrified upon hearing it. Intermittent Fever. it effectually. In this and several other instances. 296) reported an in- have in a previous chapter teresting case of this kind. However. of Edinburgh.INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES 352 By Psychica. " the sedative operation of Fear was. Rush refers to the case of a young who had woman (19 years of age) taken the usual remedies for ascites without any benefit." written in a . "To this she objected. in order to illustrate the influence of emo- on the organic functions. he discharged a gallon of urine or Dr. Here the came relief It has been supposed that the fear of death well as the fasting he adopted) served to relieve Dr. John Pennington.

II) enumerates Terror. ( It is (vol. from which " Mr. Intoxication. a spider's web. I. return " (ii. floated in the current for several miles. which have been used with a thorough conviction of their being a sovereign remedy. Douce's : persons about Exeter who The an hour before the cold expected fit is . Rush and gives in illustration the story of some young merchants who got drunk in a cabin on James's River. "Agues have been cured by charms. criminal In Brand's "Popular Antiquities" the above say. cures in the same way.' I shall here note another remedy against the ague mentioned as above. by Ferrarius. ETC. or prevent peculiar manner. it/' The same result was who had been executed. and there bury a new-laid egg. for I am apt to suppose that an ague. —Among the remedies for drunkenness. p. least in when taken one case. notes are affected dead of night the nearest cross-road ent times. they (lxi. Alexander Traillian had great confidence in them. 248). expected from the halter of a says Grose. by breaking a salted cake of bran. Dr. MS. on In the course of a twelvemonth he cut the disease short in about fifty persons solely by slips of paper. no doubt fear. and were carried away by a sudden rise of the river in consequence of a heavy fall of rain. 161). patients with the instruction that they should cut off a letter every day. visit is five differ- paid about and they are persuaded that with the egg they shall bury the ague. was very successfully cured by Faith. Galen supposed that they owed their virtues to the physical properties of the substances which were appended" (vol.. at on giving it without the patient's knowledge for had not the slightest effect. says. or put on the skin." and gave them to the It is a large stated that the ague scale. 23 " When they reached the . and giving it to a dog when the fit comes on. A Spanish lieutenant recovered by the time he arrived at the John Hunter sixth letter (xxxvi. In great danger and. in his charming and learned commentary on Paulus JEgineta.UPON DISORDERS OP SENSATION. " will cure the ague. by which means they suppose the malady to be transferred from them to the animal. p. MOTION. "were very much used in ancient times for the cure of quartans. taken. placed in a bag and hung round the neck. to visit at iii." " Amulets. occurs the following is many usual with with ague. 1850. 853 Chips from the gallows. viz. on which he inscribed the word "febrifuge. but by persuading the patient that it was a spider. p. 360). i." says Adams. p. 149). the effect was produced at least the disease did not it .

in modifying the ordinary sufficiently ample evidence life. Immediately after drinking some spirits. on the authority of Dr. length. he purchased a hogshead of rum. but he associated it with the toddy he had taken. they The Israelites Calf. left the key in the door of the room in which it was placed. Rush points out that Moses availed himself of this principle of our mental constitution. suspected this to be his motive. by were likely to influence of the state of the action of intoxicating drinks cumstance that of interest. ever after. A drunkard may be cured of his vice by the association of ideas. as if he had forgotten it. there is dead cannot be restored to that. they were remedy he mentions is sober" all the excitement of a fit (p. shown by the much larger cir- amount can be imbibed without producing on sensation and motion. and from that time did not cease to loathe that liquor. a gentleman became the The attack was due to subject of a painful attack of rheumatism. and after tapping it. not to talk against the sin of drunkenness. and suddenly left off drinking" (p. 175). treating of the influence of psychical agents upon the body in causing disease. and relates. his imagination pictured the accompanying sensation of suffering in his joints. Dr. we found them Conversely. many it exhibits the power of the A citizen of Philadelphia had made At unsuccessful attempts to cure his wife of drunkenness. with the effect if hold it mind upon the system. threatened with death mental impressions. his revulsion being automatic rather than dependent on any process of reasoning." ness but would be more it correct to say that " Will over the thirst for drink. the emotion in this case being " Resentment. Whenever he thought of it. Another of Anger. show is the attention or feelings are absorbed in any matter Threatened Deatli. the history of a man in Scotland. In connection with psychical cases for a state of actual drunken- may be mentioned a psychical antidote to intemperate habits from the same author.INFLUENCE OP MENTAL STATES 354 shore that saved their lives. in what he had done. who was always cured of a fit of drunkenness by being made The way angry. despairing of her reformation. to in detestation. when he made the tion of the Golden sin of idolatry. 171). but against religion. This design was to She give his wife an opportunity of drinking herself to death. a an drink the nauseous and bitter solu- associating which. while the may It is case. make him angry to was. than would otherwise be the —When powerful to cause death itself. Witherspoon. exposure to wet. the patient recover through the instrumentality of not necessary to dwell upon the salutary .

we would pursue the same course as in Animal Magnetism (see p. If the spiritualistic cases of healing are not more wonderful. To these cases might have been added a large number which I have collected toa. ETC. then clearly we are not justified in calling in another principle to explain them. Badeley. splints. educated in several Universities. and Joy. but which I have rejected because they might be objected to. an article by William Howitt. MOTION. 20). &c. In regard to Spiritualism. to the power of which the cures were. from which the particulars given in the text are taken. for our present object. in Waldenburg. "by ence of satisfactorily settling affairs of business. Munich. in all probability. &c. Those who have visited the continental churches will remember the large number of crutches. many 355 imminent danger. and Abbot of St. inasmuch as certain agencies were employed. he met with a peasant who had performed several astonishing cures. confine ourselves. or the beneficial influ- " I have known Dr. Prince of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfiirst. Michael's. Archbishop and Grand Provost of Grosswardein. by prayers offered up to some saint. the operative cause. to the collection of cases which certainly are the result of psycho-physical influences. in which the same influence was present. So with the cures performed by Prince Hohenlohe. in curing disease. not say that the alleged phenomena &c." Nov.ether. can work wonders." I have erted now sufficiently illustrated the by mental states.. influence exerted try emotions of any circumstance which happens Hope and Joy to excite the in the sick-room. but simply are impossible because the Imagination. His name and titles had probably much to do with his influence. and palsy. rheumatism. Expectation. by many persons attributed. Hungary. and most of that danger might have been prevented by having made it when recoveries from the relief which the mind experienced in health. When 26. Faith. which have been left there by those who have (there is no reason to doubt) been cured or relieved of contracted joints.. Although I have no doubt that the influence of Imagination and Faith sufficiently explains them the success of the method adopted in above stated. by all means utilize them. 1 as the Roman Catholic might attribute them to supernatural agency transmitted through a Priest as the modern spiritualist 2 maintains that he was these cases. Born 1794. and still are. as remarkable influence ex- Imagination." observes after making a will. and from him caught the enthusiasm which he subsequently manifested in healing the sick. I exclude as evidence for the reason . at Gaborjan.UPON DISORDERS OF SENSATION. &c. and was. 2 See in the "Spiritualist Magazine. . 1867. he officiated as Priest at Olmiitz. If they are. or by the supposed efficacy of their relics. He con1 stantly appealed to their faith in his power. Hope. sticks. They were Alexander Leopold Franz Emmerich.

the and of every age. Professor Onymus. Prince Royal. who. by the most cabinet. without any exterior means. the majority of the persons My hearing. from the humblest to a prince of the blood. before. You are at liberty to communicate my letter. the pleasure which my cure has given them. amounted to number of persons cured. reporting on the cases cured by Prince Hohenlohe which he himself witnessed. were of all classes of the 'people. the hearing which he had lost from This cure was his infancy. years. effected by a prayer made for him during some minutes. The ten last days of the last month. likewise. by Count von letter written —the ex-King of Bavaria— however. 70 years of who had long been pronounced incurable of paralysis. and to allow any one who wishes. so strongly. describing his case. more than These twenty. the blind saw. there which it was music of struck Besides. the troop my tympanum my no comparison between is which the I perceive actual state daily that very sensitive. that for the first time. me a visit. The deaf heard. too curious to be omitted here: My dear Count: still miracles. recovered. So. on the 27th at noon. but On Jesus of both sexes. has been perfectly cured. . is. not by the aid There are of by a few short prayers. to close the testified. and who had not left his room for many age. of the University of Wurzburg. which kept his hand clenched. the people of Wurzburg might believe themselves in the times of 'the Apostles. the evening of the 28th. as the Animal Magnetist claims them as the result of a magnetic influence passing from the princely healer to patient. by a priest ivho scarcely more than twenty-seven years Although I do not hear so well as are about me. an old gentleman of Thundorf. Bruckenau. lively Louis. the lame freely walked. window of my is Prince Hohenlohe. 1822.: INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES 356 a Medium and . rejoicing in Eight days after his cure he paid the happiness of being able to walk freely. I shall not Mind upon the the adduce them as illustrations of the action of the Body The in the cure of disease. July 3d. defiled in the square in front of the palace. at present. is clearly the of age — I was obliged The inhabitants of Wurzburg have and sincere acclamations. and by the invocation of the name of art. I and who that hear more Last Friday. a Prince of the Blood to the own Sinsheim. gives the following "Captain Ruthlein. to take a copy of it.

excite doubts of the genuineness of the cases operated by Prince Hohenlohe. therefore no animal magnetism. doses. were just as effectively relieved after his death. the deepest emotions are stirred hope. 357 " A man. therefore priest. rose to his feet. bedridden for years. of about 50. is rendered which some would No that many no physic. applies therefore equally to his. named Bramdel. the same diseases which he had cured during his lifetime. therefore spiritual influence of that kind. to the same spot.UPON DISORDERS OF SENSATION. caused himself to be carried by six men from Carlstadt to the Court at Stauffenburg. it is only necessary to come hither and consult a thousand other eye and ear witnesses like myself. he was only partially relieved by a first and second prayer of the Prince." Father Mathew. therefore No know instances. is carried or manages to crawl there. MOTION. No medium. if not so successful as Prince Hohenlohe. therefore a cripple left his from the absence of several to assign. no prayers over the patient. All these being eliminated. remarkable success. ETC. to the profound astonishment of " A all present. student of Burglauer. His arms and legs were utterly paralyzed. a therapeutic virtue. The reason which induced us not to employ the Prince's cures in evidence. at the third he found himself perfectly well. longing. and walked perfectly. living body. in the firm faith that a miracle would be performed. " These cures are real. near Murmerstadt. belief and she finds a new power in her sys- tion doubtless by the excitement occasioned — — . as affirmed by themselves and their adherents. relieved a large number of persons. On the prayer of the Prince he was instantly cured. hanging like those of a dead man. A patient. much easier no homoeopathy. by visiting the good Father's tomb. an influence called into powerful opera- by the supposed miraculous power of the deceased. augmented by crowds flocking. in our own day. that in both cases their prayers. and his face was of a corpse-like pallor. If any one would and they are permanent. with a common sympathy. moment however. in other instances. and on exactly the same principle. and though . the analysis of the agencies possi- No no No infinitesimal drugs of any kind. had lost for two years the use of his legs he was brought in a carriage. nothing would seem to remain but the influence of expectant Faith. assume for a The us. all possible Every one is ready to give information about them. The bly at work readers of his Life In such crutch there. Let w ere T the cause of their difficulty at once arises that in Father Mathew's case.

served. Dymphna. (Here exorcised. and are still occasionally employed to minister to minds diseased. they should decline why plain than they should is. would restore some to whom the latter alone would have been insufficient. The number who subsequently flocked to her tomb was so great that. are placed in . and then. now The skepticism is if is no change takes place in cures. a legend that in the ninth century the daughter of an Irish king fled from her He father's persecution on account of her having become followed her to Gheel. headed her.) is but . is lodged. from the same point of view. having discovered her retreat. for They the epidemics of disease. and Dymphna was duly canonized." I saw the when the evil spirit with which he occupied The it. be- Several lunatics who happened to witness the deed were cured on Admitting the fact. . an impetus Her ease. and. INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES 358 teni . although I do not include my cases of insanity in collection of illustrations. and she walks home with is cure kindles the faith of others. health. aud their more difficult to ex- rise perhaps. he been numerous . may be reThe cures were. it is Six months previously a lady had ness as identical with possession. Patients who would have been sent to the church of St. 1 There is (Dymphna) a Christian. when I room where or she is visited the the" lunatic possessed. arise. from the day of her birth to that of her death. and perwas perfect recovery result If not cured within that period. and decline. will also equally repay the labor bestowed upon tracing their causes. regarded ferred to a powerful and painful emotion. Dymphna. The epidemics of cure are as definite. is "City of the Simple. and admit as easily of study. I quite recently at Gheel 1 may refer for the cure of the insane.. since they are ex- amples of the influence of the mind upon to the means employed till its own organ. and it is not unlikely that the combined influence of her sudden recovery of the use of her and the imaginary virtues of the tomb. the cures at this stage of the history. within nine days. the spot. conveyed to the limbs. as miraculous. 1 visited the Church of St. priest came to her every formed the customary incantations. have undermining the superstition upon which they depend the doctors feel ashamed of the delusion and the priests have to yield their claims to those of legitimate medicine. discharged. In 1862. in course of time. orthodox to regard mad- The day with a relic. of course. as limbs. Again. I was informed. where her acts are recorded in Here her relics are preoak. and are very likely half-ashamed themselves. a colony sprung up and a sane population became accustomed to take charge of the insane in their humble cottages. a patient allowed to stay eighteen days his condition. their Why extent.

thereof assured him. the new Asylum ployed. upon repose securely. and she returned home perfectly healed. where the king touched it. . Thomas his majesty being then at Breda or Bruges. we but can hardly avoid referring to one case which affords an amusing proof of the important results which may flow from attributing such cures to a wrong source. but if only physical therapeutics are em- may There not recover so quickly. whereby they apparently let him see the great benefit his child received thereby. in Norfolk. and to much virtue into the king's all hand nonconformists as to heal my . if God ' can put so child. they serve just as well as a pill of bread or a globule of sugar of milk. to 859 of Gheel. of Norwich. they fairly be attrib- uted to the expectant Faith of the patient. exception being taken.UPON DISORDERS OF SENSATION. he advised the parents of the child to have carried over to the king (his it effectually) denied it. him they had the child to be touched at Breda. The child . Hereupon the father became so amazed that he threw off his Nonconformity. and expressed his thanks in this manner Fareassured : well to all dissenters. and utterly saying the touch of the king was of no greater efficacy than any other man's. studied all imaginable last prevailed with her husband to the child. The mother of doctor's advice. of Norwich. MOTION. own method being used in- the father seemed very strange at his advice. daughter arrived at this health. and he finding so great an alteration. the friends of the child that went with it. We have also in this chapter excluded cases of cure by the Royal may Touch. they whole truth they having . to B. being : troubled with scrofulous swellings. adhering to the means to have it change the let it over. being come to inquires how its father's his house. for although when they occurred. the late deceased Sir Browne. published a book called "Adenochoiradelogia. efficacy of the fusty old a tzou ot<3. they ever. Browne. what- doubt these asserted cures resulting from a belief in the which Faith may As bones of the saintess. unknown to the father. To prevent any therefore dismiss such instances. ETC. carried it to Breda. his promise for the same. surgeon to King Charles II. I'll serve that . some would urge that the possibility of a mesmeric influence passing from A. or a Treatise of Glandules. is no reason. that if he would relate the The friends would not be angry with them. was not out of the question. being consulted about the same. and the Royal Gift of Healing them." In it is the account of the case of a child which we cite here "A nonconformist child. and at air for three weeks or a month this being granted.

" he says. we might claim the agency as psychical. as is well known. is a change for the worse. and the assume a healthy appearance." a curious passage in curing of the King's Evil.INFLUENCE OF MENTAL STATES. acts upon the body through the removed to another ward. Mere change of locality. the touch puzzle our philosophers.' " the importance of a knowledge of the influence of is shown even in regard to the choice of a religion. The remedy mind A hospital patient has an ill-conditioned sore. the Imagination belongs guild. the inference it be attributed to change of scene rather than will often benefit a patient. to no party. or creed. although the change. A little psychical nitrate of silver has been employed. 360 God and that king so long as I live. for whether our kings were of the house of York or Lancaster. does much "by it did the cure for the In other words. In reference to the Aubrey. If air. Thus Mind upon Body It is a pity that there was change of air as well as the touch of Royalty to disturb drawn from the improvement following the latter. as regards air. most part. or imagination. and has stimulated the granulations more effectually than its local application pre- and does not go on well vital action in the part . . with all thankfulness. "The Royal Touch. there is of the king. he may is at once viously. ETC.

PSYCHO. as they do." however. May we peutic purposes ? imitate these accidents to obtain the SECTION I." which includes in its range the Bemedia Psychica. magnum morbi bunc lenire dolorem deponere partem. How can the foregoing facts.PSYCHO-THERAPEUTICS. or by his house being set on fire. proving. however he points out the difficulty of . While. the great influence which mental states exert over the body in disease. in the " Sunt verba et voces. patients.THERAPEUTICS. quibus Possis. CHAPTEE 361 XVII. the observations upon these remedies are compressed within three pages. — General No upon the PaMental States which act beneficially Influence of the Physician tient in Exciting those upon the Body same end ? in Disease. a striking illustration of the relative degree in which psychical and physical remedies have been cultivated that in Pereira's " Materia Meclica. be practically applied for thera- Can this unquestionable power be controlled and directed ? Ought we deliberately to cause a mental shock ? We have seen that gout may be cured by the patient's window being smashed by a wagon. et It is. one disputes that the physician and the surgeon can and con- stantly do make use of this agent. in their mode of addressing their hope and confidence which they endeavor to inspire. PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE MIND ON THE BODY TO MEDICAL PRACTICE. We now approach the consideration of the question. and in the removal of everything calculated to depress them.

and was per- remedy in the fourth the commentary upon these cases Dr. and ought not that the}' are He lected.making use of means which the patient may well believe calculated to promanently restored after a repetition of the voice instantly returned. Rush. his effect. "frequently prescribed remedies of doubtful efficacy till I had worked up upon certainty of their probably in the critical stage of acute diseases. lence in their arms. In the "Lancet" of December 18th. was arranged that in the midst . In the first reports the patient's voice returned with a loud in the second the voice at once returned voice returned. has often been discussed. : it without being unsuccessful in any. avIio four mutes dressed in white should and take her without vioand without giving her time to recollect herconvey her into a distant chamber hung with black and lighted enter her apartment. It cannot be denied that. for if you fail in your powers of persuasion. and controlling psychical remedies. it is probable the result of its application will not be satisfactory. before you apply electro-magnetism." This almost amounts to a confession that the application is little worth in itself. Tanner remarks. often er answered He 257). disposes to be neg- of the influence of the Imagination in two lines. and . I. was fifty cases He lost again in . "It is all-important. even in active disease. Few physicians have had more practical experience of disease than the celebrated Dr. and states that in more than he had applied four cases scream . John Tanner advocates the treatment of hysterical aphonia by electro-maguetism. attributes the cure to the vigorous concurrence of the will with the action of the medicine. to convince your patient that she will be cured .PSYCHO -THERAPEUTICS. it has been successful in not a few instances. p. slowly approaching. applied to the tongue only. duce a decided In . but that the cure is really effected by powerfully appealing to the Imagination. as in the case of the lady that cured of the vapors by a Noble Lord." he says. 362 producing. Whether. but never my patients good into a The effects. Dr. "I have. in the third the about ten minutes. the physician may avail himself of Fear in the treatment of disease. while inflicting a great deal of suffering. 1869. self. and to what extent. regulating. he allows by no means unimportant. than disappointed confidence bordering success of this measure has my expectations" much (lxi. is and clear forcible. and his testimony to the good effects of inspiring confidence. of one of her most violent fits.

nor had he for more than twenty years afterwards. died of a liver complaint. 'Oh yes. ' ! !' ! . the patient resolves not to yield to the knowing that if he does not yield. expect that beyond the salutary awe. of him. the emotion of Fear will be beneficially employed. and crying out Murder murder murder ran off with a speed that would have defied a score of doctors to catch him. are at once controlled by lesser one. 149). who had actually died of a scirrhous liver." remarks on its he says. of Baltimore. — — the threat of unpleasant consequences. who would dare to make use of it. which is recommended by some rash persons. &c. as he always expected. immediately attended and on being informed of the notion which had seized the hypochondriac. and it is more than probable his liver was the death However. The hypochondriac became so terribly frightened. "but upon receiving information of the death of a twin brother. But who can calculate the effects of Fear. he immediately staggered. fliction. Dr. — in presence of a greater evil. Crawford being sent for. the gentleman is . he stepped up to him. any symptoms of this disease !" (op. which some nervous cases it may be desirable for the patient to feel for the physician. to travel. as a butcher would to open a dead calf. as a cura- per and nitrate of silver. After running a considerable distance. We cannot. cried out that he was dead. in however. and whetting it. "We reject. with green tapers is related to ! ! (lxxxvi.PSYCHO-THERAPEUTICS. have advised a On liver disease. who fancied he was dying of returning. he halted and not finding the doctor at his heels. p. exclaimed. and had. to ascertain the fact. cit. and we fully unite with Esquirol in his in epilepsy. and began to open his waistcoat. he appeared to be quite well. Fear no doubt acts beneficially through the Will that is to say. and falling down. I will hasten to cut him certainly dead. "as dangerous the employment salts of cop- how many miracles soever may be attributed to their use. that he leaped up with the agility of a rabbit. tive agent?" . 26). until he was almost exhausted. Crawford. open before putrefaction takes place. 363 Dr. We can say as much of Fear. fall those numerous cases in which nervous symptoms convulsions.' He called for a carving knife.. spasms. p. he will escape its inUnder this class. From that period this gentleman was never known to complain of his liver . patient. and consequently. soon became composed.

He it mad dog. An _ event in the in a striking the symptoms seem to life of Andrew Crosse. his dissipated life neutralized the supposing that he should not be good We effects must conclude that likely to result from ill. the electrician. doctors and imagination flow. ence of the Imagination or the concentration of the Attention. there seems no reason why it should not exert the same influence over the symptoms present in this case. in drying finger. The power of the Will in resisting disease. The Will. but over the automatic action of the cerebrum itself. and deunquestionable. the difficulty of swallowing increased until he could not drink anything.— PSYCHO-THERAPEUTICS. say Is never to suppose we have to confess that the poet died of thirty-four (of fever). and the sight of water caused spasms. illustrates manner. Barthelemy expressed his conviction that the symptoms of hydrophobia in man were mainly due to the imagination and irritability In proof of this he adduced his own case. was strongly exercised.p. illustrate the force disease. apart from the influ- Patient's Will. and at last gained the day the symptoms gradually abated. At a seance of the Royal Academy of Medicine of Paris. poet Churchill said " • The Most of those From It evils at the early age will. Dr. is " Oh. He had of the patient. . If "an act of the Will frequently excites such changes in the brain as to arrest an incipient pectoris or epilepsy" paroxysm of angina (Lay cock). it out had a but ten he experienced a sense of constriction about the throat. and drew he observed that he lightly cauterized it. by forcing them into healthy exercise. the power of the Will over threatened in his case being those of hydrophobia. He felt alarmed . introduced his finger into the throat of a covered with frothy saliva slight excoriation days after. It would of this influence. and in about a . 364 —Importance of Arousing the SECTION II. termine to be well The !" exclaimed the German physician Walderstein. 140). on his . however. week he was well (lx. that is what they surest road to health. we shall be ill we poor mortals know . by resolutely arresting the train of ideas which have been excited. if I could once make a resolution. not only directly over the incipient irregular action of certain motor nerves and muscles. however." a pity.

I met with no sport. dinner. my hour for one templation of such a horrible death pain. shouldered it. the influence of the Will versus the reflex action of Mr. The next morning the aching pain had gone down to my elbow. The passed what I suffered. my only chance is in summoning my utmost resolution. He bitten by a cat. at every step I went. who for many months had been suffering from inversion of the left foot. In hysteria. and exerting every effort it will only be a similar fate . and from thence to the shoulder. after he had received the wound. Three months. on the other more must suffer. which had first commenced in hand. Skey records the case of a young lady of sixteen. and I be- length I began to reflect upon I said to myself. "At strong spasm shot across tion sequel will be best told in his own words the instant that I was about to raise the tumbler to came to my mind my throat that I my : a lips. either I shall die or I shall not dition. which would possibly have proved fatal had I not struggled against it by a strong effort of mind" (" Mereturned to the house I was decidedly better . He called The for a glass of water. moirs of Andrew Crosse. exertion was necessary. appears to have thought 865 which died the same day little of the circumstance. the following it went down to the wrist. there is any hope of my life. and went out my arm aching the while intolerably. lieved that I must die. and he said he certainly considered that I had had an attack of hydrophobia.PSYCHO-THERAPEUTICS. feeling that physical as well as mental my gun. I mentioned the circumstance to Dr. my if con- I do. and the third day left me altogether. but / walked the whole afternoon." p. which was twisted at right angles with the other. Kinglake. the con- — death from hydrophobia— was the torments of hell itself could not have sur- . and was treated by orthopaedic surgeons with an voluntary muscles is constantly seen. I took for the purpose of shooting. 125). and I hand. the consequence of the bite that I had received from the cat. The agony of mind I endured almost insupportable is indescribable . he felt one morning great pain in his arm. . and many must bear it like a man if. defying the attack. of my mind. Mr. however. immediately the terrible convic- . was about to fall a victim to hydro- phobia. which many have suffered. Accordingly. accompanied by extreme thirst. When I I was able to eat some and drank water as usual. Crosse was severely hydrophobic. felt all At human aid was useless. I threatening to extend. passed up to the elbow. and was certainly not nervous or imaginative in regard to it. exerting. a strong mental effort against the disease. .

pallid cheeks. not only because they would have had the credit of the cure. position. laboring under severe pain. and paced the room backwards and forwards with great delight." adds Mr. She was invited to dance. muscular action of the limb. "two days afterwards. and that his state at one time was that of dangerous collapse. Vomiting succeeded. that disease. a quarter of a mile distant. She walked perfectly well into my room. A faith and preached that need or ought to yield medical friend informs me to shrink back. and wringing or gnawing pains. what he "seized with of the cholera in 1832 was the invasion ing incidentally referred to in the case of Irving. he tottered to the church. and that it is one thing to admit the virtue of inert remedies. however. The actions of the limb were thoroughly restored. being not yet restored to its foot. The influence of the Will in controlling disease has already been His own account of Duran attack of cholera may be made use of advantageously here. fortunately. Irving labored under severe diarrhcea. and that to it. and was His appearance shocked his friends. he lay on the bed wrapped in blankets It appears that till he had to set out to preach at half-past eleven. she danced the whole evening. but because the reality of the disorder would have been denied by those who have still to learn that such recoveries are possible. She "She accom- willed to use her foot like other people. aroused the Will in this case. effected a cure in a few minutes. and another thing to recognize the secret of their frequent success. that to his knowledge. but summoned disease is sin. panied her family to a her ball. Skey (though elaborate apparatus of splints." early hour. By He had men when so many of risen in perfect health at his usual breakfast time he had become very cold. and an altogether ghastly appearance. With sunken eyes. Psychical agents. 1 was in all appearance. and found another minister officiating for 1 He was tempted It should be observed that he held no one with 2 him. which has proved fatal to our fellow-creatures. and she did. as normal she entered the ball-room. having almost suddenly recovered the healthy. Skey. and to the as- tonishment of her family. 1866). She came to see me. and to the conviction of medical described to them. and all trace of the previous malady had disappeared" Fortunately no quack medicine or doctor (xlv. 2 and being so weak that he could not sit up. but felt no better.PSYCHO-THERAPEUTICS. he recognized the nature of the affection) succeeded in curing it. 866 Neither they nor Mr. he had a little brandy and arrowroot. and under this novel excitement she stood up. . October 13th.

and next morning rose before the sun to pursue " with renewed strength" what he regarded as his course of duty." body. Irving. under. he seemed to leave me. 309-13). when I stood up to attire myself for the and went forward to ascend the pulpit stairs.PSYCHO-THERAPEUTICS. but it is impossible not to admire so resolute though mistaken a man (" The or nothing. adopts the plan of treating some of his cases by vos remedes. "im levier puissant. plus precieux que tous who declares he is not able to explain why it is an agent. Lisle. pulpit. among French physicians. and that suffices it. especially recognized the importance of acting upon the Imagination. and direct it in a parby leading the patient to expect a certain result from drugs in which he has faith. eating Yet he preached in the evening in a crowded schoolroom. broke out all instant a cold sweat. his head swam. : he expresses himself. and stood in large drops upon From forehead and hands. suffering. 367 resolution to tell his beadle to go into the pulpit that he would shortly take himself on three chairs in the vestry before the my shifted much position I endured voluntarily impelled to draw up my and inform him In the meantime he stretched his place. patent know and indis- . and even that I only fact stares me in the face. ii." breathed with difficulty. the cases which follow prove M. as in a definite ticular channel. The narrative. who has. We may manner excite Hope." vol. but which are totally inert. fire. over my He ened. That this course may be systematically and successfully pursued." but so potent 1 "I am region. me. Oliphant suspects. that I 1 not German or metaphysican enough to venture into this obscure I prefer frankly confessing know nothing about putable. "That came. Mrs. chill as the hanc] of death." The my ignorance. pp. — Systematic Excitement of a definite Expectation or Hope. wondering what would befall him. in regard to the beneficial Action of totally inert Substances. "Even as I and was almost in- limbs in order to keep the pain Nevertheless. making it. that moment my I seemed to be strength- preached upwards of an hour with more unction than he had ever done before. little Life of Edward SECTION III. After the service he walked home. the pains His sight was dim. he laid hold on the pulpit sides and looked The crisis wistfully about. may cause some to smile.

it soon lost its effect. He had in his establishment a hypo- believed himself to be the victim of obstinate con- although in point of fact the bowels were regular. After the third dose the patient was well purged. he professed to yield to his solicita- and told him he was about to give him the most violent purgative he knew. wearied out. Lisle says. of course. and within seven hours the bowels were acted upon more than twenty times. 1861). nitrate of attacks . unless when any unusual exposure brought them on more frequently. Of these pills. Of purgatives he had taken every form. 368 composed of nothing more potent than bread-crumb. affec- the tris- bismuth had been attended with the best results. but was almost in a state of collapse with the attack. consequence incessantly importuned. or from that to a month. With the greatest delight he obeyed Dr. and the what might be expected from the facts contained in this work. 1847. Sir John Forbes." January." who chondriac stipation. whom the editor. Lisle refused to give him any medicine. Dr." commencement of his rehistory. but he affirmed. covered with silver leaf. . He remedies usually recommended for the relief of this distressing tion . without any Dr. this proved to be attaque de cholerine des plus intenses. tions. . characterizes as an officer of long standing and ter much experience. he can only compare "a une However. As bismuth had been so useful. and even abused by his patient.: PSYCHO-THERAPEUTICS. which. he has two sets. He was jubilant at the successful operation of this new purgative. and that it would certainly render him very ill. Sedatives were again applied to but the relief afforded by these was only partial." October 23d. and the the patient's a crisis in covery from Delusional Insanity ("L'Union Medicale. and for a short period prior to coming under my care. Lisle's orders to take five of the pills from his "purgative" box." and the others " Purgatives. whose name and high charac- were known to him " A very intelligent officer had some years from viohad tried almost all the suffered for lent attacks of cramp in the stomach. was continued but notwithstanding that it was increased to the largest dose that its poisonous qualities would justify. it. The following series of cases from "The British and Foreign Medical Review. one day. the pills results are boxes containing one set labelled "Pilules argentees anti-nerveuses. At last. an interval of a quarter of an hour being allowed between each. and was in result. The came on about once in three weeks. was communicated by a naval surgeon.

and with like sucAfter this my patient was ordered to join another ship on a cess hours. and is graphi- " In July.: PSYCHO-THERAPEUTICS. ! different station. had all been . tapeworms (whether a cause or merely an effect. tried. and hot baths.M. Within two hours he became sick (one of the symptoms expected from the medicine). I am unable as yet to divine) showed themselves. 1845." In the next case. but going on to dysentery in many. the company of H. nor did they again become constipated. cold affusion. Accordingly. ij of bread pill relief. 369 on the general system was evidently very prejudi- effect one occasion. given for the relief of these spasms. notwith- its should be would be put under a medicine which most effective. as well as to watch the effect of what was thus given. on the first powder containing four grains of ground attack after biscuit this. he was told that on the next attack he was generally believed to be used. cally described to the Imagination. The Half-drachm doses of bismuth had never procured the same relief in than three less For four successive times did the same kind of attack recur. constipation was relieved by the psychical method. and four times was it met by the same remedy. terminating in simple diarrhoea in some. it he did willingly. so far as I am aware. while greatly suffering from the effect of some preparation of opium. lest too much should be fourth dose caused an entire cessation of pain. powerful enemata. "A seaman had suffered from four successive attacks of constipation. there was no organic disease to The symptoms were such as usually folaccount for its occurrence. treated by the same medical man. while the greatest anxiety was expressed (within the hearing of the party). were attacked with an epidemic bowel complaint. In every one of the latter cases. given." Severe gastric and intestinal pain was removed in the following by a like appeal by the same hand interesting case. expressed to guard against any overdose. low protracted constipation of the bowels and on all four occasions large and repeated doses of the strongest purgatives (croton oil included). much anxiety being. a was administered every seven minutes. On the fifth attack. every seven minutes . but which was rarely This provided he gave his assent. of course. while their On cial. but that. dangerous qualities. and his bowels were freely opened almost immediately after. So far as could be detected. Amongst others who 2i . required to be persevered in to procure he was put under grs. in consequence of standing these.S.

sedatives administered until the man's senses became muddled. a first-class petty officer. these worms were attempted to be dislodged by every means that could be devised. provement in this man's state was frequently commented on by both . whatever might be the means employed. lest its effects should prove most prejudicial. a healthy skin. if even of tardy. of course) were given every sixth hour only. as his disease was most obstinate so was it necessary to have recourse to desperate means to relieve it ) that. his pills were omitted. under a medicine which it was most necessary to< watch with the greatest attention. tried. B— . with his sanction. Symptoms of disease existed which bore too close a resemblance to those of an organic order to admit of hope of a sudden. articles are occasionally forbidden when the mind seems to be inclined to lose sight of what must be made the all-imThe wonderful important subject of thought by night and day. Hence the pills {bread. night. Within twenty -four hours the man's sufferings were decidedly less. This was not a case in which a sudden effect could be expected to be produced. but part of his attack.PSYCHO-THERAPEUTICS. as in most cases where this method has regaining: his flesh. and by expressing on these occasions the most intense anxiety as to the effect of the very powerful and dangerous medicaments. On' the sixth day he was quite so. &c. and was rapidly Here. been and drink have been left unrestricted. Stating to him. as I feared. and at the end of a fortnight he was again at duty with a clear eye. who had but a mild who was much distressed towards the latter by tapeworm appearing in considerable quantities. Having by these statements made an impression. at all hours of the day and it up. lest its contact with the remedy might prove most destructive. became callous. that. to Counter-irritations were applied until the skin I determined to try the effect of mental influence.. As the dysenteric symptoms disappeared. I would therefore put him. the diet sionally. course of treatment seemed to afford the least relief. Occabecame necessary to taboo some article. 370 suffered was H. but no This being so. perhaps fatal. at too great a sacrifice. continued around the pyloric orifice of the stomach be most distressing. Within four days he was almost free from pain. coming in in it other words. seeing that the pain arising (as I fancied) from the large doses of powerful medicine necessary to effect this difficult object. however. relief. it was supposed these means had been successful attack of dysentery. as I did to the other men. it became necessary to keep This was done by repeated visits. and for a time but. and upper portion of the small intestines. .

being so. who. and that even this organic disease was suspended. : became sunken his skin sickly in hue. of the valvulse conniventes. justify asserting order to gain the patient's confidence the foregoing cases of treatment now generation into it. the pain after some weeks returned. "It may be said far as it this case. at least. he was sent to the Royal Naval Hospital at Malta. . feeble. were. third attack. when he had any. —but this referred to. But. and that its characters were so marked This that there could be no room for a doubt as to what it was." which it what deserves.. goes for nothing. I think not and for the following reasons the man's flesh had wasted . in all cases in which drugs are prescribed proformd. and 371 are. as it all. —a Whether effect. officers and men. PSYCHO-THEKAPEUTICS. on two occasions. as here given. and not with the view of producing any direct remedial his advice has been adopted to the extent Nothing can well be doubted. as well as in feeling his sleep. was of the most disturbed character. 1846). . more than all. or altogether powerless. or very likely no mode at or it may be. again. . we have pretty clear proof that disease existed long before was thrown off. as little still ac- quainted with the means employed as the patient himself was. that it was commanding officer would have made a better and quicker cure. and his eye . for the satisfaction of the patient's mind. and the other bad symptoms followed in its wake yet both it and they were again While suffering from a relieved a second time by the same means. distinctly marked by two. then. one of which this slough was "to encourage the administration of simple. is may not true in course adopted in some of forms no essential part of the method At the same time it is liable to de- See observations at p.. he brought up by vomiting a portion of membrane of one of the small intestines. of course. I am assured by one of the officers of the establishment that he most carefully examined this ejected matter. and that the has before been said. with a dozen suggestions for medical practice. in so does not show that the pains were anything but casual . 97 of this work." Sir John Forbes concluded his celebrated article on "Young Physic " in the " British and Foreign Medical Review " (January. non-perturbing medicines. in which case any other mode of treatment. by mental influence only. would have been equally successful altogether feigned. after much the mucous suffering.

the bowels continued to act freely without medicine. was put to great inconvenience on one oc- casion by the threatened action of the bowels during the lecture. His Will triumphed . but it then occurred to him that. —Systematic Direction of the Attention to a Particular Region of the Body. of the bowels would be character." In the meanwhile he allowed his own will to be passive. The Attention may be definitely directed to the region affected." It may be added in illustration of the same principle. exerts over them. fect. inasmuch as he attributed his success in her case entirely to fixed mental Attention with a prestate of dominant idea (and faith in the result). without the administration of inert drugs. that a lecturer secured. very clearly. he might succeed by the psychical process alone. but not when he lectured elsewhere (viii. tion. "and for some time after. . being costive from sedentary pursuits. requested him to direct his attention exclusively to the sensations he experienced in that region. keep your mind firmly fixed on what you know should happen. so that his current of thought might pursue that direction. somewhat hypochondriacal. without sending her fact. The effect took place. 953). by assuring him that the desired acand pointing with his finger tion alons: the course of the arch of the colon and small intestines. it is not so well understood how marked an influence an ideational faculty. p. though the case was not therapeutic in its acting upon his Expectation. Dr. He had on previous occasions relieved a which illustrates this fact amenorrhoea by a mixed method. in a state of the by his special method. whatever precaution he might take. tried the experiment. Carpenter gives several cases which well illustrate this method. Although it is well known that powerful emotions act strongly upon the uterine functions. 372 SECTION IV. required a daily aperient. accompanied by the expectation of a certain result. seating his patient abdomen uncovered. and read a book. Braid. addressing her thus: in "Now. in the form of concentrated AttenA striking case is reported by Mr.PSYCHO-THEKAPEUTICS. partly hypnotic and partly mental. medicine lost its ef- who. moresystem not rendered susceptible at the time over. with the man When for advice. he applied to a medical before him. A gentleman. The experiment very shortly succeeded. He to sleep —wide-awake. but ever afterwards he was troubled in the same way when he went to the same lecture-room.

although merely wooden tractors are employed. it became necessary to hypnotize her. 95-6). juvant. "from having been put out of the way just before she came" to Mr. p. be a wooden point or a finger. required on subsequent occasions. is then con- under the impression that the pain or other morbid it. The same mental action. but it is no doubt a very useful ad- does not appear to be essential . apart from its action in fixing the Attention. To fix her attention thoroughly. when the The Attention is first directed veyed from true 'principle at work to the seat of disease. is and recognized. therefore.THERAPEUTICS. on which it is not less interesting to remark that the failure was due to her inability to fix her attention.PSYCHO. may be more or direct physical action less strongly called into upon the This part. overlooked by those entirely to it it is its It is difficult to separate' these complex clear that the simple passing of a substance. a very allowable mode of treatment. an unquestionable influence. but physical method about to be described (Section VI). but shall only is sufficient to main- . and the patient does not anticipate benefit is Lastly. the local traction. assisted states by a certain Mental lightly touching the Affected Part. and the The same treatment desired result took place within that period. I have before me ment of disease by a large tractors. as in many instances the operator makes no appeal whatever to this principle. there from the treatment. over and one which has been too much attribute the success attending tractorism mental agency. At the 373 expiration of eleven minutes the experiment ended. SECTION V. is what occurs in the employment of the tractors. sensation will concurrently pass away. and not expecting that the operation (if it may be called so) would succeed. Braid. and with the was adopted when same success. select a few. and escape at the extremity Faith of the limb or organ affected. — Combined Influence of Arousing" and States. influences. but whether who must in itself exert a considerable influence capillary circulation. greater power of the more complete psychothe pure and simple. and then the function was reThis case shows the value of Attention. in order to number of cases of the successful treat- both metallic and wooden show their effect. over the surface of a sensi- tive part of the body. stored (xxiii. with one exception. It .

All some measure. and painted so as to resemble The them in color. Perkins were employed exactly in like manner.] The whole effect undoubtedly depends upon the impression which can be made upon the patient's the patients were in Imagination. employing two wooden tractors of nearly the same shape as those used by Perkins. first application of the remedy. till he went to bed. " Next day. cases chosen were those of chronic rheumatism knee. Richard Smith. Without these indispensable aids. wrist. 3). patients. set. Such is the wonderful force of the Imagination. of Bath. The wooden tractors were drawn over the skin so as to touch it in the slightest manner. and he could walk much better. except one. the wonderful cures which this remedy is said to have performed. "If any person would perform these experiments. H. January 8th. and who was not a proper subject for the experiment. and hip. that part of the result was due to mental influence. [This is by no means certain. pursued the experiments commenced by Dr. selected certain patients in the General Hospital for their experiments. but in no degree greater than on the former day" (lxxxiii. but not more. who received no benefit from the former operation. of the Bristol Infirmary. adds. but only stiffness of her ankle. 43. At the time attention. and with similar effects. all except one assured us that their pains were and three of them that they were much benefited by the One felt his knees warmer. and with the following results "Robert Thomas.] relieved. ought to be particularly related. when the pain returned. much Hay- garth and Falconer. Drs. other trials will not prove as successful as those which are above reported. Haygarth. all With the had been months. One was easier for nine hours. They felt (as they fancied) warmth. and when the metallic tractors of Perkins excited so their efficacy was attributed to galvanism. they should be performed in due solemnity. One had a tingling sensation for two hours. the true metallic tractors of Mr. relieved by the second application. p." Mr. One — exception of the hip case. attributed his pain to gout. During the process. He had for some time been under the . for the present purpose. the joints were swollen.: PSYCHO-THERAPEUTICS. as he showed us with great satisfaction. 37-i tain. and ill for several "Of five in the ankle. [This requires some modification. having no existing pain. Dr.

He came under my care on the 19th of April. however/he began to move his limbs better. than if a driven through it. In the course of a few applications. lift his or a nail as he declared in the presence of several gentlemen. Mr. continued to undergo the operation daily. carry coals. In six minutes no other effect was produced than a warmth upon the skin. " My patients crowded in upon me so fast that I had not leisure .PSYCHO-THERAPEUTICS. and wood were used alternately but there did not appear to be the least . whilst Mr.] Mr. disguised with sealing wax. day. which had been very serviceable to many in his state. Smith thought it better to substitute for the future ceived so that it to lift his his knee. and minutes he felt soon