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SPECIFICATION

SP-60-18 Revision 3

CATHODIC PROTECTION

VALIDITY OF SPECIFICATION

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Number

1

Initials
and
Surname

Date
Signature

of
Verification

Expiry
Date

2003-12-12

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

This Specification is protected by copyright and is the sole property of Sasol. The information is proprietary to Sasol and is for the sole use
of the identified project or defined scope of work. Any unauthorised use, disclosure or copying or any other means of duplication or
reproduction, is prohibited.
Copyright © 2003. Sasol. All rights reserved.

SASOL SPECIFICATION SP-60-18
CATHODIC PROTECTION
Originator

:

(SIGNED)
DG ROSS

Reviewer :

(SIGNED)
DFM GOODWIN

Approved by

:

(SIGNED)
JP NELL

Date

16 MARCH 1988

ISSUE DATE:

:

APRIL 1988

For interpretation of the Specification, the following person(s) can be contacted:
GH Müller, BAR Machado, J Piorkowski, T Erasmus
SUBSEQUENT REVISIONS
A Revision Description sheet is included to assist in identifying the changes.
Issue Date Proposed By

Reviewed By

Approved By

Date

2

Aug 2000

DG Ross

BAR Machado

C Thirion

5 June 2000

3

Oct 2003

T Erasmus

BAR Machado

C Thirion

26 Nov 2003

Rev No

This Specification is protected by copyright and is the sole property of Sasol. The information is proprietary to Sasol and is for the sole use
of the identified project or defined scope of work. Any unauthorised use, disclosure or copying or any other means of duplication or
reproduction, is prohibited.
Copyright © 2003. Sasol. All rights reserved.

Revision 3
October 2003
SASOL SPECIFICATION SP-60-18
CATHODIC PROTECTION

TECHNICAL COMMITTEE OF SPECIFICATION SP-60-18, Revision 3

NAME
BERGH, G (Gerhard)
COOKE, JH (Jack)
ERASMUS, T (Theuns)
HAYNES, GJ (Gerald)
HOLLER, RK (Rolf)

DEPARTMENT AND / OR COMPANY
Sasol Infrachem Water Systems
Electrical and Integrity, Natref
Electrical Engineering, Sasol Technology
Sasol Technology Consultant
Electrical and Integrity, Natref

LOMBARD, ER (Sias)

Electrical Engineering, Sasol Technology

MACHADO, BAR (Tony)

Electrical Engineering, Sasol Technology

MÜLLER, GH (Grant)

Electrical Engineering, Sasol Technology

OOSTHUIZEN, PC (Pieter)

Sasol Oil

WILKINSON, W (William)

Reliability, Sasol Synfuels

Page i of ix
Copyright © 2003. Sasol. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. . Page ii of ix Copyright © 2003.Revision 3 October 2003 SASOL SPECIFICATION SP-60-18 CATHODIC PROTECTION REVISION SHEET REVISION 3 Specification SP-60-18. Sasol. Revision 2 is revised in its entirety.

an order of magnitude cost estimate for the installation. transmission or distribution pipelines located in similar environments. an acknowledged cathodic protection design specialist should be commissioned to carry out an initial cathodic protection and / or corrosion site / field survey. The justification for installing cathodic protection shall be based on data derived from cathodic protection surveys.Revision 3 October 2003 SASOL SPECIFICATION SP-60-18 CATHODIC PROTECTION FOREWORD The first line of defence in the corrosion protection of metallic structures. the report shall include a conceptual design proposal. safety and economic justification for proceeding with the proposal. All rights reserved. This is to gather the pertinent data required to evaluate the need for cathodic protection and initiate and carry out any field test programmes. . transmission or distribution pipeline. The application of cathodic protection shall be considered as a supplementary measure. safety. required to determine data such as the Probable Performance Index (PPI) of the buried structure and the soil resistivity measurements which will all serve as a basis for the cathodic protection design. This must be given priority and be properly and adequately addressed in the early mechanical design phase of any new process plant. unless regulations state otherwise. A written report must be submitted to SASOL. legal and geographical factors shall be considered. as well as the application of the correct coating system(s) to the correctly prepared metallic surface(s). Sasol. corrosion surveys and / or operating records of similar process plants. For this reason it is highly desirable that prior to any decision being taken to install cathodic protection. Page iii of ix Copyright © 2003. environmental. Should the recommendations favour the installation of cathodic protection. unquestionably lies in the selection of suitable structural materials. summarising findings and recommendations. and an environmental. whose external surfaces are exposed to the electrolyte. All of the relevant economic.

Page iv of ix Copyright © 2003. The latter shall permit the procurement or a Request For Quotation (RFQ) document to be issued to enable cathodic protection construction contractors to carry out the cathodic protection installation.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION Subject to SASOL’s review of the report and acceptance of the conceptual design proposal. c. so as to ensure the inclusion of all cathodic protection field installation details in the final plant / pipeline engineering drawings. All rights reserved. b. the design specialist’s scope of work should then be extended to cover: a. The site supervision. Sasol. transmission or distribution pipeline which is to be cathodically protected. The additional site survey in order to permit the preparation of a detailed cathodic protection design complete with a detailed technical specification and bill of quantities. The necessary liaison with the engineering contractor of the process plant. . quality control and commissioning of the completed cathodic protection system.

.............................9 RAL DEUTSCHES INSTITUT FÜR GÜTESICHERUNG UND KENNZEICHNUNG – RAL-FARBEN ..................... 17 1........4 DEFINITIONS.... 24 2........................................................................................8 BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (BS) SPECIFICATIONS ................................... 17 1............................................................ ......... 9 1....5 PRECEDENCE................................................ 23 2......5 AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE TESTING OF MATERIALS (ASTM).....................................................................................................................7 GUARANTEE PERIOD......................... 2 1.............................. 22 2.................................................. 2 1.2 LEGAL REQUIREMENTS.................1 SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS (SANS) AND SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS (SABS) CODES OF PRACTICE AND SPECIFICATIONS.............................11 INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION (IEC) PUBLICATIONS.......... 18 2...................................... 21 2.....4 AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (ASME) STANDARDS....................................................7 NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CORROSION ENGINEERS (NACE) RECOMMENDED PRACTICES.......................10 DEUTSCHES INSTITUT FÜR NORMUNG (DIN)........................SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION PAGE TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1 2 GENERAL............................................................................................ 25 2..6 MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS ......................................6 AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (API) .............. 21 2..................................................3 ABBREVIATIONS ................ All rights reserved............................................................................. 1 1...............1 SCOPE ......................................... 25 2......................................................................................................... 17 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS .....................................................................................2 SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS (SANS) AND SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS / INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION (SABS IEC) SPECIFICATIONS........................... 23 2........................................... 18 2........................ 25 Page v of ix Copyright © 2003...................... Sasol................................................................ 22 2.......................... 1 1..........................................3 SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS (SANS) AND SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS / INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDISATION (SABS ISO) STANDARDS ...................

.............. 61 8........................................... 57 7 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE CP SYSTEM ....... 26 2.............................................13 SWEDISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (SIS) STANDARDS......................................... 61 8....................................... 28 3.................................................................................... 59 8 CATHODIC PROTECTION MATERIALS AND THE INSTALLATION THEREOF ..............................................1 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA ................... 51 5............ RECORDS AND COMMISSIONING..............2 COMMISSIONING.. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUALS .4 INSTALLATION...............1 SPECIALIST CP CONSULTANT AND CP CONTRACTOR ....................................... 55 6....................................... 29 CATHODIC PROTECTION DETAILED DESIGN REQUIREMENTS..2 MANUAL TAP CHANGE AND AUTOMATIC THYRISTOR CONTROLLED TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER UNITS ...............................................................................3 CHOICE OF CP SYSTEM ..................................................... DRAWINGS.............. Sasol.....................................14 SASOL SPECIFICATIONS.............................................................. 39 4............................. 55 5........2 ASSESSING THE “IR” FREE STRUCTURE-TO-ELECTROLYTE POTENTIAL...... DATA SHEETS AND STANDARD DRAWINGS............................. 61 Page vi of ix Copyright © 2003................................................................................................................... TESTING AND INSPECTION ........................................................................................................ 55 6.................... 39 4..... 49 5.....................2 ON SITE INVESTIGATIONS / SURVEY ....................... 47 CONSTRUCTION................1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS .....12 INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDISATION (ISO) STANDARDS......................SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION PAGE 2.......................................... 48 5....... 26 CP SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS ....................2 COATINGS AND CP .................. .................................. 42 4............................................................................................................... 28 3.......... 25 3 4 5 6 2.................................3 SPARE PARTS... 41 4......................... AS-BUILT DRAWINGS AND RECORDS ....................1 GENERAL .................. 39 4.5 SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS ................1 CONSTRUCTION................................................4 DETAILED CP DESIGN CALCULATIONS................................... All rights reserved.............................. 55 CP ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA ..

.....................................................................................10 COMPONENT LAYOUT ......................................................................................... 78 11 CORROSION RESISTANT SILICON IRON ANODES ................................................. 84 12.......1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS .................1 DEEP VERTICAL AND SHALLOW VERTICAL ANODE GROUNDBED SYSTEMS...................................9 SPARES ..........................................................3 METERS AND MONITORS ......................12 CABINET CONSTRUCTION.......................................................................................................................................................... 63 9.....................................................16 GUARANTEE ....... 79 12 11.....SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION PAGE 9 ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION ..................................... 78 9..................... All rights reserved............................................. 71 9..........2 GENERAL ANODE DETAILS ........................................ 72 9......................... Sasol...................................17 MANUFACTURER QUALIFICATIONS .3 MIXED METAL OXIDE (MMO) / PRECIOUS METAL OXIDE (PMO) ANODES ...................................... 63 9........................................................... 79 11.......................................................................................2 HORIZONTAL AND DISTRIBUTIVE ANODE GROUNDBED SYSTEMS................................. 83 12..... 65 9.....................7 CABLE ENDS AND TERMINALS.............................................................................................................................................. 85 12............... 73 9.................................................................11 AUXILIARY AC SUPPLY .................. 86 Page vii of ix Copyright © 2003.............. 68 9...... ..................................................................................6 COLOUR CODING AND LABELLING.............13 COATING. 69 9.....................15 DOCUMENTATION.................................................................... 72 9..................................................1 GENERAL ......................3 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION...................................................................................................................................................................5 WIRING AND BUSBARS ..................................4 SURGE PROTECTION........... 66 9............ 76 9................................... 74 9............................................................................................. 82 11......................................... 78 10 CONCRETE PLINTHS ........ 82 TYPICAL IMPRESSED CURRENT ANODE INSTALLATION DETAILS .................... 83 12....................................................................................................................................................4 QUALITY CONTROL AND TESTING....... 74 9........................................................................... 76 9...........8 EARTHING ........ 78 9..........14 INSPECTION AND TESTING ........................................2 OUTPUT CONTROL .......................................... 67 9........................... 80 11...............................4 ANODE DIMENSIONS AND TITANIUM SUBSTRATE GRADES ..........

.........................2 SURFACE PREPARATION ...3 TYPICAL CP TEST POSTS .................... 91 13.................................................1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS .................................................................. 98 15............................................................... 92 13................................... 103 17...2 GENERAL PROPERTIES OF INSULATING COMPOUNDS ................ 103 17........... 100 15...........................1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................ 92 13........... 93 CATHODIC PROTECTION CABLING ..... 95 14.............................. 97 EXOTHERMIC WELDING / PIN BRAZING CABLE CONNECTION DETAILS ......... 99 15.............................................5 WELD POWDER / CABLE COMBINATION....2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION............ 88 12... 101 16. 101 16...............................4 CP CABLE REQUIREMENTS... 101 PERMANENT REFERENCE ELECTRODES ............................................................................................................................................2 LOCATION OF TEST POSTS / STATIONS ........................................................1 INTRODUCTION .......... 101 16..........5 ANODE LOADING AND OPERATING PARAMETERS...........................1 INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS............... 105 Page viii of ix Copyright © 2003....... 99 15.4 PERMANENT REFERENCE ELECTRODE (PRE) STABILITY........................................................ 98 15........................ 93 14....................... 97 15........ 104 17.............................................................................................6 ANODE CABLE CONNECTION.... Sasol............... 91 13.........7 CHEMICAL AND PERFORMANCE TESTING OF ANODES......................3 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION (PSD) ...... 96 14. 94 14..............................................1 CABLE CONNECTIONS TO PIPES AND REPAIR TO COATINGS .................... 101 16.3 PIN BRAZING / EXOTHERMIC WELDING.................6 PRECAUTIONS .......................................................................................................................................SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION PAGE 13 14 15 16 17 12.................................................................... 103 CATHODIC PROTECTION TEST POINTS..........4 SHIPPING AND PACKAGING............................................. 97 15.........2 MANUFACTURER QUALIFICATIONS ............................ 93 14............................................................... 89 12......... .................................................................................7 REINSTATEMENT OF THE COATING SYSTEM ...............3 PERMANENT REFERENCE ELECTRODE (PRE) CONSTRUCTION .......................3 CABLE AND CABLE INSULATION COMPLIANCE.............................4 TESTING ........ All rights reserved............................5 CABLE INSTALLATION AND IDENTIFICATION .............................................. 90 IMPRESSED CURRENT CARBONACEOUS ANODE BACKFILL MATERIAL ...........................

3 IDENTIFICATION / LABELS.................................................1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS .........1 INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................... 125 21....................... 120 20................... All rights reserved............................. 121 20.............................................................................. 126 Page ix of ix Copyright © 2003................3 ENCLOSURE CONSTRUCTION .................... “OPERATING INSULATING FLANGE”......................................................................................... “NO ATTACHMENTS TO PIPEWORK PERMITTED” ........................................................................................4 HARDNESS MEASUREMENTS ....................................4 MONOLITHIC INSULATING JOINTS ........... 121 20........... 120 20..................5 ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES .............................. 123 20......................................................................... 113 19.............................................................................7 MANUFACTURER QUALIFICATIONS .........................1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ..................................................................5 INTERNAL PIPE LINING FOR COOLING WATER SERVICE ...........................................4 ANODE CABLE AND CABLE CONNECTION .... 123 AC MITIGATION EARTH ELECTRODE............................1 ZINC TUBE MATERIAL SPECIFICATION...........................7 TYPICAL INSTALLATION DETAILS .......... 111 18................................................ 112 INSULATING FLANGE MATERIALS ............................................................................................. 108 18................... Sasol.............................................. 125 21................................... 124 21........... 115 19............. 108 18.................................................. 112 18................... 113 19........................................ 124 21.......................................2 ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION ................................... 111 18.......................................................SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION PAGE 18 19 SOLID STATE DC DECOUPLING DEVICES . 109 18....6 GUARANTEE ............ 112 18..................... 113 19..........2 ZINC TUBE DIMENSIONS ................ 123 20...........................6 TESTING AND REVIEWAL.............5 METALLOGRAPHY ........................................3 ZINC TUBE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION......2 MAGNESIUM ANODE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ..............3 HIGH POTENTIAL MAGNESIUM ANODE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ......................................................... 116 HIGH POTENTIAL SACRIFICIAL MAGNESIUM ANODES (SOIL USE)........ 125 21..... ........... 122 20.................................................. 115 20 21 19........2 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS .......5 DOCUMENTATION......................................................4 INSPECTION AND TESTING ..

cooling water and utility piping. installation and commissioning of a Cathodic Protection (CP) system for the following: a.1. b.Revision 3 October 2003 SASOL SPECIFICATION SP-60-18 CATHODIC PROTECTION 1 GENERAL 1.1 SCOPE 1.2 In the event of any detail that is not fully addressed in this specification and that is warranted to be carried out by the contractor. c. All rights reserved. application.1. Well casings. as well as pipes located inside chambers. Water boxes of heat exchangers. Sasol. installed inside and / or outside the SASOL plant(s) battery limits.1.3 The specification covers the general requirements of the CP system. Page 1 of 127 Copyright © 2003. fire water. 1. procedures and method statements required to perform the CP design during the engineering phase of work and this shall be submitted to SASOL for review and approval prior to construction. e. Pipeline casings (cased crossings).1 This Specification defines the minimum and mandatory requirements governing the design. the work shall be performed in accordance with the relevant applicable codes and best recognised engineering practices in the CP industry. . process. CP may be achieved through the use of Sacrificial Anode CP (SACP) or Impressed Current CP (ICCP). Pipelines. On-grade storage tank bottoms and the internal surface of storage tanks. 1. d. supply and / or installation work. The contractor shall develop detailed specifications.

The National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) . d. The National Water Act .hr / kg Ampere hours per kilogram (Electro-chemical Consumption Rate) Page 2 of 127 Copyright © 2003.Act 36 of 1998. The Mine Health and Safety Act .Act 50 of 1991. e.4 AC interference mitigation may be achieved through the use of pipeline-earth grounding systems. b.Act 107 of 1998.Act 29 of 1996. c.5 The details and extent of the plant or structure equipment required to be cathodically protected.3 a. It must not adversely affect or interfere with the CP system. .1. 1. All rights reserved.1. 1. ABBREVIATIONS The following CP abbreviations have been used: A Ampere A / m² Ampere per metre square AC Alternating Current AFC Approved For Construction A. The Occupational Health and Safety Act with Regulations .SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 1. the site / locality and the meteorological data shall be both specified and supplied by SASOL and / or the main contractor. Sasol. The Minerals Act . in conjunction with solid state DC decoupling devices.Act 85 of 1993.2 LEGAL REQUIREMENTS The SASOL factories are subject to the statutory requirements of the following Acts and all CP installations shall meet the requirements of these Acts: 1.

y Ampere-years AQL Acceptable Quality Level ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for the Testing of Materials Br Bromine BSI British Standards Institute C Carbon CD Current Drainage CIP Close Interval Potential COC Certificate of Compliance CP Cathodic Protection Cr Chromium Cu Copper CuSO4 Copper Sulphate Cu-Ti Copper .Titanium DB Distribution Board DC Direct Current DCVG Direct Current Voltage Gradient DIN Deutsche Institut für Normung ECTFE Ethyl Carbo Tetra-Fluoro-Ethylene EPR Earth Potential Rise ETFE Ethyl Tetra-Fluoro-Ethylene Page 3 of 127 Copyright © 2003. All rights reserved. .SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION Al Aluminium API American Petroleum Institute A. Sasol.

All rights reserved.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION Ex Hazardous Classified Equipment EXW Exothermic Welding F Fluorine FBE Fusion Bonded Epoxy Fe Iron Fe-Si Silicone Iron FDU Forced Drainage Unit GC Grounding Cell g / ml grams per millilitre GIS Geographical Information System GPS Global Positioning System H2SO4 Sulphuric Acid HDPE High Density Polyethylene HMWPE High Molecular Weight Polyethylene HVTL High Voltage Transmission Line / High Voltage Power Line Hz Hertz ICCP Impressed Current Cathodic Protection ID Inner Diameter IEC International Electrotechnical Commission IJ Insulating Joint IF Insulating Flange IP Ingress Protection IR Ohmic Voltage Drop ISO International Organisation for Standardisation Page 4 of 127 Copyright © 2003. . Sasol.

All rights reserved.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION IrO2 Iridium Oxide kg kilogram kg / m³ kilogram per cubic metre kPa kilopascal kV kilovolt kV / mm kilovolt per millimetre kW kilowatt LCD Liquid Crystal Display LMPE Low Molecular Weight Polyethylene m metre mA / m² Milli-ampere per Square Metre Mg Magnesium mH Milli-henry mΩ Milli-ohm mA Milli-ampere MIC Microbial Induced Corrosion Mil Thousandth of an Inch MMO Mixed Metal Oxide MMP Maximum Meter Point MMWPE Medium Molecular Weight Polyethylene Mn Manganese Mo Molybdenum MON Monitor MOV Metal Oxide Varistor Page 5 of 127 Copyright © 2003. . Sasol.

All rights reserved. . Sasol.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION MPa Megapascal mV Milli-volt mV / °C Milli-volt per Degree Celsius NACE National Association of Corrosion Engineers NDU Natural Drainage Unit NDT Non Destructive Testing NPS Nominal Pipe Size OD Outer Diameter OMM Operation and Maintenance Manual OWS Oily Water Sewer PC Printed Circuit PCB Polycarbonate Based PDF Portable Document Format PE Polyethylene pH Level of Acidity or Alkalinity PIV Peak Inverse Voltage PMO Precious Metal Oxide PO Purchase Order PPI Probable Performance Index PPM Parts Per Million PRE Permanent Reference Electrode PSD Particle Size Distribution psi Pounds Per Square Inch P-TP Plant Test Post Page 6 of 127 Copyright © 2003.

SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION PTFE Poly-Tetra-Fluoro-Ethylene PVC Poly-Vinyl-Chloride PVDF Poly-Vinylidene Fluoride QCP Quality Control Plan Pub Publication RE Reference Electrode RFQ Request For Quotation RMS Root Mean Square RP Recommended Practice R-TP Recording Test Posts SAACE South African Association of Consulting Engineers SABS South African Bureau of Standards SACP Sacrificial Anode Cathodic Protection SANS South African National Standards SEM Scanning Electron Microscope Si Silicon SI System International SIS Swedish Standards Institution SP Specification SPIR Spare Parts Interchange-ability Record SRB Sulphate Reducing Bacteria SS Stainless Steel SS-DCD Solid State . Sasol. All rights reserved.Direct Current Decoupling Device STDD Standard Drawing Page 7 of 127 Copyright © 2003. .

.m micro Ohm metre (unit of measurement for resistivity) Ω Ohm Ωcm Ohm Centimetre Page 8 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Sasol.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION SWA Steel Wire Armour Ta Tantalum Ta2O5 Tantalum Oxide TDS Technical Data Sheet Ti Titanium TP Test Point / Test Post TP-R Reference Monitoring Test Post TRU Transformer Rectifier Unit V Volt +VE Positive Terminal -VE Negative Terminal XLPE Cross-linked Polyethylene Zn Zinc % IR Percentage Ohmic Voltage Drop % Percentage °C Degrees Celsius °F Degrees Fahrenheit µ micro µm micro metre µs micro second µΩ. All rights reserved.

SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 1. Centrifugally cast tubular anodes have proven to be the most reliable and effective anodes at SASOL. A type of bacteria which corrodes steel and is present only in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic).5 m deep. . Page 9 of 127 Copyright © 2003.1 m long and 0. ANODE (IMPRESSED CURRENT) Any buried or submerged metal (or graphite) which is connected to the positive terminal of a transformer rectifier and serves to introduce current into the earth. When they are present.4 DEFINITIONS ANAEROBIC Oxygen deficient environment. The anode groundbed is on average 100 m to 150 m long and a minimum of 2. Sasol. ANODE GROUNDBED An anode groundbed consisting of a number of impressed current anodes joined to a common positive rectifier cable. All requests for approval shall be submitted in writing and any proposed deviation from the specified requirements shall be fully explained and motivated. The anodes are encapsulated in coke to increase their life and decrease the resistance to earth.075 m diameter. ANODE DISTRIBUTION CABINET A steel cabinet containing a bulbar to which is joined the anode cables as well as the main anode groundbed ring main cable(s). containing 14% to 17% silicon. and measuring 1. the protective potential must be raised to -0. APPROVAL OR APPROVED BY SASOL Written agreement or authorisation by SASOL. ANODIC GRADIENT Gradient arising in the soil due to the current flow through the soil from the anode(s).95 V. Generally an anode is defined as any metal in which current flows from it to the electrolyte. All rights reserved. CP anodes normally consist of a silicon iron alloy. ANAEROBIC BACTERIA Also called sulphate reducing bacteria.

when the latter is at very negative potential. ANODIC AND CATHODIC See Corrosion. CATHODIC PROTECTION An active electrochemical method of corrosion protection in which all areas of a metallic surface are rendered cathodic. CATHODE (IMPRESSED CURRENT) Any buried or submerged metal which is connected to the negative terminal of a transformer rectifier. COKE BREEZE An inferior carbonaceous backfill material generally termed metallurgical coke or coke breeze. the transformer rectifier temporarily “shuts down”. All rights reserved. such as a coupling or flange. It nominally contains less than 85% fixed carbon and high amounts of sulphur and ash. It is used in granular form to surround each individual anode in order to form one long extended anode. Sasol. Page 10 of 127 Copyright © 2003. CONTINUITY BOND An electric cable welded to both sides of a potentially insulating joint. For buried pipelines sacrificial anodes generally consist of magnesium. It decreases the resistance to earth and increases the life of the individual anodes. . COKE An electrically conducting form of carbon. AREAS BONDING CABINET A steel cabinet used to bond two or more pipelines electrically. Under such conditions. BYPASS CURRENT The current drained from a pipeline to a railway line.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION ANODE (SACRIFICIAL) A metal which is more electro-negative in potential than steel and which when buried or immersed confers protection to the latter when electrically connected to it. termed the anode groundbed. Generally a cathode is defined as any metal in which current flow is always from the earth to the cathode. in order to ensure the electrical continuity. CLOSE POTENTIAL SURVEY A technique whereby the pipe potential is measured every metre along the length of the pipeline.

tabulations. the top most anode being at a nominal depth of 15 m or more below the earth’s surface. Corrosion occurs at the anodic areas. AC fault currents and lightning). tested and more reliable than a polarisation cell or grounding cell. DRAIN POINT That part of the pipeline connected to the negative terminal of the TRU. DC DECOUPLING DEVICE A solid state device used for two main purposes. for example an earthing system connected to a pipeline via this device. of which one is under CP and the other is not.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION CONTRACTOR / MANUFACTURER Company engaged to perform the work covered by the specification (successful supplier or bidder). Its operation does not depend on the moisture content of the soil. EARTHING The technique of using a buried electrode in order to decrease the voltage to earth of a particular structure. DATA SHEETS All necessary drawings. electrical and physical requirements of the equipment. or picks up. CORROSION An electrochemical process resulting in metal dissolution and degradation. sketches and relevant documentation which SASOL will submit with a RFQ or PO. is easily inspected. Page 11 of 127 Copyright © 2003. ELECTRODE An electrode is a solid electrical conductor which discharges. but readily passes current at higher voltages (e. All rights reserved. DEEP WELL GROUNDBED One or more anodes installed vertically in a column. together with information that is required to be submitted by the manufacturer. while at the same time permitting continuity in any AC circuit. Sasol.g. current from an electrolyte. to clearly indicate the technical. The other use is as a surge arrester whereby it blocks DC voltages up to several volts. . A buried or submerged metal forms anodic and cathodic areas on its surface with consequent flow of electric current between them. One is to disconnect two metal systems.

which would otherwise damage the coating and lining. which generates far less heat than exothermic welding. Page 12 of 127 Copyright © 2003. GALVANIC CORROSION A form of corrosion caused by one metal in electrical contact with another and at different natural potentials or separated in the galvanic series. ELECTROLYSIS (ELECTROLYTIC CORROSION) Electrolysis or electrolytic corrosion refers to the corrosion caused by stray electric currents flowing in the ground. but only with respect to a special reference electrode. whose own potential does not alter regardless of the solution in which it is immersed. EXOTHERMIC WELDING The universal method of welding a copper cable to a steel surface. and the soil. All rights reserved. In CP of buried pipelines. usually liquid. railway lines and electricity pylons. . A reference electrode is also referred to as a half cell. in which the flow of electric current is by means of cations and anions. Typical examples are pipelines.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION ELECTRODE (REFERENCE ELECTRODE [HALF CELL]) The voltage difference between an electrode and the electrolyte cannot be measured in absolute terms. Typical electrolytes are water and its solutions. It consists of a copper rod in a saturated copper sulphate solution. 1 A flowing for 1 year corrodes 9 kg of steel. all housed in a suitable polymer housing and possesses a porous plug at the bottom to permit current to flow. cables. ELECTROLYTE A medium. enabling one to take potential measurements. a copper / copper sulphate reference electrode (Cu / CuSO4) is used.. The method is quick and simple and generates far less heat than brazing or arc welding. FOREIGN SERVICE A structure lying or buried in the ground belonging to another owner. but is very costly in comparison. acids. FORCED DRAINAGE UNIT A transformer rectifier using the railway line as the anode is referred to as a forced drainage unit. etc. Sasol. Pin brazing / stud welding is a newer and quicker method.

See Electrode. All rights reserved. It has a high resistance at low voltages and low resistance at high voltages. HYGROSCOPIC A material that has a high affinity for water. NATIVE STATE Natural state or potential of a pipeline or structure. Page 13 of 127 Copyright © 2003. insulating bolt sleeves and insulating washers. HOLIDAY A defect in the structure coating system also referred to as coating defects. fuses. etc. carbonates and cyanides. Sasol. HOLIDAY DETECTOR An instrument for detecting coating defects. MONOLITHIC JOINT Immovable (flange-less) electrical insulating fitting rated to handle the operating pipe pressure. NATURAL POTENTIAL Also called the corrosion potential. A few simple compounds of carbon including carbon monoxide. INSULATING JOINT / FLANGE A joint which is electrically insulating. It is the potential of steel buried in the ground without receiving current from an external source. It permits current flow only when the rail is at negative potential and consists of one or more diodes.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION HALF CELL Another name for reference electrode. An insulating flange normally consists of an insulating gasket. NATURAL DRAINAGE UNIT A unidirectional bond from a pipeline to an electrified railway line. An insulating joint nominally cost six to eight times more than an insulting flange. surge arresters. carbon dioxide. are generally considered inorganic. An insulating joint is a complete joint consisting of insulating epoxies embedded in a spigot and socket type joint. INORGANIC Compounds composed of elements other than carbon. It is a passive device requiring no external source of power. METAL OXIDE VARISTOR A metal oxide varistor is an electrical device used as a voltage arrester. .

but conducts above a certain voltage limit.5 V is used. The cell passes AC at all voltages but blocks DC below a certain voltage. . The normal potential of steel in the ground is about -0. but the most commonly accepted value of -2. There is no universal agreement as to what the maximum negative value should be. POLARISATION The change in metal potential upon passage of current. where no stray currents are present.01% of the maximum surge current. It consists of two metal plates in a suitable electrolyte. PIPE POTENTIAL The voltage difference between a pipeline and a reference electrode inserted in the ground (also known as pipe-to-soil potential). Page 14 of 127 Copyright © 2003. also referred to as cathodic disbondment. All rights reserved. PIPE INVERT DEPTH Depth of ground cover from surface to the bottom of the pipe. say -1. This potential must exclude the “IR” error associated with normal potential measurements.5 V and if current enters it via the electrolyte the potential will become more negative. The cells need constant toping up and cleaning and are not as reliable as a solid state device.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION OVER PROTECTION When the pipe potential is too negative.0 V. Sasol. By choosing different metals and electrolytes a number of different blocking voltages may be achieved. by which the potential becomes even more negative and the current required diminishes. Polarisation can take place slowly over weeks or months. PIPE OVERT DEPTH Depth of ground cover from surface to the top of the pipe. The steady state AC is generally limited to 0. The latter depends on the coating quality. the coating may be damaged in the sense that it becomes detached from the steel pipe. POLARISATION CELL A DC electrolytic varistor / decoupling device.

The lower limit is -0.85 V to -0.95 V depending on the oxygen content of the electrolyte. RAIL RECORDING The potential of the rail (fluctuation) recorded over time.5 V is often impossible to adhere to in the presence of stray currents. It varies from metal to metal.5 V in order to avoid coating damage. Sasol. as the current flows (CP or DC traction) to the bare steel (coating defect) through.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION PROTECTION LIMITS The limits in pipe potential between which a cathodically protected pipe should operate. The most frequent cause of DC stray currents is from electrified railway lines. Page 15 of 127 Copyright © 2003. REVIEWED/REVIEWAL A formal 5-day hold period on the planning schedule while SASOL reviews / considers the relevant information or proposed deviations. It is commonly measured on site by a technique called the Wenner Four method. . All rights reserved. STRAY CURRENTS (DC) The flow of DC electric currents in the ground which follow a course other than that intended. the soil. Another source is that from adjacent CP systems. and the upper limit is -2. The protection potential for steel ranges between -0. The value of -2. SOIL RESISTIVITY The specific electrical resistance of the soil. and of a fluctuating nature. PROTECTION POTENTIAL The minimum IR free pipe potential in order to achieve protection. SOIL AND PIPELINE VOLTAGE GRADIENTS The voltage gradients arising in the soil in the immediate vicinity of coating defects. The lower the resistivity.95 V for complete corrosion protection of the steel substrate. the higher the corrosivity of the soil. all communication to be confirmed in writing SILICON IRON ANODES See Impressed Current Anode.

WENNER FOUR ELECTRODE METHOD A soil resistivity test method covered in ASTM G57. . higher than normal operating voltage.6 m above the ground and containing a cable welded to the pipe and extending to the top in a suitable terminal. which enters the transformer rectifier or natural drainage unit (NDU). It does great damage unless measures are taken to contain it. Current is injected into the outer two electrodes and the potential drop is measured between the inner two electrodes and the resistivity is then calculated.7 V to -0. which is indicated by a potential of between -0. UNDER. Sasol.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION TEST POINT Consists of a cable welded to the pipe or cleated to the inside of a chamber wall and connected to an insulated stainless steel stud protruding through the wall.85 V. Page 16 of 127 Copyright © 2003. plastic or concrete pipe materials. TEST POST A free standing post protruding about 0. The potential measurement will however. All rights reserved. A voltage. utilising four electrodes spaced equidistant to one another. either from the AC or DC side. It permits the ready determination of the “On” pipe potential at any location. contain the “IR” error. The electrode separation distance equates to the average depth measured in the soil. VOLTAGE SURGES Also called voltage transients.PROTECTION When the pipe is only partially protected. TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER UNIT An electrical apparatus which converts AC voltages to low DC voltages. generally of short duration. It permits a quick and vandal resistant method of measuring the pipe potential. VIKING JOHNSON COUPLING A flexible coupling used to mechanically join two sections of steel.

The latter shall clearly indicate the technical. 1. technical data. d. Documents referenced in this Specification. MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS The material requirements shall detail all of the necessary drawings. The precedence of purchase documents is as follows: a. which shall commence from the date of commissioning.6 b. conditions and legal requirements. . sketches.7 GUARANTEE PERIOD The contractor shall guarantee the CP system for a 36 month period. Data sheets. tabulations. Sasol. All rights reserved. This Specification.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 1. together with the information that is required to be submitted by the manufacturer.5 PRECEDENCE Any conflict between the technical requirements stated in the RFQ or PO and the technical requirements of this Specification shall be referred to SASOL for clarification. The technical requirements specified in the RFQ or PO including terms. c. electrical. Page 17 of 127 Copyright © 2003. metallurgical and physical requirements of any equipment. 1. materials specification and relevant documentation which will be issued with a RFQ and / or PO.

10: Hexagon head bolts . the reference shall be taken to mean the latest edition of the code. All rights reserved.Product grades A and B Page 18 of 127 Copyright © 2003. specification or standard. including addenda.1 SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS (SANS) AND SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS (SABS) CODES OF PRACTICE AND SPECIFICATIONS SANS 10086-1 / SABS 086 The installation. .SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 2 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS Where reference is made to a code. Sasol. 2. supplements and revisions thereto. specification or standard. inspection and maintenance of equipment used in explosive atmospheres Part 1: Installations including surface installations on mines SANS 10089-2 / SABS 089-2 The petroleum industry Part 2: Electrical installations in the distribution and marketing sector SANS 10108 / SABS 0108 The classification of hazardous locations and the selection of apparatus for use in such locations SANS 10121 / SABS 0121 Cathodic protection of buried and submerged structures SANS 10142-1 / SABS 0142-1 The wiring of premises Part 1: Low-voltage installations SANS 10199 / SABS 0199 The design and installation of an earth electrode specifications SANS 122 / SABS 122 Pressure-sensitive adhesive tapes for electrical purposes (Metric units) SANS 1700-7 /SABS 1700-7 Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws Section 1 .

Product grades A and B SANS 1700-7-5 / SABS 1700-7-5 Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws Section 5: Hexagon head screws . All rights reserved.Product grades A and B SANS 1700-7-2 / SABS 1700-7-2 Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws Section 2: Hexagon head bolts .Product grades A and B Page 19 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Sasol. .Product grade B - Reduced shank (shank diameter approximately equal to pitch diameter) SANS 1700-7-3 / SABS 1700-7-3 Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws Section 3: Hexagon head bolts .Product grade C SANS 1700-14-1 / SABS 1700-14-1 Fasteners Part 14: Hexagon nuts Section 1: Style 1 Product grades A and B SANS 1700-14-2 / SABS 1700-14-2 Fasteners Part 14: Hexagon nuts Section 2: Style 2 Product grades A and B SANS 1700-14-3 / SABS 1700-14-3 Fasteners Part 14: Hexagon nuts Section 3: Product grade C SANS 1700-14-4 / SABS 1700-14-4 Fasteners Part 14: Hexagon nuts Section 4: Hexagon thin nuts (chamfered) .SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION SANS 1700-14 / SABS 1700-14 Hexagon nuts Section 1: Style 1 .Product grade C SANS 1700-7-4 / SABS 1700-7-4 Fasteners Part 7: External drive hexagon bolts and screws Section 4: Hexagon head screws .

flame-retardant materials SANS 1411-6 / SABS 1411-6 Materials of insulated electric cables and flexible cords Part 6: Armour SANS 1507-1 / SABS 1507-1 Electric cables with extruded solid dielectric insulation for fixed installations (300 / 500 V to 1900 / 3300 V) Part 1: General SANS 1507-2 / SABS 1507-2 Electric cables with extruded solid dielectric insulation for fixed installations (300 / 500 V to 1900 / 3300 V) Part 2: Wiring cables SANS 1507-3 / SABS 1507-3 Electric cables with extruded solid dielectric insulation for fixed installations (300 / 500 V to 1900 / 3300 V) Part 3: PVC distribution cables Page 20 of 127 Copyright © 2003.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION SANS 32 / SABS EN 10240 Internal and / or external protective coatings for steel tubes . Sasol. .Specification for hot dip galvanized coatings applied in automatic plants SANS 1411-1 / SABS 1411-1 Materials of insulated electric cables and flexible cords Part 1: Conductors SANS 1411-2 / SABS 1411-2 Materials of insulated electric cables and flexible cords Part 2: Poly-Vinyl-Chloride (PVC) SANS 1411-3 / SABS 1411-3 Materials of insulated electric cables and flexible cords Part 3: Elastomers SANS 1411-4 / SABS 1411-4 Materials of insulated electric cables and flexible cords Part 4: Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLPE) SANS 1411-5 / SABS 1411-5 Materials of insulated electric cables and flexible cords Part 5: Halogen-free. All rights reserved.

SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION SANS 1507-4 / SABS 1507-4 Electric cables with extruded solid dielectric insulation for fixed installations (300 / 500 V to 1900 / 3300 V) Part 4: XLPE distribution cables SANS 1507-5 / SABS 1507-5 Electric cables with extruded solid dielectric insulation for fixed installations (300 / 500 V to 1900 / 3300 V) Part 5: Halogen-free distribution cables SANS 1507-6 / SABS 1507-6 Electric cables with extruded solid dielectric insulation for fixed installations (300 / 500 V to 1900 / 3300 V) Part 6: Service cables SANS 555 / SABS 555 Unused and reclaimed mineral insulating oils for transformers and switchgear SANS 1149 / SABS 1149 2.2 Flat and taper steel washers SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS (SANS) AND SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS / INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION (SABS IEC) SPECIFICATIONS SANS 60079-10 / SABS IEC 60079-10 Electrical atmospheres apparatus Part for 10: explosive gas Classification of hazardous areas 2.Specifications and test methods Page 21 of 127 Copyright © 2003. All rights reserved.3 SOUTH AFRICAN NATIONAL STANDARDS (SANS) AND SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS / INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDISATION (SABS ISO) STANDARDS SANS 121 / SABS ISO 1461 Hot dip galvanized coatings on fabricated iron and steel articles . . Sasol.

fittings.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 2. steel and heat treated.5 Gas transmission and distribution systems AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR THE TESTING OF MATERIALS (ASTM) ASTM A325 Standard specification for structural bolts. 120 / 105 psi minimum tensile strength ASTM A694 Standard specification for carbon and alloy steel forgings for pipe flanges. .4 Liquid transportation systems for hydrocarbons. valves and parts for high-pressure transmission service ASTM B265 Standard specification for titanium and titanium alloy strip. All rights reserved. Sasol. anhydrous ammonia and alcohols ASME B31.4 AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS (ASME) STANDARDS ASME B31.8 2. sheet and plate ASTM B338 Standard specification for seamless and welded titanium and titanium alloy tubes for condensers and heat exchangers ASTM A518 Specification for corrosion resistant high silicon iron castings ASTM B571 Standard practice for qualitative adhesion testing of metallic coatings ASTM D149 Standard test method for dielectric breakdown voltage ASTM D229 Standard test method for rigid sheet and plate material used for electrical insulation ASTM D293 Standard test method for sieve analysis of coke ASTM D709 Standard test method for laminated thermosetting materials ASTM D732 Standard test method for shear strength of plastics by punch tool ASTM D785 Standard test method for Rockwell hardness of plastics and electrical insulating materials Page 22 of 127 Copyright © 2003. liquid petroleum gas.

6 AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE (API) API Std 620 Design and Construction of Large. All rights reserved. Lightning and Stray Currents 2.7 NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CORROSION ENGINEERS (NACE) RECOMMENDED PRACTICES NACE RP0169 Control of external corrosion on under ground or submerged. . Sasol. metallic piping systems NACE RP0177 Mitigation of alternating current and lightning effects on metallic structures and corrosion control systems Page 23 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Welded Low-Pressure Storage Tanks API Std 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage API RP651 Cathodic Protection of Aboveground Petroleum Storage Tanks API RP1632 Cathodic Protection of Underground Petroleum Storage Tanks and Piping Systems API RP2003 Protection against Ignitions Arising out of Static.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION ASTM D1248 Polyethylene plastic moulding and extrusion materials ASTM D2000 Standard classification system for rubber products ASTM D3222 Standard specification for unmodified Poly-Vinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) moulding extrusion and coating material ASTM E186 Standard reference radiographs for heavy walled (51 to 114 mm) steel castings ASTM G57 Method for field measurement of soil resistivity using the Wenner Four Electrode method 2.

operation and maintenance of impressed current deep groundbeds NACE RP0575 Recommended practice for design. installation. operation and maintenance of internal cathodic protection system in oil treating vessels NACE Pub10A190 Measurement techniques related to criteria for cathodic protection of underground or submerged steel piping systems 2. . All rights reserved. Sasol.8 BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (BS) SPECIFICATIONS BS 171 Specification for power transformers BS 1016 Method for analysing and testing of coal and coke BS 1591 Specification for corrosion resisting high silicon iron castings BS 1872 Specification of electroplated coatings on tin BS 6001 (ISO 2859-1) Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes Part 1: Specification for sampling plans indexed by acceptable quality levels (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection Page 24 of 127 Copyright © 2003.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION NACE RP0186 Application of cathodic protection for well casings NACE RP0193 External cathodic protection of on-grade carbon steel storage tank bottoms NACE RP0285 Corrosion control of under ground storage tank systems by cathodic protection NACE RP0286 Electrical isolation of cathodically protected pipelines NACE RP0388 Impressed current cathodic protection of internal submerged surfaces of steel water storage tanks NACE RP0572 Design. installation.

.10 Specification for Colours for Identification. Coding and Special Purposes DEUTSCHES INSTITUT FÜR NORMUNG (DIN) DIN 30676 Design and application of cathodic protection of external surfaces DIN 50918 Corrosion of metals.11 INTERNATIONAL ELECTROTECHNICAL COMMISSION (IEC) PUBLICATIONS IEC 60038 Standard voltages IEC 60144 Degree of protection of enclosures for low voltage switchgear and control gear 2. electrochemical corrosion tests DIN 50925 Verification of the effectiveness of the cathodic protection of buried structures DIN 50929 Probability of corrosion of metallic materials when subject to corrosion from the outside 2.12 INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDISATION (ISO) STANDARDS ISO 2325 Method for analysing and testing of coal and coke Page 25 of 127 Copyright © 2003. All rights reserved.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION BS 7361 Cathodic Protection Part 1: 2. Sasol.9 Code of practice for land and marine applications RAL DEUTSCHES INSTITUT FÜR GÜTESICHERUNG UND KENNZEICHNUNG – RAL-FARBEN RAL 2.

14. DATA SHEETS AND STANDARD DRAWINGS 2.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION ISO 2859-1 Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes Part 1: Specification for sampling plans indexed by Acceptable Quality Levels (AQL) For Lot-by-Lot inspection ISO 8501-1 Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products Part 1 to 3 and supplement 1994 ISO 13 623: 2000E 2.1 Specifications SP-40-3 Spare parts requirements SP-50-6 Coating and wrapping of under ground steel pipe SP-50-7 Design of under ground gravity sewers SP-60-1 General electrical specification SP-60-4 Low voltage switchgear and motor control centres SP-60-10 Power and control cables rated 600 / 1000 V SP-60-35 Earthing systems Page 26 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Sasol.13 CP monitoring plan SWEDISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (SIS) STANDARDS SIS 05 59 00 Pictorial visual standards for surface preparation for the painting of steel surfaces 2.14 SASOL SPECIFICATIONS. All rights reserved. .

SP-60-18
Revision 3
October 2003
CATHODIC PROTECTION

SP-60-37

Classification of hazardous locations and the selection of apparatus for use in
such locations

2.14.2

SP-60-47

Requirements for electrical engineering documentation

SP-90-32

Minimum requirements for SASOL engineering drawings

SP-90-37

End of job documentation deliverables

Data Sheets
E979

2.14.3

Spare Parts and Interchange-ability Record (SPIR)

Standard Drawings
STDD-6005CA

Electrical CP general assembly G-026 to G-028

STDD-6005CB

Electrical CP general assembly G-030

STDD-6005CD

Electrical CP connection assembly G-034 to G-036

STDD-6005CN

Electrical CP manual output transformer rectifier

STDD-6005CP

Electrical CP details of thermit weld

STDD-6005CQ

Electrical CP insulating flange

STDD-6005CR

Electrical CP junction box test point

STDD-6005CS

Electrical CP cabling at tanks located in tank farms

STDD-6005CT

Electrical CP schematic diagram of variable voltage DC decoupler

STDD-6005CU

Electrical CP encapsulating of anode head

STDD-6005CV

Electrical CP electronic controller

Page 27 of 127
Copyright © 2003. Sasol. All rights reserved.

SP-60-18
Revision 3
October 2003
CATHODIC PROTECTION

STDD-6005CW

Electrical CP data logger post

STDD-6005CX

Electrical CP potential test point details

STDD-6005CY

Electrical CP insulating joint details

STDD-6005CZ

Electrical CP high potential magnesium and cable connection details

3

CP SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

3.1

SPECIALIST CP CONSULTANT AND CP CONTRACTOR

3.1.1

SASOL and / or the main contractor shall appoint a specialist sub-consultant in order to carry
out a detailed site survey, to permit the drafting of both a conceptual and detailed CP design,
should they be warranted. The detailed design shall only be carried out upon the reviewal of
the conceptual design by SASOL.

3.1.2

The design of the CP system shall be carried out by a SASOL approved consultant. The CP
consultant shall be completely independent as defined by the Southern African Association
of Consulting Engineers (SAACE). The main contractor shall assist the CP consultant with
drawings to permit the AFC drawings to be issued. The CP consultant shall prepare and
submit to the main contractor / SASOL a detailed list of all materials and equipment required
permitting the relevant RFQ document to be formulated.

3.1.3

The CP construction contractor shall install the CP field installation elements, concurrently
with the construction of the associated process plant and / or pipeline. The CP consultant
shall provide field engineering support and site supervision necessary to ensure the integrity
of the as-built CP installation. The CP consultant shall prepare a quality control plan for the
progressive checkout and acceptance of the CP installation and assist the main contractor in
its implementation.

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SP-60-18
Revision 3
October 2003
CATHODIC PROTECTION

3.1.4

The CP consultant shall assist in the checkout, testing and commissioning of the installation
and the marking-up of AFC drawings to reflect the as-built status. He shall also submit a
final commissioning report in accordance with the requirements stipulated below.

3.2

ON SITE INVESTIGATIONS / SURVEY
The following surveys shall be carried out by the CP consultant prior to commencing with
the design:

3.2.1

Soil Corrosivity Survey
a.

Distribution / transmission pipelines
i)

Soil resistivity measurements shall be conducted nominally every 250 m along
the pipeline route in accordance with the Wenner Four Electrode Method, as
stipulated in ASTM G57 at pipe invert depth. Where corrosive areas are
encountered or at locations where temporary CP will be required or where it is
to be anticipated, measurements will be conducted every 50 m or as required.

ii)

Alternatively, an electromagnetic soil conductivity meter may be used, on long
remote pipelines. Measurements shall be carried out every 50 m at pipe invert
and overt depth.

iii)

Soil samples shall be taken at pipe invert depth or proposed burial depth along
the pipeline route nominally every 1000 m. The samples shall be analysed and
assessed in accordance with DIN 90529 Part 1 to 3, in order to determine the
PPI of the proposed or existing buried steel pipe.

iv)

The presence and probable magnitude of SRB shall be assessed every 1000 m
and / or at corrosive locations where the soil resistivity is less than 30 Ωm.

Page 29 of 127
Copyright © 2003. Sasol. All rights reserved.

3. This. shall be evaluated in full for both new and existing tanks. in order to determine the PPI of the proposed or existing buried steel pipe. Sasol.5 m.2. Distribution / transmission pipelines i) The presence and magnitude of DC traction stray currents shall be assessed prior to installation of the pipeline and / or after installation of any transmission pipeline. of NACE RP0193. Page 30 of 127 Copyright © 2003. The measurements shall be carried out in a 50 m x 50 m grid section at a depth of 0. 2. iv) Where on-grade carbon steel storage tank bottoms are encountered.5 m per grid section. rail recordings and pipe to soil and pipeline voltage gradient recordings shall be conducted at the foreign service(s).2 Stray Current Survey a. however. All rights reserved. 1. ii) Soil samples shall be taken at pipe invert depth or proposed burial depth across the site in accordance with BS 6001: Part1. . shall also be determined.5 m. The samples shall be analysed and assessed in accordance with DIN 90529 Part 1 to 3. as they are difficult to perform and assess under normal site conditions. v) Redox measurements will not be carried out. as stipulated in ASTM G57.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION b. all of the items described in Section 3. Petrochemical plants i) Soil resistivity measurements shall be conducted accordance with the Wenner Four Electrode Method. the possible presence and magnitude of telluric (magnetic interference effects from solar storms and flares) effects. In the absence of a pipeline.5 m and 3. iii) The presence and probable magnitude of SRB shall be assessed per 50 m x 50 m grid section. but only where the soil resistivity is less than 30 Ωm. ii) On long transmission pipelines. shall only be conducted upon approval from the foreign service(s) owner. in order to determine whether or not CP will be required.

should CP deemed to be required. as well as the distance between the pipeline and HVTL. Measurements shall also be obtained with the neighbouring CP systems re-energised one-by-one. Page 31 of 127 Copyright © 2003. including angles of convergence. tests shall be conducted in order to determine the extent of the interference. where resistive and / or capacitive and / or inductive coupling may occur. All data relating to the power line transpositions shall be obtained. ii) The tests shall include but not be limited to obtaining natural potentials with all of the CP system(s) de-energised. Petrochemical plants i) Tests shall be conducted to determine whether the adjacent CP systems will introduce any form of stray current into the new plant. The neighbouring TRU(s) shall also be pulsed at a 1. A conceptual CP design report shall be issued to SASOL for reviewal. . Sasol. Operating data shall be obtained from the railway authority. iv) Where transmission pipelines are located in close proximity of HVTL. including the polarity. b. divergence and all earthing (earth mat or point) details. operating voltage and power of the overhead catenary. iii) Once the above surveys have been carried out. All rights reserved.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION iii) All foreign service(s) shall be identified. Where possible. as well as the soil resistivity at a depth in the vicinity of the HVTL towers representative of pipe invert and overt depths along the affected pipeline route. As soon as the conceptual CP design has been reviewed by SASOL. as well as foreign CP system(s) which may influence (positively and / or negatively) the SASOL system. mapped and modelled. All of the relevant data pertaining to the supply authority shall be obtained. definitive recommendations can be made as to whether CP is required or not.1 Hz frequency and the pipe potential signal (On Off) influence be recorded. the GPS co-ordinates shall be obtained and the data entered into the existing SASOL GIS. the following additional tests shall be carried out.

3 Anode Groundbed Survey a.2. These are frequently called remote groundbeds because the structure is outside the anodic gradient of the groundbed caused by the discharge of current from the anodes to the surrounding soil. operational damage). iv) Availability of power supply and site accessibility. . The groundbed location shall be determined early in the design process because its location may affect the choice of which groundbed type may be best suited to a particular application. Sasol. vi) Purpose of the groundbed and availability of “Right-of-Way” or servitudes. ii) Interference with other structures. All rights reserved.g. v) Vandalism or other damage (e. The following factors should be considered when choosing a groundbed location: i) Soil resistivity and moisture content. consideration must be given to the proper use and selection of the anode groundbed(s). FIGURE 1 SHALLOW CONTINUOUS HORIZONTAL ANODE GROUNDBED Page 32 of 127 Copyright © 2003.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 3. General considerations When designing and / or selecting to use ICCP. iii) Electrical shielding by structures. Horizontal (conventional) anode groundbeds are normally used to distribute the protective current over a broad area of the structure requiring protection. They may be continuous or discrete in construction as detailed in Figure 1 and 2.

They are also used to protect sections of bare or poorly coated structure. . SHALLOW DISCRETE HORIZONTAL ANODE GROUNDBED Anode Groundbeds i) Distributed Anode Groundbeds (2. Page 33 of 127 Copyright © 2003. iii) Shallow Vertical Anode Groundbeds (≥ 15 m but ≤ 30 m deep) are commonly used where space is limited and shielding might occur. if other types of groundbeds are considered. ii) Deep Vertical Anode Groundbeds (≥ 30 m deep) are remote to the structure by virtue of the vertical distance between the anode and structure. They are extensively used in congested areas where electrical shielding may or will occur. A deep anode groundbed is an appealing choice when space is not available for a horizontal groundbed or when the surface soil has a high resistivity and the deeper strata exhibit low resistivity. Deep anode groundbeds therefore achieve results similar to remote horizontal (surface) groundbeds. not be used where electrical shielding can occur in congested plant areas.5 m to 15 m deep) are used to reduce the potential for interference effects on neighbouring structures. as well as to mitigate costs associated with a distributive anode groundbed system as shown in Figure 3. They should however.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION FIGURE 2 b. All rights reserved. Sasol.

SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION FIGURE 3: DISTRIBUTIVE. . Page 34 of 127 Copyright © 2003. deep vertical anode groundbed systems shall be employed. the soil resistivity shall be measured at 20 m intervals along the entire length of the active anode bed length at the proposed anode installation depth. Where servitude and / or “Right-of-Way” problems exist. ii) Where horizontal anode beds are to be installed. Distribution / transmission pipelines i) Preference shall be given to remote horizontal continuous or discrete anode groundbed systems. All rights reserved. Sasol. DEEP AND SHALLOW VERTICAL ANODE BED ARRANGEMENT c.

Sasol. vi) The minimum burial depth of the vertical anode bed (i. half way to the centre. using the Wenner Four Electrode Method. three. but shall nominally be two and a half times the active length of the bed. ii) In congested areas where electrical shielding can occur. iv) The minimum distance between the pipeline and anode bed shall be two and half times the length of the anode bed. 16 m.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION iii) Soil resistivity measurements shall also be conducted at two. only shallow vertical and / or distributive anode groundbed systems shall be employed. the soil resistivity shall be measured at the active anode depth of the proposed shallow vertical / distributive anode groundbed. deep vertical anode groundbeds shall be the preferred choice of anode groundbed systems. as per ASTM G57. halfway between the centre and end and end of the proposed anode bed. Page 35 of 127 Copyright © 2003. . etc. excluding the active length) shall be determined according to the resistivity data obtained from the bore hole. 32 m. Petrochemical plants i) In uncongested areas. v) Where deep vertical anode groundbeds are required. four and five times the equivalent depth of the proposed anodes.. using the Wenner Four Electrode Method. as per ASTM G57. The values will be rechecked upon the drilling of a test hole. iii) In both instances. d. centre. at the beginning.e. All rights reserved. as per ASTM G57. The values will be rechecked upon drilling of the bore hole. until the final depth of the proposed deep vertical anode groundbed is attained. the soil resistivity shall be measured at a depth of 2 m. 8 m. 4 m. using the Wenner Four Electrode Method.

During a CD survey. Page 36 of 127 Copyright © 2003. c. f. g. The current required is also used in order to determine both the number and distribution (in conjunction with the soil resistivity data) of the sacrificial anodes required. It must also be appreciated that the “On” potentials of the structure / pipeline will also vary as a result of temperature variations and due to the fact that the “On” potentials also contain a voltage drop as a result of the current flowing through the soil / electrolyte. etc. AC generator connected to a rectifier bridge. as construction schedules generally preclude such testing. This is of utmost importance as the current requirements determine the rating and number of TRUs required and the size and rating of the anode groundbed(s). d. On existing pipelines and / or tanks the CD survey must be carried out. one may proceed towards preparing a CP design based on the current requirements. one essentially sets up a temporary CP system and injects a known current into the structure(s) requiring protection via a suitable anode groundbed. From the magnitude of current required and the length of pipe and / or surface area of the structure protected and taking into consideration the abovementioned variations.4 Current Drainage (CD) Survey a.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 3. b. The latter may be a convenient fence or steel rods driven into the ground and the former may be a portable DC power source such as a car battery. . e. This survey cannot generally be carried out on new structures / pipelines or during the construction of a new process plant or during construction of new on-grade steel storage tank(s). A CD test is conducted in order to calculate the total current required to confer complete protection to the structure / pipeline. The pipe potential is measured along the pipeline / structure before (natural potential). and after injection of current (“On” potential). All rights reserved. The current is adjusted until adequate protection is achieved over a meaningful length of pipe or meaningful area of the structure requiring protection. Sasol.2.

All rights reserved. A break in electrical continuity is indicated by a voltage drop and complete electrical continuity is indicated by a “direct short” measured between the two points with current flowing in the pipeline as shown in Figure 4a and 4b. b. This survey is obligatory. as any break in electrical continuity will result in corrosion occurring downstream of the break.2.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 3. FIGURE 4a and 4b: CONTINUITY BONDED CHAMBER / FLEXIBLE COUPLING FIGURE 4a: Page 37 of 127 Copyright © 2003. with CP current flowing.5 Electrical Continuity Survey a. c. Sasol. The survey entails measuring the voltage drop along the pipeline(s). . This survey is generally conducted on old pipelines where the method of construction may not be fully documented and on newly constructed OWS lines.

. Location of river.. c. but are not limited to the following: a. foreign crossings.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION FIGURE 4b: 3. a detailed CP design report will be submitted to SASOL for reviewal.6 Other CP Requirements All other aspects pertinent to the installation of a CP system shall be addressed. Location of in-line valves. Location of test stations / points for CP. Location of a suitable power source (public. AC mitigation. block valves. plant and / or remote). b. Insulating Flanges (IF) or Insulating Joints (IJ). rail and / or road crossing where casing will be required. All rights reserved. etc. etc. d.2. chambers. . Page 38 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Once all of the above surveys have been carried out. etc. These include. Sasol.

By means of an externally applied electric current. All rights reserved.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS CP is perhaps the most important of all approaches to corrosion control. These results in an increase in both the number of defects and the current required in order to protect the newly exposed steel surface areas (defects). Page 39 of 127 Copyright © 2003. as opposed to the high resistance path offered by the coating. by paying attention to workmanship.2 The coating provides the initial barrier against the corrosive environment and CP provides protection at the coating defects. Sasol. It is possible to reduce. no freshly applied coating is entirely free from defects and there will always be small areas of steel which are exposed directly to the corrosive environment.2. tape wrap systems. CP is also one of the most economically viable methods available in abating the corrosion process of submerged metallic structures. However.2. 4. etc. This apparently ideally complementary behaviour occurs as a result of the low resistance path offered by the defects. . 4. Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE). bitumen fibreglass.3 A coating will deteriorate both chemically and mechanically during its lifetime. 4. detection and the repair of individual defects. In practice it becomes increasingly expensive to achieve fewer and fewer defects due to the need for high quality inspection.g.2 COATINGS AND CP 4.2. but not eliminate these defects.1 Coatings (e. corrosion may be reduced to virtually zero and the metal surface may be exposed to a corrosive environment without any deterioration for an almost indefinite period of time.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 4 CATHODIC PROTECTION DETAILED DESIGN REQUIREMENTS 4.) applied to metal surfaces can be extremely effective in containing the corrosion of the steel substrate in many environments.

5 Polyethylene Tapes > 96 Cold Applied Mastics or Enamels > 95 Internal Pipe and Tank Linings > 94.2. This naturally implies that the CP system must be designed such that it has sufficient reserve in order to provide the necessary additional current. in order to prevent shielding. rocks. Page 40 of 127 Copyright © 2003. This implies a selected pipeline backfill material (size less than 9 mm) free from sharp objects.6 EFFICIENCY (%) Three Layer FBE / Polypropylene > 98. As a guideline. the protective coating system efficiencies should comply with the following: COATING SYSTEM 4. the choice of the coating system falls outside the scope of the CP Consultant.5 Bitumen Fibre Glass Coatings > 92 External Epoxy “Paint” Coatings > 90 No Coating System 0 The pipeline shall be backfilled in accordance with ASME B31.2.4 In general.5 Specification SP-50-6 must be complied with in full and any deviations must be reviewed by SASOL prior to carrying out the work.5 FBE > 97. Sasol. providing that it is of sufficient magnitude.2. 4. However.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION The defects will once again provide a low path of resistance and the CP current will flow to it and provide protection. Pipelines located in the same trench should nominally be separated by at least one and a half times the diameter of the largest pipe. stones or any other material which may damage the coating system. 4. the coating system must be compatible with the choice of CP utilised to protect the structure.4 / 8. All rights reserved. .

10 A DCVG survey shall be conducted on all transmission and distribution lines after construction. The choice of which system to use shall be based on both technical and economic factors. passing through or leaving a chamber.9 Pipeline sections which will be located inside chambers that may become flooded from time to time or which will be continuously flooded. shall be wrapped / coated as per Specification SP-50-6. . Some 10 % of the defects will be exposed in order to delineate defects and compare them to the DCVG % IR values prior to prioritising defects for repair.2. Sasol. or any concrete structure shall ensure a minimum clearance of 50 mm from the steel reinforcing and the pipe or pipe puddle flange and shall be completely wrapped / coated as per Specification SP-50-6 in the concrete covered section. reservoir.1 CP may be achieved by means of ICCP or SACP.3.3 CHOICE OF CP SYSTEM 4. 4. All rights reserved. which becomes the cathode. 4.2. 400 V or 525 V AC supply and produces a low voltage direct current. 4. 4.2. the reinforcing steel shall be electrically isolated from the steel pipe. The pipeline construction contractor shall be responsible for the repair of all major defects identified during the DCVG survey. and the positive terminal to an anode or a series of anodes buried in the ground. in order to assess the condition of the coating subsequent to construction. This set-up is generally termed an “anode groundbed”.3. which is supplied by a 230 V.7 Where concrete encasement of the pipe is required. such as at river crossings.2.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 4. The pipeline shall be wrapped as per Specification SP-50-6 prior to being concrete encased.2 ICCP utilises a TRU. Sacrificial magnesium anodes shall be employed to protect the pipeline or pipe section in these chambers. The negative terminal of the TRU is connected to the structure (tank / pipe). 4. Page 41 of 127 Copyright © 2003.8 All buried pipelines when entering.

b. f.3. Pipeline separation i. For example. but not be limited to the following: a. Transient and / or stray currents (such as telluric currents. and provided it is of an adequate magnitude. Coating damage factors as installed and for the design life. 4. etc. DC traction and HVTL interference). protection will be attained. All rights reserved. . g. Page 42 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Sasol. Soil chemical composition and level of the ground water. Therefore. Native state corrosion potential readings and presence of Foreign services. much like a battery.3 A SACP system does not need an external source of power.4 If the structure is subject to moderate to severe stray current influence. only ICCP will be used.4 DETAILED CP DESIGN CALCULATIONS 4. PPI of the structure in contact / submerged in the electrolyte. d.4. 4.). proximity of other metallic structures such as pipes in a common trench. If stray currents are absent. Operating temperature.1 The design of the CP system shall be based upon. h. Structure polarisation characteristics (electrical shielding. the choice is essentially an economic one. 4. It exploits the difference in potential of various metals in the galvanic series and generates its own voltage. e. earth mats. Soil resistivity along the pipeline route or in the plant area. which shall be fully justified by the consultant.3. c. i.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION Current flows from the anode to the cathode through the electrolyte (soil or ground).e. distance between pipes located in the same trench or in close proximity. the two combined will produce a “driving voltage” of approximately 1200 mV. magnesium possess a natural potential of -1700 mV and steel a natural potential of -500 mV with regard to a saturated copper / copper sulphate reference electrode.

. IFs / IJs shall be provided with protective devices should damage from lightning or high voltage earth currents be possible. Page 43 of 127 Copyright © 2003. but shall not be less than one metre or four times the pipe diameter which ever is greater. Sasol. such as above ground processing facilities and / or loading / off-loading terminals. I-beams.4. The spool piece shall be lined (internally coated) with an amine cured epoxy or process fluid compatible system. v) 4. iv) Structural steel supports including but not limited to pipe racking. below grade wall and bunds. All rights reserved. CP systems shall be electrically isolated from: i) All electrical and instrumentation cable conduit and / or cable armouring and / or Lead sheathing. Where the process fluid has a resistivity of 100 Ωcm.4. Electrical isolation of tanks shall comply with API RP 2003. 4. ii) All reinforcing steel at chambers.2 The electrical isolation of the structure requiring CP shall as a minimum be addressed as follows: a. cable racking. Protected pipelines shall be isolated from other structures. . by suitable in-line isolation components as per NACE RP 0286-97 or BS 7361. b. steel ladders. In very wet areas (moisture content greater than 35% during all seasons) and upon reviewal from SASOL. piles. etc. SS-DCD(s) shall be used and the enclosure suitably rated to SANS 60079 / SABS IEC 60079 and SANS 10108 / SABS 0108.4 Corrosion by stray currents shall be considered on the unprotected side of IFs / IJs where low-resistivity electrolytes exist either internally and / or externally. Copper Titanium grounding cells (Cu-Ti GC) shall be permitted.3 Electrical earthing systems.4. The latter shall include for an IJ / IF at each end. etc. The spool piece shall be of sufficient length to prevent corrosion. Part 1. iii) Steel casings at road and river crossings.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 4. isolating spool pieces shall be installed in unlined piping to prevent anodic corrosion at the unprotected side of the IF / IJ.

other than IFs / IJs which increases the longitudinal resistance of the pipeline. The latter does not apply to discrete tank CP systems located between the impervious layer (lining) and tank base.5 Electrical continuity shall be provided across components.4. utility piping or any other buried metallic pipes which are cathodically protected. The latter also implies the use of multiple negative returns in congested plant areas. The continuity bonds shall be carried out using two cables in parallel and suitably sized to carry the current and any transient surges which may arise from time to time. Page 44 of 127 Copyright © 2003.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION In instances where this proves to be a problem. The insulation of the cable shall depend upon the prevailing environment. In any event. as per API RP 2003. an internal ICCP or SACP system shall be designed to mitigate corrosion on the internal pipe surface in the vicinity of an IF / IJ. etc) shall be brought above ground in process areas. Sasol. the locations must be identified for future testing.4. Electrical continuity shall be achieved as follows: a. All rights reserved. The tanks shall possess individual earths and shall be connected to the main plant earth via a SS-DCD. Externally shall be the preferred method on new chambers as the risk of damage during normal operation will be limited. b.6 The earthing requirements shall be as follows: a. process piping. Viking Johnson couplings. c. b. Plant chambers shall be continuity bonded externally or internally. . flanges. 4. The tank earth shall not be bonded directly to the plant earth in order to mitigate interference and prevent the loss of protection at the tank. The plant earth shall never be connected to the buried fire water. 4. cooling water. All continuity bonds made to buried piping except across flexible joints (non-welded joints. On transmission and / or distribution pipelines the bonds may be buried or brought above ground depending on the number and risk of vandalism.

Applicable CP and other relevant standards. etc. etc. section etc. l. bonding requirements between foreign services. Page 45 of 127 Copyright © 2003. The mathematical modelling of steady state and fault current interaction between pipelines and HVTL. On-grade tank bedding / padding material. The rating and design of DC decoupling devices and earthing / grounding electrode systems for AC mitigation. which are connected to the plant earth shall be electrically isolated from the buried pipeline via IFs / IJs. 4. f. valves and other major pipeline structures. j. . IFs / IJs. shall as a minimum be based upon the following data in the design report: a. Calculated current demand. Current density requirements. Protection against possible AC or DC electrical interference.. All assumptions will be clearly stated. g. i. structure dimensions. h. Calculations for type of coating and coating damage factors over the design and project life. pH. inductive and capacitive coupling and the EPR in the vicinity of the HVTL earth mats. c. k. Continuity bonding will then be conducted across the isolated valve. b.4. where applicable. etc. including resistive. In-line motorised pumps. Any other pertinent CP design criteria. Soil resistivity. All rights reserved. pump. soil corrosivity (PPI data) and the geological soil type survey data. e. The latter may be required on either side of the buried pipeline section. valves. Requirements for isolation. including the location and description of all CP equipment. etc.7 Design calculations. chloride content.. d. test point facilities. Sasol.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION c. Structure design life. where applicable. drainage. All design calculations and any assumptions made during the preparation of the design. chemical composition.

Distribution of the anodes (distance relative to the structure (remote earth / localised protection). j. Sasol. Page 46 of 127 Copyright © 2003. i. Overall circuit resistance. b. In plant environments. The mathematical modelling of current distribution from either or both distributive and shallow vertical anode beds in plant environments. g. where it is deemed to be necessary. solar stations. e.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 4. Anode groundbed design. Anode efficiency in electrolyte (current and voltage output). All rights reserved. Number of anodes. c. should AC power be unavailable. including number. Pipeline attenuation calculations. d. TRU design. capacity / rating or the design of other DC power source(s). current distribution to the structure and structure voltage attenuation. expected resistance. Cable runs. the mathematical modelling of soil data. inter-anode spacing and the proposed cable installation protection methods. b. f. cable current carrying capacity and cable voltage drops. g. protective span of CP systems / stations. Protection requirements prior to the commissioning of the CP system.9 For SACP systems the design calculations shall also include: a. Anode / cathode circuit driving voltage (initial and after cathode polarisation).4. Anode utilisation factor. e. c. the use of temporary CP. Anode material. That is.g. 4. Anode performance in the design temperature range. . Anode weight and dimensions. electrical capacity.8 For ICCP the design calculations shall also include: a. h. e. f. d. expected operating temperature. including protective current span (distribution).4. Structure resistance to remote earth.

All rights reserved.5% for ICCP and 99. The number of PRE’s shall comply with the following: TANK DIAMETER NUMBER OF PRE ≤ 15 m 1 > 15 m but ≤ 25 m 2 > 25 m but ≤ 50 m 3 > 50 m but ≤ 70 m 4 > 70 m but ≤ 90 m 5 The PRE cables shall exit the tank perimeter via their own cable conduit. The impressed current TRU or DC power supply unit shall exceed 125% of the design requirements.1 In addition to the design requirements already detailed and discussed above. as well as PRE installed within the tank foundation for potential monitoring purposes.5% for SACP systems. Sasol. The anode groundbed capacity shall exceed 125% of the design requirements. Continuous operation of the system for the specified design life of the structures to be protected. The CP systems for on-grade storage tank bottoms shall incorporate a minimum of two suitably rated negative cables installed within cable conduit from the tank centre to the tank perimeter. f. b. This will generally imply a minimum continuous operation period of 20 years or longer.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 4. c. The availability factor shall exceed 97. Acceptable range of structure to electrolyte potentials shall be as detailed in Section 6 of this specification. . The latest ICCP technology for all pipelines and plant structures. as specified by SASOL. Page 47 of 127 Copyright © 2003. e. g. the CP consultant’s CP design shall also be based on the following: a.5.5 SPECIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 4. d.

Page 48 of 127 Copyright © 2003. l. The tank foundation mounds shall consist of fine grained.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION h. had the connection been made to the perimeter of the tank. DRAWINGS. oil filled sands. 5 CONSTRUCTION. Under no circumstances will Bitumen sand. All rights reserved. asphalt or asphalt and Bitumen mixtures or compounds be permitted to be used as tank padding or as the tank base material. the documents shall be evaluated by the CP consultant. . Regular cable tests shall be performed to ensure complete integrity. quantity. manufacturer. The tank centre negative connection is to ensure uniform distribution to the centre of the tank. model. k. m. in order to ensure full compliance with the technical specification. including vendor. A list of materials and equipment required. RECORDS AND COMMISSIONING Once the RFQ document(s) have been submitted by the various SASOL approved contractors. type. Mechanical joints shall not be permitted. i. size. warranty and all other pertinent technical documentation in order to permit an RFQ to be issued for construction purposes shall be compiled by the CP consultant. well compacted material. The negative tank cables shall be exothermically connected to suitable steel lugs welded to the bottom centre of the tank base. The CP Consultant shall be responsible for the accuracy of all field conditions and data used to prepare the CP system design. where shielding may occur. Deviations will be evaluated technically and commercially. n. Sasol. j. The negative and PRE cables shall be terminated in a suitably rated enclosure(s) outside the tank perimeter for future access. The cables and conduit shall be installed during construction and shall not be damaged during welding and construction of the remainder of the tank base.

The CP consultant shall be responsible for the progressive inspection of all CP system details as each item is installed by the construction contractor. utility water. Page 49 of 127 Copyright © 2003. and the reinstatement of protective coatings after completion of each weld. 5.1. TESTING AND INSPECTION 5. e. 5. d.1. Exothermic / pin brazed cable connections to the pipe or tank of all CP cables and bonding conductors. fire water. pipe monitor and pipe negative cable connections to the test post. . All rights reserved.2 No installation shall be undertaken unless the design and drawings have been duly reviewed by SASOL.4 Installation. Sasol.1 All installation work shall be carried out in accordance with AFC drawings and specifications.1. tested and passed by Inspectors. Test post installation at location of reference electrodes (including termination of electrode cables). 5.1 CONSTRUCTION. b. checkout and acceptance of each detail must be properly coordinated to ensure that no piping excavations are backfilled before the pipe coating has been Holiday tested and the CP details have been checked. Installation of reference electrodes (cells) underneath tank bases and above pipe at location of connection of rectifier negative cable to pipe.3 The CP consultant shall prepare a QCP for the systematic monitoring of the installation of all CP field equipment and piping details. Installation of sacrificial anodes. The QCP shall be reviewed by SASOL prior to construction of the CP system. rectifier negative cable. including cooling water. permanent or temporary. Inspection shall include. Continuity and cross bonds on all metallic pipelines. c. potable water and chemical and oil water sewers. but not be limited to the following details: a.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 5.1.

All rights reserved. 5. including all associated cabling. e. The outer sheath of cables where PVDF is used. PRE test posts. as detailed on the individual data sheets. Monolithic IJs or IFs. Impressed current anode backfill material. 5. d. The CP consultant shall provide field engineering and supervisory support to the construction contractor. to ensure that all CP installations are in accordance with AFC drawings and design specifications.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION f. Surge diverters / lightning protection of transformer rectifier units. bonding points. Sacrificial magnesium anodes. The costs associated with these tests shall be for the account of the CP manufacturer and / or CP construction contractor. Only SASOL approved laboratories may be used and other proposed laboratories must be approved by SASOL prior to their use: a. coke backfill material. .6 c. Transformer rectifier units and associated cabling. Sasol. k. AC mitigation grounding electrodes. Perma-seal and graded sand installation where required and applicable. AC mitigation test points.1.1. Impressed current anodes (silicon iron or precious metal oxide (PMO) / mixed metal oxide (MMO) anodes). Pipeline test posts / points. h. b. Impressed current anode groundbeds. anode installation. i. g. DC decoupling devices or in approved locations grounding cells. j. Page 50 of 127 Copyright © 2003. etc.5 Full chemical and metallurgical data shall be obtained for all of the items listed below.

Sasol.1 The consultant shall supervise the testing.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 5.2 Prior to energising or switching-on. the initial switch-on of the protection shall be carried out.2. Particular caution shall be exercised when confirming that the correct polarity of all DC cabling has been affected. 5.5.8 The CP consultant shall monitor the QCP relating to the preparation of tank foundation mounds to verify compliance with requirements of Paragraphs 4. to ensure their adequacy and compliance with Specification SP-50-6 and may witness all Holiday testing of wrappings and coatings to confirm their integrity before final acceptance.1.1 (f) to (l) of this Specification. . commissioning and setting up of the complete CP system. The measured structure to soil potentials will continue to change (become more electro negative) for some 3 to 6 months and test will have to be made at intervals until full protection has been achieved (polarisation of the structure).2. Appropriate measurements of structure to electrolyte (soil) potential shall be taken at all of the various test points. These QCP data sheets shall be made available to the CP consultant.1. 5. Page 51 of 127 Copyright © 2003. 5. All rights reserved. a complete mechanical and electrical inspection shall be carried out in order to ensure that the installation is fully compliant with the specification and to ensure that all cables are firmly and correctly connected.7 A SASOL appointed inspection authority shall also monitor the application of wrapping and coatings to pipelines and tank bottoms.2 COMMISSIONING.2. 5.3 After the system has been certified to be both mechanically and electrically compliant. AS-BUILT DRAWINGS AND RECORDS 5. to verify that the system is functioning in accordance with design and that the protection criteria as set out in Section 6 are complied with in full.

the maximum. current and voltage data at all installation points.2. The following shall as a minimum be included in the commissioning report: a. including resistance. Sacrificial anode connections. Groundbed continuity and the maximum.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 5. at all in-line flexible couplings. minimum and average output values. which will be submitted together with the CP commissioning report.. 5. including cased. b. pits. The values shall be more negative than the minimum values specified in Section 6 of this Specification and where stray currents are absent. c.6 The consultant shall submit a final commissioning report. “Native State” potential measurements shall be conducted at all structure’s test points. 5. d. protective potentials should not be more negative than –2500 mV.2. summarising the results of all tests made and listing all measured values of structure to electrolyte potentials and the protective CP currents recorded during commissioning and testing. thrust bored and / or jacked crossings. Sasol. to confirm continued satisfactory operation of the CP protective system. including resistance. All rights reserved. e.5 The consultant shall make a comprehensive analysis of the measured potentials and provide a schedule of test points at which future routine test measurements can be conveniently taken. These points and the testing requirements will be submitted in a detailed OMM. minimum and average output values. Potential measurements shall be conducted at points remote from the anodes (if possible). Page 52 of 127 Copyright © 2003. etc. . Pipeline continuity data.4 In the setting up of the system. adjustments shall be made to the flow of the protective current at all test points in the system so as to achieve stable operation with potentials at all points on the protected structure. valves.2. “As Left” energised settings including “On” and “IR” free measurements. chambers. current and voltage data.

type and location of positive and negative cables. where servitudes. AC input. but not be limited to the following: a. “On” and “IR” free potential measurements and the current distribution along the protected structure. Sasol. Vendor drawings of the TRU(s) and any other relevant equipment. e. Size. model. using a 10 second sampling rate shall be used in all DC traction stray current environments. “Final Balanced”. dimension. tanks and treaters. the magnitude and direction of current at each location. Operating parameters of any DC decoupling devices. where applicable. g. serial number and capacity of the TRU(s). Eight equally spaced “On” and “IR” free potential measurements shall be conducted around all of the tank peripheries. which shall include. b. Page 53 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Legal land description. All rights reserved. c. . and / or “Rights-of-Way” have been acquired. f. using a 10 second sampling rate shall be used in all DC traction stray current environments. 5. j.7 The contractor in association with the CP consultant shall also provide “as-built” drawings of the installation. d. 24 hour recordings.. Date. type and location of anodes (sacrificial and / or impressed anodes). as well as at the tank centre and other permanent PRE’s buried under the tank. 24 hour recordings. IF(s) and / or monolithic IJ(s) including hazardous classification certification where required.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION f. The TRU number in the SASOL system (if designated). where applicable. including the cross-bond potentials. Evaluation of any electrical interference effects and their resolution. DC output. including AC / DC current flow and AC / DC potentials. Current output and operating parameters of internal CP equipment for vessels.2. monolithic IJs / IFs test points. Operating parameters of AC mitigation equipment (where applicable). including but not limited to the SS-DCD(s). i. etc. make. h.

Location of all pipeline insulators and their associated surge protection devices. i. Sasol. to reflect the asbuilt status of the system.2.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION g. together with a listing of the potentials recorded during commissioning to serve as a basis of comparison for further (repeat) tests which SASOL shall carry out every 3 months. Ex rated equipment shall be supplied with the applicable accredited test certificates relating to the area classification and level of protection where it may be installed. k. j. h. shall submit to the main contractor three copies of all CP drawings. current density allowances. 6 months. Test points location. etc. where applicable. anode current output (for both impressed current and sacrificial systems). m. valves. chambers and all other relevant locations required in order to accurately monitor the efficacy of the CP system. 5. 5.2.9 The commissioning report shall also include a summary of all design calculations and related design formulae employed. All rights reserved. impressed and / or sacrificial anodes and protective outer cable sheath. Page 54 of 127 Copyright © 2003. The TRU AC supply point. anode consumption rates and life expectancy. The consultant shall include in the report the schedule of test points developed in accordance with the above section of this specification. including the AC supply schematic and all relevant wiring diagrams. . cable schedules and junction box schedules. Metallurgical laboratory analysis of the coke backfill. type and location of AC voltage mitigation equipment. including PREs. on completion of commissioning of the CP system. The capacity. anode bed resistance. surface area of protected structures. 5. and 12 months after commissioning to ensure that the system operates effectively over the 36 month guarantee period.10 The consultant in association with the contractor. COC as per the requirements of SANS 10142 / SABS 0142.2. n. cross-bonding facilities to Foreign services. Material safety data sheets for all components. as well as design data such as.8 l.

1 The following criteria as indicated in the table below. 6 CP ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA 6. All rights reserved.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION The main contractor shall then check the drawings relating to the “as-built” status for submission to SASOL with the relevant “End-of-Job” documentation. All drawings shall comply with the requirements of Specification SP-90-32.4 INSTALLATION. 5. shall be employed in order to verify both the performance and efficacy of the CP system(s) and / or where applicable. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUALS The manufacturer of each component of equipment shall furnish installation. .1.3 SPARE PARTS Data Sheet E979. Spare parts list shall include parts location diagrams or drawings and prices of all parts which the manufacturer recommends for the first two years of operation. in accordance with Specification SP-40-3. Sasol. or can be technically shown to be negligible. shall be submitted for all equipment supplied for the CP system. 5. Page 55 of 127 Copyright © 2003. operation and maintenance manuals as specified on the data sheets.1 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA 6. The efficacy of the CP system shall be evaluated by recording the structure to electrolyte potentials. Potentials will only be considered to be valid if the “IR” error or voltage drop associated with the structure-to-electrolyte potential measurements has been eliminated. any AC interference mitigation system(s).

950 NOTES: 1.2 For AC mitigation systems. Sasol.1. These values may only be used where documented high resistivity induced measurement shifts can be attained. 5.500 -0. 2.750 Min(4) -2. 3. To be used for all resistivity design ranges. 6. .850 > 40 Aerobic -0.650 -0. if the measured steady state (50 Hz) AC voltage on the structure is less than 15 V at all locations along the structure. The protection potential criteria shown apply to the metal-medium interface and the values correspond to “IR” free values. All rights reserved. The SS-DCDs shall also block the DC current until the preset voltage (design DC blocking voltage) threshold is exceeded. High resistivity soils / electrolytes where water stagnates / collects in pipe trench (rocky areas) and where MIC can occur.950 ≤ 65 Aerobic ≤ 65 Anaerobic -0.950 ≤ 65 Anaerobic -0.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA STRUCTURE ENVIRONMENT Cu / CuSO4 RE Medium Type Water / Low Resistivity Electrolytes(1) Resistivity Range Temp (Ωm) (°C) 0 ≤ 100 High Resistivity Sandy > 100 ≤ 1000 Electrolytes(2) > 1000 ∞ High Resistivity Electrolytes(5) > 100 ∞ Oxygen Potential (V DC) Max(3) ≤ 40 Aerobic -0. the system shall be considered effective. Page 56 of 127 Copyright © 2003. 4. Minimum values only attainable in the absence of DC stray current influence and where low alloy steel has been employed. The protection potential criteria shown apply to the metal-medium interface and the values correspond to “IR” free values.

There are a number of techniques which can be used to measure the true structure potential. it would be laborious and time consuming to dig a hole down to the pipe to measure the potential. the maximum step and touch potentials as specified in SANS 10199 / SABS 0199 shall be met in full at all exposed AC mitigation and CP test points.3 Under fault conditions. The correct method is to place the RE right next to a bare location of pipe (coating defect) so as to eliminate the IR drop due to current flow between the RE and pipe. as described in DIN 50 925.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 6. . the potential due to the IR drop is removed but the polarised potential decays over a period of time.1. b. the CP current is turned off. ii) Another method which may be employed in order to measure “IR” free potentials. Traditionally this is done by measuring the potential with the current “switched on” and the reference located above the pipe or along the tank periphery. All rights reserved.2. 6.1 General Considerations a. Under fault conditions the induced structure voltages shall also be less than the structure coating breakdown voltage. With this method. so as to prevent damage to the coating system. The instant the current is turned off. The potential measurement is even more complex for large diameter flat bottom storage tanks. It must be noted that this technique cannot be used if stray currents are present. is the potential versus voltage gradient technique and coupon off potential. Sasol. c. free of voltage drop errors: i) One of these is to measure the instant off potential.2 ASSESSING THE “IR” FREE STRUCTURE-TO-ELECTROLYTE POTENTIAL 6. This is problematic since as a general rule the location of the defect is not known and even if it were. Page 57 of 127 Copyright © 2003. One of the perennial problems of CP is how to measure accurately the structure (tank / pipeline) potential.

include waveform analysis. This satisfies all the requirements for accurate measurements as well as permitting a comparison with the conventional potential measurements. v) Other more complex techniques. This involves burying a steel coupon (which behaves as a defect in the pipeline coating) at each test point. which is to be utilised as part of the PRE should be constructed in accordance with DIN 50 918. Instead of turning off the CP to the structure. whereby the polarised structure potential is measured using the unsmoothed full-wave rectified waveform of the TRU.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION iii) A technique which overcomes many of the disadvantages of the instantaneous off technique is the measurement of the coupon off potential. which may be employed in order to determine true potentials (“IR” error corrected / free) and these proposed techniques and / or methods shall be subject to reviewal by SASOL. iv) A PRE station is another means of minimising IR components in potential measurements. . This basically consists of a permanent reference electrode combined with a standard “man made coating defect” (bare steel area) to simulate a coating defect. All rights reserved. The potential is measured between the man made defect and the reference electrode located within the centre of the defect so there is no soil voltage gradient. The method may be subject to errors. The coating defect. if the structure contains coating defects of substantially larger size than the coupon and if the coupon is close to a defect. The probe is oriented so that the plate experiences the equivalent electric field to that which applies to the other entire pipeline coating defects. The preferred method is iv) where stray currents are present and iv) or v) in plant environments where stray currents are not a problem. Sasol. the CP to the coupon is interrupted. for example. Consultants may also provide details of other techniques or test methods. Page 58 of 127 Copyright © 2003. It is buried with the structure and backfilled with the same material. and the potential measured at the instant of interruption.

should preferably be determined as follows: a. . b. “IR” free PREs should be installed at regular intervals along the pipeline route to permit ostensible “IR” free measurements.2. All rights reserved.Stray Current Conditions The true (“IR” free) potential of pipeline structures which are located in stray current environments should preferably be determined as follows: a.Environments with No Stray Currents The true (“IR” free) potential of pipeline structures which are located in non stray current environments. “IR” free PREs should be installed at regular intervals along the pipeline route to permit ostensible “IR” free measurements. Instant “Off” measurements shall be obtained by pulsing the TRU(s). b.3 All Structures . the system will be required to be monitored by SASOL during the guarantee period.2. Other techniques which contractors wish to use must first be reviewed by SASOL prior to commissioning. 7 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE CP SYSTEM After complete construction of the CP system and commissioning.2 Distribution and Transmission Pipelines . with all other TRUs de-energised for testing. Other techniques which contractors wish to use must first be reviewed by SASOL prior to commissioning.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 6. Page 59 of 127 Copyright © 2003. This may be achieved by interrupting multiple TRUs using GPS interrupters or interrupting single TRUs one at a time. 6. Sasol. Intensive voltage gradient / pipe potential measurements as stipulated in DIN 50 925.

SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION A complete and concise operation and maintenance manual (OMM) will be issued with all of the relevant hand-over documentation. d. iii) Pipelines running parallel to or crossing high voltage cables. ii) Insulating joints / couplings. b. The CP monitoring plan shall include regular monthly monitoring of CP test point(s) installed at the following locations: i) Road. Page 60 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Sacrificial anode locations shall be tested bi-annually and inspected monthly or as required. c. The impressed current CP rectifiers will be monitored twice monthly to verify that the rectifiers are energized and functioning as designed. Sasol. rail and river crossings. A CP monitoring plan based on ISO 13623:2000 (E). vi) Crossing of other pipelines or major metallic structures with or without CP. The OMM shall include but no be limited to the following: a. iv) Changes in CP methods. All rights reserved. based upon the risk of vandalism and theft. in order to enable CP measurements and demonstrate the effectiveness of the CP for the entire pipeline route. vii) Test stations located approximately every kilometre along transmission and distribution pipelines and test stations located in and around process plant areas. v) Valves and other major pipeline structures. .

Rectifying element : Thyristor or diodes.1 GENERAL The CP materials to be used. i. e. type of meters. AC input : Single phase or three phase (400 or 525 V). f.2. An “equivalent” item shall imply complete technical compliance or better. Page 61 of 127 Copyright © 2003. DC voltage should be limited to 50 V (max). Colour. The most commonly noted options are offered in the following areas: a. All rights reserved. configuration. current and / or potential. 3Cr12 or mild steel. Circuit type : Constant voltage.1 Power supplies for ICCP systems are required to generate the DC current required in order to confer protection. d. Cooling type : Air cooled (convection or forced) or oil cooled. The alternative “equivalent” material / item shall be reviewed by SASOL prior to its use.2 MANUAL TAP CHANGE AND AUTOMATIC THYRISTOR CONTROLLED TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER UNITS 8. Each Manufacturer may offer a perplexing array of options regarding their TRU. h.. . Sasol. g. than that specified. 8. DC amperes typically ranges from 10 A to 350 A. Control type : Manual (tap change. Enclosure Type : 316SS. etc. etc. as part of the CP installation shall conform to the requirements stipulated below. IP66. TRUs are the most common power sources for ICCP systems. variac) or automatic.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 8 CATHODIC PROTECTION MATERIALS AND THE INSTALLATION THEREOF 8. b. c.

In order to provide a better appreciation of the conditions in which TRU have to operate. 8. The TRU is often required to operate outdoors.4 Automatic TRUs are required to maintain the output current constant at a preset value. The essential function of a TRU is to supply a DC between the structure to be protected (the cathode) and the anode / anode groundbed system. Seasonal fluctuations in the moisture content of the ground can result in the total loop resistance changing by a factor of three or more. All rights reserved. . the current must flow from the anode to the cathode via the electrolyte (soil / ground). d. the monitoring and maintenance may be infrequent due to plant operating and maintenance constraints. In plant areas.2. depending on the application. 525 or 400 V AC mains voltage has to be stepped down to at most 50 V DC while simultaneously increasing the output current to as much as 150 A. Sasol. The external load is resistive.2 Great inefficiencies may result if the entire CP system is not designed with the power supply in mind. c.2. A manual control TRU is one where only the output voltage remains constant and the current and pipe potential varies according to the prevailing circuit resistance. 8. but it is not generally constant.3 For safety and technical reasons. the following should be kept in mind: a.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 8. The internal temperature may be capable of reaching in excess of 60°C unless steps are taken to vent the heat. The overall reliability of the TRU is of great importance since the protection conferred on the pipeline is directly dependent on it. originating from the use of high quality dielectric pipe coatings. b.2. The TRU negative terminal is connected to the cathode and the positive to the anode. In all instances. Page 62 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Rectifiers are subject to frequent and severe lightning and other electrical transients and surges.

and between phases and earth. 9. . The transformer shall have a minimum efficiency of 95% and regulation shall be no greater than 3% (for not stressing the electronic components) from no load to full rated load.5 The transformer shall have suitable taps on the primary or secondary winding. 9. double wound transformer requiring a 525 V / 400 V supply. These shall have an insulating cover in order to prevent accidental contact with the live circuit. 9. and insulation on the primary shall be able to withstand 10 kV (due to atmospheric pollution causing flashovers) between phases. 9.1.1.3 The TRU is to comprise a step down. 66. Single wound (auto) transformers are not permitted except as a means of controlling the primary current of the main double wound transformer.1.1.1 GENERAL 9. The transformer shall have an earth screen between the primary and secondary to intercept voltage transients.3%.4 The transformer shall be double wound and continuously rated in accordance with BS 171. Sasol. connecting to Brass terminals for coarse selection of the voltage. All rights reserved. This is only a type drawing and bidders must supply their own drawings with the RFQ documents.1.6% and 100% of the rated DC voltage. The maximum DC output voltage may not exceed 50 V. The voltage taps shall be equivalent to 33.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9 ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION 9. A typical schematic / wiring diagram is shown in Standard Drawing STDD-6005CN.1 The rectifiers shall meet the requirements of all applicable electrical and safety codes.2 The rectifier shall be capable of operating at a continuous full rated output in ambient temperatures between –10°C and +60°C. and a rectifier bridge to produce the required DC output. Page 63 of 127 Copyright © 2003.

9.e. Sasol.1. Diode / thyristor packs or equivalent are not permitted in applications where the DC output current is rated at 75 A or above. 9. but also when the output current exceeds the rated current by 40% and such that no part of the circuit is damaged.1.8 A 0. . All rights reserved.7 A fuse is to be positioned in the negative DC leg. output ripple voltage.6 Protection against current surges shall be provided by means of a circuit breaker or fuses. The fuse must not only be capable of failing on a short circuit. The circuit breaker must engage / disengage all phases of the AC supply and be capable of completely isolating the TRU except the 16 A 230 V switch socket. discrete rectifier devices shall be used. The circuit breaker shall be of the thermal or 100% magnetic type and located in the primary circuit before the power transformer. The diodes / thyristors shall be rated for continuous operation at 120°C and are to be mounted on aluminium heat sinks suitable for the type of cooling specified. A second circuit breaker with thermal overload protection shall be installed between the power transformer and the rectifier bridge to protect the diodes.1. the heat sink temperature and ambient temperature difference shall not exceed 35 °C above ambient operating conditions.9 The rectifier bridge shall consist of six silicon diodes (manual units) or six silicon thyristors (automatic units) connected for full wave rectification. 9.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. 9.1.5 mH choke capable of continuously carrying 125% of the full load current is to be included in the positive and negative DC legs immediately before the output terminals. Care must be taken not to exceed the diode / thyristor manufacturer’s torque value when screwing in the diodes. Above 75 A. At maximum output. The diodes and thyristors to be used shall be derated to 50% of the manufacturer’s published rating and have a PIV of 1600 V (RMS).1.10 The three phase crest values shall not exceed 10 % of the DC value at full rated load i. Page 64 of 127 Copyright © 2003. The diodes / thyristors are to be screwed onto the heat sink using a heat conducting paste which shall exclude moisture.

Have a current limit facility at a specified value of output voltage. All rights reserved.e.1 Manual Tap Change Transformer Rectifier Units For manual tap change transformer rectifier units only. Sasol.2 Automatic Thyristor Controlled Transformer Rectifier Units The control circuit shall control the firing of the thyristors and perform the following functions: a. The TRU must have a ready mounted spare control card such that in the event of a failure of the primary control card.5 mm female socket “banana” terminals under the DC ammeter. 9.1.11 A one-to-one ratio (mVµA) shunt (accuracy of at least MMP ± 25 %) is to be located on the negative leg with the measuring cables terminating at two 3. Page 65 of 127 Copyright © 2003. 9. Maintain output current constant at a preset value.12 In parallel with the negative cable. This cable shall not carry “current” and is to be used only for the measurement of the structure potential. All the above functions shall be carried out by one control card.2.2. 4 coarse and 4 fine switch settings.1.2 OUTPUT CONTROL 9. a monitor cable shall be connected to the pipeline and connected to the monitor terminal. . 9. The shunt rating shall be at least 120 % of the maximum rectifier output current rating.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. b. the output voltage shall be adjusted using 150 A DC rotary tap switches (depending on the TRU full load current capability) or equivalent and shall allow for at least 16 ranges for output current adjustment i. the ribbon cable may be disconnected and connected to the spare card. All the connections to the control card are to be by means of plug-in ribbon cables.

.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION The current limit facility shall be adjustable from 0% to 100% of current output via a suitable potentiostat and the “knob” must be set against a graduated scale marked 0 to 10.2 The pipe potential voltmeter shall be connected to the “pipe monitoring” terminal and the “reference electrode” terminal. c. DC voltmeter for measurement of pipe potential . The pipe potential voltmeter is to be digital with a minimum input impedance of 10 MΩ.3. with 10 the maximum output of the TRU. The “pipe monitoring” terminal shall not be connected to the “pipe” terminal. 9. b. In atmospherically polluted areas all control circuitry not contained in an oil tank is to be sealed in an enclosure rated IP64 minimum. and a LCD. d.1 The TRU shall include the following meters: a. DC voltmeter for measurement of output voltage. In the constant current mode. e. DC milli-voltmeter (“ammeter”) connected to the shunt and graduated to the shunt rating. The height of the digits shall not be less than 12. 9.press to read. AC voltmeter for measurement of AC supply voltage sequentially between phases.3. the feed-back signal is to come from 3 current transformers installed on each phase of the mains supply. 9. Sasol. Page 66 of 127 Copyright © 2003. All rights reserved.5 mm with an accuracy of MMP ±1%. DC hour-off meter (to record no DC output hours).3.3 METERS AND MONITORS 9.3 All other meters are to be analogue.

c. b.85% error over 100°C for temperatures other than 25°C.4 SURGE PROTECTION 9.4 The analogue meters shall be 96 mm2 with an accuracy of 2% at maximum output and 25°C.3.3.3.g. to enable one to check that the meters are reading correctly. Reference potential.5 mm “banana” socket connected to the pipe must also be indicated for the potential voltmeter.1 Indoor type lightning arresters shall not be permitted.7 a. Manufacturers are to submit the details of the DC hour-off meter circuit during the RFQ stage. output ammeter and reference voltmeter.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. DC hour-off.6 The meters shall be labelled as follows: 9. The value of the shunt must also be indicated below the ammeter e. Sasol.3. The meters shall be compensated to a maximum of 0. with the exception of the AC voltmeter. 9. It shall be capable of detecting a current as low as 1 % of rated current. e.4. AC Voltage. 9. The DC hour-off meter shall indicate the time the DC current has not been flowing.5 All meters shall be discreet. DC output voltage. 9. 100 mV 100 A. . sealed and flush mounted. d. All rights reserved.8 The 3. Page 67 of 127 Copyright © 2003. DC output current.3. Two differently coloured captive terminal sockets (female “banana” jacks) must be located beneath each of the output voltmeter. 9.

All conductors shall be numbered at both ends with reference to the schematic and wiring diagram supplied. in parallel.5. flexible multi-strand cable is to be used. given the ambient operating temperature range. Not more than two conductors shall be connected to any one terminal. Bulbar joints shall be bolted. All rights reserved. surge protection will be sequentially installed as follows: a.5 mH choke in the negative leg (pipeline) and a 0. forming and drilling.4.2 Moving away from the rectifier bridge towards the output terminals. Two 280 V 40 kA @ 8 / 20 µs MOVs in series are to be connected between the positive and negative legs. b.4.2 All conductors excluding bus bars shall be routed in trunking. 9.5 WIRING AND BUSBARS 9. Page 68 of 127 Copyright © 2003. is to be connected between the positive and negative legs. steady state induced AC and DC fault currents to be diverted from the pipeline directly to earth. . Next to the above a 550 V 40 kA @ 8 / 20 µs MOV. This shall be followed by a 0. 9.5.1 Wherever possible. Between the latter two MOV devices. The latter shall be tinned after cutting. with the possible exception of anode header cables. Tinning shall be in accordance with Grade Sn6C of BS 1872. a connection to the earth bar is to be made via another 280 V 40 kA @ 8 / 20 µs MOV. the negative leg (pipeline) of the DC output shall be connected to a suitably rated earth via a solid state DC decoupling device. See Standard Drawing STDD-6005CV.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. Joints or splices in any wiring will not be permitted. in order to permit transient. Bus bars shall be tinned copper.5 mH choke in the positive leg (anode) rated at 125% of the full rated load current (output current) of the TRU.3 On all long transmission and distribution pipelines. the copper conductor’s insulation values shall be adjusted to compensate for the internal temperature rise of the unit. Sasol. 9.

Bolted joints shall be provided with spring washers. c. Electrical warning signs : Black on Yellow background.6. 9. Earth cables : Green-Yellow. 9.3 If bus bars are used on the power transformer secondary. the colour is to be red.6 COLOUR CODING AND LABELLING 9. Page 69 of 127 Copyright © 2003.5. they are to be insulated by means of a correctly coloured heat shrink sleeve per phase. 9.2 a.6.4 All components and / or component assemblies shall be labelled. Sasol. 9.1 The following colour coding should be adhered to: 9. h. b.6. yellow or blue as appropriate to the phase. Negative electrical cables : Black. i.5 Labels shall cross reference to the circuit diagram. Electrical supply cables (2nd phase) : Yellow. f. Electrical supply cables (1st phase) : Red.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. Power transformer secondary cables shall be grey and have an approximately 30 mm heat shrink sleeve at either end.3 Bolted bulbar joints shall be tinned after cutting. forming and drilling and treated with petroleum jelly or a similar water repellent paste prior to assembly. Electrical supply cables (3rd phase) : Blue. . j.6. Metal cabinets : Signal Yellow: RAL 1003. g. All rights reserved. e. Monitoring cable : Black. Positive electrical cables : Red.6. d. Cable for reference electrode : Red.

.6. all metal cabinets shall be painted according to the highest voltage colour and other voltages be indicated as per individual colour code via a 40 mm diameter dot.6. EARTH. All rights reserved.6.7 Labels shall be in upper case letters with a height of 6 mm for component labels and 10 mm for output terminal labels. Sasol. Cable tags shall be plastic. except the positive output label which shall be in white letters on a red background. Page 70 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Ferrules shall be slip-on-type and matched to the size of the cable.9 9. b.12 Ferrules shall be situated so as to read right way up on a horizontal cables and from lug to insulation on vertical cables. 9. +VE GROUNDBED. 9.11 Cables shall be identified by means of permanently marked ferrules with black lettering on a white background.6. 9. Labels shall be fixed by means of screws or pop rivets such that they shall not dislodged during the life of the unit.10 Output terminals shall be labelled as follows: a.8 At Natref.6.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. e. RE. -VE PIPE. d. Alternatively aluminium silk screen labels may be used.6. PIPE MON. 9. 9.6 Labels shall be of the engraved “sandwich” Traffolyte type with black letters on a white background. c. Screws and rivets are to be Brass or Aluminium.6.

c. DC Positive (Groundbed / Rail): Red.7. each provided with nuts.7.1 Cables shall be terminated at each end by means of lugs.7. .7. All rights reserved. 9.4 a. AC: Red.2 Control cable lugs shall be pre-insulated by means of heat shrink sleeves. DC Negative (Pipe): Black.7.7 The negative terminal shall be M10 and the positive terminal M16. b.8 Separate terminals size M6 shall be provided for the pipe monitoring cable.7.7.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9.3 Power cable lugs shall be insulated by means of heat shrink sleeves or slip-on rubber shrouds colour-coded as follows: 9.7 CABLE ENDS AND TERMINALS 9. washers and tinned Copper cable lugs suitable for the specified cable size. 9. and reference electrode cable. 9.5 Terminals on power connections shall be provided with lock nuts and / or spring washers. 9. 9.9 A 10 mm diameter hole shall be drilled in the earth bar in order to facilitate the connection via a lug to the earth cable. lock nuts.7. All terminals shall be suitably labelled and be completely accessible after completion of all wiring.7. Sasol. 9. Page 71 of 127 Copyright © 2003. 9. Yellow or Blue according to phase.6 Output terminals shall be fully insulated from the metal of the housing and shall comprise of Brass bolts.

9. b.8.3 All electrical circuits shall be floating with respect to earth. steady state induced AC and / or AC fault currents occur.8.8 EARTHING 9. Spark gap: one of each type and rating used and one for the SS-DCD. where a high incidence of transient surges. 9. 9.4 An additional dedicated earth may be required at each TRU location on transmission / distribution pipelines.8. transformer screen and the transformer rectifier housing.9 SPARES The following minimum spares are to be supplied with the TRU in accordance with Specification SP-40-03: a. d.2 Earthing shall be carried out in accordance with Specification SP-60-35. Sasol. Fuses: three of each type and rating used. c. 9.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. Diodes: two of each type and rating used. . Page 72 of 127 Copyright © 2003.8. All rights reserved.1 The surge diversion units shall be connected to the common earth incorporating the primary AC supply earth. MOV: five of each type and rating for R-C networks. The “earth” would be connected to the pipe via a SS-DCD and directly to the incoming AC earth and / or TRU earth.

rectifier devices. All oil cooled equipment shall be maintenance free. this configuration may be specified even though devices may be adequately cooled by means of natural convection. Page 73 of 127 Copyright © 2003.10. purification or topping up shall be necessary.2 Oil Cooled All transformers.9 shall be located on the inside of one of the large doors. Particular attention shall be taken to ensure that the heat is efficiently dissipated and that the heat of one component does not interfere with the operation of adjacent devices. All components are to be mounted such that they may be easily removed for repairs and also for “in-situ” repair work. .10 COMPONENT LAYOUT 9. and any other devices requiring oil cooling to maintain safe operating temperatures at ambient conditions. In applications where atmospheric pollution or excessive humidity pose a threat to the operation of the components. i. Sasol. The spares detailed in Paragraph 9. All connections through the wall of the oil tank are to be effected through sealing bushes of the correct electrical and hydraulic pressure rating. are to be placed in an enclosure containing an adequate volume of insulating (less than 50 ppm PCB) mineral oil to SANS 555 / SABS 555. heat-sinks.10.1 Convection Cooled The transformer. choke and rectifier bridge shall be housed in the bottom of the cabinet and the meters at the top. No oil testing.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. 9.. The surge protection devices shall be mounted as close as possible to the item requiring protection.e. chokes. totally enclosed and sealed. All rights reserved.

12. It shall be suitably designed to prevent ingress of dust and rain (at least IP55). It should be borne in mind that as the units generally stand in the open sun.3 Insect proofing shall be bolted to the inside of the cabinet where the cabinet is open to the atmosphere.12. Page 74 of 127 Copyright © 2003. the oil tank may be designed to accommodate an adequate volume of oil and to provide ease of access to components for maintenance purposes (bolted tank cover). the internal temperature may reach 60°C. Sasol. 9. .1 The cabinet shall be manufactured from 2 mm thick 3Cr12 steel. under exceptional circumstances and upon SASOL’s reviewal. The cabinet shall be of sufficient size to allow easy access for servicing and maintenance. 9.2 The housing shall allow for adequate ventilation of the heat-sinks and power elements (natural convection cooled).11 AUXILIARY AC SUPPLY The TRU shall be provided in the front and back with a standard 230 V single phase 5 A (1 kW) 3-point plug for providing power to auxiliary devices. A breather pipe with a silica-gel desiccant element is to be fitted to the highest point of the oil-tank.4 Cabinet doors shall be sealed by means of closed cell expanded rubber or approved equivalent.12.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION However.12 CABINET CONSTRUCTION 9. 9.12. All rights reserved. a drain valve and a sight-glass for determining oil level indicating maximum and minimum permissible levels. 9. The tank is to be suitably constructed to withstand the pressure of the specified volume of oil and is to be fitted with a sealable filler tube. 9.

12.12. handling and installation.8 The cabinet base shall be 3Cr12 steel.7 Cabinets shall be provided with channel section bases and lifting lugs suitably designed to prevent distortion during transport. 9.12. 9.12.5 Cabinet doors shall be provided with door stays to hold the door open during servicing and maintenance.11 The following information (as a minimum) is to be hard stamped onto the manufacturer’s nameplate attached to the inside of the cabinet door: Owner : Type of equipment offered : AC rating : DC rating : Serial No. : Date of manufacture : Fault level : Manufactured to specification : e. 9.12.6 All external welds shall be continuous seam welds.10 The cabinet must be so designed that there are no inherent moisture traps.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. The gland plate shall be manufactured from 304 L SS and the entire assembly is to minimise the ingress of moisture from the ground. 9.9 The cabinets shall be provided with a bottom plate which shall incorporate a removable gland plate. Sasol. 9. . All rights reserved.12.12. Stitch or tack welding is not permitted. CP transformer rectifier Page 75 of 127 Copyright © 2003.g. 9.

4 Manufacturer must include in their proposed specification. 9.13. record of past performance and a two year guarantee. . The TRU cabinet case shall be finished with two coats of corrosionresistant primer and an outdoor environment-resistant finish (fusion bonded polyester or equal). The coating shall not “chalk” in sunlight.2 The colour shall be Signal Yellow (RAL 1003).13 COATING 9. All rights reserved.3 Application shall be by means of electrostatic spray and the coating systems shall be from one manufacturer only. The successful contractor may only use his coating system upon reviewal from SASOL.14.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. The manufacturer will issue a test certificate on completion of the tests and it shall be signed by SASOL.2 The cabinet and AC input.1 Manufacturers shall submit a complete specification relating to the coating system they intend using.13.13. 9. the DC output and cabinet and the primary to secondary sides of the main transformer shall withstand a 1 kV insulation test. All of the testing shall be carried out at the manufacturer’s expense.13. This must be accompanied with full details. 9. 9. details relating to the surface preparation and painting.14 INSPECTION AND TESTING The tests detailed below shall be carried out at the manufacturer’s works.14. prior to coating the cabinets.1 All the components shall pass the stipulated tests and the tests shall be carried out in the presence of SASOL. 9. 9. Page 76 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Sasol. in accordance with RAL-FARBEN.

The construction contractor shall supply a COC upon installation.7 Maximum permissible internal temperature under any circumstance shall be 65 °C. Sasol. 9.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. 9.3 above shall be repeated immediately on conclusion of the temperature test run. The temperatures shall be logged by means of a digital data logger at a sampling rate of 1 value every 15 minutes. The maximum temperature difference between the latter two shall not exceed 40°C.6 The ambient. Where the temperature continues to rise after 24 hours. 9.14. the heat sink temperature shall be recorded.14.5 In the event of the TRU being constructed on a chassis for use inside a Durasafe. The test shall be terminated when there is no further increase in the temperature difference between the ambient and heat sink temperature. Page 77 of 127 Copyright © 2003.9 SASOL may call for other pertinent tests in order to prove compliance with the specification.14.4 The TRU shall operate for 24 hours continuously at maximum current and voltage output with all the doors closed or until the temperature is stable for a period of not less than 3 hours. internal cabinet and heat sink temperatures shall be plotted against time. All rights reserved.14.14. 9.14.14. 9.3 Efficiency tests shall be conducted at 10% and 100% of the maximum current and at the full rated voltage. the testing shall continue until the temperature becomes stable. 9.14.8 The insulation test described in Paragraph 9. .

external fire and flooding.16 GUARANTEE The equipment shall carry an unconditional three year guarantee. 10.5 m above ground. Sasol. A removable circuit diagram attached to a 2 mm thick aluminium sheet. 9. 9.1 Concrete plinths shall be installed at the transformer rectifier unit. b.15 DOCUMENTATION The TRU shall be supplied with the following items. anode cabinet and potential monitoring cabinet. All rights reserved. The latter shall then be encapsulated in clear epoxy resin. which are to be mounted to the inside of the front door: a. mechanical damage. 10 CONCRETE PLINTHS 10.2 The plinth shall be reinforced with steel or hot dipped galvanised steel in corrosive environments and shall have a strength equal to 25 MPa and installed a minimum of 0. Page 78 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Two hard copies and one electronic (PDF format) copy of the Operation and Maintenance Manual (OMM) shall be supplied to SASOL.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 9. .17 MANUFACTURER QUALIFICATIONS Rectifiers shall be supplied only by manufacturers pre-qualified by SASOL. The only exceptions shall be for damages arising from vandalism.

Adding chromium results in the elimination of the graphite.7 The plinths shall be coated with a concrete bonding liquid and then painted with white (or SASOL required colour) road marking paint. The standard metallurgical composition of silicon iron anodes conforms to ASTM Standard A518-86 Grade 3. Page 79 of 127 Copyright © 2003.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 10.1. .4 All plinths shall be buried a minimum of 0. This alloy consisted of the addition of 4. 10.6 All the plinths shall be installed with two 100 mm diameter 2 m long PVC conduits for cable entry. All rights reserved.3 The plinths shall have a square concrete surround 75 mm thick (25 MPa). the size of the surround shall be based upon the site and whether a transformer rectifier unit. non-porous material. Sasol. 10.5 The TRU plinth shall have a minimum clearance of the open cabinet door width plus an additional 0. It was introduced as an anode material in 1954. There shall be two separate conduits for the AC and DC cables.5% chromium and this anode material has been widely used and accepted in industry. High silicon chromium cast iron is a solid.5 m at the front and the back of the cabinet for access. A subsequent modification to the alloy in 1959 produced better anode performance characteristics.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 11. 10.3 m in the ground. This alloy consists of a matrix of Silica-ferrite in which the majority of the carbon is in the form of graphite flakes at grain boundaries. anode cabinet or potential monitoring cabinet is to be installed. 10. The cast material was extremely hard and brittle and was first seriously considered for impressed current anode application in the early 1950’s. 11 CORROSION RESISTANT SILICON IRON ANODES 11.1 Iron containing a high silicon percentage was developed in the early 1900’s.

1. Silicon-chromium cast iron is highly resistant to acid solutions and it does not perform particularly well in alkaline environments.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 11. . and centrifugal casting. Although the performance is improved with coke breeze. Centre-connected anodes utilise a one or two piece lead assembly attached to the interior centre of the anode.2 This alloy is cast by several methods including sand mould casting.2 The anodes shall typically have an external diameter of 71 mm and an internal diameter of 55 mm. ISO 9002 certification shall be required. All rights reserved. 11.13 m and diameters ranging from 25. 11.1. A variety of anode shapes and sizes are available. Centre-connections are used for cylindrical tube shapes.3 Each silicon iron anode is normally provided with an individual cable of varying length. Silicon iron anodes are provided in both end-connected and centre-connected configurations.1. and be nominally 1071 mm long. the latter results in the most stable and homogenous structure. its use is not critical.1 The silicon iron anodes shall be centrifugally cast tubular anodes and manufactured in accordance with ISO9002.2. The most common connector for solid anodes is a poured and tamped lead connection in the cast hole. Sasol.2.4 mm to 150 mm. Oxidation of the alloy is necessary to form this protective film. 11. The solid bar anodes are cast with a hole at one end to accommodate a connecting cable. The most common anode shapes are cylindrical tubes and solid bars in lengths up to 2. This material is also widely used in freshwater and saltwater environments. 11. weighing up to 127 kg. 11. chill-casting.4 High silicon cast iron anodes are widely used in under ground applications in both shallow and deep groundbeds.2 GENERAL ANODE DETAILS 11. Page 80 of 127 Copyright © 2003.5 The performance of cast iron as an anode is dependent upon the formation of a layer of silicon dioxide on the surface of the anode. There have been numerous methods and procedures for connecting cable to cast iron anodes.1.

11. blow holes. All rights reserved. 11.6 The top and bottom 150 mm shall be filled with Hydrochloric acid (10 % solution) resistant two pack epoxy. . All proposed equivalent epoxies shall be submitted to SASOL for reviewal. cracks or inclusions.8 The anode connection and encapsulation shall be suitable for continuous use in wet and / or submerged conditions for the duration of 20 years. 11. the associated voltage drop and tensile strength required to adequately support the anode during installation.2.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 11. The minimum cable length shall be detailed in the bill of quantities and an additional 2 m of slack shall be supplied with each anode. with the exception of the top and bottom 150 mm shall be filled with hot (85 °C) pourable bitumen.9 Care must be taken not to damage the cable insulation during transport. Sasol. the entire anode and cable shall be replaced.2. 11. If there is any sign of damage.7 Great care must be taken to ensure that the cable insulation is not damaged by the lead caulking. Page 81 of 127 Copyright © 2003.2. 11. The level of defects present shall not exceed ASTM E186 (Volume II) Level 1 / 2.10 The anodes shall be free from defects which may impair the anode performance.2.2.5 The entire connection area.2.3 The anode shall possess a steel terminal which shall be located centrally within the walls in order to ensure that the anode is consumed uniformly and to ensure that a balanced spread of current is achieved throughout its length. storage and installation. 11. The anode shall be free from internal porosity.2.4 The cable insulation shall be as per the requirements specified in Section 14 and the capacity shall be determined in accordance with the current requirements.2. 11. Care must also be taken to ensure that the bitumen covers the entire cable connection.

5% Chromium (Cr) 3.0 g / mℓ.12 The anode life shall be 70 A.3 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The anode composition shall be in accordance with ASTM A518-86 Grade 3 as indicated in the table below: ELEMENT PERCENTAGE BY WEIGHT (%) Silicon (Si) 14.5% Molybdenum (Mo) 0. All rights reserved. 11.4.2% Copper (Cu) 0. 11.70% to 1.y minimum as determined for use without coke. Sasol. This shall be conducted at the factory.75% Carbon (C) 0. shall be a minimum of 14 kg and possess a minimum density of 7.20% to 14.35% to 5% Iron (Fe) Balance 11. .2.10% Manganese (Mn) 1. The weight of the anode without cable and epoxy. Page 82 of 127 Copyright © 2003.4.4 QUALITY CONTROL AND TESTING 11.2 SASOL shall witness that the resistance of the cable to anode connection does not exceed 0. 11.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 11.11 The manufacturer shall submit the pertinent documentation required in order to verify the level of defects present.1 An analysis certificate shall be provided of the batch from which the anodes were cast.004 Ω.2.

All rights reserved.5 Anodes shall not be dispatched to site prior to testing and / or without the reviewal of SASOL. Page 83 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Any broken anodes are to be replaced by the contractor and all associated costs shall be to his account. The testing shall be for the contractor’s account. SASOL reserves the right to select a percentage of anode(s) at random. Sasol. including the Ampere-years / kg.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 11. 11. an anode shall be selected and tested for capacity (A. the anodes shall be installed as follows: 12. as stipulated in BS 6001 Part 1. 11. . porosity and other tests deemed pertinent by SASOL. 11.y). 11.4 A minimum of one week prior to installation. for inspection and testing. This shall ensure that the bottom anode is resting on a layer of pitch coke.1 DEEP VERTICAL AND SHALLOW VERTICAL ANODE GROUNDBED SYSTEMS Upon completion and testing of the bore.4.1 A predetermined amount of coke will be poured into the bore hole and allowed to settle prior to installation of the first anode. transport and / or installation. These shall give details of the life of the anode. 12 TYPICAL IMPRESSED CURRENT ANODE INSTALLATION DETAILS 12. A full set of chemical and metallurgical tests shall be carried out in order to ensure complete compliance with the specification.4.1. when tested in a steel drum containing 10% sodium sulphate solution.6 During installation of the anodes.4.4.3 Type test certificates shall be submitted at the time of RFQ.7 Great care must be taken to ensure that no damage occurs to the silicon iron anodes during storage.4.

12.2.1. If MMO / PMO anodes are used.5 m deep horizontal trench or lowered into the augured vertical distributive hole.5 Upon installation of the top anode (last one). 12. This is generally not required when installing the anode and canister in the horizontal trench. the coke must be pumped. on an individual basis. Coke shall be poured around the canister and augured hole to ensure that there are no voids. Inside process plant areas.2 Anode centralisers shall be employed where it cannot be guaranteed that the anode will ostensibly be located in the centre of the coke column.6 The anode tails shall be terminated into a suitably rated DC distribution cabinet / enclosure. . All rights reserved.5 m of the anode bed (bore hole) shall be sealed with Bentonite or a equivalent.1. environment. 12. which shall protect the outer insulation sheath.1.5 m below the surface. Sasol. cognisance shall be taken of the area classification. 12.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 12.2 HORIZONTAL AND DISTRIBUTIVE ANODE GROUNDBED SYSTEMS 12.2. The top 1. Page 84 of 127 Copyright © 2003.5 mm shall be poured into the anode bed to a depth of 1. 12.3 Anodes located inside the canisters shall be lowered into the typically 2.1.1 Anodes shall be pre-packed in 300 mm diameter.5 mm to 3. Graded washed river sand with a particle size distribution of 0.2 The anode shall be centrally located inside the canister and encapsulated in pitch coke.2. type and rating of enclosure required. the cables shall be located inside a plastic high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe.4 No cable joints are permitted in these systems. 2 m long and 1. 12.5 mm (minimum) spirally welded galvanised steel canisters.1. 12.3 Anodes shall be lowered on an individual basis and coke poured into the bore hole in order to ensure that the anode is centrally surrounded by the pitch coke and the correct anode separation is achieved.

5 The anode tails shall be hydraulically crimped to the ring main cable via a suitably sized T-ferrule. mesh and wire anodes.2. This is not required in vertical distributive systems. 12. in horizontal anode beds. fresh. 12. Sasol. The coating shall be applied by an automated coating process in order to maximise reproducibility. coating uniformity and consistency.4 Anode canisters filled with pitch coke shall be used in order to ensure that the correct anode separation is achieved. Manual application is not permitted.1 The MMO and PMO anodes covered in this specification will be limited to tubular.3.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 12. The MMO / PMO anode shall ostensibly consist of an electro-catalytic iridium oxide (IrO2) and tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) coating on a titanium (Ti) substrate.2. The loading requirements shall be carried out in accordance with the manufacturer’s proprietary data in order to achieve the stipulated requirements in soils. The ring main cable shall be joined in a similar fashion to the positive DC header cable. backfill. All cable connections shall be inspected by SASOL prior to backfilling.2. 12. The relevant inspection shall be carried out during the cable installation as stipulated in the SASOL cable installation specification. Page 85 of 127 Copyright © 2003. This is typically 550 mm below grade outside the SASOL factory limits. All cabling located inside the SASOL factory shall be installed as per Specification SP-60-01. .6 Cable warning tape shall be placed along the entire length of the horizontal anode bed at the required burial depth. The T-ferrule shall be wrapped with self-vulcanising tape and the entire connection be placed into a T-shaped cable splicing kit.3 MIXED METAL OXIDE (MMO) / PRECIOUS METAL OXIDE (PMO) ANODES 12. All rights reserved. brackish and seawater applications.

4 ANODE DIMENSIONS AND TITANIUM SUBSTRATE GRADES The titanium anode substrate shall comply as detailed below. Page 86 of 127 Copyright © 2003. The anode manufacturer’s maximum current output for the various anode configurations and dimensions shall not be exceeded under any circumstances. prior to the use of any MMO / PMO anodes. The latter assumes that no Halide pollutants are present such as fluorine (F) or bromine (Br).2 The MMO / PMO operating voltage shall not exceed 50 V for soil and 9 V for sea water applications. ANODE CONFIGURATION TITANIUM SUBSTRATE MATERIAL Tubular ASTM B338 Grade 1 or 2 . the precise soil and ground water chemistry shall be determined. A chemical data sheet shall be supplied with the anodes confirming compliance to the substrate material. .Seamless Installation depth > 100 m Tubular ASTM B338 Grade 1 or 2 . Where deleterious pollutants are to be expected. All rights reserved.Welded Installation depth < 100 m Mesh (Diamond) ASTM B265 Grade 1 or 2 All installation depths Wire ASTM B348 Grade 1 or 2 All installation depths All configurations Ti as above and 50 µm of metallic Tantalum* Severely polluted environments COMMENTS Note: *tantalum (Ta) to be electroplated onto titanium substrate. Sasol. The anode current output parameters shall be submitted during the tender stage.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 12. for the various anode configurations.3. 12.

635 length x width x thickness All installation depths 0.0 (length x cross section) l x 3.y COMMENTS Installation depth > 100 m and seawater applications 500 to 1000 x 25 x 0.35 x 0.0 A / m @ 20 All installation depths years 1. Page 87 of 127 Copyright © 2003.017 A / m @ 50 years All installation depths Alternative dimensions may only be considered upon reviewal by SASOL.y Installation depth < 100 m 500 to 1000 x 19 x 0. Sasol.6 (length x nominal bore x wall thickness) 120 A. .2 (length x cross section) Strip l x 6. All rights reserved.6 (length x nominal bore x wall thickness) CAPACITY 160 A.9 (length x nominal bore x wall thickness) 160 A.9 (length x nominal bore x wall thickness) Mesh (diamond) 120 A.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION The following anode dimensions shall apply: ANODE DIMENSIONS CONFIGURATION (mm) Tubular 500 to 1000 x 25 x 1.y x width x wall thickness) Wire l x 1.5 (length x cross section) l x 3.07 A / m @ 20 years 0.y 500 to 1000 x 19 x 1.y 1200 x (6 x 4) x 40 x 1 (length x diamond mesh 60 A.5 A / m @ 20 years 1.

35 mm x 0.6 / 0.2 mm 1.0 20 Years 1000 mm x 1.5 ANODE LOADING AND OPERATING PARAMETERS 12.0 20 Years 500 mm x 19 mm x 1. .5. nor permitted to be used with MMO / PMO anodes.017 50 Years MESH (DIAMOND) 1200 mm x (6 x 4) mm x 40 mm x 1 mm WIRE STRIP / RIBBON 1000 mm x 6.5 20 Years 1000 mm x 3.0 20 Years 1000 mm x 19 mm x 1.5 mm 0.07 20 Years 0.1 The minimum operating life of the anodes shall be 20 years.9 mm 3.0 20 Years 3.4 mm x 1.0 mm 1. Sasol. 12.635 mm Page 88 of 127 Copyright © 2003.9 mm 4.5.9 mm 6. All rights reserved.4 mm x 1.0 20 Years 1000 mm x 3. in order to ensure that the required life is met.6 / 0.6 / 0.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 12. Other carbonaceous backfill materials are not suitable.0 20 Years 1000 mm x 25. The maximum rated output is to be based on the fact that the anodes will be encapsulated in Corr-Carb pitch coke or an equivalent calcined petroleum coke.9 mm 8.6 / 0. Manufacturers shall ensure that a 10% safety factor is applied to the coating loading.2 The following guidelines are to be used for anodes based on a current output of 100 A / m² for calcined petroleum / pitch coke. fresh and brackish environments: MAXIMUM RATED OUTPUT AMPERE ANODE DATA MINIMUM LIFETIME TUBULAR 500 mm x 25.

12. The minimum thickness of each layer of the insulation shall be 2 mm.001 Ω. The cable connection shall meet the following minimum standard requirements for the tubes. The entire tube shall then be filled with a hydrochloric acid (10 % solution) resistant epoxy resin.6. No cable joints will be permitted under any circumstances in the buried or submerged portions of the positive anode cable. The resistance of the completed cable to anode connection shall not exceed 0.6 ANODE CABLE CONNECTION 12. . c. The end of the anode wire will be stripped and soldered using low temperature silver solder or it shall be hydraulically crimped into the designated half of the Ti “wedge”. The tube is to be crimped in the centre prior to coating in order to ensure a tight forced fit. The anode wire shall be attached internally in the longitudinal centre of the tubular anode by means of titanium “wedge”. All positive anode cable insulation shall be PVC / HMWPE in nonpolluted environments and PVC / HMWPE / PVDF insulation in polluted or seawater environments. The cable size to be used for the anode positive cable connection shall be stipulated by the engineer. All rights reserved. which will be forced fitted into the centre of the tube.6. b. using a stud which has been welded to the mesh or wire.1 Tubular Anodes a.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 12. Heat shrink shall be applied to seal the end of the “wedge” where the cable exists. The anode wire shall be attached internally in the longitudinal centre of the tubular polymer connector. The minimum cable to anode breaking strength shall be 1175 kg for the 25 mm OD tubular anode. The wire or mesh anode with the attached stud shall be coated with a MMO / PMO coating. Sasol. Page 89 of 127 Copyright © 2003. The cable connection shall meet the following minimum requirements for both wire and mesh anodes.2 Mesh and Wire Anodes a.

SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION b. 12. TEST MINIMUM REQUIREMENT / TEST METHOD Test Solution 10% by volume sulphuric acid (H2SO4) Test Temperature Less than 50°C for duration of the test Test Current Density 20 kA / m2 minimum Test Duration Minimum of 36 days at the specified current density Coating Adhesion Test Coating adhesion : ASTM B571 Page 90 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Sasol. All positive anode cable insulation shall be PVC / HMWPE in nonpolluted environments and PVC / HMWPE / PVDF insulation in polluted or seawater environments. The resistance of the completed cable to anode connection shall not exceed 0. Heat shrink shall be applied to seal the cable joint. The entire tubular polymer connector shall be filled with a hydrochloric acid (10% solution) resistant epoxy resin. Part 1 and ISO 2859-1. The third party laboratory must be approved by SASOL. c. No cable joints will be permitted under any circumstances in the buried or submerged portions of the positive anode cable. .7. All rights reserved. 12.7 CHEMICAL AND PERFORMANCE TESTING OF ANODES 12. The minimum cable to anode breaking strength shall be 105 kg and 25 kg for the mesh and wire anode respectively.1 A specified number of anodes will be randomly selected from the batch to be supplied and tested as detailed below. The anodes for testing will be selected as per BS 6001.7.2 The anodes will be tested by an accredited third party laboratory.001 Ω. The minimum thickness of each layer of the insulation shall be 2 mm. The cable size to be used for the anode positive cable connection shall be stipulated by the engineer. The end of the anode wire will be stripped and hydraulically crimped onto the MMO / PMO coated stud. in order to confirm compliance with the specification.

tar (pitch cokes). The backfill being a conductor “carries” a measure of the current. ash and volatiles. Sasol. This also implies that any metallurgical coke contains significant amounts of sulphur. the consumption rate of the anode.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION TEST MINIMUM REQUIREMENT / TEST METHOD X-ray / NDT The tubular anode shall be X-rayed in order to ensure that bubbles are not contained within the epoxy sealant Metallurgical and SEM Analysis Anodes will be sectioned and the MMO / PMO coating verified 13 IMPRESSED CURRENT CARBONACEOUS ANODE BACKFILL MATERIAL 13. All rights reserved. The ash also generally entraps the heavy metals. reducing to some extent. The coke is in essence the solid residue left from coal after its volatile constituents have been driven off by heating in the absence of air and as such. copper. zinc. it is therefore common practice to reduce the local resistance by using these so-called backfill materials. as possible. cadmium. which would not be environmentally acceptable. the essential purpose of the carbonaceous backfill is to lower the anode / soil interface resistance. bitumen (petroleum cokes) and graphite granules. The backfill must also allow for the egress of anodic gases during its normal operation and be as environmentally safe and friendly. coke is amorphous.. Page 91 of 127 Copyright © 2003.1 INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Carbonaceous backfills include various coke products produced from coal. mercury. The effective resistivity of the soil surrounding an electrode (anode) is confined to the immediate region of the anode. etc. such as lead. increase the current capacity by increasing the effective anode area and thus prolonging the anode’s life. . Therefore.

1 The particle size distribution (PSD) of the impressed current anode backfill material is a very important variable and shall vary according to the anode material and burial depth.25% Maximum Ash and Volatiles 0. calcined petroleum cokes may be permitted. The following shall apply: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF IMPRESSED CURRENT ANODE BACKFILL MATERIAL – CORR-CARB ELEMENT / COMPOUND SPECIFICATION TEST METHOD ASTM D5373 / D3172 Fixed Carbon 99. Sasol.15% Maximum ASTM D3173 Resistivity (1000 kPa) 550 µΩm Maximum Alusuisse C109 Bulk Density 1000 kg / m³ Maximum ASTM D527 100 % .50% Maximum Moisture 0. . Alternatives will only be permitted to be used upon reviewal from SASOL. Page 92 of 127 Copyright © 2003.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 13. The manufacturer must be an ISO 9002 or equivalent accredited organisation.3 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION (PSD) 13.3. All rights reserved. However.(% Ash + % Volatiles) ASTM D4239 Ash : ASTM D4422 Volatiles : BS 1016: Part 4 13.5% Minimum Sulphur 0. providing that it is fully compliant with the technical specification.2 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Preference shall be given to Sasol Carbo-Tar pitch coke (Corr-Carb : Product code 3397).

1 The CP cable insulation should be based on the environmental requirements. therefore the best insulating material for the application should be selected. Upon approval from SASOL. Page 93 of 127 Copyright © 2003.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 13.3 ANODE TYPE ENVIRONMENT BURIAL DEPTH MAX. PSD MIN.5 mm MMO / PMO Soil / Brackish > 15 m 100% < 1.4 SHIPPING AND PACKAGING The material shall be supplied in 20 kg polypropylene bags and no more than 52 bags shall be placed onto each pallet.5 mm 5% < 0.0 mm 5% < 0. the material may also be supplied in one ton bulk bags.1 INTRODUCTION 14. Sasol.5 mm MMO / PMO Soil / Brackish > 50 m 100% < 2.5 mm Silicon Iron Anode All All 100% < 3 mm 5% < 0. 13.3. The following shall apply: PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION (PSD) (ASTM D293) 13. Paper bags may not be used as packaging. All rights reserved.1.5 mm Graphite All All 100% < 3 mm 5% < 0.3.0 mm 5% < 0. . 14 CATHODIC PROTECTION CABLING 14. The selection may involve the examination of various different performance properties.5 mm Technical motivations for the use of other PSDs will be considered by SASOL.2. should the above values not suffice. unless the material is to be used within 10 working days and / or will not be damaged by rain prior to use. PSD MMO / PMO Soil / Brackish < 15 m 100% < 1.2 The PSD shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D293 or BS 1016 Section 110.

b. usually at a higher temperature.2 a. These materials can be moulded and shaped with a heating and cooling process and the process can be repeated.2. Voltage dielectric for higher voltage charge at the conductor surface. c. 14. Secondary properties consider the environmental factors. 14. Low temperature flexibility. Page 94 of 127 Copyright © 2003.1.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 14. hence the heat and solvent resistance properties are improved over thermoplastic materials.5 Thermoset are soft and pliable during one stage of the processing.2.2 The choice of materials for cable design in order to satisfy any given combination of installation and environmental conditions can often be more critical than the electrical requirements. 14.1. can be moulded and extruded at this state after which they are set or cured. d. . Insulation compounds serve an electrical function first. Sasol. 14.4 Thermoplastic materials soften and flow when heated and usually possess a definitive melting point. they cannot be softened by reheating.1. Toughness for cut-through. After the setting or curing process (cross linking) is complete. Heat resistance in high temperature environments.1 The primary insulation material is the most important of the cable material for overall performance reasons. The material will become firm again upon cooling.1. All rights reserved. abrasion and burial (crush) resistance. The following must be considered: 14.3 These insulation materials can generally be split into thermoplastic and thermoset materials.2 GENERAL PROPERTIES OF INSULATING COMPOUNDS 14. Extrusion of melt flow polymers on wire is an example of this type of material.

All rights reserved. Chemical resistance. ECTFE. c. c. Non-halogen compounds. f. Ultra-violet resistance (weather ability). g. the PVC insulation Type S5 shall comply with the requirements stipulated in SANS 1507 / SABS 1507 and SANS 1411 / SABS 1411. b.1 CP cables shall be insulated and rated for voltages up to 600 V / 1000 V and shall possess stranded copper conductors in accordance with SANS 1507 / SABS 1507 or ASTM B-8. Polypropylene. Page 95 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Some of the insulation compounds available include. but are not limited to: a. b. The cable conductor size and cable voltage drop shall be calculated in accordance with SANS 10142-1 / SABS 0142-1.2 For insulated CP cables. Polyethylene (PE):. Sasol. Category 5 grades 8-5 shall comply with the requirements stipulated in ASTM D1248.2. but are not limited to the following: 14.3 a. 14. Polyolefins. 14. Fire resistance. . d. PVDF. Cellular polyolefins. Fluorocarbons (PTFE.3.3. 14.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION Environmental factors include.3 For insulated CP cables. the HMWPE insulation Type I. medium (MMPE) and high density (HMWPE). Poly-vinyl-chloride (PVC).3.3 CABLE AND CABLE INSULATION COMPLIANCE 14. ETFE). e. Class C.low (LMPE).

All rights reserved. fluorocarbon insulation shall be provided.4 CP CABLE REQUIREMENTS 14. For insulated CP cables.3. The insulation layers are specified from the inner layer (conductor surface) to the outer layer (environment).SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 14.1 Table 14. Sasol. TABLE 14. Green-Yellow Red Black . the PVDF insulation shall comply with the requirements stipulated in ASTM D3222.4 shall be used when selecting DC cables for CP.4 CP SINGLE CORE CABLE REQUIREMENTS CABLE DETAIL INSTALLATION ENVIRONMENT INSULATION LAYERS AND TYPE INSULATION COLOUR Positive DC Direct sun PVC / HMWPE Red Partial sunlight PVC / HMWPE Red Soil (non-polluted) PVC / HMWPE Red Soil (polluted) PVC / HMWPE / PVDF Red Direct sun PVC / HMWPE Black Partial sunlight PVC / HMWPE Black Soil (non-polluted) PVC / HMWPE Black Soil (polluted) PVC / HMWPE / PVDF Black Negative DC AC Mitigation Earthing Soil (non-polluted) PVC / HMWPE Soil (polluted) PVC / HMWPE / PVDF Green-Yellow Sacrificial Anodes Soil (non-polluted) PVC / HMWPE Red Pipe Monitor Soil (non-polluted) PVC / HMWPE Black Soil (polluted) PVC / HMWPE / PVDF Black Soil (non-polluted) PVC / HMWPE Soil (polluted) PVC / HMWPE / PVDF Red Soil (non-polluted) PVC / HMWPE Soil (polluted) PVC / HMWPE / PVDF Black Above ground PVC / Al / PVC White Below ground PVC / Al / PVC / HMWPE White Reference Electrode Corrosion Coupons CP Instrumentation (single / multi-core) Page 96 of 127 Copyright © 2003.4. 14.4 In exceptional corrosive environments.

The pipeline is lined internally and contains no product or is partially filled with product (can only be welded when filled). where CP installations are conducted outside the SASOL plant battery limits. Exothermic welding is not permitted if any of the following conditions are present: a. 14. test post cables. Positive DC header cable: 4 Core x # mm² PVC / PVC / SWA / PVC b.4. Sasol.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION PVDF = Poly-Vinylidene Fluoride (ASTM D3222) 14. All rights reserved. DC decoupling device cables. etc.0 mm or severe corrosion has occurred and the wall thickness is unknown. AC Feeder cable: 4 Core x # mm² PVC / PVC / SWA / PVC The cross sectional area of the positive DC header cable core size shall be determined by the contractor. The pipeline wall thickness is less than 3.5 CABLE INSTALLATION AND IDENTIFICATION All cables shall be installed as per Specification SP-60-01.2 In certain instances.3 a. Cables shall be identified as per Specification SP-60-10.4. This applies equally to the negative cable from the rectifier. b. . continuity and cross bonding cables. multi-core power cabling is required. 15 EXOTHERMIC WELDING / PIN BRAZING CABLE CONNECTION DETAILS 15. such as: 14.1 CABLE CONNECTIONS TO PIPES AND REPAIR TO COATINGS Unless otherwise specified all cable connections to the pipe are to be by means of thermit (exothermic) welding. Page 97 of 127 Copyright © 2003.

1 The area where the pin / thermit welding is to take place shall be thoroughly cleaned to provide an area slightly larger than the graphite mould (approximately 50 mm x 50 mm). d. in order to ensure that the surface complies with St3. It shall be ensured that the mouth of the mould is turned away from the welding operator. Bitumen coating. The end of the double insulated cable shall be bared for a distance of 25 mm. c. primer material or any other matter shall be removed and the surface shall be brushed with a steel wire brush. . 15. In these instances.2 All traces of petroleum mastic. concrete. and the starting powder ignited with a flint gun and the weld allowed solidifying.2 SURFACE PREPARATION 15. cables shall be connected by means of pin brazing. Sasol. Page 98 of 127 Copyright © 2003. 15. All rights reserved.3. A retaining cap shall be placed in the bottom of the mould and the weld powder poured into the mould.1 Exothermic welding will be performed as follows: a. Live gas distribution / transmission pipelines. The cable shall be placed on the pipe and the mould squarely pressed down firmly over the cable. The mould shall be removed and the residue cleaned out in preparation for the next weld.2. The lid shall be closed.2. ISO 8501-1.3 PIN BRAZING / EXOTHERMIC WELDING 15. The weld powder shall be covered with the starting powder and some simultaneously sprinkled on the lip of the mould.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION c. the area shall be roughened using a coarse file or an angle grinder. Prior to making the weld. Part 1 to 3 and Supplement 1994 as part of the surface preparation. 15. b. Always ensure that the steel surface is dry.

5 WELD POWDER / CABLE COMBINATION The powder / cable combinations specified in Table 15.2 The pin brazed connection shall be gently tugged. d. all of the stipulated ASME requirements shall be complied with in full. Should any movement occur the cable shall be re-welded and re-tested. 15.3 If deemed necessary by SASOL. c.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 15. The appropriate power setting shall be selected for the cable and the trigger of the pin brazing gun pressed down firmly. The latter requirements imply that no powder (charge) size shall exceed 15 g.4 TESTING 15. The end of the double insulated cable shall be bared and connected to the appropriate lug using a hydraulic crimping tool. Sasol. The crimped cable shall be placed against the cleaned steel surface.2 Pin brazed connections will be performed as follows: a. All rights reserved.3. The pin brazing gun shall be removed from the cable connection and any residue cleaned from the brazed connection. . additional welds / pin brazed connections will be tested especially where failures have occurred. Page 99 of 127 Copyright © 2003. It must however be noted that in the case of ASME constructed pipelines. 15. 15.5 shall be used. pin brazing consumables and lugs have been selected prior to brazing. It shall be ensured that the correct setting.4.1 After the above procedure has been carried out. 15. Should any movement occur the cable shall be re-welded and re-tested.4.4. b. a number of welds shall be tested by SASOL. by striking the exothermic weld with a 2 kg hammer.

b. When welding.6 TYPE OF MOULD / WELD POWDER SIZE 10 Single entry 25 g 16 Single entry 25 g 35 Single entry 32 g 70 Single entry 45 g PRECAUTIONS While exothermic welding and pin brazing are generally safe procedures. d.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION TABLE 15. certain precautions should nevertheless be exercised: a. Use only a pistol type igniter. Do not attempt to use moulds past their design life or force a cable into an incorrect mould. welding gloves and protective clothing. Always ensure that the mouth of the mould is away from the body of the operator. . g. matches and / or cigarette lighters are not permitted. consumables and pin brazing settings are used. mould and surface to be welded are perfectly dry. in order to prevent liquid copper from escaping through the base of the mould and damaging the coating system and / or the operator. Ensure that the correct mould. c. e. Use exothermic putty on small bore pipes. Sasol. Centre the mould over the pipe. holding it steady during welding. f. Follow all SASOL permit conditions prior to and during the exothermic and / or pin brazing operation. h. All rights reserved. wear appropriate eye protection. Ensure that the powder. Hold feet back from the mould. Do not weld in areas where water is close to the welded area. Prior to welding ensure that the retaining metal disc fits properly in the welding chamber and that it prevents the powder from partially or wholly falling through to the bottom.5 WELD POWDER / CABLE COMBINATIONS CABLE SIZE (mm2) 15. prior to ignition. Page 100 of 127 Copyright © 2003.

All rights reserved. the minimum wall thickness shall be 5 mm.1.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 16. 16.3. that is.1 The PRE shall consist of a long lasting permanent copper / copper sulphate reference electrode located next to a bare steel coupon.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 15. the probe will be exposed to substantially identical forces acting on the exposed areas of the pipe.7 REINSTATEMENT OF THE COATING SYSTEM The pipeline coating shall be reinstated in accordance with Specification SP-50-6 to the satisfaction of SASOL.2 MANUFACTURER QUALIFICATIONS PREs shall be supplied only by manufacturers pre-qualified by SASOL. Page 101 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Sasol. 16 PERMANENT REFERENCE ELECTRODES 16.1 The ion entrapment membrane must be manufactured from a graded sintered silica carbide material which is tubular in section and design. The 25 micron (µ) graded density ion entrapment membrane shall be manufactured from a pure grade of silica carbide powder.2 The PRE shall be installed at pipe invert depth and shall be placed in the same soil as the pipeline.3 PERMANENT REFERENCE ELECTRODE (PRE) CONSTRUCTION 16. 16. which shall permit the measurement of substantially “IR free” potentials in accordance with DIN 50925. 16. it shall be located under flat bottom storage tanks and exposed to the same “forces” acting upon the tank. . Similarly.1.

16.3.3.7 The overall physical dimensions shall not exceed 100 mm in diameter and 450 mm long. 16. The steel coupon shall be completely isolated from the ion entrapment membrane and copper sulphate gel. The copper rod shall be manufactured from 99.3. located on the printed circuit board inside the test post in order to measure the current flow to the steel coupon.5 mm2 double insulated flexible copper cables shall be connected to the steel coupon by brazing or silver soldering. These cables shall be external to the PRE. The monitor cable shall permit the measurement of the coupon potential. The electrode shall contain a minimum of 250 mℓ of copper sulphate gel.3. The negative cable shall be connected to the pipe via a suitably rated shunt.3. Page 102 of 127 Copyright © 2003.5 A single 2. Manufacturers shall submit details with the RFQ detailing their method of isolation. Sasol. 16.2 The solid steel coupon whose internal diameter is slightly larger than tubular ion entrapment membrane shall be located around the periphery. The steel coupon may be bare or coated in order to regulate the size of the “defect”.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 16.6 The gel shall be manufactured from a chemically inert inorganic and hygroscopic gel and analytically pure copper sulphate. . Contractors shall indicate the type of gel they intend to use during the submission of their RFQ. The cable connection shall be completely encapsulated in acid and alkaline resistant epoxy. The defect size shall be determined by the CP consultant. 16.4 The permanent copper sulphate reference electrode shall comprise of a solid chemically etched and annealed copper rod. The top PRE outer casing shall be polypropylene or equivalent. in order to withstand the forces due to the expansion and contraction of the soil resulting from variation in its water content.5 mm2 double insulated flexible copper cable shall be connected to the copper rod by brazing or silver soldering. excluding the length of the cable.9% pure copper and shall be at least 10 mm in diameter and 150 mm long. 16. The one cable shall be a monitor cable and the other the negative cable. All rights reserved.3.3 Two 2.

g. . Page 103 of 127 Copyright © 2003.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 16. The stability of the probe shall be 5 mV / °C at a load not exceeding 50 mA / m2. All rights reserved.1 The PRE shall possess a minimum operating life of 10 years. The operating temperature shall be 0°C to 57 °C. Test posts are used in order to monitor the efficacy of a CP system and / or to ensure the correct operation of a CP system. it is not possible to detail all of the TPs available.8 Contractors shall submit all of the pertinent details and drawings pertaining to the PRE they intend using. 16. Both the potential and current drawn by the probe shall be conveniently measured at the test point.1.1 INTRODUCTION 17.4 PERMANENT REFERENCE ELECTRODE (PRE) STABILITY 16.4.3. 17. where anodes are located inside test posts.2 Due to vandalism.1 There are several CP Test Post types available. Sasol. theft and / or damage which occur during normal operation of a TP. b.4. Only the most common test posts acceptable to SASOL shall be detailed below. SASOL shall review the use of the proposed PRE.1.2 a. e. Details of the PC board pertaining to the latter measurements shall be submitted to SASOL for reviewal. 17 CATHODIC PROTECTION TEST POINTS 17. operating with the stability detailed below: 16. Each PRE shall posses an individual serial number and shall be supplied with a calibration certificate.

directional drilled and / or pipe jacked crossings. On either side of all electrified railway lines. All rights reserved. On both sides of a major water crossing. At all galvanic sacrificial anode locations. d. At all under ground pipeline isolators in order to permit testing of live and dead sides and current measuring facilities during temporary cross bonding. f. h. i. Sasol. Care shall be exercised in order to ensure that they are suitably located in order to facilitate monitoring. At all pipeline crossings (SASOL and foreign) which are cathodically protected and major pipeline (> 200 mm OD) crossings which are not cathodically protected. k. l. Page 104 of 127 Copyright © 2003. c.1 Test posts / stations for potential monitoring and for the operation of the CP system shall be installed at the following locations: a.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 17. provincial and major roads.2 LOCATION OF TEST POSTS / STATIONS 17. In severe DC traction stray current environments. At intermediate locations on long piping runs (maximum separation 1 km). e. On either side of all DC traction affected non electrified railway lines. b. unless otherwise specified by SASOL. j. A major crossing shall constitute any river where water flows for at least 6 month of the year on a continuous basis and the river crossing exceeds 3 m in length.2. On either side of all national. At all cased. On both sides of a waterway (navigable crossing). On one side of all frequently used (> 50 vehicles per day) roads and / or heavy haul sand / dirt roads. all TPs shall included “IR” free monitoring facilities and permanent “IR” free reference electrodes every 1 km (maximum separation between any two TPs). . g. At AC mitigation earthing stations.

Prospective manufacturers shall submit drawings together with relevant details with their RFQ document. such as: a. c. as it may be subject to vandalism.. 17. etc. recordable / lockable test post and the process plant potential test post. The mechanical construction of the TP is of great importance. n. b. Page 105 of 127 Copyright © 2003.3 The test point shall be selected based on a number of considerations. marsh and / or wetland (pipeline traverses nominally > 500 m through the “obstacle” during the wet season). . Risk of vandalism. theft and / or general damage. whereas the other two may be used for monitoring and / or operating CP systems. If the crossing is shorter. plant vehicles.2.2 17.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION m. All rights reserved. and avoiding obstruction relating to normal plant operations. plant operators. Possible damage by agricultural vehicles. the potential / reference monitoring test post (TP-R). Sasol. that is. In plant areas in order to monitor the efficacy of the CP system. Plant hazardous area classification. 17. Care shall be exercised relating to hazardous area classification. Access relating to operation. On both sides of a major vlei. etc. The reinforcing shall be normal mild steel in non corrosive environments and hot-dipped galvanised steel in corrosive environments. or to wear and tear caused by contact with farm animals. The TP shall be constructed from a minimum 30 MPa reinforced concrete.2.3 TYPICAL CP TEST POSTS Three types of test posts shall be discussed. The TP-R is used to monitor the pipe potential. one TP may be permitted upon approval from SASOL. d. maintenance and monitoring.

A circle shall be painted with road marking paint around the “aluminium number plate” for easy identification. d. on an aluminium plate 50 mm x 50 mm x 2 mm thick. as well as for the installation of permanent “IR” free reference electrode installations and magnesium anode installations. All rights reserved. The plate shall be screwed to the test post and the heads “damaged” upon installation.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 17.2 Lockable Recording Test Post (R-TP) a.1 Potential / Reference Monitoring Test Post (TP-R) a. The test post and cable shall not be damaged during the installation of the identification plate. The TP-R shall nominally be constructed as follows: DESCRIPTION DIMENSION (mm) Overall Length 1 400 Overall Width 155 Overall Depth 135 Monitoring Points b. as several colours are currently being used by SASOL and other foreign services. A single / multiple cable(s) from the pipe and / or reference cable(s) from “IR” free PREs may terminate inside the top section of the TP. Sasol.3.5 m shall be concreted into the ground. e. The chainage and TP-R number must be engraved in letters approximately 6 mm high. 17.3. The TP-R shall be installed over the pipeline as detailed in Standard Drawing STDD-6005CW. The R-TP is used to monitor the pipe potential. . c. As supplied by Manufacturers Approximately the bottom 0. The TPs shall be painted with a concrete bonding liquid and then with road marking paint. The colour shall be determined by SASOL. Page 106 of 127 Copyright © 2003. This aspect shall be covered during the design of the CP system. in order to prevent the removal of the plate.

The plate shall be screwed to the test post and the heads “damaged” upon installation. d. The chainage must be engraved in letters approximately 6 mm high. The colour shall be determined by SASOL. The R-TP shall be installed over the pipeline as detailed in Standard Drawing STDD-6005CE. Page 107 of 127 Copyright © 2003. ex rated box / enclosure. All rights reserved. which will permit the installation of the required cabling and / or bonding and / or testing facilities.3. The R-TP shall be painted with concrete bonding liquid and then road marking paint. The enlarged head shall contain a hot-dipped galvanised vandal resistant enclosure suitable for “IR” free PC cards and / or data loggers. ostensibly consists of a hot dipped galvanised stand and a suitably sized. 17. such as an “IR” free PC card. in order to prevent the removal of the plate. DIMENSION (mm) Overall Length 1 400 Overall Width 210 Overall Depth 210 Enlarge Head Length 350 Enlarge Head Width 250 Enlarge Head Depth 170 Approximately the bottom 0.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION The R-TP shall nominally be constructed as follows: DESCRIPTION b. . c.3 Process plant Test Post (P-TP) The P-TP. as several colours are currently being used by SASOL and other foreign services. The test post and cable shall not be damaged during the installation of the identification plate. on an aluminium plate 100 mm x 50 mm x 2 mm thick. Sasol.5 m shall be concreted into the ground.

18 SOLID STATE DC DECOUPLING DEVICES 18. This equipment must not only ensure that it meets the safety standards enforced relating to effective earthing of a structure. Restriction of the required protective current to the surface of the primary structure to produce a uniform polarised level of protection. efficiently and uniformly applied when the primary structure requiring CP is electrically isolated from those structures not requiring CP. . Prevention of unwanted galvanic current flowing between metallic structures. All rights reserved. but it must also ensure adequate electrical isolation for the CP system.1. Minimising stray current influence (AC and / or DC).2 Electrical isolation provides three major benefits: a. 18. 18. Electrical isolation implies that all metallic / electrical contacts with foreign metallic structures are completely eliminated. Sasol. c. 18.1. The use of SS-DCDs are the most superior form of ensuring electrical isolation.1 INTRODUCTION 18. Page 108 of 127 Copyright © 2003.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION The P-TP is used to monitor the pipe potential.1.3 b. AC fault currents. The P-TP is numbered using engraved polymer which shall be fixed with pop-rivets to the hot dipped galvanised stand. as well as for the installation of permanent “IR” free reference electrode installations and magnesium anode installations.1 CP is most effectively.1.4 The SS-DCD shall protect personnel and equipment during all types of electrical disturbances by providing an effective earth path which will instantaneously conduct: a.

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CATHODIC PROTECTION

18.1.5

b.

Lightning;

c.

Induced AC;

d.

Power switching surge currents.

Applications include but are not limited to:
a.

AC fault current protection across insulation joints (IF / IJ) and other devices;

b.

Mitigation of induced AC on pipelines and other structures;

c.

Lightning protection for equipment including TRUs, pipelines, cathodically protected
tanks and other structures;

d.

Decoupling between primary structures and general earthing systems.

18.2

ELECTRICAL CONSTRUCTION

18.2.1

Essentially two Solid State DC Decoupling (SS-DCD) devices are available. A diode type
device is generally used where low blocking DC voltages are encountered and a thyristor
type device which is used where high blocking DC voltages are encountered. For all SASOL
transmission and distribution pipeline applications the thyristor units shall be used, as the
pre-set DC blocking voltage can be set to any value i.e. used in any application, moved to a
new location and the voltage value re-set.
This cannot be carried out if a diode type unit is used. The blocking voltage is also limited to
6 V on a diode type unit and may only be used in process areas.

18.2.2

The magnitude of the steady state AC fault current and transient surges, shall be determined
from site tests and other pertinent information. The SS-DCD shall be designed such that all
of the electrical components are suitably sized and rated, in order to ensure its uninterrupted
operation. The typical electrical wiring diagram is shown in Figure 5.

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FIGURE 5:

18.2.3

ELECTRICAL WIRING DIAGRAM

The following shall be included in the design and quoted as a minimum for each SS-DCD
prior to them being reviewed by SASOL:
a.

AC fault current exposure - Rated from 5 kA – 1 cycle @ 50 Hz RMS;

b.

Surge / lightning protection - Peak surge current @ 8 / 20 µsec. e.g. 100 kA / 70 kA;

c.

Voltage threshold - Blocking DC voltages: 2,5 V to 20 V RMS;

d.

Included steady state AC - steady state AC: 0 A to 100 A @ 50 Hz RMS;
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e.

Enclosure type rating - example includes: Ex type enclosure, IP66, etc.

18.2.4

The SS-DCD shall be non-electrolytic, fail-safe and maintenance free.

18.2.5

Fail-safe shall imply that the failure of any SS-DCD component shall result in an open
circuit system and not a short circuit system. That is, the pipeline or structure shall never be
directly connected to the earthing system.

18.3

ENCLOSURE CONSTRUCTION

The SS-DCDs shall be enclosed in a suitably rated enclosure as required by SANS 10108 /
SABS 0108, SANS 10089-2 / SABS 089-2 and SANS 10086-1 / SABS 086-1. The enclosure
shall also be rated according to the environmental conditions prevailing. This includes but is
not limited to vandal resistant concrete reinforced structures where required on transmission
and distribution pipelines and ex type rated enclosures in Zone One / Two process plant
areas.

18.4

INSPECTION AND TESTING

18.4.1

The testing of the SS-DCD shall be carried out at the contractor’s works or at the third party
Inspector’s laboratory / works. A sample of the SS-DCD to be supplied shall be selected in
accordance with BS 6001, Part 1 for testing purposes.

18.4.2

All of the SS-DCD device components shall pass the tests and the testing shall be carried out
in the presence of SASOL or at the discretion of SASOL. The contractor will issue a test
certificate upon completion of the tests and it shall be signed by SASOL. All of the testing
shall be carried out at the contractor’s expense.

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18.4.3

The SS-DCD shall be tested at 125 % of the fault current rating and for at least 3 cycles of a
standard 50 Hz cycle. The pre-set DC blocking voltage shall be tested and confirmed. At
least 125% of the steady state AC shall be passed through the unit for a minimum 15 minute
period. No item and / or component of the SS-DCD shall fail. Failure of a single item /
component shall imply complete failure of the SS-DCD.

18.4.4

SASOL may also call for other pertinent tests in order to prove compliance. The construction
contractor shall supply a COC upon completion of the installation.

18.5

DOCUMENTATION

The SS-DCD shall be supplied with the following items:
a.

A removable clear-polyester laminated circuit diagram, which shall be located inside
the enclosure;

b.

Operation and Maintenance Manual (OMM). Two hard copies and one electronic
(PDF format) copy of the OMM for each type of SS-DCD shall be supplied to
SASOL.

18.6

GUARANTEE

The equipment shall carry an unconditional three year guarantee from commissioning.
The only exceptions shall be for damages arising from vandalism, mechanical damage,
external fire or flooding.

18.7

MANUFACTURER QUALIFICATIONS

SS-DCDs shall be supplied only by contractors pre-qualified by SASOL.

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Copyright © 2003. Sasol. All rights reserved.

pressure and predicted line movement.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 19. service and the environment.2. Rockwell M (Min) D785 115 115 Shear Strength (Min) D732 150 MPa 22. The latter shall consist of an insulating non-metallic central gasket.2 The materials required per IF. shall be supplied as one complete set. non-metallic bolt sleeves and non-metallic washers and steel thrust washers.000 psi MATERIAL PROPERTY Page 113 of 127 Copyright © 2003.1 % 0. as well as the associated high tensile steel studs. Sasol.1 Pipeline electrical insulating flange (IF) materials shall be selected with consideration given to quality and standard material availability. 19. All IF materials shall be crossed-referenced to the manufacturer’s specifications to ensure compatibility between materials.1 The non-metallic central gasket and non-metallic washers shall conform to the following materials specification: VALUE Dielectric Strength (Min) ASTM TEST METHOD D149 SI 21 kV / mm IMPERIAL 540 V / mil Compressive Strength (Min) D625 340 MPa 49. All rights reserved.2 MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS 19.1 % Operating Temperature (Min) N/A -17 °C 0 °F Operating Temperature (Max) N/A +93 °C 200 °F Hardness.1. 19.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 19 INSULATING FLANGE MATERIALS 19. The chosen material shall be able to withstand the maximum line temperature.000 psi Water Absorption (Max) D229 0.1. nut and bolts. .

In the case of surface irregularities. Stud bolt diameters shall be selected to the next smaller size for installation in standard drilled flanges..2.3 mm longer than the length between outside faces of the steel washers.4 Insulating washers shall be manufactured from 3.6 A SS-DCD shall be installed across the flange faces complete with hot-dip galvanising mild steel mounting brackets to suit the flange bolt.2.3 Insulating sleeves shall be a minimum 0. or similar approved. 19. stepped flanges.2. 19.2 Steel thrust washers shall be machined with diameter and thickness to SANS 1149 / SABS 1149 Table 3 or to ASTM A325-61T. parallel faces.8 and nuts grade 8 to SANS 1700-7 / SABS 1700-7 and SANS 1700-14 / SABS 1700-14. The insulating sleeves shall fit completely inside the insulating washers and extend partially inside the steel washers.2 mm thick fabric reinforced phenolic resin with the outer diameter (OD) being the same as that of machined steel washer .e. Page 114 of 127 Copyright © 2003. All rights reserved. The inner diameter of the insulating washer shall be a sliding fit over the OD of insulating sleeves.two for each stud bolt. i.8 mm thick glass fibre-reinforced polyester sleeve for each bolt. Total length of each sleeve is to be 2. The latter shall have a minimum overlap of 25 mm.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 19. 19. .5 Stud bolts and studs shall be Grade 8.2. Stud bodies shall be machined down to the next standard smaller size and a smaller nut is also to be used. 19. Sasol.2. 19. The decoupling device shall be located in a suitably hazardous area classification rated enclosure as stipulated in SANS 60079-10 / SABS IEC 60079-10 and SANS 10108 / SABS 0108. etc.7 The entire insulating flange shall be wrapped circumferentially with a 15 mm to 20 mm thick white plastic backed Polymer modified Bituminous tape. Thrust washers shall have machined.2. a SASOL reviewed Petrolatum mastic material shall be used to provide a smooth contour for subsequent tape application.

3.2 A 2 mm thick aluminium plate. 19.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 19. gas. All IJs shall be supplied in accordance with Class ANSI 300. liquid Hydrocarbon. Forged rings shall comply with ASTM 694 St 52. Gaskets shall be manufactured from Nitrile rubber to ASTM D2000 or FPM fluoridated rubber for oxygen use. 80 mm x 80 mm shall be engraved as detailed above.. All rights reserved. Insulating rings shall be manufactured from glass / epoxy laminated material to ASTM D709 G10 / G11 or Polycarbonate reinforced with glass fibre for oxygen use. then IJs shall be used. Sasol. c. All ends shall be bevelled to API standards.4. Page 115 of 127 Copyright © 2003.1 A 25 mm wide plastic backed electrical tape to SANS 122 / SABS 122 colour red shall be applied in the centre on the horizontal surface.3 IDENTIFICATION / LABELS. The characters shall be 20 mm high and filled with black indelible ink. f. d. the following shall be used as a guideline. Due to the large variety of IJs available.1 Where IFs cannot be employed.3. All welds in contact with the pipe shall undergo 100 % radiographic inspection. Pipe pups shall be manufactured in the required API grades. h. “NO ATTACHMENTS TO PIPEWORK PERMITTED” 19. in conjunction with Standard Drawing STDD-6005CY: a. g.g. . e.3 The aluminium plate shall be fixed to the insulating flange with stainless steel strapping. e. 19. water.3. The closure welds (not in contact) shall be inspected by ultrasonic inspection. b. etc.4 MONOLITHIC INSULATING JOINTS 19. 19. “OPERATING INSULATING FLANGE”.

application and inspection of internal lining for piping NPS 24 and larger in cooling water services only.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION i. The external surface shall be shot blasted and coated with a high build epoxy dry film thickness (DFT) of 150 µm.1: TABLE 19.4. 19.5.2 Reviewal from SASOL shall be obtained prior to specifying and / or supplying an IJ. The internal surface shall be left bare and then capped and sealed with internal silicon gel bags.5. surface preparation. .5. The lining of pipes. 19. j.5 INTERNAL PIPE LINING FOR COOLING WATER SERVICE This section defines the materials. Sasol. which could be damaging to the lining. due to the lead times and costs associated with their supply. shall be completed before any lining work is done. All welding. This work is intended to be performed at the job site. weld fittings and weld joints shall be carried out in accordance with a detailed written procedure. ISO 8501-1. or coated with a high build amide cured epoxy DFT 150 µm depending upon its application. 19.1 Extent of Lining The lining shall be applied from the insulating coupling for a distance as indicated in Table 19. All rights reserved.1: EXTENT OF LINING NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (inches) LENGTH OF INTERNAL LINING (m) 24 1. reviewed by SASOL.5 28 2 30 2 Page 116 of 127 Copyright © 2003. The internal surface shall be blasted to SA 2.

as detailed in Figure 6. Sasol. All rights reserved. . FIGURE 6: “T” CONNECTION LINING Page 117 of 127 Copyright © 2003. the lining shall extend for the tabulated length from the insulating joint into each of the two under ground pipe legs. In the case of a “T” connection where an insulating coupling is above grade on the centre leg of the “T”.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (inches) LENGTH OF INTERNAL LINING (m) 36 3 42 4 48 5 54 6 66 9 72 10 84 14 The length of lining shall be measured from the edge of the insulating coupling along the pipe on the cathodically protected (under ground) portion.

Sasol.5. FIGURE 7: “T” CONNECTION LINING Short lengths. the lining shall extend for the tabulated length from each insulating coupling into the under ground pipe leg. All rights reserved.2 Lining Material The lining material shall be a self-priming high build polyamide or amine epoxy system.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION In the case of a “T” connection where the insulating couplings are above grade in each of the two legs of the “T”. . 19.5.1. shall be totally coated from insulating joint / flange to insulating joint / flange. Page 118 of 127 Copyright © 2003. The minimum distance between insulating joints in this case shall be the tabulated length of lining as indicated in Table 19. as per Figure 7. such as under-road crossings.

All rights reserved.4 Application The lining materials shall be applied on the same day during which cleaning is done and before rust bloom or re-contamination occurs. Sasol. Any surfaces found to be incorrectly prepared shall be corrected. Abrasives for blast cleaning shall be clean and dry and shall be selected to provide the correct surface profile for the subsequent lining materials. All lining work shall be applied in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instruction and as reviewed by SASOL.5. 19.3 Surface Preparation The interior surface preparation of all pipe sections scheduled for internal lining shall conform to visual Standard Sa2½ in accordance with ISO 8501-1 / SIS 05 59 00. Page 119 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Details shall be submitted to SASOL for reviewal prior to using the instrument. The pictorial visual standards ISO 8501-1 / SIS 05 59 00 shall be used as inspection standards for acceptable surface preparation.5 Inspection Materials supplied and / or used in connection with this lining work are subject to inspection and reviewal from SASOL. Where the distance of the lining extends beyond a weld joint. Dry film thickness measurements shall be taken with a SASOL reviewed and calibrated dry film gauge.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 19. the pipe and / or pipe fittings may be lined before erection provided the lining is held back a minimum of 150 mm for welding purposes. . The lining system shall be applied in multiple coats to produce a minimum dry film thickness of 250 µm. Written procedures shall be submitted for reviewal by SASOL for repair and making good of the weld lanes. 19.5.5.

The contractor shall submit written confirmation from the relevant standards authority.1 The performance characteristics of the 1. is as follows: a.1. The material will be produced from virgin magnesium and shall contains no scrap.2 The anodes shall be manufactured in accordance with ISO 9002. improving the overall life of the anode. 20 HIGH POTENTIAL SACRIFICIAL MAGNESIUM ANODES (SOIL USE) 20. voids. The method of testing shall be reviewed by SASOL.1. thus ensuring points (a) and (b) above.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION The finished surface shall be free from pinholes. is detailed below. The high potential alloy is specially formulated from pure virgin magnesium and other elements to produce the higher voltage. ELEMENT PERCENTAGE (%) Aluminium (Al) 0. Sasol.03 Maximum Copper (Cu) 0.001 Maximum Zinc (Zn) N/A Silicon (Si) N/A Manganese (Mn) 0. . runs. The advantages of the high potential anode versus its 1.50 to 1.001 Maximum Iron (Fe) 0. confirming complete registration in this regard. All rights reserved. b. c. The higher driving potential permits fewer anodes in this specific application.30 Nickel (Ni) 0. 20. sags or other surface imperfections.75 V high potential magnesium alloy.55 V counterpart.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 20. The capacity of a high potential anode is some 4 % greater than that of the other anodes.02 Maximum Page 120 of 127 Copyright © 2003. holidays.

SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION ELEMENT PERCENTAGE (%) Other N/A Total of all Other Impurities N/A Magnesium Balance 20. The pre-galvanised threaded steel stud or rod shall be suitable for the electrical connection of the anode to anode cable.2. which shall terminate in a recess at the one end. cold laps. porosity seams and any other imperfection which may impair its performance.2.3 HIGH POTENTIAL MAGNESIUM ANODE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 20.2 MAGNESIUM ANODE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 20. . Page 121 of 127 Copyright © 2003.1 The high potential magnesium anode shall conform to the following chemical composition: 20. when unpacked.2 The anode shall be free of blow holes. All rights reserved.3 A 5 mm diameter pre-galvanised steel threaded stud or rod shall be centrally located within the anode. The connection shall be suitable for 20 years under submerged conditions.1 The high potential magnesium alloy anode shall have a net minimum weight of 10 kg and a minimum length of 533 mm and nominal diameter of 114 mm.3. 20. The unpacked and packed dimensions are detailed in Standard Drawing STDD-6005CZ. 20. Sasol.3. The latter shall extend for at least 95% of the anode length and shall be extruded or cast into it.hr/kg 20.3.2 The anode capacity shall be a minimum of 1200 A. Extruded anodes shall be used and cast anodes may be used if reviewed by SASOL.

SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 20.4. 20.4.8 The maximum cable to anode resistance shall be 10 mΩ.7 No bare copper cable shall extend outside the epoxy. All proposed epoxies shall be submitted to SASOL for reviewal. Page 122 of 127 Copyright © 2003. 20.5 Mechanical connections between the anode cable and the pre-galvanised steel rod or thread shall not be permitted under any circumstances.4.4. 20. the insulation shall extend at least 25 mm into the epoxy as stipulated above. Sasol.2 In all instances a suitable hole will be drilled into the end of the thread or rod and the cable shall be brazed / soldered into the hole.4. prior to their use.3 The insulation of the cable shall be removed for a length such that at least 25 mm of the copper is inserted into the drilled galvanised steel rod hole. At least 25 mm of insulation shall extend into the anode recess.4. 20. All rights reserved. The epoxy shall completely fill the recess without spilling over onto the external surface of the anode. 20.4 ANODE CABLE AND CABLE CONNECTION 20.4. . 20.4. 20. The cable shall be pulled or tugged initially as a test after making the cable to anode connection.6 The anode recess shall be completely flooded with hydrochloric acid (10% solution) resistant epoxy.1 The anode cable shall be as specified in Section 14 of this Specification and the length shall be 6 m or as specified in the RFQ document and detailed in Drawing STDD-6005CU.4 The cable shall then be brazed / soldered into the hole.

shall be more negative than -1.1 All anodes shall be installed at a minimum depth of 2.5 m from the pipe or as determined by the CP Design. Testing shall be carried out at the contractor’s expense. 20. which ever is the deeper.5.6 TESTING AND REVIEWAL 20. Sasol.1 A complete set of both chemical and metallurgical tests shall be conducted on a number of randomly selected anodes. All rights reserved.7 TYPICAL INSTALLATION DETAILS 20. Anodes may only be installed subsequent to testing and reviewal from SASOL.2 Complete chemical and metallurgical compliance shall be ensured prior to their installation and a detailed report shall be submitted to SASOL for reviewal. . Part 1.hrs/kg.5 m or pipe invert depth.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 20.5.3 The natural anode potential and current drawn shall be measured prior to permanently connecting the anode to the pipe / structure. 20.2 The anode shall maintain this potential at a 100 mA output and shall possess a capacity of 1200 A.65 V with respect to a saturated copper / copper sulphate reference electrode. 20. 20. prior to installation of the anodes. The anodes shall be located a minimum of 3. Page 123 of 127 Copyright © 2003.1 The solution potential of the anode when fully submerged in the test chamber.7.6. as determined in accordance with BS 6001.6.5 ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES 20. The anode / pipe separation distance shall be stipulated in the bill of quantities of the RFQ document.6. This data shall be submitted with the commissioning report. 20.

1 ZINC TUBE MATERIAL SPECIFICATION The zinc tube required for AC mitigation shall comply in full with the following details. surrounds the entire anode surface.5 The cable connection.4 The anodes shall be completely submerged for 2 hours prior to installation and the entire anode excavation (hole) into which they are to be placed shall be thoroughly soaked prior to backfilling. All rights reserved.3 The anodes shall be located in a cotton bag which shall ensure that a minimum of 35 mm of crushed natural granular gypsum / bentonite / anhydrous sodium sulphate in the ratio by volume of 75% / 20% / 5% respectively.7.2 The distribution of the anodes shall also be stipulated in the in the bill of quantities of the RFQ document.7. 20. installation and backfilling / reinstatement shall be witnessed by SASOL. Page 124 of 127 Copyright © 2003.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 20. .7.7. 21 AC MITIGATION EARTH ELECTRODE 21. Sasol. 20. Care shall be exercised when backfilling in order to prevent damage to the anode cable. 20.

All rights reserved.1 Maximum Zinc Remainder HARDNESS MEASUREMENTS The zinc tube average hardness shall be 39 ± 6. Page 125 of 127 Copyright © 2003. Sasol.005 Maximum Lead (Pb) 0.4 ELEMENT PERCENT (%) Aluminium (Al) 0.2 ZINC TUBE DIMENSIONS The zinc tube dimensions shall be as follows: DESCRIPTION 21.005 Maximum Copper (Cu) 0.1 to 0.total 0.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 21.005 Maximum Others .5 Hv10 using a Vickers hardness tester.3 DIMENSION Length 1500 mm ± 5% Diameter 80 mm ± 5% Wall Thickness 5 mm ± 5% ZINC TUBE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION The chemical composition of the zinc shall comply with those of high purity zinc materials in accordance with ASTM B418 Type I and as indicated below: TYPE I ELEMENT 21.5 Cadmium (Cd) 0.07 Iron (Fe) 0. .025 to 0.

Sasol.5 METALLOGRAPHY A transverse and longitudinal section (as indicated by figures 8 and 9) shall be removed from the supplied tube. mounted in cold mounting resin and prepared for metallographic. The samples shall be etched in a solution of chromic acid to which sodium sulphate shall be added.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION 21. No significant differences shall be observed between the transverse and longitudinal sections. The grain size shall be estimated using the comparison method described in ASTM E112. The ASTM grain size in both the longitudinal and transverse sections shall be less than one. OF A LONGITUDINAL SECTION . to reveal the microstructure of the tube. The microstructure of the tube shall consist of equi-axed grains. FIGURE 8: REQUIRED MICROGRAPH THROUGH THE ZINC TUBE Page 126 of 127 Copyright © 2003. All rights reserved.

Sasol.SP-60-18 Revision 3 October 2003 CATHODIC PROTECTION FIGURE 9: REQUIRED MICROGRAPH OF A TRANSVERSE SECTION THROUGH THE ZINC TUBE Page 127 of 127 Copyright © 2003. All rights reserved. .