You are on page 1of 90

Technical Memorandum No.

MERL-2012-40

Guidelines for Field Installation of
Corrosion Monitoring and
Cathodic Protection Systems

U.S. Department of the Interior
Bureau of Reclamation

December 2012

Mission Statements
The U.S. Department of the Interior protects America’s natural
resources and heritage, honors our cultures and tribal communities,
and supplies the energy to power our future.
The mission of the Bureau of Reclamation is to manage, develop,
and protect water and related resources in an environmentally and
economically sound manner in the interest of the American public.

Technical Memorandum No. MERL-2012-40

Guidelines for Field Installation of
Corrosion Monitoring and
Cathodic Protection Systems

U.S. Department of the Interior
Bureau of Reclamation

December 2012

.

P. Materials Engineering and Research Lab Group. Sears� Material ngineer. Client Support and Technical Presentations Office. 86-68180 Date ( ///7 � - Peer Review Technical Approval Description Checked Date Prepared REVISIONS . 86-68010 Date Technic� oval: Lee E.BUREAU OF RECLAMATION Technical Service Center. Denver. 86-68180 Date Peer Review: William F. Colorado Materials Engineering and Research Lab Group. Kepler. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems 8/2 r Daryl A. 86-68180 Date � Editorial Approval: Teri Manross Technical Writer-E 'tor. Tor� Materials Engineer. Materials Engineering and Research Lab Group.E. 86-68180 Technical Memorandum No. Civil Engineer. 86-68180 Date Z- Che1648: Jessica D. Materials Engineering and Research Lab Group. Little --------Mfed: " Materials Engineer. Mats Engineering and Research Lab Group.

.

..................................................... 16  Galvanic Anode Systems .................... 7  Anode Junction Boxes .. 5   Metallurgical Welds and Bitumastic Material ....................................................................................................... 14   Dielectric Barrier Material....................................................................................................................................................... 16  Buried............ 22  Anode Centralizing Devices ............. 15  Warning Tape................................................................................................... 15  Sand............................................................................................................... 24  Grounding Rod and Cable ...............................................................................................................1   Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems .... 16  Submerged ....................................................................................................................................... 18  Submerged ........ 24   Rectifier Protective Barriers ................................................................................................................ 1  Role of Contracting Officer’s Representative....................................... 19  Rectifiers ................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6  Test Stations...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents Page Chapter I: Introduction................................................................. 20  Pea Gravel................................................................. 12  Casing Isolation Devices.................... 3  Reference Standards......................................................... 3  Bureau of Reclamation .................................................. 21  Vent Pipe....................................................................................................................................................................... 16   Anodes ......................................................................................... 9  Protective Barriers ................................................................................................................ 1  Terminology ....................................... 21  Carbonaceous Backfill ........ 18  Buried.......................................................................................................................................................... 10  Insulated Joint Flange Kit ...5  Common System Components.............................................................................................................. 8  Shunts................. 17  Impressed Current Systems........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16  Conduit................................ 8  Variable Resistors ................ 10   Permanent Reference Electrodes ......................................... 5  Cable .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3   National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association ............................................................................ 4   Chapter II: Components ................................................................................. 24  i .................................................................................... 3   ASTM International .... 18   Anodes ..............

..................................................................................................................................................... 53   Suspended ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50  Triangular Barriers.... 58   Rectifiers .......................................................................................................................................... 59  Shallow Bed .................................................................................................................. 58   Buried......................................................................... 36  Locations................................................................................. 31  Testing.................................................................................. 50   Galvanic Anode Systems ................................................ 29  Buried Applications .............. 31   General..................... 59   Deepwell Bed........................................................................................................................................................................................ 53  General................................................ 44   Galvanic Anode(s) ................................................................. 29  Cable Identification......... 64  Wire Anodes ........ 64   Flush Mounted ......... 53   Buried Anodes .................. 53   Submerged Anodes ....................................................... 58  Anode Junction Boxes ............................................................................... 60   Submerged . 25   Inspection for Quality Control ......................................................................................... 39  Casings....................................................................... 30  Electrical Isolation (Insulation)............................................................ 66   ii .......................................................................................................................................................................... 41  Foreign Line Crossings ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25  Electrical Continuity Joint (Jumper) Bonds.................................................... 31  Installation................................................................................. 37   Isolation Joints ................................................... 34   Installation............................................................................................................................................... 31  Isolation Joint Flange Kit................................................................... 34  Testing......................................................................................................................................................................25  General Installation.............................................................................................................................................................. 33  Casing Isolation ............................................. 36  Test Stations and Junction Boxes ..................................................................... 36   Corrosion Monitoring .....................................................Contents (continued) Page Chapter III: Installation. 50   Rectangular Barriers ............................................................................... 27  Structure Cables ...................................................................................................................... 53   Surface Mounted ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 25   Cable ................................................ 46  Barriers.................................................... 57  Impressed Current Systems. 25   Exothermic Metallurgical Bonds ........................................................

.............................. and (b) wall attached submerged permanent reference electrodes ................. 0..................... and (b) finished product ..............01 ohm (yellow)................................................. and PVC post................................................................ 68  Submerged ...................................................... 70 Chapter 4: Startup and Testing................................................................................... 71  Test Equipment .................................... permanent reference electrode schematic............................................001 ohm (orange)...... and (b) and (c) dial type resistors............7 Anode junction boxes with individual shunts and variable resistors.................... and (b) and (c) completed test stations........................................................................................ with ratings of 0.........12 (a) Through-wall..... 74  Energizing and Testing Systems ..10 (a) Buried copper/copper sulfate............................................................................ .... 68  Buried...........................................9 Variable resistors for controlling galvanic and impressed current anode output: (a) slide resistor............................1 ohm (red)............................... ...............................................................9 Various types of available anode shunts: (a) Cott shunts are color coded for rating............................................ 69  Through-wall................................ 72   Testing...................................................Contents (continued) Page Permanent Reference Electrodes ................. ............... .........................................................................7 Big Fink type test station showing the components: (a) cap............. 69   Surface Mounted ........................................................................................................................................ 75  First Test Cycle ........................................................... 75   Second and Subsequent Testing Cycles........... 74  Pre-energizing ........................................... test board........................... Shunt has a rating of 50 amperes/50 millivolts.........................................6 Metallurgical weld and bitumastic materials for attaching cables to structure.......................................12 iii .................................71   Procedures..................................................................... 71   Safety .................................... and 0........................................................................................................................8 Rectifier shunt for determining current output........... 76 Appendix: Galvanic CP System Checklist and Impressed Current CP System Checklist Figures Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Stranded copper cable with HMWPE insulation (left) and a combination of HMWPE and Halar insulation (right) for chloride environments ...............

. surrounded by high conductivity coke breeze...........................................................23 Example of device for centering anodes in deep well anode beds ....... ..18 (a) Graphite impressed current anode.............. and (c) bonds were installed across the expansion joint on an outlet works pipe........ showing: (a) galvanized enclosure........ and mesh..................................................13 Schematic of type F isolation flange kit................................................................19 Linear anode of conductive-polymer coated copper.................... and the weld nuggets were coated with a bitumastic coating................................... and (b) HSCI impressed current anode..............................................................28 Examples of jumper bonds for various pipe situations: (a) The mortar coating was removed at the joint to attach the jumper bond........19 Examples of impressed current anodes include: (a) disk.. (b) wire...15 Warning tape used for marking location of CP cables .......17 Galvanic anodes for use on submerged structures ......................... and (b) spherical grained petroleum coke structure .............................28 Schematic shows jumper bond installation for PVC to steel fitting..............................................................21 (a) Vent pipe with vertical and transverse slots for deep well anode beds..20 Rectifiers used for impressed current CP systems.............. and (c) a flexible coupling (multiple component coupling)...22 (a) Bag of petroleum coke backfill used for impressed current anode beds................ ........................................... and (d) through-wall probe electrodes ....................... (c) stick or rod....................... (b) a push-on joint. and (b) circled area blown up to show vertical slot cut in the pipe................ woven............ (b) jumpers were installed on the pipe across the various joints............................ and (b) manual taps for adjusting the voltage................ showing the various components for two-sided isolation ..................................................... and the weld nuggets were covered with bitumastic molded cap (Handy Cap) prior to burial................ pencil........................ and held in place by a porous.........................26 Schematic shows jumper bond installation for: (a) a flanged joint (nonisolating)..........16 Bare and bagged galvanic anodes ......................................................24 Schematic diagrams show the proper procedure for metallurgically bonding cables to metallic structures ......................29 ...Figures (continued) Page 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 iv Schematic of type E isolation flange kit.......... acid-resistant jacket....................28 Schematic shows jumper bond installation for Victaulic joints.......................................................................14 Casing isolation kit for metallic pipelines ........ ...... ............................................... showing the various components for single-sided isolation .15 Conduit for mounting submerged anodes such as rod and wire anodes .........................

................32 Schematic shows bolt tightening sequence to provide even sealing pressure on a flange gasket................................................................................ and (b) plan view ..42 Drawing of test station installation for a casing with galvanic anode: (a) plan view of test station...................43 Drawing of test station installation for a foreign line crossing: (a) plan view of test station.............................. and (b) close-up view of the test board ............ and (b) close-up view of the test board ...38 Drawing of test station installation for isolation joint: (a) plan view of test station.....34 (a) Casing installation............................................................................... and (b) Model 702 is for testing joints underground ...................55 Example schematic of vertically installed galvanic anodes in a ground tank: (a) elevation view.....................................45 Drawing of test station installation for a single galvanic anode: (a) plan view of test station................................... and (b) plan view .........................47 Drawing of test station installation for multiple galvanic anodes: (a) plan view of test station.............31 Schematic shows isolation bolt installation for isolation flange kit.............................................................................................. junction boxes............................................ and rectifiers.............................................................30 Schematic for identifying and labeling all cables terminating in test stations....30 Installation of warning tape in a cable trench....51 Rectangular barriers for safety and preventing damage to rectifiers outside of plant yards ......40 Drawing of test station installation for a casing: (a) plan view of test station. and (b) close-up view of the test board ............................49 Triangular test station design for protecting test stations and junction boxes from damage ..................Figures (continued) Page 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Schematic for installation of buried cables ...... .............................................. and (b) close-up view of the test board ................................. and (b) casing isolators installed on a coated steel pipe ... ................... including spacers and end seals.. and (b) close-up view of the anode panel ... and (b) close-up view of the test board.......52 Example schematic of horizontally installed galvanic anodes in a ground tank: (a) elevation view...............................................56 v .................35 Drawing of test station installation for corrosion monitoring: (a) plan view of test station....................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................ and (b) close-up view of the test board ..48 Drawing of junction box installation for multiple galvanic anodes: (a) plan view of junction box........ ...................... and (b) close-up view of the test board ......32 Test instruments for ensuring proper installation and operation of isolation (insulation) joints flange kits: (a) Model 601 is for testing aboveground joints....

....................74 Tables Page 1 Physiological effects of 60-hertz AC ...............................73 Meter for determining resistivity of soil around anodes. ......73 Copper/copper sulfate portable reference electrode for determining structure-to-electrolyte and anode-to-electrolyte potentials ...68 Multimeters for measuring potentials associated with CP systems: (a) Fluke 27 digital multimeter.......... disk mixed metal oxide anode showing front view (left side) and profile assembly ...................57 Anode junction boxes for impressed current CP systems: (a) installation with shunts only.............. (b) downstream side of the gate showing the finished anode installation ....... and (b) with anode and vent pipe attached for installation.............Figures (continued) Page 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 Steel anchor for supporting ropes attached to suspended galvanic anodes such as found in a storage tank .................................................67 Flush mounted impressed current disk anodes: (a) arrow indicates the location of a disk anode on the upstream side of a radial gate.........................62 Schematic of example deep well anode bed installation .......................64 (a) Slotted pipe mounted on sump wall for wire anode installation..........63 (a) Example of an anode centralizer for deep well anodes......................65 Schematic of flush-mounted.........................59 Installed impressed current system showing rectifier.............................................. and (b) close-up of the slots in the pipe and the wall attachment details.............................................................................. and vent pipe ......72 vi .............................. external circuit breaker switch................................. and (b) MC Miller LC-4 variable resistance input digital multimeter ...................... and (b) installation with shunts and variable resistors ................ anode junction box..........

physically and electrically isolating the metal from the electrolyte. and onto the structure to be protected. Both the structure and the anode must be in contact with the electrolyte. Electrolyte: An electrically conductive solution. The system requires electrical continuity of the structure and between the structure and test stations to determine structure-to-electrolyte potentials. Galvanic anode CP systems provide cathodic current by galvanic corrosion or by sacrificing one material to prevent corrosion of the other. and onto the structure to be protected. for the most part. through the electrolyte. through the electrolyte (soil or water). Current interrupter: A device used to automatically switch the current on and off at set intervals. Cathodic protection is a means of reducing corrosion of a metal by artificially causing direct current to flow from external anodes. The two types of CP systems are galvanic anode and impressed current. Impressed current type CP systems provide cathodic current from an external power source.Chapter I Introduction Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Corrosion monitoring systems facilitate testing to determine if corrosion is progressing and to determine the level of cathodic protection (CP) being provided by a cathodic protection system. Terminology Bonded dielectric coating: A protective barrier coating system with high electrical resistivity bonded directly to the underlying metal and. Used to measure the polarized or “instant off” potential. 1 . such as soil or water. Foreign structure: Any metallic structure that is not intended to be in electrical contact with the structure requiring corrosion monitoring and/or CP. The terms for these specific conductive solutions may be substituted for the word “electrolyte” in these definitions. A direct current (DC) power source forces current to discharge from anodes. This type of system is often referred to as a sacrificial anode CP system.

Junction box: An enclosure containing the terminals from multiple anodes and/or structures along with accessories such as calibrated shunts and variable resistors. Reference electrode: An electrode whose open circuit potential is constant under similar conditions of measurement. lightning arresters. From the junction box. Stray current interference: Corrosion resulting from current through paths other than the intended circuit. A copper/copper sulfate reference electrode is often used for such a purpose. protected structures). and other accessories. Shunt: Calibrated resistor placed within a circuit to determine the current flow within the circuit. trashrack. tank.. or voltage difference. Also referred to as structure-to-soil and structure-to-water potentials. or some other source of current.e. corrosion occurring on a protected structure caused by the CP system on a foreign structure. as well as a rectification section that converts current to DC. fixed resistance.Technical Memorandum No.g. gate. i. developed by a structure in an electrolyte when compared with a stable reference electrode. A shunt has a known. Rectifier: An electrical device that converts an alternating current (AC) input to a DC output.  Should be capable of measuring DC voltages between ±0. Polarization: The difference between polarized and native potentials. along with meters. fuses. 2 . which is used for measuring the relative potentials of other electrodes (e. Structure-to-electrolyte potential: The potential. a single cable is normally fed to the structure or rectifier. Structure: The pipe.1 millivolts and ± 100 volts. Portable voltmeter: Any portable instrument for measuring voltage drops across electrical components or potential (voltage) differences between a structure and a stable reference electrode:  Should have a minimum input impedance of 10 megohm. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Joint bonds: Cables metallurgically bonded to pipe to ensure electrical continuity for CP.. or other metalwork being monitored or cathodically protected. The rectifier typically includes a stepdown transformer section to reduce the incoming AC voltage. and its calibration is expressed in ohms or amperage/voltage.

and that proper safety practices are adhered to at all times. This potential is also sometimes called a protective potential. Reference Standards ASTM International ASTM B 418-12 Cast and Wrought Galvanic Zinc Anodes ASTM B 843-07 Magnesium Alloy Anodes for Cathodic Protection ASTM C 33/C33 M-11a Concrete Aggregates Bureau of Reclamation USBR M-47 Standard Specification for Repair of Concrete 3 .Chapter I Introduction Static structure-to-electrolyte potential: The structure-to-electrolyte potential determined without any external current (e. etc.g. but immediately after it has been interrupted. rectifiers. Role of Contracting Officer’s Representative The major role of the Contracting Officer’s Representative (COR) inspector is to periodically observe the contractor installation of the corrosion monitoring and CP systems. prior to energizing a CP system and lacking interference or other currents) or after such a current source has been disconnected for an extended time period. agricultural field locations. probable damage. the COR inspector has the authority to change the proposed locations of test stations. Test station: A location for conducting tests on a protected structure. Technical Service Center corrosion personnel should be informed of all significant proposed anode bed location changes prior to installation to determine if it will adversely affect the operation of the CP system. that the material components installed meet specification requirements and are approved. Also referred to as native structure-to-electrolyte potential. cable runs. Polarized structure-to-electrolyte potential: The structure-to-electrolyte potential determined after the CP system has been energized for a sufficient amount of time. Also referred to as “instant off” structure-to-electrolyte potential.. In addition. junction boxes. having an enclosure containing terminals of cables from the structure and from any galvanic anodes along with accessories such as calibrated shunts and variable resistors. This will ensure that the system is being installed according to the specification sections. and anode beds based on field issues such as safety. Uncorrected structure-to-electrolyte potential: The structure-to-electrolyte potential determined with the CP system energized and CP current flowing.

MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association NEMA 250-2008 4 Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 Volts Maximum) .Technical Memorandum No.

1 For specific projects. 12 AWG or larger for test cables in test stations (black insulation). No. inner layer of Halar or Kynar. d. section 26 42 1X. Cable insulation: a. No. refer to the cable section in corrosion monitoring and cathodic protection specification. c.g. 10 AWG or larger for impressed current anodes (red insulation if available). Unspliced lengths to permit installation from terminus to terminus (e. High molecular weight polyethylene (HMWPE) outer jacket with minimum thickness of 0. Dual insulation construction. h. Rated for 600 volts and direct burial or immersion. No.Chapter II Components Common System Components Cable 1. No. 2. Cable sizes and insulation color:1 a. Foreign structure cables (blue or white insulation if available). g. c. plain. No. 5 . 3.. e. No.100 inch (figure 1). and outer layer of HMWPE for impressed current anode cables in chloride environments (figure 1). 12 AWG or larger for galvanic anodes (red insulation if available). b. b. No. 6 AWG or larger for structure or bond cables in test stations (black insulation). annealed copper cable. 6 American Wire Gauge (AWG) or larger for joint bond cables (black insulation). 14 AWG for permanent reference electrodes (yellow insulation). 4. f. anode to junction box) free of splices and without stress. 6 AWG or larger for structure to rectifier cables (black insulation). Single-conductor: Stranded.

Figure 1.6. having the following essential characteristics: 1. OK 74145-4700.6 and 2. Specifically designed for metallic substrate materials. Tulsa. Approved dielectric coating material. having the following essential characteristics: 1. Stranded copper cable with HMWPE insulation (left) and a combination of HMWPE and Halar insulation (right) for chloride environments. Figure 2 shows an example of metallurgical weld and bitumastic materials. Specifically designed for CP systems. 2. Bitumastic material: Royston Handy Cap. 6 .6. Current carrying capacity equal or better than that of the conductor. 4 AWG or larger bare cable for grounding system. 4. (Impressed Current Cathodic Protection Datasheets 2. Applied with primer coat as needed. Suitable for the intended environment. Ltd. or equal. Uses a special alloy to provide minimum heat effect on the substrate material. 3. 128 First Street. 4102 South 74th East Avenue. 4. 3. Pittsburgh. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems i.Technical Memorandum No. Inc.7 courtesy of Cathodic Protection Co. No.. Specifically designed for CP systems. 2. manufactured by Royston Laboratories.) Metallurgical Welds and Bitumastic Material Metallurgical welds: Exothermic metallurgical bond system by ThermOweld. Casing cables (orange insulation if available). j. PA 15238. or equal.

and (b) and (c) completed test stations. orange capped. 4. 2. Post is 7-foot-long. Above-ground. Sufficient number of terminals (five terminals minimum) with associated hardware for the number and size of cables. and PVC post. Metallurgical weld and bitumastic materials for attaching cables to structure. post-mounted type unless otherwise specified. 3. manufactured by Cott Manufacturing Company. CA 91204. 3-inch-diameter.Chapter II Components Figure 2. 1944 Gardena Avenue. Big Fink type test station showing the components: (a) cap. having the following essential characteristics: 1. 7 . polyvinyl chloride (PVC) with a ½-inch-diameter. or equal. a) b) c) Figure 3. test board. (ThermOweld products courtesy of Protection Engineering) Test Stations Test station: Big Fink (Figure 3). Specifically constructed for CP system installations. Glendale. solid PVC cross bar unless otherwise specified.

Anode junction boxes with individual shunts and variable resistors. and vented for heat dissipation. Specifically constructed for CP system installations. 3. Shunts Shunts are used for determining the current output of the rectifier and anodes. lockable cabinet constructed of No. Equipped with combination bracket for pole or wall mounting. Equipped with variable resistors of adequate electrical rating for each anode. 8 . They come in a few different styles and are rated as amperes (A) per voltage (Figure 5) and resistance (Figure 6). Equipped with 0. 9. Engraved 1/4-inch minimum NEMA grade C phenolic panel.01 ohm calibrated shunt for each anode. pressure-type terminals. 6. 5. Anode junction boxes have the following essential characteristics: 1. Sufficient number of terminals (five terminals minimum) with associated hardware for the number and size of cables. a) b) Figure 4. Solderless. 2. 16 gauge or thicker galvanized steel or fiberglass that is weatherproof. Identified terminals. 8. 4. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Anode Junction Boxes Anode junction boxes are required for locations with too many galvanic anodes to install in a test station and for impressed current CP systems (Figure 4). lockable. Enclosed within a National Electrical Manufacturer’s Association (NEMA) 250. Type 3-R.Technical Memorandum No. 7.

respectively. (c). Rectifier shunt for determining current output.01 ohm (yellow). Shunt has a rating of 50 amperes/50 millivolts. extend anode life. Variable Resistors Variable resistors are used for adjusting the output of the anodes to prevent overpolarization. Two main types of variable resistors are available: slide resistors (Figure 7a) and dial resistors (Figure 7b and c). Various types of available anode shunts: (a) Cott shunts are color coded for rating.Chapter II Components Figure 5. Holloway type shunts are shown in e) and f). a) b) e) c) d) f) Figure 6. 0. with ratings of 0. and (d). with ratings of 0.01 ohm. and 0.1 ohm (red). and balance anode output at location with multiple anodes.001 ohm (orange).001 ohm and 0. 9 . respectively. The same shunts are shown enlarged in (b).

14 AWG stranded copper cable with yellow HMWPE insulation.5. 2. Protective Barriers 1. refer to project specification. No. Concrete for filling riser pipes and footers. Buried: a. Welded structure consisting of: i. Triangular barriers for test stations and junction boxes: a. 2-inch-diameter steel pipes.Technical Memorandum No. 6. Material and type dependent on environment. Figure 8 shows a schematic of a buried reference electrode.0-microamp load. ceramic cell in a geomembrane package with specialized backfill to retain moisture. 10 . MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) b) c) Figure 7. ii. Three 7-foot-long. and Figure 9 shows the through-wall and wall mounted or hanging electrodes. Optional antifreeze protection. Permanent Reference Electrodes Permanent reference electrodes used for CP systems are typically copper/copper sulfate. Variable resistors for controlling galvanic and impressed current anode output: (a) slide resistor. silver/silver chloride. Three 3-foot-long. These reference electrodes have the following essential characteristics: 1. 5. iii. ±5 millivolts (mV) with 3. 4.to 3-inch-diameter steel pipes. and zinc. Double membrane. 2. Minimum 20-year design life. 3. and (b) and (c) dial type resistors.

8. ii. iii. PO Box 31. Inc. 91761. 02802. or equal. 91761. S aturated. c. gelled. Inc. gelled. Saturated. Ontario CA.. Saturated. 2132 Grove Avenue.. or equal. Zinc through-wall permanent reference electrode for use in fresh water: model ZIN. through-wall permanent reference electrode for use in fresh water: model CUG.Chapter II Components 7. Albion RI. manufactured by Electrochemical Devices. or equal. Through-wall: a. Type: i. gelled. Designed for ½-inch to 1-inch Iron Pipe Size or National Pipe Taper tapped holes. copper/copper sulfate.. copper/copper sulfate through-wall permanent reference electrode for use in fresh water: model CUG. manufactured by Electrochemical Devices. Submerged wall mounted or hanging: a. silver/silver chloride. 02802. PO Box 31. b. ii. Suite F. 2132 Grove Avenue. Optional magnetic mount for easy attachment to steel structure. Inc. PO Box 31. manufactured by GMC Corrosion & Electrical. b. 02802. Inc. or equal. Rugged 1-inch plastic housing. manufactured by Electrochemical Devices. Ontario CA. permanent reference electrode for use in brackish water: model AGG. S aturated. Albion RI. Albion RI. Can be readily removed and reinstalled from exterior of structure. regular immersion.. Inc. manufactured by GMC Corrosion & Electrical. c. Type: i. gelled.. or equal. 11 . Suite F. silver/silver chloride through-wall permanent reference electrode for use in brackish water: model AG-6-TH.

(Courtesy of Farwest Corrosion Control Company) Insulated Joint Flange Kit Flange insulating kits should consist of a type “D” (ring type joint flanges). permanent reference electrode schematic. (a) Buried copper/copper sulfate. One insulating sleeve for each bolt. and (b) finished product. and two steel washers. shown in Figure 11) insulating gasket (1/8-inch-thick minimum) with the following essential characteristics: 1. type “E” (full-face. (Courtesy of Farwest Corrosion Control Company) b) a) Figure 9. two insulating washers. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) b) Figure 8. A one-piece insulating sleeve and washer can be substituted for the separate sleeve and two insulating washers. Full-length insulating flange bolt sleeves for the appropriate bolt size. shown in Figure 10). and (b) wall attached submerged permanent reference electrodes. 12 .Technical Memorandum No. or type “F” (raised face joint flange. (a) Through-wall.

Schematic of type E isolation flange kit. nitrile. The gasket material should be constructed of an approved material. plasticizer. and outer covering. clear polyvinylidene chloride. wax tape. Suitable for appropriate pipeline operating pressures.Chapter II Components 2. typically glass reinforced epoxy. plasticizer. phenolic. (Courtesy of Advanced Products & Systems) 13 . c. Outer covering should be a plastic wrapper consisting of three each: 50 gauge. showing the various components for two-sided isolation. b. mylar. and saturated with a blend of petrolatum. Figure 10. 50 to 70 mils thick. or polyethylene. Plastic-fiber felt tape. Coating for buried insulated pipe flanges: a. 3. The wax-tape coating should conform to the requirements of American Water Works Association (AWWA) C217 and consist of three parts: surface primer. 4. d. Primer should be a blend of petrolatum. high cling membranes wound together as a single sheet. and corrosion inhibitors. and corrosion inhibitors.

showing the various components for single-sided isolation. (Courtesy of Advanced Products & Systems) Casing Isolation Devices 1. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Figure 11.Technical Memorandum No. Ultraviolet resistant polypropylene b. Injection molded. high-density. Coating: i. Thermoplastic powder coating c. Mild steel (Figure 12a) ii. High-density virgin polyethylene 14 . Glass reinforced polymer b. PVC liner Runners: a. Materials: i. PVC fusion coating ii. Schematic of type F isolation flange kit. Stainless steel iii. Sleeve: a. virgin polyethylene (Figure 12b) iv.

manufactured by Carboline. with the following essential characteristics: 1. or equal. Nonmetallic runners prevent the metallic pipe from contacting the metal casing and causing an electrical short-circuit. St. Louis. Figure 13. Warning Tape Polyethylene warning tape (Figure 13) with the following essential characteristics: 1. (Courtesy of Pipeline Seal and Insulator. Various sleeve materials are available including: (a) coated mild steel. Casing isolation kit for metallic pipelines. Warning tape used for marking location of CP cables. 4. “Caution–Cathodic Protection Cable Buried Below” printed on tape for its full length.Chapter II Components b) a) Figure 12. 2. and (b) high-density polyethylene. 350 Hanley Industrial Court. 3. 2. Minimum of 3 inches wide. MO 63144. Suitable for immersion. Suitable for direct burial. Inc. 15 . The use of nonmetallic inner liners prevents damage to pipe and coating. Yellow or red with black lettering.) Dielectric Barrier Material Dielectric material: Bitumastic 50. Suitable for CP systems.

The conduit is slotted and has perforation holes or cutouts on 180 degrees of the pipe. Galvanic Anode Systems Anodes Buried Magnesium and zinc anodes (Figure 15) with the following essential characteristics: 16 . permanent reference electrode. and inside structures. Figure 14 shows an example of a conduit for mounting submersed anodes. Note the slots are only over 180 degrees of the circumference on one side of the pipe.Technical Memorandum No. with a PVC end cap. Conduit Galvanized steel or PVC conduit is used for anode. such as on the outside of tanks. and test cables. Galvanized conduit is typically used for cables above grade. Submerged anodes mounted against the structure wall are typically placed in PVC conduit. Conduit for mounting submerged anodes such as rod and wire anodes. Galvanized conduit should not be used for buried or submerged use. fine aggregate. PVC conduit is used for cables below grade. structure. such as buildings and vaults. Figure 14. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Sand Sand backfill: American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM) C 33.

The anode material specifically designed for the intended environment and listed in project specification. Anode prepackaged in a chemical backfill specifically intended for the type of buried anode used and wrapped in heavy paper or plastic for storage. 20-percent powdered bentonite. 2. 4. Contains a mild steel core that extends essentially the entire length of anode. Chemical backfill: Approximately 75-percent ground hydrated gypsum. rods. Bare and bagged galvanic anodes. Minimum of 20 pounds of bare anode material per anode unless otherwise stated in specification. 5. 17 . bars. 6. and ribbon (Figure 16). Figure 15. Anode material meeting or exceeding the requirements of ASTM B 843 and B 418. Specifically designed for CP systems and the intended environment. and 5-percent anhydrous sodium sulfate. centered within the anode material and exposed on one end of the anode.) Submerged Magnesium and zinc anodes are used for fresh water applications and come in various shapes such as plates. The anodes have the following essential characteristics: 1. Inc. 3. (Courtesy of CorrPro Companies. a. for the factory made anode-to-cable connection.Chapter II Components 1. Anode cable in accordance with the requirements for cable section.

c. 2. and (d) extruded ribbon anode. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a. 3. CorroCont Ltd. Rod and ribbon anodes contain a mild steel or galvanized mild steel core that extends essentially the entire length of anode. Type and number of anodes given in project specification . Anode cable in accordance with cable requirements for cable section. Anode shapes include: (a) cast plate anode. section 26 42 1X. for the factory made anode-to-cable connections. b) a) c) d) Figure 16. 2. and held in place by a porous. Anode cable in accordance with cable requirements of this section. 4. Galvanic anodes for use on submerged structures. Magnesium anodes used in fresh water.Technical Memorandum No. (b) cast bar anodes. made of conductive-polymer coated copper. 18 . (Courtesy of Farwest Corrosion Control Company.) Impressed Current Systems Anodes Buried Impressed current anodes for buried use (Figure 17) are typically graphite and high silicon cast iron (HSCI). woven. These anodes have the following essential characteristics: 1. b. centered within the anode material and exposed on both ends of the anode. (c) extruded rod anodes. a flexible linear anode (Figure 18). Anode material meeting or exceeding the requirements of ASTM B 843 and B 418. Fresh water zinc anodes are Type II. Brackish water zinc anodes are Type I. acid-resistant jacket. surrounded by high conductivity coke breeze. Also.

titanium rod. wire. stick or rod electrodes (Figure 19c). and mesh electrodes (Figure 19b). These materials are typically found as disk electrodes (Figure 19a). and (b) HSCI impressed current anode. in addition to an internal moisture seal. MMO disk anodes secured into a nonmetallic dielectric shield. (Anodeflex. a) b) Figure 17. (Courtesy of Farwest Corrosion Control Company) Figure 18. and through-wall probe electrodes (Figure 19d). The factory anode-to-anode cable connection. 3. Low resistance center cable connection having a waterproof seal on both sides of the anode-to-cable connection. 2. Anode cable in accordance with cable requirements of this section. and held in place by a porous. Linear anode of conductive-polymer coated copper. 19 . with the following essential characteristics: 1. 4. platinized niobium. woven. Anode-to-anode cable connection factory made and rated for submersion service. pencil. is protected by epoxy encapsulation and an external anode cap. and mixed metal oxide (MMO). (a) Graphite impressed current anode. courtesy of Farwest Corrosion Control Company). Submerged Anode materials used for submerged impressed current anodes include HSCI. surrounded by high conductivity coke breeze. acid-resistant jacket.Chapter II Components 3.

Accurate within 2 percent of full scale. However. 4. Energized by 120 volts. 6. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) c) b) d) Figure 19. Marked with red lines that designate rated capacities. b.Technical Memorandum No. (b) wire. c. single phase. 7. Air cooled. refer to the project specifications for the specific project rectifier. and (d) through-wall probe electrodes. (c) stick or rod. Equipped with solderless. 8. at a minimum. Fitted with individual meters for determining output voltage and current. Output voltage is adjustable in 20 or more equal increments or continuously from 0 to 100-percent rated output. AC. (Courtesy of Farwest Corrosion Control Company) Rectifiers Figure 20 shows an example rectifier used for an impressed current CP system. The rectifiers have. Capable of continuous operation at 120 percent of rated output in ambient temperature of 50 degrees Celsius (ºC). pressure-type terminals for anode and cathode cables. Examples of impressed current anodes include: (a) disk. and mesh. Equipped with AC and DC lightning arrestors and protective fuses or relays. pencil. and which are: a. 2. Silicon diode type. Fitted with a heavy-duty transformer. 5. 20 . 3. the following essential characteristics: 1.

Chapter II
Components

9. NEMA 250, type 3-R, weatherproof, lockable, vented for heat dissipation
cabinet, constructed of No. 16 gauge or thicker galvanized steel.
10. Equipped with a single slide-out rack for easy access to internal
components during maintenance.
11. Equipped with an accessible shunt on the front panel for determining
current output.
12. Fitted with a combination bracket for wall or pole mounting.
13. Screened against the entry of bees, hornets, or wasps.
14. External circuit breaker preceding and mounted on the same pole as the
rectifier with shutoff switch and lockout/tagout capability for rectifiers
installed outside of plant yards.

a)

b)

Figure 20. Rectifiers used for impressed current CP systems,
showing: (a) galvanized enclosure, and (b) manual taps for
adjusting the voltage.

Pea Gravel
1/8th-inch to 3/8th-inch smooth (no rough edges) pea gravel.
Vent Pipe
Deep well vent pipe, such as AllVent (Figure 21), manufactured by Loresco®
International, 421 J.M. Tatum Industrial Park Drive, Hattiesburg, MS, 39401; or
equal, having the following essential characteristics:
1. Nominal 1-inch inside diameter at surface.
2. Pipe below surface can be larger than 1 inch in diameter and sized as
needed for depth of well and per cathodic protection specification section.
3. The vent pipe should be slotted within the coke backfill column and
nonslotted outside the limits of the coke backfill column.
21

Technical Memorandum No. MERL-2012-40
Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems

4. The slots should conform to one of the following requirements, while
maintaining maximum pipe strength:
a. Vertical slits 1.5 inches in length with a width of 0.006 inch parallel to
the longitudinal centerline of the pipe. Center-to-center spacing of
6 inches placed 1 inch in circumferential distance from the preceding
slot, allowing for a 360-degree venting ability.
b. 1/8-inch holes drilled on 6-inch centers in the area of the anodes for
the plastic vent pipe. Do not drill holes in the vent pipe above the
anodes.
c. Schedule 40 PVC pipe with slots cut in the transverse direction
0.062 inch wide by 1.30 inches long as measured on the inside
diameter of the pipe. The slots should be regularly spaced on the pipe
in three columns with 1 inch of solid pipe between each open slot
(measured along the axis of the pipe) to provide a minimum open area
of 0.8 square inch per foot of vent pipe.
5. The vent pipe should have flush threaded joints per ASTM F 480 or
solvent weld slip fit joints; reinforcement screws are not allowed.
a)

b)

Figure 21. (a) Vent pipe with vertical and transverse slots for deep well
anode beds and (b) circled area blown up to show vertical slot cut in the
pipe.

Carbonaceous Backfill
Coke backfill: Use SC-3 calcined fluid petroleum coke as manufactured by
Loresco®, Inc. (Figure 22), 421 J.M. Tatum Industrial Park Drive, Hattiesburg,
MS 39401; or equal, having the following essential characteristics:
22

Chapter II
Components

1. Typical Chemical Analysis:
Component

Percent Composition

Carbon (fixed)

99.35 minimum

Ash

0.6 maximum

Volatiles

0 (950 ºC)

Moisture

0.05

2. The carbon content, as measured by the “loss of ignition method,” should be a
minimum of 99.9 percent.
3. Particle analysis: Dustfree with a maximum particle size of 1 millimeter.
4. Fine spherical grained coke backfill to prevent bridging problems associated
with installations into deep anode groundbeds.
5. The bulk density should be between 62 and 66 pounds per cubic foot.
6. The grain size should allow 90 percent to pass through a No. 4 screen and
retain greater than 80 percent on a 20 mesh screen.
7. The electrical resistivity should be less than or equal to 0.03 ohm-centimeters
when compressed at 150 pounds per square inch.

a)

b)

Figure 22. (a) Bag of petroleum coke backfill used for
impressed current anode beds, and (b) spherical grained
petroleum coke structure. (Courtesy of Norton Corrosion Ltd.
and Alibaba.)

23

Technical Memorandum No. MERL-2012-40
Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems

Anode Centralizing Devices
Anode centralizing device: Ventralizer (Figure 23), manufactured by
Brance-Krachy Co., Inc., 4411 Navigation Boulevard, Houston, TX 77011; or
equal, having the following essential characteristics:
1. The centralizer should be designed to hold the anode away from the vent
pipe and sides of the drilled hole so that there is a minimum 1-inch-thick
layer of coke backfill surrounding all surfaces of the anode. It should not
block the hole or impair installation of the anode, anode wire, or coke
breeze.
2. The centralizer should be constructed of carbon steel or stainless steel.

Figure 23. Example of device for centering
anodes in deep well anode beds. Vent
pipe can also be attached to the centralizer
for easier installation. (Courtesy of
Brance-Krachy Co., Inc.)

Grounding Rod and Cable
1. Must meet local electrical code requirements.
2. Minimum 10-foot-long, copper clad, steel ground rod with a ¾-inch diameter.
3. No. 4 AWG or larger stranded copper ground cable, bare.
4. Bronze, bolt-on ground rod clamp if connection to ground rod is above grade;
metallurgically bonded to the ground rod if connection is below grade.
Rectifier Protective Barriers
1. Rectangular barrier for field rectifiers:
a. Four pressure-treated, 8-foot-long, 4-inch-diameter wood posts.
b. Eight pressure-treated, 6-foot-long, 2-foot by 4-foot boards.
24

Chapter III

Installation
General Installation
The COR should inspect all materials prior to installation to ensure the proper,
approved materials were received, handled, and stored in accordance with
manufacturer’s requirements. Installation and testing should be performed or
directed by a Cathodic Protection Specialist certified by National Association of
Corrosion Engineers International.
All buried structures (e.g., pipes and fittings) should be electrically isolated from
all other metal (e.g. casings, foreign structures, and rebar in concrete), regardless
of need for CP.

Cable
Inspection for Quality Control
Inspect and approve cable prior to installation. Inspect for insulation defects prior
to backfilling, and ensure that cable is installed without kinks, stresses, and/or
splices.
Exothermic Metallurgical Bonds
All cables and jumper bonds should be attached to structures by exothermic
metallurgical bond. This may require the removal of a section of the structure’s
coating or lining. Bond in accordance with the bonding supply manufacturer's
instructions and as described herein:
1. Bond integrity tested by striking (not tapping) side of weld nugget with a
16-ounce hammer. COR should be present for the first bonds and
randomly throughout the process to ensure that they are performed
correctly and tested.
2. Bare copper, weld nugget, and ferrous materials at metallurgical bonds
should be coated with an approved dielectric metallurgical bond coating
such as a Royston Handy Cap.
a. A primer is required in some instances such as cold weather.
3. After dielectric material has cured, the structure coating or lining should
be repaired in accordance with the following:
a. Dielectric coatings/linings: Section 09 96 20 – Coatings.
25

Figure 24 is a schematic diagram depicting a proper weld procedure. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems b.Technical Memorandum No. Mortar/concrete coating and lining: USBR M-47. Figure 24. Schematic diagrams show the proper procedure for metallurgically bonding cables to metallic structures 26 .

and flexible coupling joints (figure 25). Reinforced concrete pipe bond jumpers should be welded on a 3. Figure 28 shows properly installed bonds for mortar coated pipe. iii. nonwelded joints) between ferrous parts in a CP system as indicated in this section or as necessary to ensure electrical continuity: 1.5. Bond cable installed with sufficient slack to prevent stress and allow for at least ½ inch of joint movement.g.. and atmospherically exposed pipe. b. push-on (bell and spigot) joints.5-inch. ii. Schematic for bonding victaulic joints (figure 26). Jumper bond locations: a. A minimum of two cables per bond joint unless otherwise stated in specification. Schematic for bonding stargrips and fittings for PVC pipe (figure 27). i. Schematics for bonding flanged joints. 2. buried flanged pipe. factory welded to rebar. Nonwelded ferrous pipe sections and ferrous pipe and fittings.Chapter III Installation Electrical Continuity Joint (Jumper) Bonds Metallurgical bonds should be provided at all mechanical type joints (e.by 3. 3. square steel plate. 27 .

Schematic shows jumper bond installation for PVC to steel fitting. Schematic shows jumper bond installation for: (a) a flanged joint (nonisolating). 28 . MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) b) c) Figure 25. (b) a push-on joint. Figure 27. Figure 26. and (c) a flexible coupling (multiple component coupling).Technical Memorandum No. Schematic shows jumper bond installation for Victaulic joints.

Chapter III Installation a) b) c) Figure 28. and the weld nuggets were covered with bitumastic molded cap (Handy Cap) prior to burial. rectifier. Ensure that the cable is surrounded with a minimum of 6 inches of sand backfill. Buried Applications All horizontal segments of cable should be buried in accordance with the following requirements and as shown in figure 29: 1. (b) jumpers were installed on the pipe across the various joints. and (c) bonds were installed across the expansion joint on an outlet works pipe. ring-tongue connectors. 4. Ensure that no sharp objects are pressing against the wire. Cables should be connected to test station. Bury to a minimum depth of 30 inches standard. 2. and the weld nuggets were coated with a bitumastic coating. Place warning tape approximately 12 inches above cable for the entire length of cable segments. and junction box terminals with crimped. Structure Cables There should be one test cable and one bond cable per structure at each test station. 29 . 3. Examples of jumper bonds for various pipe situations: (a) The mortar coating was removed at the joint to attach the jumper bond. 42 inches for cables in agricultural fields.

Factory printed letters on self-adhesive strips attached to the cables should be clearly visible within the enclosure. 2. Figure 29. Schematic for installation of buried cables.Technical Memorandum No. Cable Identification The origin of all cables terminating an enclosure should be clearly identified in accordance with the following requirements and as shown in figure 31: 1. Figure 30 shows an example of warning tape installation. Run above-grade cables through rigid galvanized conduit. 30 . test station pipe. or similar protection. Installation of warning tape in a cable trench. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems 5. Figure 30. Cables in agricultural fields should be buried at a minimum depth of 42 inches (1 foot deeper). Labels should be encased in clear heat shrink tubing.

Flange faces should be refinished if corrective measures do not meet the foregoing. and rebar in concrete). 7. and rectifiers. A nonconductive lubricant is applied to all threads and flange side of nuts. Isolation Joint Flange Kit Installation Inspection and observation of the installation of the flange isolation kits should be conducted to ensure the following: 1. Flanges are free of pits. rust. and the contents are not damaged. 3. 4. Bolts should be tightened with torque wrenches (mechanical and hydraulic) or with a stud tension measuring device. The flange and bolt hole spot facings do not have burrs. debris. Surface finish should be no greater than 250 RMS (root mean squared or roughness average). Tightening of the bolts is in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements. foreign structures. When the insulating sleeves are inserted. the following criteria. they are not forced into the holes. gouges. etc. junction boxes. The bolts are inserted with both insulating washers against the flanges. The installation kits contain the material specified. Schematic for identifying and labeling all cables terminating in test stations. 31 .Chapter III Installation Figure 31. 6. 2. followed by the steel washer and nut as shown in figure 32. casings. which could damage the sleeve material. oil and grease. Electrical Isolation (Insulation) General Pipe and fittings should be electrically isolated from all other metal (e.g. 5. and as shown in figure 33: a.

f. Schematic shows bolt tightening sequence to provide even sealing pressure on a flange gasket. should be used with flanges having more or less bolts. checking bolt to bolt for proper torque. Bolts of sufficient length to extend through the nut approximately ¼ inch. d. The same basic procedure. g. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems b. Figure 32. particularly on large diameter piping systems. c. 8. Finally. Initially cross-tighten bolts until flange-to-gasket contact has been made. e. tighten all bolts to 50 percent of specified torque. 32 .Technical Memorandum No. as shown in figure 33. tighten all bolts to 100 percent of final torque value. It is always a good policy to go completely around flange. Tighten all bolts initially to 10-15 percent of specified torque. Schematic shows isolation bolt installation for isolation flange kit. Then. Figure 33.

3. All surfaces and edges are coated with wax tape having a minimum thickness of 100 mils. e. Short lengths of tape placed completely around each bolt head and nut. working the tape into the crevices around the bolts and nuts. Wax tape application: a. The primer is applied by hand or bush working a thin coating of primer into all crevices. The wax-tape coating is not applied until the isolated pipe flange has been tested and approved.Chapter III Installation Ensure buried isolated pipe flanges are coated with an external wax-tape coating in accordance with AWWA C217 and as modified herein: 1. b. Outer covering: a. 4. Primer is extended a minimum of 2 pipe diameters onto the adjacent surfaces of the pipe or valve. c. The surface is cleaned of dirt. d. i. such that the material conforms and adheres to the wax tape surface.e. Surface primer application: a. Testing 1. The wax tape is overlapped with two layers of polyvinylidene chloride. The plastic wrap is secured to the pipe with adhesive tape. The contractor should test the electrical isolation effectiveness of each insulated pipe flange after installation using a Gas Electronics Model 601 33 . dust. and completely covering all exposed metal surfaces.. 2. high cling plastic membrane sheet. The wax tape is wrapped spirally around the pipe and across the flanges to adjacent pipe or valve with a minimum overlap of 55 percent of tape width. and loose rust by wire brush and by wiping with a clean cloth until dry. Wax tape applied immediately after the primer application. around all bolts and in threads. c. b. The tape is worked into the crevices and contours of the irregularly shaped surfaces and smoothed out so that there is a continuous protective layer with no voids or spaces under the tape. b.

Sebastian. manufactured by M. Sebastian. FL 32958. Miller Co. 3. The COR may request the contractor to test the electrical isolation effectiveness of each insulated pipe flange during or immediately after burial of the flange using a Gas Electronics Model 702 insulation tester (figure 34b). Test instruments for ensuring proper installation and operation of isolation (insulation) joints flange kits: (a) Model 601 is for testing aboveground joints. and (b) Model 702 is for testing joints underground. manufactured by M. 11640 U.C. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems insulation tester (figure 34a).C. Inc. 2. c. a.. Each individual bolt.. Highway 1. Inc. The contractor should replace or repair any insulated pipe flange that is determined electrically ineffective. 11640 US Highway 1. b. If the insulated pipe flange will be buried. Casing isolators should be installed according to the manufacturer’s instructions and the following: 34 .. FL 32958. a) b) Figure 34. or equal. Across flange.Technical Memorandum No. Casing Isolation Installation Metallic pipe should be electrically isolated from casing using nonmetallic spacers and nonmetallic sleeves when necessary.S.. it should be tested for electrical isolation before the wax-tape coating is applied. or equal. Miller Co.

3. and thermal extenders. 5. During the installation operation. or filled with dielectric material composed mainly of petrolatum wax or petroleum-based compounds that contains corrosion inhibitors. Figure 35a is an illustration of a completed installation. Annular space is either left empty. a) b) Figure 35. should not remain at the bottom (6 o’clock) position. 2. ensure that no isolator or spacer displacement or damage to the carrier pipe coating exist. 6. Ensure that carrier pipe is electrically isolated from casing after installation.Chapter III Installation 1. Continue the push/pull operation in a smooth motion until the carrier pipe is properly positioned. and the pipe is centered inside the casing. Isolation sleeves are spaced to prevent sagging of the pipe. if present. 4. 35 . and all bolts. Figure 35b shows casing isolation spacers installed on a diameter steel pipe. (a) Casing installation. grouted. plasticizers. Isolator runners (skids) are oriented properly. and (b) casing isolators installed on a coated steel pipe. including spacers and end seals. Casing end seals are installed on both ends of casing to ensure water and backfill do not fill the annular space.

C. using a Gas Electronics Model 601 insulation tester (figure 34a).. The contractor should test the electrical isolation effectiveness of the casing isolators after pipe installation. adjacent to aboveground structures).g. Approximately every 1. 36 . The contractor should repair any casing installation that is determined electrically ineffective. manufactured by M.. Inc. manufactured by M. 11640 U. At all sets of bonded metallic fittings on nonmetallic pipe. FL 32958. Highway 1. Miller Co. 9. Inc.. etc. Miller Co. tanks. or equal. 4. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Testing 1. 2..) 7. Exact location is subject to approval of COR. 3. As close to structure as possible.Technical Memorandum No. At all bonded structures (buried yard metalwork.S. At one end of all casings. 11640 U. Located to make them readily accessible.C. At each end of any electrically continuous pipeline. Highway 1. 8. The contractor should test the electrical isolation effectiveness of the casing isolators after burial using a Gas Electronics Model 702 insulation tester (figure 34b). 3. FL 32958. and prior to end seal installation and burial. Test Stations and Junction Boxes Locations Locations of test stations for corrosion monitoring and/or CP: 1. or equal. 5. Sebastian. Where test stations will not likely be damaged or interfere with personnel and/or equipment (e. 6. At all foreign pipeline crossings.S.. 2.000 feet for long electrically continuous segments of pipeline. Sebastian.

b. Ensure that all cables for a given location terminate within the same test station enclosure. No. Protect by a triangular barrier outside of plant yards: a. 12 AWG test cable from the structure for determining structure-to-soil potentials. b. Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. PVC pipe is installed such that 4 feet of the pipe are below grade with cross bar inserted as shown in figure 36a. 2. Permanently. 3. 6. and clearly identify: a. Stationing. a. No. 6 AWG bond cable from the structure for determining structure-to-soil potentials and for connecting to galvanic anode(s) if required. All cables identified as to the distinct originating structure as described in the “Cable” section. 5.Chapter III Installation Corrosion Monitoring Test station should meet the following requirements: 1. Contain two cables as shown in figure 36b. Test stations are not installed inside of agricultural fields. 37 . 4. uniquely.

and (b) close-up view of the test board. Drawing of test station installation for corrosion monitoring: (a) plan view of test station. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) b) Figure 36.Technical Memorandum No. 38 .

Permanently. 2. Stationing. No.Chapter III Installation Isolation Joints Test station should meet the following requirements: 1. 6 AWG bond cable from each side of isolation joint for determining structure-to-soil potentials and for connecting to galvanic anode(s) or resistance bond if required. PVC pipe is installed such that 4 feet of the pipe are below grade with cross bar inserted as shown in figure 37a. 3. Ensure that all cables for a given location terminate within the same test station enclosure. Test stations are not installed inside of agricultural fields. No. 12 AWG test cable from each side of isolation joint for determining structure-to-soil potentials. All cables identified as to the distinct originating structure as described in the “Cable” section. b. 39 . uniquely. 5. 4. a. and clearly identified: a. Contain four cables as shown in figure 37b. Protected by a triangular barrier outside of plant yards: a. 6. GPS coordinates. b.

Drawing of test station installation for isolation joint: (a) plan view of test station.Technical Memorandum No. 40 . and (b) close-up view of the test board. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) b) Figure 37.

b. Anodes are not required on carrier pipe if protected by an impressed current CP system at said location. b. Test stations are not installed inside of agricultural fields. 5. PVC pipe is installed such that 4 feet of the pipe are below grade with cross bar inserted as shown in figures 38a and 39a. Permanently. Protected by a triangular barrier outside of plant yards: a. a. 2. 3. and one cable from each anode required for casing and pipe as shown in figures 38b and 39b. a. 12 AWG test cable from casing and carrier pipe (if metallic) for determining structure-to-soil potentials. uniquely. No. Ensure all cables for a given location terminate within the same test station enclosure. two cables from carrier pipe (if metallic). b. Anodes are not required on carrier pipe if it is PVC.01 ohm calibrated shunt and a variable resistor (as necessary) for each anode in the test station. 7.Chapter III Installation Casings Test station should meet the following requirements: 1. Test station should include two cables from the casing. 4. No. 6. 41 . GPS coordinates. and clearly identified: a. Anode cables connected through a 0. 6 AWG bond cable from casing and carrier pipe (if metallic) for determining structure-to-soil potentials and for connecting to galvanic anode(s) if required. Stationing. All cables identified as to the distinct originating structure as described in the “Cable” section.

Drawing of test station installation for a casing: (a) plan view of test station. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) b) Figure 38. and (b) close-up view of the test board. 42 .Technical Memorandum No.

Chapter III Installation a) b) Figure 39. and (b) close-up view of the test board. 43 . Drawing of test station installation for a casing with galvanic anode: (a) plan view of test station.

b. 6. Test stations are not installed inside of agricultural fields. Protected by a triangular barrier outside of plant yards: a. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Foreign Line Crossings Test station should meet the following requirements: 1. 2. GPS coordinates. Permanent Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode placement: a.Technical Memorandum No. 4. 44 . Between the foreign pipe and the Reclamation pipe. c. Stationing. and clearly identified: a. uniquely. Test station should include two cables from each pipeline and one cable from a permanent reference electrode as shown in figure 40b: a. No. 6 AWG bond cable from each pipe for determining structure-to-soil potentials and for installing a resistance bond or connecting to galvanic anode(s) if required. 5. Ensure permission is obtained from the foreign pipe owner prior to attaching cables on foreign line. Approximately 12 inches from the Reclamation pipe. 8. 12 AWG test cable from each pipe for determining structure-to-soil potentials. b. Installed in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. Permanently. Only required if both foreign pipeline and Reclamation pipeline are metallic and an impressed current system is installed on one or both pipes. All cables identified as to the distinct originating structure as described in the “Cable” section. No. 7. c. 3. b. Ensure that all cables for a given location terminate within the same test station enclosure. PVC pipe is installed so that 4 feet of the pipe are below grade with cross bar inserted as shown in figure 40a.

Drawing of test station installation for a foreign line crossing: (a) plan view of test station. 45 .Chapter III Installation a) b) Figure 40. and (b) close-up view of the test board.

Stationing. Each anode cable connected to bond cable through shunt. c. iii. GPS coordinates. Test station should include three cables minimum. PVC pipe is installed so that 4 feet of the pipe are below grade with cross bar inserted as shown in figures 41a. 12 AWG test cable from pipe for determining structure-to-soil potentials. b. Test stations are not installed inside of agricultural fields. Junction box required for locations with large numbers of anodes. and 43b. Each anode cable connected through variable resistor (if necessary). b. and clearly identified: a. No. 3. 6 AWG bond cable from pipe for connecting to galvanic anode(s). No. 42a. 5 Ensure that all cables for a given location terminate within the same test station enclosure. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Galvanic Anode(s) Test station and junction boxes should meet the following requirements: 1.12 AWG anode cable. 2. Protected by a triangular barrier outside of plant yards: a. 6. two from the pipeline and one cable from each anode as shown in figures 41b. All cables identified as to the distinct originating structure as described in the “Cable” section. ii. No. uniquely. 42b. Permanently. one from each anode: i. and 43a. 46 . a.Technical Memorandum No. 4.

Drawing of test station installation for a single galvanic anode: (a) plan view of test station.Chapter III Installation a) b) Figure 41. and (b) close-up view of the test board. 47 .

Technical Memorandum No. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) b) Figure 42. and (b) close-up view of the test board. Drawing of test station installation for multiple galvanic anodes: (a) plan view of test station. 48 .

49 .Chapter III Installation a) b) Figure 43. Drawing of junction box installation for multiple galvanic anodes: (a) plan view of junction box. and (b) close-up view of the anode panel.

5 feet are above grade. The barriers should meet the following criteria: 1. Standpipes embedded in concrete footers 8 inches in diameter by 1. 4. Standpipes spaced 3 feet apart. 2. 2.5 feet. 3. Test station centered in barrier.5 feet high. 3. 4. Rectifier centered in barrier. Crossbars welded to steel standpipes 6 to 8 inches below top of standpipes.Technical Memorandum No. 50 . 5.5 feet and 4. Rectangular Barriers Figures 45a and b show rectangular wood barriers used for protecting rectifiers. Steel standpipes buried 3. Standpipes capped or filled with concrete. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Barriers Triangular Barriers Figures 44a and b show triangular steel barriers used for protecting test stations and junction boxes. Posts spaced 6 feet apart. Two-foot by 4-foot crossbars attached to posts at heights of 2. Exposed steel coated “safety yellow.5 feet below grade such that 3. Posts buried 3 feet below grade such that 5 feet is above grade.” 7. The barriers should meet the following criteria: 1. 6.

Barrier constructed of welded steel pipe and coated “safety yellow.” 51 .Chapter III Installation a) b) Figure 44. Triangular test station design for protecting test stations and junction boxes from damage.

Barriers constructed of pretreated wood. Rectangular barriers for safety and preventing damage to rectifiers outside of plant yards.Technical Memorandum No. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) b) Figure 45. 52 .

53 . 8. 5. Anodes installed horizontally (figures 46a and b) or vertically (figures 47a and b). Anodes are not connected to structures at test stations or junction boxes at the time of installation. 2. Refer to specification for details on number and location of anodes. Anodes placed on structures greater than 50 feet inside irrigated fields directly attached to the structure and no test station provided. At least one anode length from any nonmetallic piping. 9.Chapter III Installation Galvanic Anode Systems Buried Anodes Anodes are to be installed as follows: 1.01 ohm shunts supplied within the test station or junction box for each individual anode. 6. 7. Removal of outer water-resistant covering on the prepackaged anodes prior to installation. refer to project specifications. Suspended 1. Variable resistors supplied within the test station or junction box for each individual anode when required. 4. taking care not to damage the wettable covering. 10. Depth at or below invert of piping. Submerged Anodes General Galvanic anodes should not be coated. 2. Hung from nonmetallic support ropes at the top and bottom of the anode so that the anode(s) are not in contact with any part of the structure. Installed horizontally or vertically and as directed by the COR. Calibrated 0. 3. 3. For specific anode installation locations. Prepackaged anodes not wetted until in the ground and surrounded with at least 1 foot of compacted earth.

8.01 ohm shunts supplied within the junction box for each individual anode. Individual anode cables run to junction box.Technical Memorandum No. Where support ropes hold the anodes. 10624 Sentinel Drive. San Antonio. wrap anodes with a double thickness of dielectric barrier material. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems 4. TX 78217). Variable resistors supplied with the junction box for each individual anode when required. 6. 7. to a width of approximately 3 to 4 inches. 9. 5. Calibrated 0. Ropes attached to tank sidewalls using steel rope anchor shown in figure 48. or equal. Anodes are not connected to structures at test stations or junction boxes at time of installation. 54 . such as STOPAQ Coat Wrap CZH (AMCORR.

and (b) plan view.Chapter III Installation a) b) Figure 46. Example schematic of horizontally installed galvanic anodes in a ground tank: (a) elevation view. 55 .

and (b) plan view. Example schematic of vertically installed galvanic anodes in a ground tank: (a) elevation view. 56 . MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) b) Figure 47.Technical Memorandum No.

slots.Chapter III Installation Figure 48. Not required for zinc anodes. required on structure surface behind magnesium anodes closer than 6 inches to the structure or wall: i. Thick dielectric barrier. Anodes are not connected to structures at test stations or junction boxes at time of installation. Surface Mounted 1. refer to project specification. Individual anode cables run to junction box. Calibrated 0. 57 . Anodes installed vertically or horizontally in PVC conduit: a. e. c. f. Installed in PVC conduit as shown in figure 14 so that cutouts.01 ohm shunts supplied within the junction box for each individual anode. For specific anode installation locations. Secure the conduit to the wall at the top. and bottom with stainless steel anchors. such as STOPAQ CZH or equal. or perforations are oriented away from wall. d. b. 2. Steel anchor for supporting ropes attached to suspended galvanic anodes such as found in a storage tank. Variable resistors supplied within the junction box for each individual anode when required. middle. g.

2. 58 . if required. Only a licensed electrician should run power to a rectifier. Thick dielectric barrier. Rectifier mounted on a wooden pole (as shown in figure 45). or wall and located as directed by COR. Anode Junction Boxes 1. they need to be treated with respect. 6. The rectifier and field circuit breaker installed in accordance with governing electrical codes to include sufficient grounding. 6. 5. Each individual anode connected through individual variable resistors. required on structure surface behind magnesium anodes. All anode cables terminate in junction box. 4. Single cable from anode bus bar and single cable from structure installed for connection from junction box to rectifier terminals. therefore. 4. Not required for zinc anodes. Mounted directly under the rectifier. Impressed Current Systems Rectifiers 1.Technical Memorandum No. 3. Each individual anode connected through individual calibrated shunts as shown in figure 49a. such as STOPAQ CZH or equal. metal pole or bracket stand embedded in concrete deck. 2. Do not attach main anode cable or structure cable to the rectifier or energize the rectifier. as shown in figure 49b. 3. i. Energize the system only at time of testing. Cables labeled in accordance with cable identification requirements. 5. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems 3. Rectifier grounded on the AC side in accordance with local electrical codes. Anodes directly mounted to structure: a. Rectifiers are electrical equipment. Cables labeled in accordance with cable identification requirements.

No anodes should be buried until the COR has inspected the placement of the anodes and given permission to backfill. length of beds. anode spacing. 3. Install vertically or horizontally and as directed by the COR. Buried Shallow Bed Shallow anode bed installation details are as follows herein: 1. c. number of anode beds. Visually inspect the anodes and anode lead cables: a. 6. 4. Reject all anodes with damaged insulation or wire. and (b) installation with shunts and variable resistors. or other defects. b. d. inclusions. Defective anodes should be removed from the worksite no later than the conclusion of the workday. 2. depth of beds. and location of beds. Anode cables should be installed in accordance with cable section without splices from anode to anode junction box. Reject all anodes with cracks. and/or any form of wire repair. 5. entrapped air bubbles.Chapter III Installation a) b) Figure 49. Anodes should be centered in the anode bed and surrounded with carbonaceous backfill. 59 . At no time should the anodes be supported by their cables. Anode junction boxes for impressed current CP systems: (a) installation with shunts only. splices. Refer to specification for number of anodes. abrasion damage.

and location of beds. external circuit breaker. protected. installed from the bottom of the bed to the rectifier. and/or any form of wire repair. c. number of anode beds. b. Reject all anodes with cracks. Vent pipe buried except at termination location. anode spacing.Technical Memorandum No. or other defects. Reject all anodes with damaged insulation or wire. If an anode must be retrieved after it has been lowered into the hole. f. d. goose necked. splices. Terminated above ground. Vent pipe should be slotted within the coke backfill column and nonslotted outside the limits of the coke backfill column. Refer to specification for number of anodes. if rectifier is near bed location: a. Inspect insulation on the anode lead wire for damage as the anode is lowered into place. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Deepwell Bed Figure 50 shows installation of the above grade portion of a deep well impressed current system showing the rectifier. b. entrapped air bubbles. but not directly beneath. Anode bed installation details are shown in figure 51 and as follows: 1. as shown in figure 51. Terminate the vent pipe close to. inclusions. 2. Defective anodes should be removed from the worksite no later than the conclusion of the workday. anode junction box. and vent pipe. 3. and fitted with a perforated cap. Cap the bottom of the vent pipe. e. A nonmetallic vent pipe. 4. length of beds. Soil resistivity logged every 25 feet to ensure suitability for anode bed site. d. 60 . c. e. Goose necked portion installed so it can be removed. abrasion damage. inspect the entire length of the anode lead wire. Visually inspect the anodes and anode lead cables: a. the rectifier. depth of beds.

8. Refer to project specification for the length of coke backfill column. The anode vent pipe/anode/centralizer assembly is lowered into the hole the appropriate distance until the next anode and centralizer distance is reached. The vent pipe should be installed with the first anode by attaching it to one of the centralizer straps with a stainless clamp as shown in figure 52b. hose type clamp. at no time should the anodes be supported by their cables. Label the anode wires with colored tape or paint to mark the intended final depth. c. The vent pipe should not be attached to the anode proper. c. 7. Top of the vent pipe temporarily capped throughout the anode and coke backfill installation procedure to prevent intrusion of foreign material. d. Do not use the vent pipe to pump the coke. 24-hour mandatory waiting period: A full 24-hour waiting period must be allowed for coke settlement and its natural compaction process. 5. a. Anodes lowered into the drill hole using rope. Coke backfill material should be introduced into the bottom of the drill hole using a pipe that is the length of the anode hole and a pumping action to fill the drill hole. ii. i. Attach the first anode to a centralizer (like the one shown in figure 52a) at both ends using a stainless steel. e. 61 . Anode cables installed in PVC conduit from the sand backfill to the anode junction box. b. No anodes should be buried until the COR has inspected the placement of the anodes and given permission to backfill. Anode and vent pipe installation: a. b. 6. Joints are made up as the assembly is lowered into the hole. COR will approve the attachment before the vent pipe is lowered into the hole.Chapter III Installation g.

Do not perform over cables or anodes. Anode-to-structure resistance using a four-pin resistance method: i. Determined for each individual anode immediately after coke backfill placement. and after the coke backfill settlement period. anode junction box. Installed impressed current system showing rectifier. ii. Figure 50. If more coke is needed to bring it up to the depth indicated. 9. 62 . d. and vent pipe. an additional 24-hour waiting period must be allowed and the preceding process repeated. ii. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems i. external circuit breaker switch. a calculated amount of coke is poured into the hole. If more than 20 feet of coke is required to be added. Five feet (minimum) of sand backfill placed on top of the coke backfill. Remainder of the drill hole should be backfilled with smooth (no rough edges) pea gravel and introduced into the well bore in a manner that will prevent damage to the anode cables.Technical Memorandum No. 10.

Schematic of example deep well anode bed installation.Chapter III Installation Figure 51. 63 .

and (b) with anode and vent pipe attached for installation. 4. or stainless steel anchors.Technical Memorandum No. (a) Example of an anode centralizer for deep well anodes. Dielectric coating applied to the structure wall behind and adjacent to the anodes so that the dielectric coating extends a minimum of 1-1/2 feet on all sides of the anode protector pipe (figure 53). 3. Cables in accordance with cable sections and protected by PVC or galvanized pipe conduit above the water line between anode and anode junction box. 64 . 2. Mounted inside perforated nonmetallic anode protector pipes mounted to the sump structure walls as shown in figure 53a and b. Protector pipe attached to wall using plastic ties (figure 53b) or hose clamps. Submerged Wire Anodes Anode mounting and assembly in accordance with following: 1. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) b) Figure 52. 5. The half of the anode protector pipe adjacent to the sump wall should not be perforated (figure 53b).

The black sheet is a dielectric material to shield the reinforcement steel in the concrete from the impressed current.Chapter III Installation a) b) Figure 53. and (b) close-up of the slots in the pipe and the wall attachment details. 65 . (a) Slotted pipe mounted on sump wall for wire anode installation.

2. junction box. Displaced polyurethane sealer smoothed between the periphery of the anode shield and structure. a.. b. 8.Technical Memorandum No. Anode stud inserted into drilled hole from the upstream or water side and fastened using the FRP washer and nut on the downstream or dry side. A continuous bead formed approximately 1 inch from the outside edge of the FRP anode shield and approximately 1 inch from the FRP mounting stud. Compression fitting. Between these two beads. Hole drilled in structure (e. 4. 66 . nuts. 9. continuous beads applied in a crosshatch pattern at approximately 2-inch centers. and any excess polyurethane sealer removed. 3. The red arrow in figure 55a shows the anode on the upstream side of the gate. Figure 55b shows the downstream side (dry side) of the disk anode assembly. Back surface (side placed against structure) of the FRP anode shield roughened and cleaned. and washers on the titanium anode shaft installed. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Flush Mounted Anode mounting and assembly in accordance with figure 54 and described as follows: 1.g. 5. Dry side refers to either atmospheric only or soil. 6. The COR should approve the routing of the installed conduit system and location of the installed junction boxes prior to installation. gate skinplate) for the disk anode. 7. Portion of structure surface that will contact the fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) anode shield should be cleaned without damaging the coating. Polyurethane sealer applied to the back surface of the FRP anode shield: a. Figure 55 shows a finished disk anode assembly. Tighten the nut to the torque recommended by the disk anode manufacturer.

disk mixed metal oxide anode showing front view (left side) and profile assembly.Figure 54. Chapter III Installation 67 . Schematic of flush-mounted.

68 . Permanent reference electrodes not within a 10. Calibration testing: a. Option 1: Prior to installation. these are located on the yellow tag attached to the lead wire.to 15-mV potential difference should be removed and replaced at the contractor's expense. (b) downstream side of the gate showing the finished anode installation. Option 2: Electrode placed into borehole or excavation oriented vertically or horizontally. 3. Bagged electrode removed from plastic shipping bag or carton. Permanent Reference Electrodes Buried Permanent reference electrodes are buried in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions and as follows: 1. See specification for permanent reference electrode location. 4. Record the serial number and quality control test potential. Flush mounted impressed current disk anodes: (a) arrow indicates the location of a disk anode on the upstream side of a radial gate.Technical Memorandum No. b. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems a) b) Figure 55. Measure potential difference between the permanent reference electrode and an independent (portable) calibrated reference electrode placed in the water adjacent to the permanent reference electrode. ii. the prepackaged reference electrode is soaked in a container of potable water for 30 minutes: i. 2.

Electrode cable terminated in junction box. and keep dry prior to installation. Electrode installed through threaded port in wall of structure. iv. 4. 2. Do not lift the electrode by pulling the lead wire. 6. Do not allow to freeze. Fill the hole or excavation with normal backfill only after permanent reference electrodes have been tested and approved by COR.Chapter III Installation i. pile the soil to form a berm around the electrode. 7. v. Electrode cable run through separate galvanized conduit from the anode cables to the junction box. Saturate the bag by slowly pouring approximately 5 gallons (20 liters) of water onto the bag. Sift fine backfill into the borehole. Fill to about 2 inches (5 centimeters) above top of bag. Submerged Through-Wall Permanent reference electrodes are installed in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions and as follows: 1. 5. iii. ii. 69 .to 15-mV potential difference should be removed and replaced at the contractor's expense. Reference electrode lead wire and pipe test lead wire should be connected to separate terminals in test station. install below frost line. 8. 3. Permanent reference electrodes not within a 10. Measure potential difference between the permanent reference electrode and an independent (portable) calibrated reference electrode placed as close as possible to the bag of the permanent reference. For excavation. The berm should be approximately 6 inches (15 centimeters) higher than the top of the bag and completely surround it. Locate electrode below minimum water elevation.

4. Electrode installed inside structure. 3. so that it is removable without damaging the electrode. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Surface Mounted Permanent reference electrodes are installed in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions and as follows: 1. 2. securely attaching to the wall.Technical Memorandum No. Electrode cable protected from damage inside structure. Electrode cable terminated in junction box. Electrode cable run through separate galvanized conduit from the anode cables to the junction box. 70 .

and testing the CP systems. COR informed of the date. Performed in the presence of COR. b. However. If possible. if you grab it and your hand closes. Environmental issues including heat. Watch where you step. Rectifiers have safety concerns from both AC and DC voltages: a. d.Chapter IV Startup and Testing Procedures 1. 3. you can remove your hand. 3. Insects and other pests including snakes. If necessary. touch the cabinet with the back of your hand. Open junction boxes. you cannot let go potentially resulting in serious injury. If the casing is shorted and you touch it with the back of your hand. 2. adjusting. time. b. Safety Safety issues involved with CP systems include. Approach a rectifier carefully. Check for grounding using an AC voltmeter or AC voltage proximity detector: i. Do not grab the latch or handle on the rectifier without checking for an AC short. rain. wasps. and tests to be performed at least 5 working days prior to testing. cold. and lightening: a. All work performed on the rectifier should take place with the power off at both the rectifier and an external circuit breaker. Do not test electrical equipment when it is raining. but are not limited to: 1. Includes energizing. test stations. 2. and spiders: a. only work with one hand in the rectifier cabinet at a time to avoid creating a circuit through your body. c. and rectifiers with care. 71 .

b. Selectable DC voltage range 0-200 volts (0.. Table 1 shows the physiological effects of 60-hertz AC. ii. Table 1.000 volts.01-mV resolution). Inc. 72 . or equal. Miller Co.S.. having the following essential characteristics: i. ii. Selectable input resistance 0-200 ohms (0. 6920 Seaway Boulevard.1 mV to ±1. having the following essential characteristics: i. Selectable input resistance digital multimeter: MCM LC-4 (figure 56b). Shock hazards and shorting are possible within the impressed current anode junction boxes if the box is too small for easy access to all the cables and resistors.1-ohm resolution). or equal. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems e. Everett. 4. Physiological Effects of 60-Hertz AC Current (mA) Physiological Effect <1 No sensation 1 to 8 Threshold of perception (no pain) 8 to 15 Painful (no loss of muscular control) 15 to 20 Painful (cannot let go) 20 to 50 Painful (breathing difficulties) 50 to 100 Ventricular fibrillation possible 100 to 200 Fibrillation certain (defibrillation needed) > 200 Severe burns Test Equipment 1.C. Sebastian. Highway 1. manufactured by M. FL 32958. Portable voltmeter: a. WA 98203. manufactured by Fluke Corporation.Technical Memorandum No. Capable of measuring DC voltages between ±0. 11640 U. High impedance digital multimeter: Fluke Model 27 (figure 56a). Minimum input impedance of 10 megohms.

3. The various components of the electrode are labeled to include plastic case. a) b) Figure 56. saturated copper sulfate. porous plug. copper rod. Copper/copper sulfate portable reference electrode for determining structure-to-electrolyte and anode-to-electrolyte potentials. and cap. 73 . Portable copper/copper sulfate (Cu/CuSO4) reference electrode as shown in figure 57. Meter for determining resistivity of soil around anode (figure 58). and (b) MC Miller LC-4 variable resistance input digital multimeter. Multimeters for measuring potentials associated with CP systems: (a) Fluke 27 digital multimeter.Chapter IV Startup and Testing 2. Plastic case Copper rod Porous plug Saturated copper sulfate Cap Figure 57.

Structure electrical continuity. 5. Test station integrity: a. 3. At each individual structure location. 74 . b. b. Static structure-to-water potentials of the submerged metalwork: a. Portable submersible reference electrode placed as close to the submerged metalwork as possible. Static anode-to-electrolyte potentials: a. Testing Pre-energizing 1. At anode location for impressed current system. Voltage difference between the cables. b. At each test station enclosure for galvanic anodes. 2.Technical Memorandum No. Static structure-to-soil potentials of the buried metalwork: a. Portable reference electrode placed as close to the buried metalwork as possible. At each individual test station location. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Figure 58. 4. Meter for determining resistivity of soil around anodes.

Cable connection to rectifier: a. Portable reference electrode placed as close to the buried metalwork as possible. b. b. At each individual test station location. 2.Chapter IV Startup and Testing Energizing and Testing Systems First Test Cycle Galvanic Anode Systems 1. Buried: i. 3. ii. At each individual structure location. Anode cables connected through individual shunt and variable resistors (if necessary) to No. 2. Anode cable must be connected to the POSITIVE DC output terminal. Buried: i. 75 . Current output of each individual anode in junction box. At each individual test station location. Impressed Current Systems 1. Portable submersible reference electrode placed as close to the submerged metalwork as possible. 4. Portable reference electrode placed as close to the buried metalwork as possible. Structure cable must be connected to the NEGATIVE DC output terminal. ii. Protective (uncorrected) and polarized structure-to-electrolyte potentials: a. ii. Submerged: i. 6 AWG or larger structure cable in test station or junction box. Protective (uncorrected) and polarized structure-to-electrolyte potentials: a. Variable resistor setting for each anode and structure.

Current output of each individual anode in junction box. 3. Submerged: i. MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems b.to 60-day window. All testing during the first testing cycle repeated. Rectifier outputs in volts and amperes and associated tap settings. 4. If testing cycle data indicates that the CP system requires adjustment to meet specifications requirements.Technical Memorandum No. 2. Second and Subsequent Testing Cycles 1. 76 . Time between testing cycles is 30 to 60 days. ii. At each individual structure location. Variable resistor setting for each anode and structure. 4. Portable submersible reference electrode placed as close to the submerged metalwork as possible. 3. CP system adjusted and subsequent testing cycle conducted within a 30. Cathodic protection system not adjusted between testing cycles. 5.

test ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ Item (misc) ഼ ഼ test station barrier concrete for test station Appendix-1 .bond cable .casing structure .bond cable .foreign structure .test cable .foreign structure .structure (pipe) cables .anode (galvanic) cables .Appendix Galvanic CP System Checklist ഼ Item (required) ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ anodes cables .test cables .casing structure .bond exothermic weld supplies joint bond supplies test station "CP" warning tape Item (system dependent) ഼ junction box permanent reference electrode permanent reference electrode cable cable .

bond cable .casing structure .test cables .test ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ Item (misc) ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ Appendix-2 sand & pea gravel backfill conduit for anode cables test station barrier concrete for test station & rectifier post .casing structure . u-joint coke backfill cables . caps.structure (pipe) cables .foreign structure .anode (IC) cables .bond cable .foreign structure .test cable . MERL-2012-40 Guidelines for Field Installation of Corrosion Monitoring and Cathodic Protection Systems Impressed Current CP System Checklist Item (required) ഼ rectifier junction box circuit breaker box anodes vent pipe.Technical Memorandum No.bond grounding rod and cable exothermic weld supplies joint bond supplies test station "CP" warning tape ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ ഼ Item (system dependent) ഼ permanent reference electrode permanent reference electrode cable cable .