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Introduction

 

Volcano—a vent where molten rock comes out of Earth
  Example:

Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

 Hot (~1,200oC) lava pools around the volcanic vent.
 Hot, syrupy lava runs downhill as a lava flow.
 The lava flow slows, loses heat, and crusts over.
 Finally, the flow stops and cools, forming an igneous rock.

Essentials of Geology, 4th edition, by Stephen Marshak

© 2013, W. W. Norton 

Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks

Introduction
 

Igneous rock is formed by cooling from a melt.
  Magma—melted

rock below ground
  Lava—melted rock once it has reached the surface

 

Igneous rock freezes at high temperatures (T).
  1,100

 

°C–650 °C, depending on composition.

There are many types of igneous rock.

Fig. 4.1b
Essentials of Geology, 4th edition, by Stephen Marshak

Fig. 4.1a
© 2013, W. W. Norton 

Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks

Igneous Rocks
 

Melted rock can cool above or below ground.
  Extrusive

igneous rocks—cool quickly at the surface

 Lava flows—streams or mounds of cooled melt
 Pyroclastic debris—cooled fragments

 Volcanic ash—fine particles of volcanic glass
 Volcanic rock—fragmented by eruption

Fig. 4.2b
Essentials of Geology, 4th edition, by Stephen Marshak

Fig. 4.2a
© 2013, W. W. Norton 

Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks

  Intrusive igneous rocks—cool out of sight. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. 4.  Large volume magma chambers  Smaller volume tabular bodies or columns Fig.9b Essentials of Geology. underground   Much greater volume than extrusive igneous rocks   Cooling rate is slower than for extrusives. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .Igneous Rocks   Melted rock can cool above or below ground. W. W. 4th edition.

W.1a Essentials of Geology.  volatile addition. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .  heat transfer.Why Does Magma Form? Magma is not everywhere below Earth’ ’s crust.     Partial melting occurs in the crust and upper mantle. Fig. W.   Magma only forms in special tectonic settings. 4. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.   Melting is caused by  pressure release. 4th edition.

by Stephen Marshak © 2013. W.  P drops when hot rock is carried to shallower depths.Causes of Melting   Decrease in pressure (P)—decompression   The base of the crust is hot enough to melt mantle rock.  Mantle plumes  Beneath rifts  Beneath mid-ocean ridges Fig.   Melting will occur if P is decreased.3a Essentials of Geology. 4.   But. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . W. due to high P. the rock doesn’ ’t melt. 4th edition.

4. W. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.3b Essentials of Geology.Causes of Melting   P drops when hot rock is carried to shallower depths. 4th edition. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .   Mantle plumes   Beneath rifts   Under mid-ocean ridges Fig. W.

4a Essentials of Geology.Causes of Melting   Addition of volatiles (flux melting)   Volatiles lower the melting T of a hot rock. W. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . 4. W. Fig.   Subduction carries water into the mantle. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. 4th edition. melting rock.   Common volatiles include H2O and CO2.

Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . 4. which then melts. Fig.4b Essentials of Geology. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. 4th edition. W.Causes of Melting   Heat transfer melting   Rising magma carries mantle heat with it. W.   This raises the T in nearby crustal rock.

and gas). Mg. Na. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. 4th edition. Ca. and K  Other ions to a lesser extent. Interlude C Essentials of Geology.  Dominantly Si and O. W. Fe.   Solid—solidified mineral crystals are carried in the melt.   Liquid—the melt itself is composed of mobile ions. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .   Different mixes of elements yield different magmas.What Is Magma Made Of?   Magmas have three components (solid. lesser Al. W. liquid.

W.   Felsic (feldspar and silica)   Intermediate   Mafic (Mg.Major Types of Magma   There are four major magma types based on % silica (SiO2). Norton  66–76% SiO2 52–66% SiO2 45–52% SiO2 38–45% SiO2 Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . W. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. 4th edition.and Fe-rich)   Ultramafic Essentials of Geology.

  magma mixing. Essentials of Geology. W.Major Types of Magma Why are there different magma compositions?   Magmas vary chemically due to     initial source rock compositions. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .   partial melting.   assimilation. 4th edition. W.

only a portion of the rock melts.5a Essentials of Geology.   Removing a partial melt from its source creates     felsic magma.Partial Melting Upon melting. rocks rarely dissolve completely. therefore. W. Si-poor minerals melt last.   mafic residue. Fig. 4th edition. Partial melting. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. 4. yields a silica-rich magma.   Instead.     Si-rich minerals melt first. W. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .

Fig. W.   Assimilation of these rocks alters magma composition. 4. 4th edition.5b Essentials of Geology.Assimilation Magma melts the wall rock it passes through. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . W.   Mafic xenoliths in granite.   Blocks of wall rock (xenoliths) fall into magma. The one below has partially dissolved.

  Essentials of Geology. W. W.Magma Mixing Different magmas may blend in a magma chamber. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .   The result combines the characteristics of the two. resulting in blobs of one rock type suspended within the other. 4th edition.   Often magma mixing is incomplete.

sheet. Mg.  Fe. c Essentials of Geology.7b. and K. felsic.Making Igneous Rock   Changes with cooling   Fractional crystallization—early crystals settle by gravity. 4th edition. 4.   Melt composition changes as a result. W. Na. slowly. Ca are removed as early mafic minerals settle out. W. Al. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . Fig.  Remaining melt becomes enriched in Si.

L.   He discovered that minerals solidify in a specific series. 4th edition. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .   Early crystals settled out.   Remaining melt progressively enriched in Si.Bowen’ ’s Reaction Series   N. and Na. W.   Discontinuous—minerals start and stop crystallizing. Al. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. and Ca.1b Essentials of Geology.   Continuous—plagioclase changed from Ca-rich to Na-rich. Mg. Bowen—devised experiments cooling melts (1920s).  Olivine  Pyroxene  Amphibole  Biotite Box 4. W. removing Fe.

 Cool rapidly. W. W.Igneous Environments   Two major categories—based on cooling locale.   Extrusive settings—cool at or near the surface.  Chill too fast to grow big crystals.2a Essentials of Geology. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . 4th edition. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. Fig.   Intrusive settings—cool at depth.  Lose heat slowly.  Crystals often grow large. 4.

W.   Lava flows exit volcanic vents and spread outward. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.   Fig.8c Essentials of Geology.Extrusive Settings Lava flows cool as blankets that often stack vertically.   Low-viscosity lava (basalt) can flow long distances. W.   Lava cools as it flows. 4. 4th edition. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . eventually solidifying.

by Stephen Marshak Fig.8a Essentials of Geology. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .Extrusive Settings   Explosive ash eruptions   High-viscosity felsic magma erupts explosively. 4th edition. W. W. 4.   Yield huge volumes of ash that can cover large regions   Pyroclastic flow—volcanic ash and debris avalanche  Races down the volcanic slope as a density current  Often deadly Fig.8b © 2013. 4.

initiating   thermal (heat) metamorphism and melting.Intrusive Settings   Magma invades colder wall rock. W. W.   inflation of fractures.   Magma that doesn’ ’t reach the surface freezes slowly. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . 4th edition. and   incorporation of wall rock fragments (xenoliths). wedging wall rock apart. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.   detachment of large wall rock blocks (stoping).11d Essentials of Geology. Fig. 4.

  often can be traced laterally. W.Intrusive Settings   Tabular intrusions   tend to have uniform thicknesses. 4th edition. 4. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.   have two major subdivisions. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .9a Essentials of Geology. W.  Sill—injected parallels to rock layering  Dike—cuts across rock layering Fig.

 Dikes sometimes occur in swarms. W. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . W. Fig.9c Essentials of Geology. 4.Intrusive Settings   Tabular intrusions   Dikes—cut across rock layering.  Three dikes radiate away from Shiprock. 4th edition. an eroded volcanic neck. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. New Mexico.

 Intrusion lifted the entire landscape above.  Basalt (dark) intruded light sandstones in Antarctica. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. Fig.Intrusive Settings   Tabular intrusions   Sills—injected parallel to layering. 4th edition. W. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . W.9b Essentials of Geology. 4.

Describing Igneous Rock   Igneous rock is used extensively as building stone. 4th edition. W.   Useful descriptions of igneous rock     Color (light or dark)   Texture Essentials of Geology. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .   Office buildings   Kitchens   Why?   Durable (hard)   Beautiful Often called “granite” ”. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. W. it is not always true granite.

Interlocking or crystalline texture Fig. shape. 4. W. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .12a Fragmental texture Glassy texture Essentials of Geology. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.Describing Igneous Rocks   The size. often shattered   Glassy—made of solid glass or glass shards   Texture directly reflects magma history. W. 4th edition. and arrangement of the minerals   Crystalline—interlocking crystals fit like jigsaw puzzle   Fragmental—pieces of preexisting rocks.

    Fine-grained  Rapid cooling  Crystals do not have time to grow. 4. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .12a Essentials of Geology.  Intrusive Fig. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.  Extrusive   Coarse-grained  Slow cooling  Crystals have a long time to grow. 4th edition. W.Crystalline Igneous Textures Interlocking mineral grains from solidifying melt   Texture reveals cooling history. W.

  Porphyritic texture—a mixture of coarse and fine crystals  Indicates a two-stage cooling history. W. W.Crystalline Textures   Texture reveals cooling history.  Initial slow cooling creates large phenocrysts. Essentials of Geology. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.  Subsequent eruption cools remaining magma more rapidly. 4th edition. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .

Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .   Essentials of Geology. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. W. 4th edition.Fragmental Textures Preexisting rocks that were shattered by eruption   After fragmentation. the pieces fall and are cemented. W.

W. W. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .Glassy Textures Solid mass of glass or crystals surrounded by glass   Fracture conchoidally   Result from rapid cooling of lava   Essentials of Geology. 4th edition. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.

4th edition.Crystalline Classification   Classification is based on composition and texture. W.13 Essentials of Geology. W. Fine Coarse Felsic Intermediate Mafic Fig. 4.12c Fig. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . by Stephen Marshak Ultramafic © 2013. 4.

14 Essentials of Geology. 4th edition. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.   Scoria—glassy. it floats. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . W. 4. vesicular mafic rock Fig.12b Fig.Glassy Classification   More common in felsic igneous rocks   Obsidian—felsic volcanic glass   Pumice—frothy felsic rock full of vesicles. W. 4.

W. 4th edition. W. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . by Stephen Marshak © 2013.Pyroclastic Classification   Pyroclastic—fragments of violent eruptions   Tuff—volcanic ash that has fallen on land   Volcanic breccia—made of larger volcanic fragments Essentials of Geology.

4. 4th edition.   Volcanic arcs bordering deep ocean trenches   Isolated hot spots   Continental rifts   Mid-ocean ridges Established or newly formed tectonic plate boundaries   Except: hot spots.Where Does Igneous Activity Occur?   Igneous activity occurs in four plate-tectonic settings. W. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. W. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . which are independent of plates   Fig.15 Essentials of Geology.

Volcanic Arcs Most subaerial volcanoes on Earth reside in arcs.15 Essentials of Geology. 4th edition.   Magma rises and creates volcanoes on overriding plate. 4. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .   Examples:   Aleutian Islands   Japan   Java and Sumatra Fig. W.   Mark convergent tectonic plate boundaries     Deep oceanic trenches and accretionary prisms   Subducting oceanic lithosphere adds volatiles (water). W.   Rocks of the asthenosphere partially melt.   Magma may differentiate. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.

  Independent tectonic plate boundaries   May erupt through oceanic or continental crust. 4. 4th edition. by Stephen Marshak © 2013. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .15 Essentials of Geology. W. W.     Oceanic—mostly mafic magma (basalt)   Continental—mafic and felsic (basalt and rhyolite)   Burn a volcano chain through overiding tectonic plate   Creates a hot-spot track Fig.Hot Spots About 50–100 mantle-plume hot-spot volcanoes exist.

include some felsic examples   Mantle plume first reaches the base of the lithosphere.Large Igneous Provinces   LIPs—unusually large outpourings of magma   Mostly mafic. W. W. 4.16 Essentials of Geology.17c Fig. 4.   Erupts huge volumes of mafic magma as flood basalts. 4th edition. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.  Low viscosity  Can flow tens to hundreds of kms  Accumulate in thick piles Fig. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .

4. W.   Heat transfer melts crust.   Example: East African Rift Valley Fig.Continental Rifts Places where continental lithosphere is being stretched   Rifting thins the lithosphere. creating felsic magmas. W.17a. 4th edition. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks . b Essentials of Geology. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.     Causes decompressional melting of mafic rock.

15 Essentials of Geology.   Basaltic magma wells up and fills magma chambers. Norton  Chapter 4: Up From the Inferno: Magma and Igneous Rocks .   Moves upward to form dikes or extrude as pillow basalt.   Rifting spreads plates leading to decompression melting.Mid-Ocean Ridges   Most igneous activity takes place at mid-ocean ridges. 4th edition. W. W. 4.   Solidifies as gabbro at depth. Fig. by Stephen Marshak © 2013.