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Q1: Discuss: .


Primary creep: OR TRANSIENT CREEP : This is the first stage of the creep which represents a region of decreasing creep rate. . Transient creep in metals is observed at all temp. rockets. because strain-hardening and recovery effects balance each other. Further deformation of the metal only after the instantaneous strain is considered as ‘creep deformation’.Q1: Discuss: 1. In this region the rate at which the material deforms decreases with time until it reaches a constant value. there will be an instantaneous strain which is denoted by “εo” on the creep curve. Creep in this region takes place by the viscous flow in the materials. As soon as the specimen is loaded. Deformation is rapid at first but gradually becomes slower and slower as the rate approaches some fixed value. “Creep” and “Brittle fracture”: Ans: CREEP: When materials under severe service conditions are required to sustain steady loads for long periods of time. they undergo a time dependent deformation. missiles etc. The creep rate goes on reducing because as the metal deforms it undergoes strain hardening and offers more and more resistance to further elongation. Hence it is some times referred to as ‘cold creep’.” Creep is found to occur at higher temperature than at lower temp. Creep curve: The creep curve is obtained by applying a constant tensile load below the yield point to a specimen maintained at constant temperature. It can also be defined as “the slow and progressive deformation of a material with time at constant stress. even near absolute zero. furnaces. Secondary creep: [steady state creep] : Nearly constant creep rate. Transient creep: The principle characteristic of transient creep is the decreasing rate in deformation. This is known as creep. Therefore the study of creep is very important for those materials which are used at high temp like components of gas turbines.

Tertiary creep : This stage is period of increasing strain rate.e softening the metal. If the stress is kept constant of the load or if true strain is taken into consideration then the resulting fracture due to creep would be at ‘B’. This is because strain hardening effects will be more and recovery process is negligible. t – time . Viscous creep also known as ‘hot creep'. lower temp have an effect of decreasing the creep rate. The fracture may have a bright . the creep rate increases. since it is observed only at higher temperature.strain . α – a constant . Recrystallization takes place as a result of increased rate of diffusion. Effect of low temperature : Temperature below Tm/4 are called as LOWER TEMP. Although strain hardening is present. The concentration of vacancies increases with temp and the rate of diffusion increases. Effect of high temperature: ‘ structural changes’ takes place. Tertiary creep occurs when there is an effective reduction in cross-sectional area due to necking or internal void formation. Mobility of atoms increases with temp and occupy lower energy positions.Viscous creep: SECONDARY CREEP] It is characterized by the viscous flow of the material means that there is a constant or a steady increase in deformation at constant stress. Mobility of dislocation also increases and they overcome the obstacles by the mechanism of climb. its effect is just balanced by the ‘recovery’ process which has the opposite effect i. from which no deformation can be identified (a clean break). The rate of deformation increases rapidly in this 3rd stage and fracture occurs at the end of this stage. At Higher temp. Brittle Fracture: Brittle fracture is a breakage or cracking of a material into discernible parts. viscous creep is stopped when there is considerable reduction in cross sectional area and enters the tertiary stage . It is characterized by rapid crack propagation with low energy release and without significant plastic deformation. Creep occurring at lower temp is known as ‘logarithmic creep’ ε = α ln t where ε .

In amorphous solids. cracks spread very rapidly with little or no plastic deformation. Once initiated. In brittle fracture. brittle materials usually contain a pattern on their fracture surfaces. In brittle crystalline materials. and not through the actual grains. the lack of a crystalline structure results in a conchoidal fracture. fracture can occur by cleavage as the result of tensile stress acting normal to crystallographic planes with low bonding (cleavage planes). the cracks that propagate in a brittle material continue to grow and increase in magnitude. It is a fracture that follows the grains of the material. cracks run close to perpendicular to the applied stress. Intergranular fracture The crack travels along the grain boundaries. with cracks proceeding normal to the applied tension. by contrast. This usually occurs when the phase in the grain boundary is weak and brittle (such as cementite in iron's grain boundaries).granular appearance. Since there is very little plastic deformation before failure occurs. In this fracture. Besides having a nearly flat fracture surface. This perpendicular fracture leaves a relatively flat surface at the break. rather than through the actual grains. This depends upon whether the grain boundaries are stronger or weaker than the grains: Transgranular fracture : The fracture travels through the grain of the material. Some brittle materials have lines and ridges beginning at the origin of the crack and spreading out across the crack surface. Intergranular Fracture: Intergranular fracture is the propagation of cracks along the grain boundaries of a metal or alloy. Cracks choose the path of least resistance. . The manner in which the crack propagates through the material provides great insight into the mode of fracture. Intergranular fractures travel along the grain boundaries. The fractures are generally of the flat type and chevron patterns may be present. This usually occurs when the phase in the grain boundary is weak and brittle. This can be visualized as a 3-D puzzle: Transgranular fracture cuts through the puzzle pieces. Brittle fractures display either transgranular or intergranular fracture. while intergranular fracture travels along the precut edges of the puzzle pieces. Crack initiation and propagation accompany fracture. in most cases this is the worst type of fracture because the visible damage cannot be repaired in a part or structure before it breaks.

STRAIN ROSETTES: Definition: “A strain gauge rosette is. And even when the principal directions are known in advance. Types Of Strain Rosette: To meet the foregoing requirements. rosettes are manufactured from different combinations of grid alloy and backing material to meet varying application requirements. two independent strain measurements are needed to obtain the principal strains and stresses. As shown in figure below: . They are also offered in a number of gauge lengths.2. with the principal directions unknown. Tee (0-90 degree): Two mutually perpendicular grids. by definition. In common with single-element strain gauges. an arrangement of two or more closely positioned gauge grids.” Rosettes are designed to perform a very practical and important function inexperimental stress analysis. the Micro-Measurements Division manufacturesthree basic types of strain gauge rosettes (each in a variety of forms): 1. separately oriented to measure the normal strains along different directions in the underlying surface of the test part. noting that the gauge length specified for a rosette refers to the active length of each individual grid within the rosette. three independent strain measurements (in different directions) are required to determine the principal strains and stresses. It can be shown that for the not-uncommon case of the general biaxial stress state.

with the second and third grids 60 degrees and 120 degrees away. but this leads to a complicated and often inaccurate type of gauge. with the second and third grids angularly displaced from the first grid by45 degrees and 90 degrees. from the first grid.Rectangular Rosette (0-45-90 degree): Three grids. It is shown below: 3. .respectively.Delta Rosette (0-60-120 degree): Three grids. respectively. 4.Stacked Co-location of the gauges requires mounting each individual gauge on top of the others in what is called a “stacked” rosette.

τ = VQ/It where t is the width of the cross-section at the location where the shear stress is being calculated . The shear flow may be used to calculate the shear stress (in the case of continuous joints) by dividing by the width of the beam supporting the stress. q is the shear flow in (lb/in). (N/mm). (lb/ft). nails. These are beams fabricated with several pieces joined by glue. Shear Flow and Shear Centre: Shear Flow: The topic of shear flow frequently occurs when dealing with “built-up” beams. These fasteners must be sufficiently strong to withstand the lateral (transverse) or longitudinal shear. (N/m) V is the value of the shear force at the section Q is the first moment of the area between the location where the shear stress is being calculated and the location where the shear stress is zero about the neutral (centroidal) axis.3. It is common to describe the load by the term. “shear flow” given by the following relation: q = VQ/I where . bolts. or welds.

∫ aσxzdydz = V z and ∫ aσxydydz = V y . the moment about some other point (ysc. screws. In such a case q (lb/in) = F(lb/nail) / s(in/nail) Here F = s q and F is the force across one nail and s is the nail spacing. we have to find y sc and zsc such that.210) Mx = [σxzy - σxyz]dydz.zsc) is the shear center. ∫ [σ y . A Since.V y + V z = 0. then it is more convenient to use q as force per unit length along the beam.211) [σxzy . Thus. Shear center: Shear center is defined as the point about which the external load has to be applied so that it produces no twisting moment. the torsional moment due to the shear force σxy and σxz about the origin is. ∫ (8.If the joints are not continuous such as in nails. x a If this point (ysc. and bolts.Vzysc + Vyzsc.σ z]dydz .zsc) would be. ∫ M sc= (8. .σxyz]dydz . then Mxsc = 0.

σxzy ]dydz. a beam is loaded in the y-direction . then ∫ -1-zsc = V (8. y a Similarly. σxy = -τ sin(θ) and σxz = τ cos(θ). the point that (ysc.213) and (8. we cannot find ysc and zsc uniquely. Unsymmetric beam bending is really just two problems added together using the principle of superposition.214) are used to find the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the chosen origin of the coordinate system. Hence.212) xy z sc y sc holds. In the case of thin walled sections which develop shear stresses tangential to the cross section. it can be seen that the coordinates of the shear center is a geometric property of the section. where τ is the magnitude of the shear stress and θ is the angle the tangent to the cross section makes with the z direction. Vz a Equations (8.214) = --- [σxzy - σxyz ]dydz. By virtue of the shear stress depending linearly on the shear force (see equations (8. in general. Q2: What do you understand by stresses due to unsymmetrical bending and give at least two examples? Unsymmetrical Bending : in strength of materials.43) and (8. Unsymmetrical bending is a special case of resistance to combined stress. which for homogeneous sections is usually taken as the centroid of the cross section. a type of deformation characterized by distortion (change of curvature) of a bar under the influence of external forces that pass through its axis and do not coincide with any of its principal planes (for example. We have two unknowns but only one equation.213) [σxyz . passing through the axis of symmetry of the cross section).a xz (8. Normally.zsc) are the coordinates of the shear center from the origin of the chosen coordinate system which in many cases would be the centroid of the section cannot be overemphasized. if V y = 0.207)). 1 ∫ ysc (8. If the loading is such that only shear force V y is present. Thus.

solved separately for bending stress. σb-z and σb-y can be added together using the principle of superposition.causing a moment about the z axis. all loads are assumed to act through the beam shear center (generally the centroid) so that there is no rotation or twisting about the xaxes. But the beam can also be loaded in the z-direction causing a moment about the y axis. Using the right-hand rule. both about the z axis. the bending stress is a tetrahedral shape and increases as the distance from the neutral increases.The maximum tension and compression bending stress is not obvious. At any given location a-a. In this section. the thumb points in the direction of the double-headed arrow and the fingers are in the direction of the moment. These loads cause a bending moment about the z axes. This helps simplify the calculations. then the load can be reduced into two forces in the direction of the y and z axes. As shown in the diagram at the left. This has been analyzed previously in the Bending Stress section. Determine the maximum tensile and . Notice that a positive y produces a negative stress which indicates a compression stress. The two bending stresses. Problem 1 : A cantilever beam carries the force and couple shown in Fig. the bending stress will be where Mz is the internal moment and Iz is the moment of inertia. Both y-First. but is in the y-z plane. consider a beam that is loaded only in the y-direction as shown at the left. Also. the double-headed arrow represents a moment rotating about the vector direction. If the load is at an angle to the beam. This gives the final unsymmetric bending stress as . and then add the results together. P-552.

M=+10Kip-ft of moment diagarm .compressive bending stresses developed in the beam. Solution: R= 5kps M=5(8)-30= 10Kips-ft Fb= My/I At.

Fbc= 20(2)(12)/90 =5. determine the maximum bending stress in wire. Data: D=5mm R=5M=5000mm E=20GPa=200*10^5N/mm2 P(Stress)B=? P(Stress)B=E/R* y Y= d/2 =5/2 mm =2. P(Stress) B= 100MPa Answer .5/ 5000 . P(Stress) B = 200*10^5 * 2. Fbt=16Ksi Answer Problem 2: A steel wire of 5mm diameter is bent to a circular shape of 5m radius.5mm Now.lower fiber Fbt=20(6)(12)/90 = 1.67Ksi…………….Fbc= 10(6)(12)=8Ksi…………upper fiber Fbt= 10(2)(12)/90 = 2. M= -20Kip-ft of moment diagram.6Ksi…………………upper fiber Maximum bending stress: Fbc=8Ksi. Take E=20GPa.33Ksi……………….lower fiber At.

These outer fibres are said to be in the plastic state. and the ratio of the Collapse Load to the Working Load is called the Load Factor.Assumptions In The Plastic Theory: The requirement is to calculate the Bending Moment needed to form a Plastic hinge in any particular cross section. To do this it is normal .See graph).Q3: Explain theories of Plastic and elastic bending .e. With Mild Steel this increase in Strain can take place without the Stress rising above the yield point (i. and to determine the distribution of Bending Moment along the beam at the Collapse Load. The number depends upon the type of structure and whether it is. When the whole cross section at any point in a structure becomes Plastic. and any increase in loading will result in a considerable increase in Strain and hence deflection at that section of the Beam. a built-in beam or a rigid frame. There will also be a redistribution of Stress. the greatest Stresses will occur at the extreme fibres of the "weakest" section (Note : In some Steels when the elastic limit is reached there is a marked reduction in Stress and in any calculations the lower Yield Stress is taken .20 times the Elastic Strain). give at least one example of each: Theory of Plastic Bending Of Beams : As the load on a particular beam is gradually increased. a simply supported beam. It can therefore be assumed that the Stress in the plastic region is Constant. In plastic design this factor is used instead of the normal Factor of Safety. The value of the load required to produce this state is called the Collapse Load. for example. any Strain Hardening effects can be neglected and the plastic Strain at yield is in the order of 10 . no further increase in the moment of resistance is possible without excessive Strain (equivalent to an increase in the Curvature at that section) and a plastic hinge has been developed. one or more such hinges are required for a complete collapse.

In addition to bending the other effects such as twisting and buckling may occur. . and to investigate a problem that includes all the combined effects of bending. twisting and buckling could become a complicated one. The Yield Stress is the same in Tension and Compression. 4. The lower yield stress is used in calculations. That the material exhibits a marked yield and can undergo considerable Strain at Yield without any further increase in Stress. the Moment of Resistance at that point will remain Constant until the collapse of the whole structure has taken effect. Transverse cross-sections remain plane so that the Strain is proportional to the distance from the Neutral make the following assumptions:- 1. Theory Of Elastic Bending: When a beam having an arbitrary cross section is subjected to a transverse loads the beam will bend. Once a Plastic Hinge has developed at any cross section. in the Plastic region the Stress will remain Constant and is not proportional to the Strain. we have to put certain constraints on the geometry of the beam and the manner of loading. In effect this limits the theory to applications using Mild Steels as the material has a drop in Stress at Yield. Thus we are interested to investigate the bending effects alone. This will only happen when the required number of Plastic Hinges at other points have developed. 2. 3. However. in order to do so.

Assumptions: The constraints put on the geometry would form the assumptions: 1. Derivation Of Elastic Theory Of Bending: In order to compute the value of bending stresses developed in a loaded beam. and has a constant cross-section. 5.. when the beam bends this will stretch to A'B' Since CD and C'D' are on the neutral axis and it is assumed that the Stress on the neutral axis zero. The geometry of the overall member is such that bending not buckling is the primary cause of failure. 3. 2. . Therefore.A. the final position of the sections. Resultant of the applied loads lies in the plane of symmetry. originally parallel as shown in fig 1(a). they then subtend some angle q. let us consider the two cross-sections of a beam HE and GF .sections remains plane before and after bending.e. 6. at adistance y from the N. Consider now fiber AB in the material. Beam is initially straight . there won't be any strain on the neutral axis. Plane cross . 4.when the beam is to bend it is assumed that these sections remain parallel i. are still straight lines. H'E' and G'F' . Beam is made of homogeneous material and the beam has a longitudinal plane of symmetry. Elastic limit is nowhere exceeded and ‘E' is same in tension and compression.


therefore This equation is known as the Bending Theory Equation. Therefore this termed as the pure bending equation. in xdirection. This equation gives distribution of stresses which are normal to cross-section i.Now the termis the property of the material and is called as a second moment of area of the cross-section and is denoted by a symbol I. .e.The above proof has involved the assumption of pure bending without any shear force being present.