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# Module A

:
electromagnetic theory
of light scattering
LECTURE 1 :
small particles and spheres

R. Botet 04/2016

OUTLINE - LECTURE 1 

0. prerequisite – what you should know about the electromagnetic waves –

I. concept – what is light scattering? –

III.1 Rayleigh theory
III.2 instructions of use for the Rayleigh theory

IV. case of the sphere – the Mie solution –

R. Botet 04/2016

II.1 the direct problem
II.2 the inverse problem
II.3 light scattering – fundamentals –

III. case of the small particle – Rayleigh scattering –

I.1 light scattering geometry
I.2 fundamentals
I.3 types of light – types of particles
I.4 types of scattering
I.5 main parameters governing light scattering

II. context – why light scattering? –

0.1 electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations
0.2 plane transverse em wave, shape and polarization
0.3 the oscillating electric dipole

IV.1 Mie theory
IV.2 instructions of use for the Mie solution
IV.3 Mie theory numerical codes

0. PREREQUISITE

what you should know about the em waves

R. Botet 04/2016

0. ISOTROPIC CASE  em field (E . B   o H no current  for isotropic dielectric material. NON-MAGNETIC. The refractive index m is such that: m2 = er  for this kind of material. solution anywhere anytime of the Maxwell equations: no charge D  0 B E   t B  0 D H  t non-magnetic D  e oe r E . B) is a couple of complex-valued vectors. only three components of the vector field are independent (for example : vector E)  at boundary between two dielectric uncharged non-magnetic materials:  the normal components of D and of B are continuous through the interface  the tangential components of E and of H are continuous through the interface R. Botet 04/2016 .1 EM FIELD AND MAXWELL EQUATIONS .THE UNCHARGED. er ( = relative electric permittivity) is a scalar depending on the material.

since the Maxwell equations are linear (superposition theorem and Fourier theorem) R. propagating along the z-axis and linearly polarized along the x-axis.0. is: E  Eo ei w t k z e x which is solution of the Helmoltz equation:  2E  m 2 w 2 c 2 E0  k = m(w/c) (dispersion relation)  k = 2p/l (wavelength definition)  any em wave can be expanded in a series of em monochromatic wave. Botet 04/2016 .2 PLANE TRANSVERSE EM WAVE – SHAPE AND POLARIZATION  em monochromatic plane wave of frequency w and wavenumber k.

becomes an electric dipole of moment : p   v Eext polarizability per unit of volume = 3 (m21)/(m22) R. Botet 04/2016 Electric dipole radiation. Colour indicates the strength of the field travelloing outward (Wikipedia) . The dipole lies in the plane of the drawing.3 THE OSCILLATING ELECTRIC DIPOLE – RADIATED ELECTRIC FIELD  an oscillating electric dipole of dipole moment p radiates electric field of the form (spherical coordinates) : radiative k 2 eikr Edip  4pe o r static induction  i   1 (e r  p)  e r  3 e r (e r p)  p 2 2   kr  k r   Every piece of volume v of a dielectric material submitted to external electric field. point vertically upward and oscillates.0.

1 light scattering geometry I.2 plane transverse em wave.4 types of scattering I.3 types of light – types of particles I. prerequisite – what you should know about the electromagnetic waves –     I.1 Rayleigh theory III.2 the inverse problem II.1 electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations 0.3 Mie theory numerical codes .2 instructions of use for the Rayleigh theory IV. shape and polarization 0. context – why light scattering? –     0.3 light scattering – fundamentals – III.2 fundamentals I. case of the small particle – Rayleigh scattering –    I.1 the direct problem II.5 main parameters governing light scattering II. Botet 04/2016 II.OUTLINE .3 the oscillating electric dipole IV. case of the sphere – the Mie solution –    R. concept – what is light scattering? –       III.LECTURE 1  0.1 Mie theory IV.2 instructions of use for the Mie solution IV.

DEFINITION the source of light is not seen directly sunlight is scattered by small dust particles R.I. Botet 04/2016 . 1.

LIGHT SCATTERING GEOMETRY q R. Botet 04/2016 .I. 1.

I. 1. Botet 04/2016 . LIGHT SCATTERING GEOMETRY q R.

I. 2. diffraction. interaction with particles) reflection. refraction. Botet 04/2016 reflection nebula IC 2631 MPG/ESO . LIGHT SCATTERING . are forms of wave scattering R.FUNDAMENTALS wave scattering = redirection of radiation out of the incident direction of propagation scattering results from light-matter interaction (e.g.

TYPES OF “LIGHT”... 3. Botet 04/2016 I.frequency = actual speed of light/wavelength R. .

Botet 04/2016 pollen .5 PM10 tobacco smoke bacteria bacteria snowflake Diesel smoke Diesel smoke pollen ice crystal ice crystal snowflake R.light visible by human eye I. TYPES OF “LIGHT” AND OF “PARTICLES” objects visible by human eye gas molecules fog Aitken particles mist ° drizzle rain viruses ° smoke viruses PM2. 3.

TYPES OF SCATTERING (1)  elastic scattering  wavelength of scattered light = wavelength of incident light  inelastic scattering  wavelength of scattered light  wavelength of incident light R. 4.I. Botet 04/2016 .

4.I. Botet 04/2016 . TYPES OF SCATTERING (1)  elastic scattering  wavelength of scattered light = wavelength of incident light  inelastic scattering  wavelength of scattered light  wavelength of incident light R.

MAIN PARAMETERS GOVERNING LIGHT SCATTERING particle shape optical size parameter : contrast : x  p L/l difference of refractive index  mm0 particle material m0 wavelength : l incident wave m sphere of radius a  L = diameter = 2a cube of side a L=a … R. Botet 04/2016 . 5.I.

extinction cross sections: Csca . 5. f ) = (IscaI//sca) P = (IscaI//sca)/(IscaI//sca) linear polarization: scattering. MAIN OBSERVABLES FOR LIGHT SCATTERING angular distribution of the scattered intensity: Isca(q . Cext x einc f q e||inc esca e||sca y R. Botet 04/2016 z .I.

I. extinction cross sections: Csca . f ) = (IscaI//sca) P = (IscaI//sca)/(IscaI//sca) linear polarization: scattering. Cext x einc q e||inc esca e||sca analyzer   Isca analyzer ||  I||sca R. MAIN OBSERVABLES FOR LIGHT SCATTERING angular distribution of the scattered intensity: Isca(q . Botet 04/2016 y z . 5.

Botet:04/2016 loss of intensity due to scattering and absorption . MAIN OBSERVABLES FOR LIGHT SCATTERING angular distribution of the scattered intensity: Isca(q . extinction cross sections: Csca . 5.I. Cext x Beer-Lambert law n Iinc scattering Itrans scattering absorption Itrans = Iinc eCext n l scattering scattering y Note Im{m} = 0  absorption = 0 R. f ) = (IscaI//sca) linear polarization: P = (IscaI//sca)/(IscaI//sca) scattering.

SUMMARY OF THE SECTION: “GENERALITIES ABOUT LIGHT SCATTERING”  light scattering = em wave/particle interaction  two fundamental non-dimensional parameters: the optical size parameter x  p L/l the contrast  mm0 R. Botet 04/2016 .

2 plane transverse em wave.1 the direct problem II.3 Mie theory numerical codes .2 instructions of use for the Rayleigh theory IV.2 fundamentals I.3 light scattering – fundamentals – III. case of the small particle – Rayleigh scattering –    I. case of the sphere – the Mie solution –    R.1 Mie theory IV.5 main parameters governing light scattering II. context – why light scattering? –     0.1 Rayleigh theory III. Botet 04/2016 II.3 the oscillating electric dipole IV.1 electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations 0. prerequisite – what you should know about the electromagnetic waves –     I.1 light scattering geometry I. concept – what is light scattering? –       III.2 the inverse problem II.OUTLINE .LECTURE 1  0. shape and polarization 0.2 instructions of use for the Mie solution IV.4 types of scattering I.3 types of light – types of particles I.

II. polarization) R. Botet 04/2016 . THE DIRECT PROBLEM you know the incident em wave you know the particle shape and material m0 wavelength : l incident wave m goal: controlling the scattered wave (intensity. 1.

THE DIRECT PROBLEM 1) write the Maxwell equations for all the em waves 2) write the boundary conditions on the particle 3) solve the vector linear equations… m0 wavelength : l incident wave R.II. 1. Botet 04/2016 m .

R. Mie.II. Aden and M. Botet 04/2016 coating . 1. 1905) (A. 1951) (J. Kerker. Wait. THE DIRECT PROBLEM the mathematical problem is well-posed and it is possible to obtain the exact solution in a few cases: 1) the homogeneous sphere 2) the coated sphere 3) the infinite cylinder (G. 1979) core R. 1955) 4) the aggregate of homogeneous spheres (F. Borghese.

THE INVERSE PROBLEM you know the incident em wave you know the scattered em wave m0 wavelength : l incident wave m goal: characterizing the scattering particles R. 2. Botet 04/2016 .II.

THE INVERSE PROBLEM the mathematical problem is ill-posed and there is no general way to characterize the particles …only : guess-fit-errors though it may be the most important problem… pollution R. Botet 04/2016 : which particles? remote objects: which structure? medical: which hazard? .II. 2.

3 LIGHT SCATTERING .FUNDAMENTALS incident field = em transverse plane wave x-linearly polarized em plane wave R. Botet 04/2016 .II.

Botet 04/2016 = plane wave = transverse wave .3 LIGHT SCATTERING .FUNDAMENTALS Esca  E scae sca  Escae sca esca e||sca einc e||inc Einc  E ince inc  Eince inc R.II.

II.FUNDAMENTALS Esca  E scae sca  Escae sca esca e||sca  E sca  eik ( r  z )  S 2    i  kr  S 4  E sca  einc e||inc Einc  E ince inc  Eince inc R. Botet 04/2016 S3  E inc    S1  Einc  amplitude-scattering matrix elements .3 LIGHT SCATTERING .

3 LIGHT SCATTERING . Botet 04/2016 …  .II.FUNDAMENTALS to know the amplitude-scattering coefficients  to know everything about the far-field scattered light  E sca  eik ( r  z )  S 2    i  kr  S 4  E sca  S3  E inc    S1  Einc  Isca= Iinc  1 2 2 2 2 S1  S 2  S3  S 4 2 = angular distribution of the scattered intensity S1  S 2  S3  S4 2 S1  S2  S3  S 4 2 2 P= 2 2 2 2 2 = degree of linear polarization of the scattered light R.

f ) sin q dq df  … .3 LIGHT SCATTERING .II. Botet 04/2016 Csca =  I sca (q .FUNDAMENTALS to know the amplitude-scattering coefficients  to know everything about the far-field scattered light  E sca  eik ( r  z )  S 2    i  kr  S 4  E sca  S3  E inc    S1  Einc  Beer-Lambert law N Iinc Itrans Itrans = Iinc eCext N l Cext 2p  2 ReS1 (q  0)  S 2 (q  0) k R.

Botet 04/2016 2 2  .II. two cases may appear: • either the particle positions are correlated one each other (they form a rigid aggregate)  fields are additive (coherence) I sca  E (i)  2 sca i E  sca (i) 2 i • or the particle positions are uncorrelated (they all move independently)  intensities are additive (no coherence)  I sca   E sca (i)  E sca (i) i R.3 LIGHT SCATTERING .FUNDAMENTALS when several scattering particles are illuminated at the same time.

1 Rayleigh theory III.2 instructions of use for the Rayleigh theory IV.3 light scattering – fundamentals – III.2 instructions of use for the Mie solution IV.3 types of light – types of particles I. concept – what is light scattering? –       III.1 the direct problem II.1 electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations 0. Botet 04/2016 II.LECTURE 1  0. prerequisite – what you should know about the electromagnetic waves –     I.1 Mie theory IV.OUTLINE . case of the small particle – Rayleigh scattering –    I.5 main parameters governing light scattering II.3 Mie theory numerical codes .3 the oscillating electric dipole IV.2 fundamentals I.4 types of scattering I. case of the sphere – the Mie solution –    R. context – why light scattering? –     0. shape and polarization 0.2 the inverse problem II.1 light scattering geometry I.2 plane transverse em wave.

Botet 04/2016 .III.RAYLEIGH THEORY - Step 1 : replace the particle by em dipole Step 2 : the Maxwell equations give the polarizability of the dipole Step 3 : the scattered field is the resulting dipolar field R.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE derivation in a nutshell .

III.RAYLEIGH THEORY radius << wavelength  electric field inside the particle  constant dielectric homogeneous particle  scattering particle incident wave  R. Botet 04/2016 .1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE .

RAYLEIGH THEORY m Einc  particle of volume v. with refractive index m embedded in a medium of relative permittivity m =1 and a uniform electric field Einc  solution of the Maxwell equations is dipole radiation from the dipole moment: 2 m 1 3 pt   4p a 2 Einc t  m 2 3  volume R.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE . Botet 04/2016 material electric field .III.

III.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE .RAYLEIGH THEORY m Einc  particle of volume v. Botet 04/2016 m2 1   3v 2 m 2 . with refractive index m embedded in a medium of relative permittivity m =1 and a uniform electric field Einc  solution of the Maxwell equations is dipole radiation from the dipole moment: pt    Einc t  polarizability  R.

with refractive index m embedded in a medium of relative permittivity m =1 and a uniform electric field Einc  solution of the Maxwell equations is dipole radiation from the dipole moment: pt    Einc t  small particle = electric dipole polarizability  R.RAYLEIGH THEORY m Einc  particle of volume v.III.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE . Botet 04/2016 m2 1   3v 2 m 2 .

Botet 04/2016 .III.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE .RAYLEIGH THEORY -  an oscillating electric dipole radiates the far-field electric field: vector form  E sca eikr k 3  e r  e r  ( Einc )  kr 4p er incident wave R.

Botet 04/2016 S3  E inc    S1  Einc  .III.RAYLEIGH THEORY -  an oscillating electric dipole radiates the electric field: vector form  E sca eikr k 3  e r  e r  ( Einc )  kr 4p er incident wave  E sca  eik ( r  z )  S 2    i  kr  S 4  E sca  R.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE exercise : write the formula in the matrix form .

III.1
LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE
exercise : write the formula in the matrix form
- RAYLEIGH THEORY -

vector form 

E sca

eikr k 3

e r  e r  ( Einc ) 
kr 4p
E//sca

ex’

ey’  ey

E//inc

Einc

ey

ez’  er

ex
ez

E inc

matrix
form 
R. Botet 04/2016

q

incident wave

Esca

z=0

 Eo 
 sin q 
  ik z

  0  e ; er   0 
0
 cos q 
 

 cos q 

er  (er  E inc )   Eo cos q  0 
  sin q 

  ik    cos q
 E sca  e

 

  i
kr  4p   0
 E sca 
ik ( r  z )

3

0  E inc 


1  Einc 

ex’

III.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE
- RAYLEIGH THEORY -

particle volume

particle material

 E sca  eik ( r  z )   ik 3   cos q

 

  i
kr  4p   0
 E sca 

0  E inc 


1  Einc 

angular dependence

R. Botet 04/2016

III.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE
- RAYLEIGH THEORY graphic representations of the angular distribution of the scattered intensity in the Rayleigh theory

1
2
2
2
2
I sca / I inc  S1  S 2  S3  S 4
2

I sca  1 cos 2 q

and

 E sca  eik ( r  z )   ik 3   cos q

 

  i
E
kr
4
p
  sca 

 0

0  E inc 


1  Einc 


x

|| ||
z

y

.

.
R. Botet 04/2016

y

.

the scattered intensity at 90° is ½ the forward intensity

q

z

.

RAYLEIGH THEORY consequences of the wavelength dependence of the scattered intensity in the Rayleigh theory  1 2 2 2 2 I sca / I inc  S1  S 2  S3  S 4 2  and  E sca  eik ( r  z )   ik 3   cos q       i E kr 4 p   sca    0 I sca  0  E inc    1  Einc  1 l4 Isca(l  450 nm) = 10  Isca(l  800 nm)  small particles scatter much more the small than the large wavelengths R.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE .III. Botet 04/2016 .

III.RAYLEIGH THEORY consequences of the wavelength dependence of the scattered intensity in the Rayleigh theory (provided m does not depend on the wavelength) I sca  1 l4 explains the color blue of the sky (scattering by molecules  0.3 nm) scattered blue and the reddening of forward transmission not-scattered red R.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE . Botet 04/2016 .

. Botet 04/2016 .III.RAYLEIGH THEORY consequences of the wavelength dependence of the scattered intensity in the Rayleigh theory I sca  1 l4  but why blue and not violet?. R.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE ..

III...1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE . Rayleigh scattering atmosphere optical absorption blue sky spectrum (white curve)  R. Botet 04/2016 .RAYLEIGH THEORY - I sca  1 l4  but why blue and not violet?.

RAYLEIGH THEORY degree of polarization of the scattered intensity in the Rayleigh theory S1  S 2  S3  S4 2 S1  S2  S3  S 4 2 2 P= 2 2 2 2 2 and  E sca  eik ( r  z )   ik 3   cos q       i kr  4p   0  E sca  q  180° backscattering 0  E inc    1  Einc  sin 2 q P 1  cos 2 q q  90° linearly polarized partially polarized unpolarized q q  0° forward Paraselene. 2007. unprocessed image R. Botet 04/2016 .III. polarizing filter.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SMALL PARTICLE . Sigma lens 10-20 mm. Nikon D80.

Botet 04/2016 .SUMMARY OF THE SECTION: “RAYLEIGH THEORY”  when particle is small enough. it can be represented by an em dipole  the dipole may be anisotropic if the real particle is not spherical  the scattered field is the em dipolar field R.

Botet 04/2016 .III.2 RAYLEIGH THEORY REQUIREMENTS INPUT: 1) refractive index. shape and volume of the particle REQUIREMENT: 1) table relating the effective (anisotropic) refractive index to the shape of the particle R.

: L < 50 nm for l  500 nm (or : N < 150000 Fe atoms) 2) a less restrictive condition is sometimes used : |m|x < 1. though it is very similar R.III.1 l  ex.3 that is very small particles : L < 0.2 RAYLEIGH THEORY CONDITIONS OF USE CONDITIONS : 1) x < 0. Botet 04/2016 .

2 RAYLEIGH THEORY PROS & CONS PROS : • valid for any finite particle shape • fully analytical. then easy to handle CONS : • only for very small particles R.III. Botet 04/2016 .

III. Botet 04/2016 .2 RAYLEIGH THEORY .APPLICATIONS - any very small particles R.

shape and polarization 0. Botet 04/2016 II. context – why light scattering? –     0.2 instructions of use for the Mie solution IV.1 electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations 0. case of the small particle – Rayleigh scattering –    I.1 Rayleigh theory III.3 light scattering – fundamentals – III.1 Mie theory IV.3 the oscillating electric dipole IV. prerequisite – what you should know about the electromagnetic waves –     I.3 Mie theory numerical codes .2 plane transverse em wave.5 main parameters governing light scattering II.4 types of scattering I.LECTURE 1  0.1 light scattering geometry I.1 the direct problem II.2 the inverse problem II. concept – what is light scattering? –       III.2 instructions of use for the Rayleigh theory IV. case of the sphere – the Mie solution –    R.OUTLINE .3 types of light – types of particles I.2 fundamentals I.

and which are finite everywhere Step 2 : for each scalar function y.MIE THEORY as plane waves form natural basis for a medium invariant by translation. vector spherical harmonics form natural basis for the spherical symmetry Step 1 : search for scalar functions y solutions of the scalar Helmoltz equation  2y  k 2y  0 derivation in a nutshell under the form y = f(r) g(q ) h(f). Botet 04/2016 . define the two vector functions : M    ry  N 1 M k then: M and N are both solutions of the corresponding vector Helmoltz equation Step 3 : expand the incident em plane wave Einc and the em scattered wave Esca as sums of the vector spherical wave functions M and N Step 4 : write the boundary conditions for the em fields at the surface of the sphere to find equations relating the various coefficients in the expansions of the waves in M and N Step 5 : solve the equations R.IV.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .

IV. Botet 04/2016  n  dP cos q  / dq 1 n y n r   p 2 r J n1/ 2 r  .1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .MIE THEORY - En  Eo i n the incident plane wave writes : Einc  Eo e ikr cosq   e x   En M (oR1n)  iN (eR1n) 2n  1 n(n  1)  n 1 where the vector spherical wave functions M(R). N(R) can be written in terms of associated Legendre and Bessel functions of the reduced distance r = k r : cos p e M (oR1n)  n q N (eR1n)  n(n  1) cos  sin q p n 1  sin  ne  y n r yn 1 dy n   e  cos  e  sin p e r n q n  r2 r dr with the angular functions : p n  Pn1 cos q  / sin q R.

MIE THEORY examples of Legendre and Bessel functions : p1  1 1 = cos q y1 = (sin r –r cos r)/r p2  3 cos q 2 = 3(2cos2 q 1) y2 = ((3. Botet 04/2016  n  dP cos q  / dq r yn 1 dy n   e  cos  e  sin p e r n q n  r2 r dr p n  Pn1 cos q  / sin q 1 n 1  sin  ne  y n y n r   p 2 r J n1/ 2 r  .1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .r 2 )sin r 3 r cos r)/r 2 … cos p e M (oR1n)  n q N (eR1n)  n(n  1) cos  sin q p n R.IV.

IV. Botet 04/2016 .1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE . N(R) as for the incident wave (because the field has to be finite at the origin) R.MIE THEORY the wave inside the spherical particle writes generally :   E sph   En cn M (oR1n)  i d n N (eR1n)  n 1 with the same vector spherical wave functions M(R).

Botet 04/2016  n  dP cos q  / dq 1 n x n r   p 2 r J n1/ 2 r   iYn1/ 2 r  . N(R). replacing the regular yn by the general xn (because the field has not to be finite at the origin): cos p e M o1n  n q N e1n  n(n  1) cos  sin q p n 1  sin  ne  x n r xn 1 dx n   e  cos  e  sin p e r n q n  r2 r dr in which : p n  Pn1 cos q  / sin q R.MIE THEORY the scattered wave writes generally :  E sca   En  bn M o1n  i an N e1n  n 1 where the vector spherical wave functions M and N are the same as M(R).IV.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .

Botet 04/2016 r 1  sin  ne  y n r .IV.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .MIE THEORY note that only the radial component of the corresponding vector spherical functions are different : cos p neq  sin  ne  1 xn M o1n  cos p e M (oR1n)  n q x n r   p y n r   p 2 2 r J n1/ 2 r   iYn1/ 2 r  r J n1/ 2 r  M (oR1n) is the regular part of Mo1n R.

IV.n  . n  An  n      A n  c  k 3. one eventually finds four linear equations in the four unknowns an. dn R.n   bn  1  2 .MIE THEORY we then write the em boundary conditions. Botet 04/2016  k1. cn.n   an   k1.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE . n  k 3.n   n  4. n  cn n         d  k  d  k   n   4. namely: • the tangential components of the electric field inside the particle just beneath the surface must be equal to the tangential components of the sum of the incident field and the scattered field just above the surface • the same for the components of H (that is essentially   E )      E sph   En cn M (oR1n)  i d n N (eR1n) n 1  Einc  E sca   En M (oR1n)  bn M o1n  i N (eR1n)  an N e1n  at r  a n 1 and using the orthogonality of the vector spherical wave functions (angular part). bn.n   an          k k  b   2.

bn allow to compute straightforwardly the scattered em field anywhere outside the sphere  E sca   En  bn M o1n i an N e1n  n 1 and the coefficients cn. dn can be used to compute the em field inside the sphere   E sph   En cn M (oR1n)  i d n N (eR1n)  n 1 R.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE . the other terms (n  2) are the multipolar terms . Botet 04/2016 the first term (n  1) is called the dipolar term.MIE THEORY the coefficients an.IV.

Botet 04/2016 .MIE THEORY in particular. the amplitude-scattering matrix writes simply :  E sca  eik ( r  z )  S 2    i  kr  0  E sca  0  E inc    S1  Einc  2n  1 (anp n  bn n ) n 1 n( n  1)  2n  1 S2   (an n  bnp n ) n 1 n( n  1)  S1   from which all the optical scattered quantities can be deduced… R.IV.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .

MIE THEORY 2n  1 S1   (anp n  bn n ) n 1 n( n  1)  2n  1 S2   (an n  bnp n ) n 1 n( n  1)  the coefficients an. Botet 04/2016 p x J n 1/ 2 x  2 p x n x   x J n 1/ 2 x   iYn1/ 2 x  2 . bn write : an  my n (mx)y n ' ( x) y n ( x)y n ' (mx) my n (mx)x n ' ( x)  x n ( x)y n ' (mx) y n (mx)y n ' ( x)  my n ( x)y n ' (mx) bn  y n (mx)x n ' ( x)  mx n ( x)y n ' (mx) y n x   R.IV.1 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .

Botet 04/2016 .SUMMARY OF THE SECTION: “MIE THEORY”  the known incident field. the unknown inner field and the unknown scattered field are expanded on the basis of the vector spherical functions attached to the spherical particle  the coefficients of the expansion are given by the em boundary conditions on the surface of the sphere R.

IV. Botet 04/2016 .2 MIE THEORY REQUIREMENTS INPUT: 1) refractive index and radius of the sphere REQUIREMENT: 1) numerical code R.

spheroid.IV. Botet 04/2016 .2 MIE THEORY CONDITIONS OF USE CONDITIONS : 1) restricted to homogeneous simple shape with specific symmetries (sphere. infinite cylinder) R.

Botet 04/2016 .2 MIE THEORY PROS & CONS PROS : • very precise (exact) and stable • extended to multi-layers CONS : • only for a few perfect homogeneous shapes R.IV.

2 MIE THEORY .IV. Botet 04/2016 .APPLICATIONS - perfect sphere coated sphere R.

better understanding. etc R.2 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE . Botet 04/2016 . refractive index and particle radius) …though approximate theories are useful for simple formula at hand.THE TYPES OF THEORIES - Mie solution is the complete solution (any wavelength.IV.

IV. Botet 04/2016 . R. Rayleigh scattering .THE TYPES OF THEORIES - Geometric scattering .3 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .

THE TYPES OF THEORIES - absorbance is measured by the extinction efficiency : Cext 2p  2 k R.3 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .IV. Botet 04/2016    (2n  1) an  bn n 1 2 2  .

RAYLEIGH FROM MIE THEORY if truncated to the first term (|m|x << 1) and x << 1  Rayleigh scattering  E sca  eik ( r  z )  S 2    i  kr  0  E sca  3 S1  a1  b1 cos q  2 3 S 2  a1 cos q  b1  2 and :  E sca  eik ( r  z )   ik 3   cos q       i kr  4p   0  E sca  R.IV.2 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE . Botet 04/2016 0  E inc    S1  Einc  2 3 m2  1 a1   i x 2 3 m 2 b1  0 0  E inc    1  Einc  .

Botet 04/2016 .f for example here  https://code.IV.3 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .google.com/archive/p/scatterlib/ R.MIE THEORY numerics most popular free code in FORTRAN from Bohren and Huffman : BHMIE.

3 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .MIE THEORY numerics most popular free code in FORTRAN from Bohren and Huffman : BHMIE. Botet 04/2016 easy to modify the code to obtain the desired quantities .IV.f optical efficiencies S11 is the scattered intensity (unpolarized/unpolarized) POL is the degree of polarization of the scattered light S33 = Re(S1S2*+S3S4*) S34 = Re(S2S1*+S4S3*) R.

Botet 04/2016 .IV.uni-bremen.html R.3 LIGHT SCATTERING BY A SPHERE .MIE THEORY numerics there are also a number of alternative free code … a list  http://diogenes.iwt.de/vt/laser/wriedt/Mie_Type_Codes/body_mie_type_codes.

infinite cylinders. spheroids) R.Summary of the Lecture 1  very small particles  Rayleigh scattering  approximation L  0  analytical  any shape  spherical particles  Mie theory  exact  computer code  homogeneous spheres (coated. Botet 04/2016 .