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Relion® 670 series

Transformer protection RET670 2.0 IEC
Technical Manual

Document ID: 1MRK 504 139-UEN
Issued: May 2014
Revision: Product version: 2.0

© Copyright 2014 ABB. All rights reserved

Copyright
This document and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without written
permission from ABB, and the contents thereof must not be imparted to a third
party, nor used for any unauthorized purpose.
The software and hardware described in this document is furnished under a license
and may be used or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of such license.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the
OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://www.openssl.org/)
This product includes cryptographic software written/developed by: Eric Young
(eay@cryptsoft.com) and Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).

Trademarks
ABB and Relion are registered trademarks of the ABB Group. All other brand or
product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective holders.

Warranty
Please inquire about the terms of warranty from your nearest ABB representative.

Disclaimer
The data, examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for the concept
or product description and are not to be deemed as a statement of guaranteed
properties. All persons responsible for applying the equipment addressed in this
manual must satisfy themselves that each intended application is suitable and
acceptable, including that any applicable safety or other operational requirements
are complied with. In particular, any risks in applications where a system failure and/
or product failure would create a risk for harm to property or persons (including but
not limited to personal injuries or death) shall be the sole responsibility of the
person or entity applying the equipment, and those so responsible are hereby
requested to ensure that all measures are taken to exclude or mitigate such risks.
This document has been carefully checked by ABB but deviations cannot be
completely ruled out. In case any errors are detected, the reader is kindly requested
to notify the manufacturer. Other than under explicit contractual commitments, in
no event shall ABB be responsible or liable for any loss or damage resulting from
the use of this manual or the application of the equipment.

Conformity
This product complies with the directive of the Council of the European
Communities on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to
electromagnetic compatibility (EMC Directive 2004/108/EC) and concerning
electrical equipment for use within specified voltage limits (Low-voltage directive
2006/95/EC). This conformity is the result of tests conducted by ABB in
accordance with the product standard EN 60255-26 for the EMC directive, and
with the product standards EN 60255-1 and EN 60255-27 for the low voltage
directive. The product is designed in accordance with the international standards of
the IEC 60255 series.

Table of contents

Table of contents
Section 1

Introduction.....................................................................41
This manual......................................................................................41
Intended audience............................................................................41
Product documentation.....................................................................42
Product documentation set..........................................................42
Document revision history...........................................................43
Related documents......................................................................44
Document symbols and conventions................................................44
Symbols.......................................................................................44
Document conventions................................................................45
IEC61850 edition 1 / edition 2 mapping.......................................46

Section 2

Available functions.........................................................53
Main protection functions..................................................................53
Back-up protection functions............................................................55
Control and monitoring functions......................................................58
Communication.................................................................................62
Basic IED functions..........................................................................65

Section 3

Analog inputs..................................................................69
Introduction.......................................................................................69
Function block..................................................................................69
Signals..............................................................................................70
Settings.............................................................................................72
Monitored data..................................................................................79
Operation principle...........................................................................80

Section 4

Binary input and output modules....................................83
Binary input.......................................................................................83
Binary input debounce filter.........................................................83
Oscillation filter............................................................................83
Settings........................................................................................83
Setting parameters for binary input modules..........................83
Setting parameters for binary input/output module................84

Section 5

Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI ..........................85
Local HMI screen behaviour.............................................................85
Identification................................................................................85
Settings........................................................................................85
Local HMI signals.............................................................................85
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Identification................................................................................85
Function block.............................................................................85
Signals.........................................................................................86
Basic part for LED indication module...............................................86
Identification................................................................................86
Function block.............................................................................86
Signals.........................................................................................87
Settings........................................................................................88
Monitored data.............................................................................88
Identification................................................................................88
Function block.............................................................................89
Signals.........................................................................................89
Settings........................................................................................89
Operation principle...........................................................................90
Local HMI....................................................................................90
Display....................................................................................90
LEDs.......................................................................................93
Keypad...................................................................................94
LED..............................................................................................96
Functionality ..........................................................................96
Status LEDs...........................................................................96
Indication LEDs......................................................................96
Function keys............................................................................104
Functionality ........................................................................104
Operation principle...............................................................104

Section 6

Differential protection...................................................107
Transformer differential protection T2WPDIF and T3WPDIF ........107
Identification..............................................................................107
Functionality .............................................................................107
Function block...........................................................................109
Signals.......................................................................................110
Settings......................................................................................113
Monitored data...........................................................................118
Operation principle....................................................................119
Function calculation principles.............................................121
Logic diagram.......................................................................142
Technical data...........................................................................146
1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF .....................147
Identification..............................................................................147
Functionality..............................................................................147
Function block...........................................................................148
Signals.......................................................................................148
Settings......................................................................................148

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Monitored data...........................................................................149
Operation principle....................................................................149
Logic diagram.......................................................................150
Technical data...........................................................................151
Low impedance restricted earth fault protection REFPDIF ...........152
Identification..............................................................................152
Functionality..............................................................................152
Function block...........................................................................153
Signals.......................................................................................153
Settings......................................................................................154
Monitored data...........................................................................155
Operation principle....................................................................155
Fundamental principles of the restricted earth-fault
protection..............................................................................155
Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance
differential protection............................................................157
Calculation of differential current and bias current...............159
Detection of external earth faults..........................................160
Algorithm of the restricted earth-fault protection..................162
Technical data...........................................................................162
Additional security logic for differential protection LDRGFC ..........163
Identification..............................................................................163
Functionality..............................................................................163
Function block...........................................................................164
Signals.......................................................................................164
Settings......................................................................................165
Monitored data...........................................................................166
Operation principle....................................................................166
Technical data...........................................................................170

Section 7

Impedance protection...................................................173
Distance measuring zones, quadrilateral characteristic
ZMQPDIS, ZMQAPDIS, ZDRDIR...................................................173
Identification..............................................................................173
Functionality..............................................................................173
Function block...........................................................................174
Signals.......................................................................................175
Settings......................................................................................176
Monitored data...........................................................................179
Operation principle....................................................................179
Full scheme measurement...................................................179
Impedance characteristic.....................................................180
Minimum operating current...................................................183
Measuring principles............................................................183
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Directional impedance element for quadrilateral
characteristics......................................................................186
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................189
Technical data...........................................................................192
Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with fixed angle
FDPSPDIS......................................................................................193
Identification..............................................................................193
Identification.........................................................................193
Functionality..............................................................................193
Function block...........................................................................194
Signals.......................................................................................194
Settings......................................................................................195
Operation principle....................................................................196
Phase-to-earth fault..............................................................198
Phase-to-phase fault............................................................200
Three-phase faults...............................................................202
Load encroachment..............................................................202
Minimum operate currents....................................................207
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................207
Technical data...........................................................................213
Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral characteristic for
series compensated lines ZMCPDIS, ZMCAPDIS, ZDSRDIR.......213
Identification..............................................................................213
Functionality..............................................................................214
Function block...........................................................................214
Signals.......................................................................................215
Settings......................................................................................217
Monitored data...........................................................................220
Operation principle....................................................................221
Full scheme measurement...................................................221
Impedance characteristic.....................................................221
Minimum operating current...................................................225
Measuring principles............................................................225
Directionality for series compensation..................................228
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................230
Technical data...........................................................................233
Full-scheme distance measuring, Mho characteristic
ZMHPDIS ......................................................................................234
Identification..............................................................................234
Functionality..............................................................................234
Function block...........................................................................235
Signals.......................................................................................235
Settings......................................................................................236
Operation principle....................................................................237
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Full scheme measurement...................................................237
Impedance characteristic.....................................................238
Basic operation characteristics.............................................239
Theory of operation..............................................................241
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................250
Technical data...........................................................................254
Full-scheme distance protection, quadrilateral for earth faults
ZMMPDIS, ZMMAPDIS..................................................................254
Identification..............................................................................254
Functionality..............................................................................255
Function block...........................................................................255
Signals.......................................................................................256
Settings......................................................................................257
Operation principle....................................................................258
Full scheme measurement...................................................258
Impedance characteristic.....................................................259
Minimum operating current...................................................261
Measuring principles............................................................262
Directionality.........................................................................264
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................266
Technical data...........................................................................269
Directional impedance element for mho characteristic and
additional distance protection directional function for earth
faults ZDMRDIR, ZDARDIR...........................................................269
Identification..............................................................................269
Functionality..............................................................................270
Function block...........................................................................270
Signals.......................................................................................270
Settings......................................................................................271
Monitored data...........................................................................272
Operation principle....................................................................273
Directional impedance element for mho characteristic
ZDMRDIR.............................................................................273
Additional distance protection directional function for
earth faults ZDARDIR...........................................................275
Mho impedance supervision logic ZSMGAPC................................278
Identification..............................................................................278
Functionality..............................................................................278
Function block...........................................................................278
Signals.......................................................................................278
Settings......................................................................................279
Operation principle....................................................................279
Fault inception detection......................................................279

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Faulty phase identification with load encroachment
FMPSPDIS.....................................................................................281
Identification..............................................................................281
Functionality..............................................................................281
Function block...........................................................................282
Signals.......................................................................................282
Settings......................................................................................283
Operation principle....................................................................283
The phase selection function................................................283
Technical data...........................................................................294
Distance protection zone, quadrilateral characteristic, separate
settings ZMRPDIS, ZMRAPDIS and ZDRDIR................................295
Identification..............................................................................295
Functionality..............................................................................295
Function block...........................................................................296
Signals.......................................................................................296
Settings......................................................................................298
Operation principle....................................................................300
Full scheme measurement...................................................300
Impedance characteristic.....................................................301
Minimum operating current...................................................305
Measuring principles............................................................305
Directional impedance element for quadrilateral
characteristics......................................................................308
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................311
Technical data...........................................................................314
Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with settable
angle FRPSPDIS............................................................................315
Identification..............................................................................315
Functionality..............................................................................315
Function block...........................................................................316
Signals.......................................................................................316
Settings......................................................................................317
Operation principle....................................................................318
Phase-to-earth fault..............................................................320
Phase-to-phase fault............................................................322
Three-phase faults...............................................................323
Load encroachment..............................................................324
Minimum operate currents....................................................329
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................330
Technical data...........................................................................335
High speed distance protection ZMFPDIS.....................................335
Identification..............................................................................335
Functionality..............................................................................335
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Function block...........................................................................337
Signals.......................................................................................337
Settings......................................................................................340
Monitored data...........................................................................344
Operation principle....................................................................344
Filtering.................................................................................344
Distance measuring zones...................................................345
Phase-selection element......................................................346
Directional element...............................................................347
Fuse failure...........................................................................348
Power swings.......................................................................348
Measuring principles............................................................348
Load encroachment..............................................................351
Simplified logic schemes......................................................352
Technical data...........................................................................358
High speed distance protection ZMFCPDIS ..................................358
Identification..............................................................................358
Functionality..............................................................................358
Function block...........................................................................360
Signals.......................................................................................360
Settings......................................................................................363
Monitored data...........................................................................368
Operation principle....................................................................369
Filtering.................................................................................369
Distance measuring zones...................................................369
Phase-selection element......................................................371
Directional element...............................................................371
Fuse failure...........................................................................372
Power swings.......................................................................373
Measuring principles............................................................373
Simplified logic schemes......................................................375
Technical data...........................................................................382
Power swing detection ZMRPSB ...................................................382
Identification..............................................................................382
Functionality..............................................................................382
Function block...........................................................................383
Signals.......................................................................................383
Settings......................................................................................384
Operation principle....................................................................385
Resistive reach in forward direction.....................................386
Resistive reach in reverse direction.....................................387
Reactive reach in forward and reverse direction..................388
Basic detection logic.............................................................388
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Operating and inhibit conditions...........................................390
Technical data...........................................................................391
Power swing logic PSLPSCH ........................................................391
Identification..............................................................................391
Functionality..............................................................................392
Function block...........................................................................392
Signals.......................................................................................392
Settings......................................................................................393
Operation principle....................................................................393
Communication and tripping logic........................................393
Blocking logic.......................................................................394
Pole slip protection PSPPPAM ......................................................396
Identification..............................................................................396
Functionality..............................................................................396
Function block...........................................................................397
Signals.......................................................................................397
Settings......................................................................................398
Monitored data...........................................................................399
Operation principle....................................................................399
Technical data...........................................................................402
Out-of-step protection OOSPPAM..................................................403
Identification..............................................................................403
Functionality..............................................................................403
Function block...........................................................................403
Signals.......................................................................................404
Settings......................................................................................405
Monitored data...........................................................................406
Operation principle....................................................................406
Lens characteristic...............................................................409
Detecting an out-of-step condition........................................411
Maximum slip frequency.......................................................412
Taking care of the circuit breaker ........................................413
Design..................................................................................415
Technical data...........................................................................416
Phase preference logic PPLPHIZ...................................................416
Identification..............................................................................416
Functionality..............................................................................416
Function block...........................................................................416
Signals.......................................................................................416
Settings......................................................................................417
Operation principle....................................................................418
Under impedance protection for generators and transformers
ZGVPDIS........................................................................................421
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Identification..............................................................................421
Functionality..............................................................................421
Function block...........................................................................422
Signals.......................................................................................422
Settings......................................................................................423
Monitored data...........................................................................424
Operation principle....................................................................424
Operation principle of zone 1...............................................426
Operation principle of zone 2...............................................428
Operation principle of zone 3...............................................432
Load encroachment..............................................................432
Under voltage seal-in...........................................................433
Technical data...........................................................................434

Section 8

Current protection.........................................................435
Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output
PHPIOC .........................................................................................435
Identification..............................................................................435
Functionality..............................................................................435
Function block...........................................................................435
Signals.......................................................................................435
Settings......................................................................................436
Monitored data...........................................................................436
Operation principle....................................................................436
Technical data...........................................................................437
Four step phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output
OC4PTOC .....................................................................................437
Identification..............................................................................438
Functionality..............................................................................438
Function block...........................................................................439
Signals.......................................................................................439
Settings......................................................................................441
Monitored data...........................................................................446
Operation principle....................................................................447
Second harmonic blocking element...........................................451
Technical data...........................................................................452
Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC ................453
Identification..............................................................................453
Functionality..............................................................................453
Function block...........................................................................453
Signals.......................................................................................453
Settings......................................................................................454
Monitored data...........................................................................454
Operation principle....................................................................454
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Technical data...........................................................................455
Four step residual overcurrent protection, (Zero sequence or
negative sequence directionality) EF4PTOC .................................455
Identification..............................................................................455
Functionality..............................................................................456
Function block...........................................................................456
Signals.......................................................................................456
Settings......................................................................................457
Monitored data...........................................................................463
Operation principle....................................................................463
Operating quantity within the function..................................464
Internal polarizing.................................................................465
External polarizing for earth-fault function............................466
Directional detection for earth fault function.........................466
Base quantities within the protection....................................466
Internal earth-fault protection structure................................467
Four residual overcurrent steps............................................467
Directional supervision element with integrated
directional comparison function............................................468
Second harmonic blocking element.....................................470
Switch on to fault feature......................................................472
Technical data...........................................................................474
Four step directional negative phase sequence overcurrent
protection NS4PTOC .....................................................................475
Identification..............................................................................475
Functionality..............................................................................475
Function block...........................................................................476
Signals.......................................................................................476
Settings......................................................................................477
Monitored data...........................................................................482
Operation principle....................................................................482
Operating quantity within the function..................................482
Internal polarizing facility of the function..............................483
External polarizing for negative sequence function..............484
Internal negative sequence protection structure..................484
Four negative sequence overcurrent stages........................484
Directional supervision element with integrated
directional comparison function............................................485
Technical data...........................................................................488
Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection
SDEPSDE .....................................................................................488
Identification..............................................................................489
Functionality..............................................................................489
Function block...........................................................................491
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Signals.......................................................................................491
Settings......................................................................................492
Monitored data...........................................................................494
Operation principle....................................................................494
Function inputs.....................................................................494
Technical data...........................................................................500
Thermal overload protection, one time constant, Celsius/
Fahrenheit LCPTTR/LFPTTR.........................................................501
Identification..............................................................................502
Functionality..............................................................................502
Function block...........................................................................503
Signals.......................................................................................503
Settings......................................................................................504
Monitored data...........................................................................505
Operation principle....................................................................506
Technical data...........................................................................510
Thermal overload protection, two time constants TRPTTR ...........510
Identification..............................................................................510
Functionality..............................................................................510
Function block...........................................................................511
Signals.......................................................................................511
Settings......................................................................................512
Monitored data...........................................................................513
Operation principle....................................................................513
Technical data...........................................................................517
Breaker failure protection 3-phase activation and output
CCRBRF ........................................................................................517
Identification..............................................................................517
Functionality..............................................................................517
Function block...........................................................................518
Signals.......................................................................................518
Settings......................................................................................519
Monitored data...........................................................................520
Operation principle....................................................................520
Technical data...........................................................................523
Pole discordance protection CCPDSC...........................................523
Identification..............................................................................523
Functionality..............................................................................524
Function block...........................................................................524
Signals.......................................................................................524
Settings......................................................................................525
Monitored data...........................................................................525
Operation principle....................................................................525
Pole discordance signaling from circuit breaker...................528
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Unsymmetrical current detection..........................................528
Technical data...........................................................................529
Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP...............................529
Identification..............................................................................529
Functionality..............................................................................529
Function block...........................................................................530
Signals.......................................................................................530
Settings......................................................................................531
Monitored data...........................................................................532
Operation principle....................................................................532
Low pass filtering..................................................................534
Calibration of analog inputs..................................................535
Technical data...........................................................................536
Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP ................................537
Identification..............................................................................537
Functionality..............................................................................537
Function block...........................................................................538
Signals.......................................................................................538
Settings......................................................................................539
Monitored data...........................................................................541
Operation principle....................................................................541
Low pass filtering..................................................................543
Calibration of analog inputs..................................................543
Technical data...........................................................................545
Broken conductor check BRCPTOC .............................................545
Identification..............................................................................545
Functionality..............................................................................545
Function block...........................................................................546
Signals.......................................................................................546
Settings......................................................................................546
Monitored data...........................................................................547
Operation principle....................................................................547
Technical data...........................................................................548
Capacitor bank protection CBPGAPC............................................548
Identification..............................................................................549
Functionality..............................................................................549
Function block...........................................................................549
Signals.......................................................................................549
Settings......................................................................................551
Monitored data...........................................................................552
Operation principle....................................................................552
Measured quantities.............................................................552
Reconnection inhibit feature.................................................555
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Overcurrent feature..............................................................556
Undercurrent feature............................................................557
Capacitor harmonic overload feature...................................557
Capacitor reactive power overload feature...........................559
Technical data...........................................................................560
Negativ sequence time overcurrent protection for machines
NS2PTOC ......................................................................................561
Identification..............................................................................561
Functionality..............................................................................561
Function block...........................................................................562
Signals.......................................................................................562
Settings......................................................................................563
Monitored data...........................................................................564
Operation principle....................................................................564
Start sensitivity.....................................................................566
Alarm function......................................................................566
Logic diagram.......................................................................567
Technical data...........................................................................567
Voltage-restrained time overcurrent protection VRPVOC..............568
Identification..............................................................................568
Functionality..............................................................................568
Function block...........................................................................569
Signals.......................................................................................569
Settings......................................................................................570
Monitored data...........................................................................571
Operation principle....................................................................571
Measured quantities.............................................................571
Base quantities.....................................................................571
Overcurrent protection..........................................................571
Logic diagram.......................................................................573
Undervoltage protection.......................................................573
Technical data...........................................................................574

Section 9

Voltage protection........................................................577
Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV ................................577
Identification..............................................................................577
Functionality..............................................................................577
Function block...........................................................................578
Signals.......................................................................................578
Settings......................................................................................579
Monitored data...........................................................................581
Operation principle....................................................................581
Measurement principle.........................................................582
Time delay............................................................................582
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Blocking................................................................................588
Design..................................................................................589
Technical data...........................................................................591
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV ..................................591
Identification..............................................................................591
Functionality..............................................................................592
Function block...........................................................................592
Signals.......................................................................................592
Settings......................................................................................593
Monitored data...........................................................................595
Operation principle....................................................................595
Measurement principle.........................................................596
Time delay............................................................................596
Blocking................................................................................602
Design..................................................................................602
Technical data...........................................................................604
Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV .................605
Identification..............................................................................605
Functionality..............................................................................605
Function block...........................................................................605
Signals.......................................................................................605
Settings......................................................................................606
Monitored data...........................................................................608
Operation principle....................................................................608
Measurement principle.........................................................608
Time delay............................................................................608
Blocking................................................................................614
Design..................................................................................614
Technical data...........................................................................615
Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH ............................................616
Identification..............................................................................616
Functionality..............................................................................616
Function block...........................................................................617
Signals.......................................................................................617
Settings......................................................................................617
Monitored data...........................................................................618
Operation principle....................................................................619
Measured voltage.................................................................621
Operate time of the overexcitation protection.......................622
Cooling.................................................................................626
Overexcitation protection function measurands...................626
Overexcitation alarm............................................................627
Logic diagram.......................................................................627
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Technical data...........................................................................628
Voltage differential protection VDCPTOV ......................................628
Identification..............................................................................628
Functionality..............................................................................628
Function block...........................................................................629
Signals.......................................................................................629
Settings......................................................................................629
Monitored data...........................................................................630
Operation principle....................................................................630
Technical data...........................................................................632
Loss of voltage check LOVPTUV ..................................................633
Identification..............................................................................633
Functionality..............................................................................633
Function block...........................................................................633
Signals.......................................................................................633
Settings......................................................................................634
Operation principle....................................................................634
Technical data...........................................................................636

Section 10 Frequency protection....................................................637
Underfrequency protection SAPTUF .............................................637
Identification..............................................................................637
Functionality..............................................................................637
Function block...........................................................................637
Signals.......................................................................................638
Settings......................................................................................638
Monitored data...........................................................................639
Operation principle....................................................................639
Measurement principle.........................................................639
Time delay............................................................................639
Voltage dependent time delay..............................................640
Blocking................................................................................641
Design..................................................................................641
Technical data...........................................................................642
Overfrequency protection SAPTOF ...............................................643
Identification..............................................................................643
Functionality..............................................................................643
Function block...........................................................................644
Signals.......................................................................................644
Settings......................................................................................644
Monitored data...........................................................................645
Operation principle....................................................................645
Measurement principle.........................................................645
Time delay............................................................................645
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Blocking................................................................................646
Design..................................................................................646
Technical data...........................................................................647
Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC .............................647
Identification..............................................................................647
Functionality..............................................................................647
Function block...........................................................................648
Signals.......................................................................................648
Settings......................................................................................648
Monitored data...........................................................................649
Operation principle....................................................................649
Measurement principle.........................................................649
Time delay............................................................................649
Blocking................................................................................650
Design..................................................................................650
Technical data...........................................................................651

Section 11 Multipurpose protection................................................653
General current and voltage protection CVGAPC..........................653
Identification..............................................................................653
Functionality..............................................................................653
Function block...........................................................................654
Signals.......................................................................................654
Settings......................................................................................656
Monitored data...........................................................................663
Operation principle....................................................................663
Measured quantities within CVGAPC...................................663
Base quantities for CVGAPC function..................................666
Built-in overcurrent protection steps.....................................666
Built-in undercurrent protection steps...................................671
Built-in overvoltage protection steps....................................672
Built-in undervoltage protection steps..................................672
Logic diagram.......................................................................672
Technical data...........................................................................677

Section 12 System protection and control......................................681
Multipurpose filter SMAIHPAC.......................................................681
Identification..............................................................................681
Functionality..............................................................................681
Function block...........................................................................681
Signals.......................................................................................681
Settings......................................................................................682
Operation principle....................................................................682
Filter calculation example..........................................................686
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Section 13 Secondary system supervision.....................................689
Current circuit supervision CCSSPVC............................................689
Identification..............................................................................689
Functionality..............................................................................689
Function block...........................................................................689
Signals.......................................................................................690
Settings......................................................................................690
Operation principle....................................................................690
Technical data...........................................................................692
Fuse failure supervision FUFSPVC................................................692
Identification..............................................................................692
Functionality..............................................................................693
Function block...........................................................................693
Signals.......................................................................................694
Settings......................................................................................695
Monitored data...........................................................................696
Operation principle....................................................................696
Zero and negative sequence detection................................696
Delta current and delta voltage detection.............................698
Dead line detection...............................................................701
Main logic.............................................................................702
Technical data...........................................................................705
Fuse failure supervision VDSPVC..................................................705
Identification..............................................................................705
Functionality..............................................................................705
Function block...........................................................................706
Signals.......................................................................................706
Settings......................................................................................707
Monitored data...........................................................................707
Operation principle....................................................................708
Technical data...........................................................................709

Section 14 Control..........................................................................711
Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing
SESRSYN......................................................................................711
Identification..............................................................................711
Functionality..............................................................................711
Function block...........................................................................712
Signals.......................................................................................712
Settings......................................................................................714
Monitored data...........................................................................717
Operation principle....................................................................717
Basic functionality.................................................................717
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Table of contents

Logic diagrams.....................................................................718
Technical data...........................................................................729
Interlocking ....................................................................................730
Functionality..............................................................................730
Operation principle....................................................................730
Logical node for interlocking SCILO .........................................733
Identification.........................................................................733
Functionality.........................................................................733
Function block......................................................................734
Signals..................................................................................734
Logic diagram.......................................................................734
Interlocking for busbar earthing switch BB_ES .........................735
Identification.........................................................................735
Functionality.........................................................................735
Function block......................................................................735
Logic diagram.......................................................................736
Signals..................................................................................736
Interlocking for bus-section breaker A1A2_BS..........................736
Identification.........................................................................736
Functionality.........................................................................736
Function block......................................................................737
Logic diagram.......................................................................738
Signals..................................................................................739
Interlocking for bus-section disconnector A1A2_DC ................740
Identification.........................................................................741
Functionality.........................................................................741
Function block......................................................................741
Logic diagram.......................................................................742
Signals..................................................................................742
Interlocking for bus-coupler bay ABC_BC ................................743
Identification.........................................................................743
Functionality.........................................................................744
Function block......................................................................745
Logic diagram.......................................................................746
Signals..................................................................................748
Interlocking for 1 1/2 CB BH .....................................................751
Identification.........................................................................751
Functionality.........................................................................751
Function blocks....................................................................752
Logic diagrams.....................................................................754
Signals..................................................................................759
Interlocking for double CB bay DB ...........................................763
Identification.........................................................................763
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Functionality.........................................................................763
Logic diagrams.....................................................................765
Function block......................................................................768
Signals..................................................................................769
Interlocking for line bay ABC_LINE ..........................................773
Identification.........................................................................773
Functionality.........................................................................773
Function block......................................................................774
Logic diagram.......................................................................775
Signals..................................................................................780
Interlocking for transformer bay AB_TRAFO ............................782
Identification.........................................................................783
Functionality.........................................................................783
Function block......................................................................784
Logic diagram.......................................................................785
Signals..................................................................................786
Position evaluation POS_EVAL.................................................788
Identification.........................................................................788
Functionality.........................................................................788
Function block......................................................................788
Logic diagram.......................................................................789
Signals..................................................................................789
Apparatus control APC...................................................................789
Functionality..............................................................................789
Error handling............................................................................790
Bay control QCBAY...................................................................793
Functionality.........................................................................793
Function block......................................................................793
Signals..................................................................................794
Settings................................................................................794
Operation principle...............................................................794
Local/Remote switch.................................................................796
Function block......................................................................797
Signals..................................................................................797
Settings................................................................................798
Operation principle...............................................................799
Switch controller SCSWI...........................................................800
Functionality ........................................................................800
Function block......................................................................800
Signals..................................................................................800
Settings................................................................................802
Operation principle...............................................................802
Circuit breaker SXCBR..............................................................808
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Functionality ........................................................................808
Function block......................................................................808
Signals..................................................................................809
Settings................................................................................810
Operation principle...............................................................810
Circuit switch SXSWI.................................................................814
Functionality ........................................................................814
Function block......................................................................814
Signals..................................................................................815
Settings................................................................................816
Operation principle...............................................................816
Bay reserve QCRSV..................................................................820
Functionality.........................................................................820
Function block......................................................................820
Signals..................................................................................821
Settings................................................................................822
Operation principle...............................................................822
Reservation input RESIN...........................................................824
Functionality.........................................................................824
Function block......................................................................824
Signals..................................................................................825
Settings................................................................................826
Operation principle...............................................................826
Voltage control................................................................................828
Identification..............................................................................828
Functionality..............................................................................829
Automatic voltage control for tap changer TR1ATCC and
TR8ATCC .................................................................................829
Operation principle...............................................................829
Tap changer control and supervision, 6 binary inputs
TCMYLTC and TCLYLTC ........................................................841
Operation principle...............................................................841
Connection between TR1ATCC or TR8ATCC and
TCMYLTCor TCLYLTC.............................................................845
Function block...........................................................................849
Signals.......................................................................................852
Settings......................................................................................859
Monitored data...........................................................................867
Operation principle....................................................................868
Technical data...........................................................................869
Logic rotating switch for function selection and LHMI
presentation SLGAPC....................................................................870
Identification..............................................................................870
Functionality..............................................................................871
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Function block...........................................................................871
Signals.......................................................................................871
Settings......................................................................................873
Monitored data...........................................................................873
Operation principle....................................................................873
Graphical display..................................................................874
Selector mini switch VSGAPC........................................................875
Identification..............................................................................875
Functionality..............................................................................876
Function block...........................................................................876
Signals.......................................................................................876
Settings......................................................................................877
Operation principle....................................................................877
Generic communication function for Double Point indication
DPGAPC........................................................................................878
Identification..............................................................................878
Functionality..............................................................................878
Function block...........................................................................878
Signals.......................................................................................878
Settings......................................................................................879
Operation principle....................................................................879
Single point generic control 8 signals SPC8GAPC........................879
Identification..............................................................................879
Functionality..............................................................................879
Function block...........................................................................880
Signals.......................................................................................880
Settings......................................................................................880
Operation principle....................................................................881
AutomationBits, command function for DNP3.0 AUTOBITS..........881
Identification..............................................................................881
Functionality..............................................................................882
Function block...........................................................................882
Signals.......................................................................................882
Settings......................................................................................883
Operation principle....................................................................898
Single command, 16 signals SINGLECMD....................................898
Identification..............................................................................898
Functionality..............................................................................898
Function block...........................................................................899
Signals.......................................................................................899
Settings......................................................................................900
Operation principle....................................................................900

Section 15 Scheme communication...............................................901
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Scheme communication logic for residual overcurrent
protection ECPSCH .......................................................................901
Identification..............................................................................901
Functionality..............................................................................901
Function block...........................................................................901
Signals.......................................................................................902
Settings......................................................................................902
Operation principle....................................................................903
Blocking scheme..................................................................903
Permissive under/overreaching scheme..............................904
Unblocking scheme..............................................................905
Technical data...........................................................................906
Current reversal and weak-end infeed logic for residual
overcurrent protection ECRWPSCH...............................................907
Identification..............................................................................907
Functionality..............................................................................907
Function block...........................................................................908
Signals.......................................................................................908
Settings......................................................................................909
Operation principle....................................................................909
Directional comparison logic function...................................909
Fault current reversal logic...................................................909
Weak-end infeed logic..........................................................910
Technical data...........................................................................912

Section 16 Logic.............................................................................913
Tripping logic common 3-phase output SMPPTRC .......................913
Identification..............................................................................913
Functionality..............................................................................913
Function block...........................................................................913
Signals.......................................................................................914
Settings......................................................................................915
Operation principle....................................................................915
Logic diagram.......................................................................917
Technical data...........................................................................920
Trip matrix logic TMAGAPC...........................................................920
Identification..............................................................................920
Functionality..............................................................................921
Function block...........................................................................921
Signals.......................................................................................921
Settings......................................................................................923
Operation principle....................................................................923
Logic for group alarm ALMCALH....................................................924
Identification..............................................................................924
22
Technical Manual

.....................................................928 Identification......................................936 Loop delay function block LOOPDELAY....................936 Signals................928 Function block..............................................................................................................925 Settings..............................................937 23 Technical Manual .........930 Configurable logic blocks...................927 Signals............................926 Identification...............................................933 Signals........................................936 Function block........................................................................................935 Settings.....................................936 Exclusive OR function block XOR...........................................924 Function block.................................Table of contents Functionality..........................................................................................................................................................935 Settings.............................................................................................934 Function block...............................925 Signals..............935 Pulse timer function block PULSETIMER..930 Functionality..................................929 Operation principle.....................................936 Function block........................929 Signals................................................................................................................................................933 AND function block AND....................................................................................................................937 Signals........................................................927 Operation principle.................................................................934 Function block.................................932 Function block................................................................................................................................................................................................................935 Signals.................................................................................................................................933 OR function block OR.................................933 Function block........930 Inverter function block INV.............................................................................934 Signals...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................935 Function block........................................................................................................932 Signals................................934 Signals......................927 Settings...............................926 Function block.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................926 Functionality........................................926 Operation principle.......928 Functionality.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................929 Settings......................937 Set-reset with memory function block SRMEMORY.........................................................................................................................................................................................................934 Timer function block TIMER..........................

...943 Signals...........943 Exclusive OR function block XORQT.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................943 Function block......................................................................................................................................................946 Settings.....941 ANDQT function block......................................................................................................................................940 Settings............................945 Function block............................943 Set/Reset function block SRMEMORYQT.....................................................................939 Signals........................938 Settings...............944 Signals.........................................................................................942 Inverter function block INVERTERQT...................................941 Configurable logic Q/T.......941 Functionality....................................................................947 Settings....942 Signals.......................................946 Settable timer function block TIMERSETQT............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................938 Reset-set with memory function block RSMEMORY...........................................................941 ORQT function block......937 Signals...........940 Function block......................................................................................939 Settings..................................................................................................940 Settable timer function block TIMERSET.......................................Table of contents Function block........................941 Function block...................945 Signals...............................................................................................................940 Signals...........................................946 Signals.......................................................................................944 Function block..........................................................942 Function block.....................................................................................................................................................................939 Function block............................................................................................................................943 Signals........................................................................................................................................939 Controllable gate function block GATE...........938 Function block.939 Signals...............................947 24 Technical Manual ......................................................................................................................................................947 Signals.........................................................................................................945 Reset/Set function block RSMEMORYQT................................................941 Signals......................................................................942 Function block.940 Settings......................................947 Pulse timer function block PULSETIMERQT................................................................945 Settings.........944 Settings...................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................................953 Signals..........................................................................................................................................................958 Operation principle..............952 Functionality..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................956 Functionality..........................................................................................955 Boolean 16 to Integer conversion with logic node representation BTIGAPC...................................................................................................................................954 Function block..................954 Identification..................................................................................................953 Settings..............................................................................................................................................................951 Fixed signals FXDSIGN........955 Operation principle.......959 Identification..................................................................................................................................................................................................954 Monitored data.......948 Single indication signal combining function block INDCOMBSPQT...................................................................................................................950 Technical data.........................................................................................................................957 Signals..949 Function block...........................................................................959 Functionality.961 Operation principle.......................................................947 Function block...............953 Operation principle...............................949 Signals.........................957 Settings..............954 Signals.........................................................................................952 Function block.952 Identification.........................963 25 Technical Manual .................................................................................................................962 Function block..........................962 Functionality.................961 Integer to Boolean 16 conversion with logic node representation ITBGAPC..................953 Boolean 16 to Integer conversion B16I.....................955 Settings.......................................................................................................................................................................948 Signals..................................................................................962 Identification...................................................................................................................................................Table of contents InvalidLogic INVALIDQT.......................................................958 Integer to boolean 16 conversion IB16A.......................................................................................958 Monitored data...............................................957 Function block.............................................................................956 Identification....................................960 Signals..............................................................................................960 Setting parameters.................................................................................................959 Function block....................................................950 Signals...............

...........................1003 Analog inputs..........................................................................................................1016 Gas medium supervision SSIMG..............................................................................................................................................................973 Signals..............................................................................1006 Settings.................................967 Operation principle.........1003 Voltage and current sequence measurements VMSQI.....................963 Settings..........1015 Operation principle..................................................................................................965 Function block............................................................................................1017 Functionality.........1006 Signals................................966 Settings...................1005 Introduction..................971 Identification...............................................................964 Operation principle............................997 Phase current measurement CMMXU.........................................1005 Function block......................................................989 Operation principle.........971 Functionality....................................................................965 Identification..........Table of contents Signals....................................................993 Measurement supervision..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... VNMMXU..........967 Operation Accuracy...........................................................................................................1003 Technical data.......993 Measurements CVMMXN...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................971 Measurements......966 Signals.................969 Memory storage...........................................................................................................978 Monitored data......965 Functionality..............1017 Function block.............................................................1018 Signals.................................................................1008 Monitored data.........................................1017 Identification.......................................................................................... CMSQI.......................................................969 Section 17 Monitoring...............................................969 Technical data...964 Elapsed time integrator with limit transgression and overflow supervision TEIGAPC......................................................................................................................................................................................1002 Phase-phase and phase-neutral voltage measurements VMMXU...............................971 Function block................1018 26 Technical Manual ........................................................................................................................................................................................975 Settings............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.................................1023 Functionality...................................................................................................................................................................1044 Settings.............................................................................................................1021 Signals.................................................................................................................1020 Functionality.......................1019 Operation principle.....................................................................................................................................1027 Circuit breaker contact travel time..........1025 Monitored data........................1019 Technical data................................1042 Function block..........................................................................................................................................1023 Breaker monitoring SSCBR.............1021 Settings.....................1022 Operation principle........................................................................................1031 Accumulated energy................................................................1037 Function block......................................................1038 Operation principle..........................1043 Signals..............................................................1020 Liquid medium supervision SSIML...................................................................................................1037 Functionality..........................................1092 27 Technical Manual .........................1034 Circuit breaker spring charge monitoring....................................................................................................................................................1037 Settings..............1088 Operation principle.....................................1024 Signals...............................................................................................................................1036 Technical data......................................................1049 Monitored data.................................................................1030 Remaining life of circuit breaker.................................1024 Function block.1029 Circuit breaker status..................................1040 Disturbance report DRPRDRE................................................................................1035 Circuit breaker gas pressure indication....................1036 Identification.........................1041 Identification...............................................1023 Identification....................................................................................................................................................................1027 Operation principle...................................1042 Functionality.................................................................................................................1022 Technical data.....1024 Settings............................................................................................................................................................................................................1021 Function block...........................................1037 Signals....................................................................................................1036 Event function EVENT.......Table of contents Settings...........................................1033 Circuit breaker operation monitoring............................................................................................................1032 Circuit breaker operation cycles...................................................................................1020 Identification.............................................

................................1102 Operation principle...............................1104 Operation principle..................................................................1103 Function block..........1101 Settings........................................................................1113 Functionality.......................................................1099 Logical signal status report BINSTATREP.....................................1105 Operation principle....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1109 Function block...................................1111 Technical data......................................................................................................1109 Pulse-counter logic PCFCNT..........................................................................................................1111 Operation principle.............1107 Settings............................1104 Functionality..............................................1103 Identification............1102 Measured value expander block RANGE_XP.......................1113 Function for energy calculation and demand handling ETPMMTR.............1110 Settings........................................................................................1113 Function block.................................................................................................................................................................................1105 Reporting...............................................................................................................................................................................1100 Function block.....1105 Design.........................................1101 Signals..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1115 28 Technical Manual ......................................................................................1108 Section 18 Metering...................................1103 Functionality..................................................................................1109 Functionality..........................1110 Monitored data..........................................................................1108 Technical data.................................................................1106 Function block.........................Table of contents Technical data............................1114 Signals...............1113 Identification..........................................................................................................1109 Identification......................1109 Signals.......................................................1107 Signals................................................................................................1104 Identification.....................................................................................................................1104 Identification..............................1103 Signals....................1104 Limit counter L4UFCNT................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1114 Settings.......................................................................................................................1100 Identification...............................................1100 Functionality...........................................................................................1108 Monitored data................................................

.............................................................................................................1123 Settings......................................................................1127 Operation principle...........1125 Functionality.......................................................1127 IEC 61850-8-1 redundant station bus communication..............1121 Communication interfaces and protocols..........................................................1126 Monitored data........................................................................1121 670 series protocols...........1131 Output signals...........................................1123 Signals................................................................................................................ SP16GAPC........................................1125 Function block...................................................................................................................................................1125 Signals......................................1127 Function block...................................1131 Introduction.....................................................................................................................................1131 Signals............1120 Section 19 Station communication...................................................................................................................................................................1124 Operation principle..1121 IEC 61850-8-1 communication protocol......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1120 Technical data......1131 Function block...........................................................................1128 IEC 61850-9-2LE communication protocol........................................................................................1127 Signals.......1121 Settings................................................................................................................................................................................1134 Monitored data...............1128 Monitored data..............................................................1138 Technical data..........................1122 Generic communication function for Single Point indication SPGAPC.........................................................................1141 29 Technical Manual .........................1121 DNP3 protocol.......................1123 Function block................................................................................1131 Settings.............................................................................1128 Principle of operation...1127 Functionality....................................Table of contents Monitored data.........................................................1124 Monitored data................................................................................................1125 Generic communication function for Measured Value MVGAPC....................................................1122 Technical data......................1126 Settings..................................1116 Operation principle...................1117 Technical data........................1122 Functionality......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1137 Operation principle......................................................................1128 Settings..

...................1175 Function block............................................................................................................................................................................1176 30 Technical Manual ..........................................1175 Settings............1169 IEC 60870-5-103 communication protocol.......................1169 Introduction....1169 Identification...1174 Function status earth-fault for IEC 60870-5-103 I103EF......................................1160 Settings..........................1174 Signals...............................................................................................................................................1169 Technical data................................................................................................................................................................1170 Settings.......................1174 Function block...........................1141 Settings....................................................................................................1173 Function status auto-recloser for IEC 60870-5-103 I103AR..................................1142 Operation principle......................................................................................................1174 Functionality........1170 Function block........................................................................................................1171 Identification..........................1175 Signals.........................................................................................1175 Functionality.........................................................................................................................................1171 Functionality................................1160 Design...........................................................................................1142 Technical data....................1175 Function status fault protection for IEC 60870-5-103 I103FLTPROT...........................1173 Function block................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1160 SPA communication protocol.........................................................................................1161 Operation principle.........................................................................................................................................1175 Identification................................................................................1172 Function block....................................1173 Functionality...................1173 Identification....................................................................................................................................................1160 Functionality................................................................................................................1169 Measurands for IEC 60870-5-103 I103MEAS........1172 Settings.....................................................1171 Measurands user defined signals for IEC 60870-5-103 I103MEASUSR...................1170 Signals........................................................................Table of contents LON communication protocol...........................................1169 Functionality......1172 Signals.1141 Functionality....................1161 Communication ports.............................................................................................................................................1174 Settings.................................................1174 Identification..............

.................1182 Function block................................1176 Settings.................1182 Identification..................................................................................................1184 Identification...............................................................................1183 Functionality.........................................................1180 Status for user defined signals for IEC 60870-5-103 I103USRDEF........1184 Function commands user defined for IEC 60870-5-103 I103USRCMD.......................................................................................Table of contents Signals..1181 Signals.......................................................................1180 Function block.....................1184 Signals..........1183 Identification.......................................................................................1177 Identification..............................................................1178 Settings.........................................................1183 IED commands for IEC 60870-5-103 I103IEDCMD...................................................................................................................................................................1177 IED status for IEC 60870-5-103 I103IED...............1179 Settings.....................................1183 Signals..........1179 Identification.............................................................1180 Functionality...........1185 Function commands generic for IEC 60870-5-103 I103GENCMD.......................................................................................................................................................1180 Identification...............................................................................1182 Signals.....1181 Function commands for IEC 60870-5-103 I103CMD............................................................................................................................................................................................1182 Settings............................................................1179 Functionality..............................................................1179 Function block.1186 31 Technical Manual ........1184 Settings................................................................................1185 Functionality....1178 Signals...........................................................................................................1178 Supervison status for IEC 60870-5-103 I103SUPERV..........................................1182 Functionality...............................................................1184 Functionality........................................1181 Settings...........................................................................................................................................................1185 Identification...............................................................................................................................................1183 Function block......................................................1179 Signals.....................................................................1183 Settings....................................................................................................................................................................................1184 Function block..........................................................................1178 Function block..............................................................................1177 Functionality.................................................................................................................................................................

............1205 Signals.1203 Settings..................................................................................................................................................................................................1207 Settings........................1205 Settings...................................................................................................1187 Signals.....................................................................................................1206 GOOSE function block to receive an integer value GOOSEINTRCV......................1205 Function block........1188 Communication ports.............................................................1206 Functionality..................................................................................................1187 Function block............................................................................................................................................................1186 Settings.........1207 Operation principle .................................................................1200 Settings................................................................................1199 Function block.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1207 GOOSE function block to receive a measurand value GOOSEMVRCV................1199 Horizontal communication via GOOSE for interlocking GOOSEINTLKRCV........................................1187 Functionality...................................1188 General.....................................................1199 Functionality......1187 Settings.........................................1206 Function block...........................................................................................................................1203 Signals....................................1203 Function block..........................................1200 Signals..............................Table of contents Function block.............................................................................1205 Identification...................................................................1202 Goose binary receive GOOSEBINRCV.....................................................1205 Functionality...............................................................................................................................1188 Operation principle ........................................1187 Identification..........1186 IED commands with position and select for IEC 60870-5-103 I103POSCMD...............1208 Functionality...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1208 Identification.......................1206 Identification........................................................................................................................................................................................1204 GOOSE function block to receive a double point value GOOSEDPRCV.............................................................1198 Technical data.........1206 Operation principle ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1207 Signals....................................................................................1186 Signals..1208 32 Technical Manual .....................................

..................................1211 Settings..........1219 Functionality................................................................................................1209 GOOSE function block to receive a single point value GOOSESPRCV.............................................................................................1212 Functionality...................................................................1212 Identification.........................................................................1217 Activity logging ACTIVLOG...................................................................................................................1219 Identification...................1213 Function block..............................1214 Settings..............................................................................................1213 Functionality.....................................1212 GOOSE voltage control receiving block GOOSEVCTRRCV.....................................1217 Activity logging parameters ACTIVLOG.............................................................1212 Function block.............1214 Signals.........1217 Section 20 Remote communication..............................................................................1219 Function block...1210 Function block.....................................................1220 33 Technical Manual ...1219 Binary signal transfer................................................................................................................................................1220 Signals............................1213 General.............................1217 Settings.................1208 Settings.............................................................................................................................................................................1213 Design...................................1217 Security alarm SECALARM...............1209 Identification.................1210 Operation principle ..................................................................................................................................1213 MULTICMDRCV and MULTICMDSND...............................................................................................................................................1210 GOOSE VCTR configuration for send and receive GOOSEVCTRCONF......................................................................................1209 Operation principle ................1211 Identification..........................................................................1217 Settings...............................................................1209 Functionality........................................................................1210 Signals..................................................................................................1212 Signals................................................................................................1208 Signals.............................................................1211 Functionality................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1216 Security events on protocols SECALARM.............................................................................................................1210 Settings...1217 Signals..................Table of contents Function block.......................................................................................1216 Operation principle.............................................................................

.......................................1238 Operation principle...............................................1234 Authority management AUTHMAN...............1238 Internal signals....................................................................................................................1235 Settings........................1243 Signals..................................................1229 Section 21 Basic IED functions........................................................................................1237 Operation principle ..........................................................................................................................................Table of contents Settings.................................................................................................................1231 Functionality.................................................................................1237 Signals....................1236 Settings........................................................................................................................... FTPACCS.....................................................................1235 FTP access with SSL..................1235 FTP access with password FTPACCS........................1237 Functionality...............1242 Function block......1232 Operation principle ...............................1235 Identification...........................................................................................................1234 Identification..........................1225 Operation principle.......1234 AUTHMAN.....1236 Signals...........................................1231 Settings......................................................................................................................................1235 Settings.......................................1222 Monitored data......................1236 Function block.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1232 Authorization handling in the IED...................................................................1237 Self supervision with internal event list....1236 Authority status ATHSTAT......................................................1231 Authority check ATHCHCK...................1238 Settings............................................................................................................................1243 Settings...........................................................1236 Functionality....................................................................................................1227 Transmission of analog data from LDCM LDCMTransmit......................................................................................................................1237 Function block.............................................................................................................................................................................................1228 Function block..............1242 Time synchronization.....................................1231 Identification..........................1243 Operation principle ......................................................................................................................................................................1241 Technical data...................1242 Functionality....................................................................1248 34 Technical Manual ............................................................................................................................................1228 Signals....1240 Supervision of analog inputs............................................1236 Identification................................................................................

............................1267 Function block...............................1259 Test mode functionality TEST......................1264 Function block..............................................................1265 Signals...........................................................................................................................................................................................................1259 Function block.......................................1264 Signal matrix for binary inputs SMBI..............1265 Operation principle..................................................................1267 35 Technical Manual ................................................1266 Function block..1266 Operation principle......1266 Signals.................1263 Factory defined settings.1254 Technical data............................................................................................................................1262 Functionality.............................................................................................................1248 Real-time clock (RTC) operation.................................................................................1258 Signals....................................1260 Operation principle .......................................................1259 Functionality....................................................................................1263 Settings ......................1255 Signals.................................................................................1263 Product information...................................................Table of contents General concepts......................................................................................................................1266 Signal matrix for binary outputs SMBO .................................................................................................1258 Operation principle ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1251 Process bus IEC 61850-9-2LE synchronization..............1260 Signals.......1263 Functionality.........................................1250 Synchronization alternatives..........1255 Parameter setting groups..............1260 IED identifiers...........................................................................................1258 Functionality.....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1255 Function block.......................................................................................................................1267 Functionality..............................................................................................1256 ChangeLock function CHNGLCK............................................1264 Functionality..................................................................................1255 Functionality..............................................1260 Settings................................1256 Operation principle.1258 Function block..................1266 Functionality.........................................................................................................................1258 Settings......................................................1267 Signal matrix for mA inputs SMMI................................1262 Settings ................1255 Settings.....................................................................................

.......................................................................................1288 Overview...................................................1277 Functionality ..........................................................................................................1280 Section 22 IED hardware.........................................................1275 Settings..................1275 Signals.................1290 36 Technical Manual .........1273 Global base values GBASVAL...................Table of contents Signals....1275 Settings........................1268 Operation principle.......1290 Design.......................................................................................................................................................................................1271 Operation principle ...............................................................................................1289 Introduction.....................1281 Variants of case size with local HMI display.........1290 Power supply module (PSM)............................................................................................................................................1270 Settings...........................................1270 Signals.....................................................................................1290 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................1281 Case from the rear side..................................................................1268 Functionality...........................................................................................1278 Monitored data...................................................................1278 Operation principle........................................................................1274 Functionality.........................................................1277 Signals..............................................................................................................................1268 Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI............................................................1277 Function blocks............................................1275 Summation block 3 phase 3PHSUM................................................................................................................................................1276 Operation principle ...................1269 Function block....................................................................1288 Numeric processing module (NUM)...............................1274 Identification..................1274 Functionality..............................1277 Settings...............................................................................1276 Denial of service DOS..........................................................................1281 Overview..............................................1274 Settings...............1268 Frequency values..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1275 Function block.....................................................1274 Primary system values PRIMVAL........1275 Functionality............................................................................1289 Block diagram..........1289 Functionality....................................................................................................................1283 Hardware modules...........................1274 Identification................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.........................................................1301 Signals.........................................................................................................................................1322 Settings...................................................................................................1300 Binary output modules (BOM)......................................................................................1291 Technical data.............................................................................................................................................................................1296 Signals.....................1301 Introduction.....................................................1299 Settings..............................................................1313 Design...................................1307 Static binary output module (SOM)...............................1309 Settings.......................1321 Introduction.....................1313 Signals......1313 Introduction.........1310 Monitored data.............................................................1294 Introduction.........................................................................1291 Design.............................1321 Signals.............1308 Introduction......1296 Introduction............................................................................................................................................1308 Design.................................................................1319 mA input module (MIM)......................1303 Settings........................................................................................................1317 Monitored data.............................1323 37 Technical Manual ..................1301 Design......................................................................................................1300 Technical data..............1303 Monitored data.......................1321 Design..................................1291 Local human-machine interface (Local HMI)...........................................................................................................1310 Technical data................1300 Monitored data.......................................................................Table of contents Technical data.............1294 Binary input module (BIM)..................1308 Signals..................................................................................1316 Settings.......................................................... with time synchronization (ADM) ..........................................1317 Technical data........................................................1294 Design........................1293 Analog digital conversion module..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1312 Binary input/output module (IOM).........................................................................................................................................................................................................1296 Design.........................................1291 Introduction............................................................................1291 Transformer input module (TRM).....................................1304 Technical data...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................................1327 Design................................................................................................1339 Technical data..............1345 38 Technical Manual ............................................1330 Line data communication module (LDCM).............1332 Introduction.....................1344 Side-by-side flush mounting dimensions......................................................................1336 GPS antenna................................................1340 Case with rear cover.................................................1336 Design......1335 Introduction..........................21-LDCM)...............................................................................................1325 Serial and LON communication module (SLM) .....................1330 Introduction...............................1338 Design....................1327 Introduction....................................................1339 Dimensions......1330 Technical data...............1336 Technical data.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1338 IRIG-B time synchronization module IRIG-B.....................................................................1338 Settings.......1327 Technical data...................................Table of contents Monitored data.............1335 Design.....................1333 Functionality.......................................................................................................................................................................1342 Flush mounting dimensions................1336 Monitored data..............1329 Design.................................1332 Design.....................................21 line data communication (X.....1336 Introduction.....1330 Design...................1326 Galvanic RS485 communication module..1331 Galvanic X..................................................1335 Technical data.................................1328 Optical ethernet module (OEM)....................1329 Technical data.................................................................................................................................................................1325 Technical data................................................................................1325 Introduction......................................................................................................................................................1335 GPS time synchronization module (GTM)......................................1340 Case without rear cover...................................................................................1329 Introduction.............................................................................................................................................................................................1338 Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................................1329 Functionality.............................................................................................................1336 Technical data.....................................................................1325 Design.....................................................................................................................................................................................................1324 Technical data.................

...................................................................1369 Principle of operation..........................................................................................1357 Influencing factors......1353 Side-by-side 19” rack mounting......................................................................1346 External resistor unit for high impedance differential protection.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1367 Section 26 Inverse time characteristics..................................................................................1351 Overview..................1355 Mounting procedure for side-by-side flush mounting..1346 Mounting alternatives.1350 Overview.................................................................................................................................................................................................................1351 Mounting procedure for wall mounting..............1353 Overview.........................................................1369 Application........................................................................................................................................1365 Section 25 IED and functionality tests.............................................................1355 Overview..................................................................................................1354 Side-by-side flush mounting.....................................................1352 How to reach the rear side of the IED.................................................................1350 Mounting procedure for 19” panel rack mounting....................................................................1407 Glossary.........................1348 Mounting procedure for flush mounting....................................................................................1357 Type tests according to standard.........................1361 Labels on IED........................1356 Connection system.......................................................................................................................1356 Technical data.............................................................Table of contents Wall mounting dimensions............................................................................................1372 Inverse characteristics.....1361 Section 24 Connection diagrams...1377 Section 27 Glossary....1348 Overview.....1351 Wall mounting.................................1348 Flush mounting............1354 IED in the 670 series mounted with a RHGS6 case...........1407 39 Technical Manual .............................................................................................................1356 Enclosure..........1372 Mode of operation.......1358 Section 23 Labels.............................1353 Mounting procedure for side-by-side rack mounting.........................1349 19” panel rack mounting.....

40 .

and in normal service. sorted per function. and during normal service. 41 Technical Manual . 1. The system engineer must have a thorough knowledge of protection systems. protection equipment.1 This manual The technical manual contains application and functionality descriptions and lists function blocks. installation and commissioning. input and output signals.Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Section 1 Introduction 1. The manual can be used as a technical reference during the engineering phase. logic diagrams. installation and commissioning phase. protection functions and the configured functional logic in the IEDs. The installation and commissioning personnel must have a basic knowledge in handling electronic equipment. setting parameters and technical data.2 Intended audience This manual addresses system engineers and installation and commissioning personnel. who use technical data during engineering.

The manual also recommends a sequence for the engineering of protection and control functions.1 Engineering Product documentation Planning & purchase 1.3 Installing 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Engineering manual Installation manual Commissioning manual Operation manual Application manual Technical manual Communication protocol manual Cyber security deployment guideline IEC07000220-4-en. LHMI functions as well as communication engineering for IEC 60870-5-103.Section 1 Introduction Decommissioning Deinstalling & disposal Maintenance Operation Product documentation set Commissioning 1. The chapters are organized in the chronological order in which the IED should be installed. parameter setting and 42 Technical Manual . The commissioning manual contains instructions on how to commission the IED.3. IEC 61850 and DNP3. The manual provides instructions on how to set up a PCM600 project and insert IEDs to the project structure.vsd IEC07000220 V4 EN Figure 1: The intended use of manuals throughout the product lifecycle The engineering manual contains instructions on how to engineer the IEDs using the various tools available within the PCM600 software. The manual provides procedures for the checking of external circuitry and energizing the IED. The manual provides procedures for mechanical and electrical installation. The installation manual contains instructions on how to install the IED. The manual can also be used by system engineers and maintenance personnel for assistance during the testing phase.

The manual provides instructions for the monitoring. Certification. input and output signals. The manual can be used to find out when and for what purpose a typical protection function can be used. setting parameters and technical data. and product engineering for cyber security related events are described and sorted by function. The chapters are organized in the chronological order in which the IED should be commissioned. installation and commissioning phase. The manual concentrates on the vendor-specific implementations.Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 139-UEN - configuration as well as verifying settings by secondary injection. The operation manual contains instructions on how to operate the IED once it has been commissioned.2 Document revision history Document revision/date -/May 2014 History First release 43 Technical Manual .3. The application manual contains application descriptions and setting guidelines sorted per function. installation and commissioning phase. logic diagrams. and during normal service. sorted per function. and during normal service. controlling and setting of the IED. The manual can also provide assistance for calculating settings. Authorization with role based access control. The manual should be used in conjunction with the corresponding communication protocol manual. The cyber security deployment guideline describes the process for handling cyber security when communicating with the IED. The technical manual contains application and functionality descriptions and lists function blocks. The guideline can be used as a technical reference during the engineering phase. The relevant procedures may be followed also during the service and maintenance activities. The point list manual describes the outlook and properties of the data points specific to the IED. The manual can be used as a technical reference during the engineering phase. The manual describes the process of testing an IED in a substation which is not in service. The communication protocol manual describes the communication protocols supported by the IED. The manual also describes how to identify disturbances and how to view calculated and measured power grid data to determine the cause of a fault. 1.

IEC 61850 Edition 2 1MRK 511 303-UEN Communication protocol manual. The caution hot surface icon indicates important information or warning about the temperature of product surfaces. 44 Technical Manual . IEC 60870-5-103 1MRK 511 304-UEN Communication protocol manual.3. COMBITEST 1MRK 512 001-BEN 1. IEC 61850 Edition 1 1MRK 511 302-UEN Communication protocol manual. LON 1MRK 511 305-UEN Communication protocol manual.4.4 Document symbols and conventions 1.1 Symbols The electrical warning icon indicates the presence of a hazard which could result in electrical shock. SPA 1MRK 511 306-UEN Accessories guide 1MRK 514 012-BEN Cyber security deployment guideline 1MRK 511 309-UEN Connection and Installation components 1MRK 513 003-BEN Test system.Section 1 Introduction 1. The warning icon indicates the presence of a hazard which could result in personal injury.3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Related documents Documents related to RET670 Identify number Application manual 1MRK 504 138-UEN Commissioning manual 1MRK 504 140-UEN Product guide 1MRK 504 141-BEN Technical manual 1MRK 504 139-UEN Type test certificate 1MRK 504 141-TEN 670 series manuals Identify number Operation manual 1MRK 500 118-UEN Engineering manual 1MRK 511 308-UEN Installation manual 1MRK 514 019-UEN Communication protocol manual.

select Main menu/Settings.Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The caution icon indicates important information or warning related to the concept discussed in the text. how to design your project or how to use a certain function. to save the changes in non-volatile memory.4.2 Document conventions • • • • • • Abbreviations and acronyms in this manual are spelled out in the glossary. For example. for example. to navigate between the options. The glossary also contains definitions of important terms. use and . For example. it is necessary to understand that under certain operational conditions. operation of damaged equipment may result in degraded process performance leading to personal injury or death. HMI menu paths are presented in bold. Although warning hazards are related to personal injury. the function can be enabled and disabled with the Operation setting. LHMI messages are shown in Courier font. Each function block symbol shows the available input/output signal. It is important that the user fully complies with all warning and cautionary notices. select Yes and press . The tip icon indicates advice on. • • • the character ^ in front of an input/output signal name indicates that the signal name may be customized using the PCM600 software. the character * after an input/output signal name indicates that the signal must be connected to another function block in the application configuration to achieve a valid application configuration. 1. The information icon alerts the reader of important facts and conditions. For example. Logic diagrams describe the signal logic inside the function block and are bordered by dashed lines. Parameter names are shown in italics. Push button navigation in the LHMI menu structure is presented by using the push button icons. It might indicate the presence of a hazard which could result in corruption of software or damage to equipment or property. 45 Technical Manual . For example.

3 Signals in frames with a shaded area on their right hand side represent setting parameter signals that are only settable via the PST or LHMI. the suffix -int is added to the signal name to indicate where the signal starts and continues.Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 139-UEN - • • • 1. If an internal signal path cannot be drawn with a continuous line.4.” IEC61850 edition 1 / edition 2 mapping Table 1: IEC61850 edition 1 / edition 2 mapping Function block name Edition 1 logical nodes Edition 2 logical nodes AEGPVOC AEGGAPC AEGPVOC AGSAL SECLLN0 AGSAL AGSAL ALMCALH ALMCALH ALTIM ALTIM ALTMS ALTMS ALTRK ALTRK BCZSPDIF BCZSPDIF BCZSPDIF BCZTPDIF BCZTPDIF BCZTPDIF BDCGAPC SWSGGIO BDCGAPC BRCPTOC BRCPTOC BRCPTOC BTIGAPC B16IFCVI BTIGAPC BUSPTRC_B1 BBSPLLN0 BUSPTRC LLN0 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B2 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B3 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B4 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B5 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B6 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B7 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B8 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B9 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B10 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B11 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B12 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B13 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B14 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B15 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B16 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B17 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC Table continues on next page 46 Technical Manual . Signal paths that extend beyond the logic diagram and continue in another diagram have the suffix ”-cont.

Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block name Edition 1 logical nodes Edition 2 logical nodes BUSPTRC_B18 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B19 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B20 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B21 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B22 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B23 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUSPTRC_B24 BUSPTRC BUSPTRC BUTPTRC_B1 BBTPLLN0 BUTPTRC LLN0 BUTPTRC BUTPTRC_B2 BUTPTRC BUTPTRC BUTPTRC_B3 BUTPTRC BUTPTRC BUTPTRC_B4 BUTPTRC BUTPTRC BUTPTRC_B5 BUTPTRC BUTPTRC BUTPTRC_B6 BUTPTRC BUTPTRC BUTPTRC_B7 BUTPTRC BUTPTRC BUTPTRC_B8 BUTPTRC BUTPTRC BZNSPDIF_A BZNSPDIF BZNSGAPC BZNSPDIF BZNSPDIF_B BZNSPDIF BZNSGAPC BZNSPDIF BZNTPDIF_A BZNTPDIF BZNTGAPC BZNTPDIF BZNTPDIF_B BZNTPDIF BZNTGAPC BZNTPDIF CBPGAPC CBPLLN0 CBPMMXU CBPPTRC HOLPTOV HPH1PTOV PH3PTOC PH3PTUC RP3PDOP LLN0 CBPPTRC HOLPTOV HPH1PTOV PH3PTOC PH3PTUC RP3PDOP CCPDSC CCRPLD CCPDSC CCRBRF CCRBRF CCRBRF CCSRBRF CCSRBRF CCSRBRF CCSSPVC CCSRDIF CCSSPVC CMMXU CMMXU CMMXU CMSQI CMSQI CMSQI COUVGAPC COUVLLN0 COUVPTOV COUVPTUV LLN0 COUVPTOV COUVPTUV Table continues on next page 47 Technical Manual .

Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block name Edition 1 logical nodes Edition 2 logical nodes CVGAPC GF2LLN0 GF2MMXN GF2PHAR GF2PTOV GF2PTUC GF2PTUV GF2PVOC PH1PTRC LLN0 GF2MMXN GF2PHAR GF2PTOV GF2PTUC GF2PTUV GF2PVOC PH1PTRC CVMMXN CVMMXN CVMMXN DPGAPC DPGGIO DPGAPC DRPRDRE DRPRDRE DRPRDRE ECPSCH ECPSCH ECPSCH ECRWPSCH ECRWPSCH ECRWPSCH EF4PTOC EF4LLN0 EF4PTRC EF4RDIR GEN4PHAR PH1PTOC LLN0 EF4PTRC EF4RDIR GEN4PHAR PH1PTOC EFPIOC EFPIOC EFPIOC ETPMMTR ETPMMTR ETPMMTR FDPSPDIS FDPSPDIS FDPSPDIS FMPSPDIS FMPSPDIS FMPSPDIS FRPSPDIS FPSRPDIS FPSRPDIS FTAQFVR FTAQFVR FTAQFVR FUFSPVC SDDRFUF FUFSPVC GENPDIF GENPDIF LLN0 GENGAPC GENPDIF GENPHAR GENPTRC GOPPDOP GOPPDOP LLN0 GOPPDOP PH1PTRC GRPTTR GRPTTR LLN0 GRPTTR GRPTUC GSPTTR GSPTTR GSPTTR GUPPDUP GUPPDUP LLN0 GUPPDUP PH1PTRC HZPDIF HZPDIF HZPDIF INDCALCH INDCALH ITBGAPC IB16FCVB ITBGAPC L3CPDIF L3CPDIF LLN0 L3CGAPC L3CPDIF L3CPHAR L3CPTRC L4UFCNT L4UFCNT L4UFCNT Table continues on next page 48 Technical Manual .

Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block name Edition 1 logical nodes Edition 2 logical nodes L6CPDIF L6CPDIF LLN0 L6CGAPC L6CPDIF L6CPHAR L6CPTRC LAPPGAPC LAPPLLN0 LAPPPDUP LAPPPUPF LLN0 LAPPPDUP LAPPPUPF LCCRPTRC LCCRPTRC LCCRPTRC LCNSPTOC LCNSPTOC LCNSPTOC LCNSPTOV LCNSPTOV LCNSPTOV LCP3PTOC LCP3PTOC LCP3PTOC LCP3PTUC LCP3PTUC LCP3PTUC LCPTTR LCPTTR LCPTTR LCZSPTOC LCZSPTOC LCZSPTOC LCZSPTOV LCZSPTOV LCZSPTOV LD0LLN0 LLN0 LLN0 LDLPSCH LDLPDIF LDLPSCH LDRGFC STSGGIO LDRGFC LEXPDIS LEXPDIS LLN0 LEXPDIS LEXPTRC LFPTTR LFPTTR LFPTTR LMBRFLO LMBRFLO LMBRFLO LOVPTUV LOVPTUV LOVPTUV LPHD LPHD LPHD LT3CPDIF LT3CPDIF LLN0 LT3CGAPC LT3CPDIF LT3CPHAR LT3CPTRC LT6CPDIF LT6CPDIF LLN0 LT6CGAPC LT6CPDIF LT6CPHAR LT6CPTRC MVGAPC MVGGIO MVGAPC NS2PTOC NS2LLN0 NS2PTOC NS2PTRC LLN0 NS2PTOC NS2PTRC NS4PTOC EF4LLN0 EF4PTRC EF4RDIR GEN4PHAR PH1PTOC LLN0 EF4PTRC EF4RDIR PH1PTOC OC4PTOC OC4LLN0 GEN4PHAR PH3PTOC PH3PTRC LLN0 GEN4PHAR PH3PTOC PH3PTRC Table continues on next page 49 Technical Manual .

Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block name Edition 1 logical nodes Edition 2 logical nodes OEXPVPH OEXPVPH OEXPVPH OOSPPAM OOSPPAM LLN0 OOSPPAM OOSPTRC OV2PTOV GEN2LLN0 OV2PTOV PH1PTRC LLN0 OV2PTOV PH1PTRC PAPGAPC PAPGAPC PAPGAPC PCFCNT PCGGIO PCFCNT PH4SPTOC OCNDLLN0 GEN4PHAR PH1BPTOC PH1PTRC LLN0 GEN4PHAR PH1BPTOC PH1PTRC PHPIOC PHPIOC PHPIOC PRPSTATUS RCHLCCH RCHLCCH SCHLCCH PSLPSCH ZMRPSL PSLPSCH PSPPPAM PSPPPAM LLN0 PSPPPAM PSPPTRC QCBAY QCBAY LLN0 QCRSV QCRSV QCRSV REFPDIF REFPDIF REFPDIF ROTIPHIZ ROTIPHIZ LLN0 ROTIPHIZ ROTIPTRC ROV2PTOV GEN2LLN0 PH1PTRC ROV2PTOV LLN0 PH1PTRC ROV2PTOV SAPFRC SAPFRC SAPFRC SAPTOF SAPTOF SAPTOF SAPTUF SAPTUF SAPTUF SCCVPTOC SCCVPTOC SCCVPTOC SCILO SCILO SCILO SCSWI SCSWI SCSWI SDEPSDE SDEPSDE LLN0 SDEPSDE SDEPTOC SDEPTOV SDEPTRC SESRSYN RSY1LLN0 AUT1RSYN MAN1RSYN SYNRSYN LLN0 AUT1RSYN MAN1RSYN SYNRSYN SINGLELCCH SCHLCCH SLGAPC SLGGIO SLGAPC SMBRREC SMBRREC SMBRREC SMPPTRC SMPPTRC SMPPTRC Table continues on next page 50 Technical Manual .

Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block name Edition 1 logical nodes Edition 2 logical nodes SP16GAPC SP16GGIO SP16GAPC SPC8GAPC SPC8GGIO SPC8GAPC SPGAPC SPGGIO SPGAPC SSCBR SSCBR SSCBR SSIMG SSIMG SSIMG SSIML SSIML SSIML STBPTOC STBPTOC STBPTOC STEFPHIZ STEFPHIZ STEFPHIZ STTIPHIZ STTIPHIZ STTIPHIZ SXCBR SXCBR SXCBR SXSWI SXSWI SXSWI T2WPDIF T2WPDIF LLN0 T2WGAPC T2WPDIF T2WPHAR T2WPTRC T3WPDIF T3WPDIF LLN0 T3WGAPC T3WPDIF T3WPHAR T3WPTRC TCLYLTC TCLYLTC TCLYLTC TCMYLTC TCMYLTC TCMYLTC TEIGAPC TEIGGIO TEIGAPC TMAGAPC TMAGGIO TMAGAPC TR1ATCC TR1ATCC TR1ATCC TR8ATCC TR8ATCC TR8ATCC TRPTTR TRPTTR TRPTTR UV2PTUV GEN2LLN0 PH1PTRC UV2PTUV LLN0 PH1PTRC UV2PTUV VDCPTOV VDCPTOV VDCPTOV VDSPVC VDRFUF VDSPVC VMMXU VMMXU VMMXU VMSQI VMSQI VMSQI VNMMXU VNMMXU VNMMXU VRPVOC VRLLN0 PH1PTRC PH1PTUV VRPVOC LLN0 PH1PTRC PH1PTUV VRPVOC VSGAPC VSGGIO VSGAPC WRNCALH WRNCALH ZC1PPSCH ZPCPSCH ZPCPSCH ZC1WPSCH ZPCWPSCH ZPCWPSCH Table continues on next page 51 Technical Manual .

Section 1 Introduction 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block name Edition 1 logical nodes Edition 2 logical nodes ZCLCPSCH ZCLCPLAL LLN0 ZCLCPSCH ZCPSCH ZCPSCH ZCPSCH ZCRWPSCH ZCRWPSCH ZCRWPSCH ZCVPSOF ZCVPSOF ZCVPSOF ZGVPDIS ZGVLLN0 PH1PTRC ZGVPDIS ZGVPTUV LLN0 PH1PTRC ZGVPDIS ZGVPTUV ZMCAPDIS ZMCAPDIS ZMCAPDIS ZMCPDIS ZMCPDIS ZMCPDIS ZMFCPDIS ZMFCLLN0 PSFPDIS ZMFPDIS LLN0 PSFPDIS ZMFPDIS ZMFPDIS ZMFLLN0 PSFPDIS ZMFPDIS LLN0 PSFPDIS ZMFPDIS ZMHPDIS ZMHPDIS ZMHPDIS ZMMAPDIS ZMMAPDIS ZMMAPDIS ZMMPDIS ZMMPDIS ZMMPDIS ZMQAPDIS ZMQAPDIS ZMQAPDIS ZMQPDIS ZMQPDIS ZMQPDIS ZMRAPDIS ZMRAPDIS ZMRAPDIS ZMRPDIS ZMRPDIS ZMRPDIS ZMRPSB ZMRPSB ZMRPSB ZSMGAPC ZSMGAPC ZSMGAPC 52 Technical Manual .

three winding 1-2 HZPDIF 87 1Ph high impedance differential protection 0-6 1 3-A02 REFPDIF 87N Restricted earth fault protection. low impedance 0-3 1 LDRGFC 11RE L Additional security logic for differential protection 0-1 Impedance protection ZMQPDIS. two winding 1-2 T3WPDIF 87T Transformer differential protection.Section 2 Available functions 2. quadrilateral characteristic Table continues on next page 53 Technical Manual .1 Main protection functions = option quantities 3A03 = optional function included in packages A03 (refer to ordering details) RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI = number of basic instances 0-3 RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 2 1 1 1 1 3-A02 3-A02 3-A02 2 2 2-B 1-A01 2-B 1-A01 RET670 (A25) Section 2 Available functions 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Differential protection T2WPDIF 87T Transformer differential protection. ZMQAPDIS 21 Distance protection zone. quadrilateral characteristic 0-5 4-B12 4-B12 4-B12 4-B12 ZDRDIR 21D Directional impedance quadrilateral 0-2 2-B12 2-B12 2-B12 2-B12 ZMCAPDIS 21 Additional distance measuring zone.

ZMCAPDIS 21 Distance measuring zone.Section 2 Available functions RET670 (B40) ZMCPDIS. quadrilateral characteristic for series compensated lines 0-5 ZDSRDIR 21D Directional impedance quadrilateral. separate settings 0-5 FRPSPDIS 21 Phase selection. quadrilateral characteristic. quadrilateral characteristic with fixed angle 0-2 ZMFPDIS 21 High speed distance protection 0–1 ZMFCPDIS 21 High speed distance protection for series compensated lines 0–1 RET670 (A25) RET670 (A40) Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table continues on next page 54 Technical Manual . ZMRAPDIS 21 Distance protection zone. including series compensation 0-2 FDPSPDIS 21 Phase selection. quadrilateral for earth faults 0-5 4-B13 4-B13 4-B13 4-B13 ZDMRDIR 21D Directional impedance element for mho characteristic 0-2 2-B13 2-B13 2-B13 2-B13 ZDARDIR Additional distance protection directional function for earth faults 0-1 1-B13 1-B13 1-B13 1-B13 ZSMGAPC Mho impedance supervision logic 0-1 1-B13 1-B13 1-B13 1-B13 2-B13 2-B13 2-B13 2-B13 RET670 FMPSPDIS 21 Faulty phase identification with load enchroachment 0-2 ZMRPDIS. quadrilateral characteristic with fixed angle 0-2 2-B12 2-B12 2-B12 2-B12 ZMHPDIS 21 Fullscheme distance protection. mho characteristic 0-5 4-B13 4-B13 4-B13 4-B13 ZMMPDIS. ZMMAPDIS 21 Fullscheme distance protection.

68 PSLPSCH Power swing detection 0-1 Power swing logic 0-1 PSPPPAM 78 Pole slip/out-ofstep protection 0-1 OOSPPAM 78 Out-of-step protection 0–1 Phase preference logic 0-1 Underimpedance for generators and transformers 0–1 PPLPHIZ ZGVPDIS 21 2.2 1-B12 1-B13 1-B12 1-B13 1-B12 1-B13 1-B12 1-B13 1-B14 1-B14 1-B14 1-B14 Back-up protection functions RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 (A25) Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 RET670 (B40) ZMRPSB RET670 (A40) RET670 Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 RET670 (A25) Section 2 Available functions 1MRK 504 139-UEN - PHPIOC 50 Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 0-8 3 2 2 3 3 2-C19 OC4PTOC 51_671) Four step phase overcurrent protection 0-8 3 2 2 3 3 2-C19 EFPIOC 50N Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection 0-8 3 2 2 3 3 2-C19 EF4PTOC 51N 67N2) Four step residual overcurrent protection 0-8 3 2 2 3 3 2-C19 NS4PTOC 46I2 Four step directional negative phase sequence overcurrent protection 0-8 2-C42 2-C42 2-C42 3-C43 3-C43 2-C19 RET670 Current protection Table continues on next page 55 Technical Manual .

Celsius 0–2 LFPTTR 26 Thermal overload protection. two time constant 0-6 1 1B 1-C05 1B 1-C05 2B 1-C05 2B 1-C05 CCRBRF 50BF Breaker failure protection 0-6 3 2 4 3 6 CCPDSC 52PD Pole discordance protection 0-2 1 2 1 2 GUPPDUP 37 Directional underpower protection 0-2 1-C17 1-C17 1-C17 1-C17 GOPPDOP 32 Directional overpower protection 0-2 1-C17 1-C17 1-C17 1-C17 BRCPTOC 46 Broken conductor check 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Capacitor bank protection 0-6 CBPGAPC NS2PTOC 46I2 Negative sequence time overcurrent protection for machines 0-2 VRPVOC 51V Voltage restrained overcurrent protection 0-3 Voltage protection UV2PTUV 27 Two step undervoltage protection 0-3 1-D01 1B 1-D01 1B 1-D01 1B 2-D02 1B 2-D02 2-D02 OV2PTOV 59 Two step overvoltage protection 0-3 1-D01 1B 1-D01 1B 1-D01 1B 1-D02 1B 1-D02 2-D02 Table continues on next page 56 Technical Manual . one time constant.Section 2 Available functions RET670 RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 (A25) Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 1 1-C16 1-C16 1-C16 1-C16 1-C16 SDEPSDE 67N Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection 0-3 LCPTTR 26 Thermal overload protection. one time constant. Fahrenheit 0–2 TRPTTR 49 Thermal overload protection.

Section 2 Available functions 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 (A25) Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 1-D01 1B 1-D01 1B 1-D01 1B 1-D02 1B 1-D02 2-D02 1-D03 1-D03 2-D04 2-D04 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RET670 ROV2PTOV 59N Two step residual overvoltage protection 0-3 OEXPVPH 24 Overexcitation protection 0-2 VDCPTOV 60 Voltage differential protection 0-2 LOVPTUV 27 Loss of voltage check Frequency protection SAPTUF 81 Underfrequency protection 0-6 6-E01 6-E01 6-E01 6-E01 6-E01 SAPTOF 81 Overfrequency protection 0-6 6-E01 6-E01 6-E01 6-E01 6-E01 SAPFRC 81 Rate-of-change frequency protection 0-6 6-E01 6-E01 6-E01 6-E01 6-E01 General current and voltage protection 0-9 6-F02 6-F02 6-F02 6-F02 Multipurpose filter 0-6 Multipurpose protection CVGAPC General calculation SMAIHPAC 1) 67 requires voltage 2) 67N requires voltage 57 Technical Manual .

energizing check and synchronizing 0-6 APC30 3 Apparatus control for up to 6 bays. 2-H16 1-H11. 2-H18 2 2-H18 TCMYLTC 84 Tap changer control and supervision. max 30 apparatuses (6CBs) incl. 6 binary inputs 0-4 4 4 4 4 4 TCLYLTC 84 Tap changer control and supervision.3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 1 1 1-B. interlocking 0-1 QCBAY Apparatus control 1+5/APC30 1 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 LOCREM Handling of LRswitch positions 1+5/APC30 1 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 LOCREMCTRL LHMI control of PSTO 1+5/APC30 1 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 1+5/ APC3 0 TR1ATCC 90 Automatic voltage control for tap changer. command function for DNP3.Section 2 Available functions RET670 (A25) RET670 (B40) RET670 Transformer RET670 (A40) Function description RET670 (B30) ANSI RET670 (A30) IEC 61850 Control and monitoring functions RET670 (A10) 2. single control 0-4 1-H11 1-H11 1-H11. 3H02 1-B. parallel control 0-4 1-H15 1-H15 1-H15.0 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 SINGLECMD Single command. 16 signals 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Table continues on next page 58 Technical Manual . 32 binary inputs 0-4 4 4 4 4 4 SLGAPC Logic rotating switch for function selection and LHMI presentation 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 VSGAPC Selector mini switch 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 DPGAPC Generic communication function for Double Point indication 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 SPC8GAPC Single point generic control 8 signals 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 AUTOBITS AutomationBits. 2-H18 1-H15. 2-H16 2 2-H16 TR8ATCC 90 Automatic voltage control for tap changer. 2H01 1-B. 4H03 1-H09 1-H09 1-H09 1-H09 1-H09 Control SESRSYN 25 Synchrocheck.

PULSETIMER. RSMEMORY Configurable logic blocks 40-280 40-28 0 40-28 0 40-28 0 40-28 0 40-28 0 40-28 0 FUFSPVC VDSPVC Logic SMPPTRC Table continues on next page 59 Technical Manual . LLD. SRMEMORY. GATE. TIMERSET. XOR. INV. OR.Section 2 Available functions 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 (A25) Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 VCTRSEND Horizontal communication via GOOSE for VCTR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 GOOSEVCTRR CV Horizontal communication via GOOSE for VCTR 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 I103CMD Function commands for IEC 60870-5-103 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I103GENCMD Function commands generic for IEC 60870-5-103 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 I103POSCMD IED commands with position and select for IEC 60870-5-103 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 I103IEDCMD IED commands for IEC 60870-5-103 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I103USRCMD Function commands user defined for IEC 60870-5-103 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 5 4 RET670 Secondary system supervision CCSSPVC 87 Current circuit supervision 0-5 Fuse failure supervision 0-4 1 3 3 3 3 60 Fuse failure supervision based on voltage difference 0-4 1-G03 1-G03 1-G03 1-G03 1-G03 1-G03 94 Tripping logic 1-6 6 6 6 6 6 6 TMAGAPC Trip matrix logic 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 ALMCALH Logic for group alarm 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 WRNCALH Logic for group warning 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 INDCALH Logic for group indication 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 AND.

VMMXU. GATE. SRMEMORYQ T. INVALIDQT. ORQT. VNMMXU Measurements 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 AISVBAS Function block for service value presentation of secondary analog inputs 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 EVENT Event function 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 RET670 Monitoring Table continues on next page 60 Technical Manual . INVERTERQT. RSMEMORYQ T. OR. VMSQI. CMSQI. SRMEMORY. INDEXTSPQT Configurable logic blocks Q/T 0–1 SLGAPC. CMMXU. LLD. PULSETIMERQ T. PULSETIMER. AND. INDCOMBSPQ T. TIMERSETQT. INV Extension logic package 0–1 FXDSIGN Fixed signal function block 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B16I Boolean 16 to Integer conversion 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 BTIGAPC Boolean 16 to Integer conversion with Logic Node representation 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 IB16 Integer to Boolean 16 conversion 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 ITBGAPC Integer to Boolean 16 conversion with Logic Node representation 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 TEIGAPC Elapsed time integrator with limit transgression and overflow supervision 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 CVMMXN. XOR. TIMERSET. XORQT. VSGAPC.Section 2 Available functions RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 (A25) Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 1MRK 504 139-UEN - ANDQT.

A3RADR. A4RADR.Section 2 Available functions 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 (A25) Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 DRPRDRE. B3RBDR. B6RBDR Disturbance report 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SPGAPC Generic communication function for Single Point indication 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 SP16GAPC Generic communication function for Single Point indication 16 inputs 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 MVGAPC Generic communication function for Measured Value 24 24 24 24 24 24 24 BINSTATREP Logical signal status report 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 RANGE_XP Measured value expander block 66 66 66 66 66 66 66 RET670 SSIMG 63 Gas medium supervision 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 SSIML 71 Liquid medium supervision 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 SSCBR Circuit breaker monitoring 0-6 3-M13 2-M12 4-M14 3-M13 6-M15 I103MEAS Measurands for IEC 60870-5-103 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I103MEASUSR Measurands user defined signals for IEC 60870-5-103 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 I103AR Function status autorecloser for IEC 60870-5-103 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I103EF Function status earthfault for IEC 60870-5-103 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I103FLTPROT Function status fault protection for IEC 60870-5-103 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I103IED IED status for IEC 60870-5-103 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table continues on next page 61 Technical Manual . B4RBDR. A1RADR. B1RBDR. A2RADR. B2RBDR. B5RBDR.

Section 2 Available functions RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 (A25) Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 1MRK 504 139-UEN - I103SUPERV Supervison status for IEC 60870-5-103 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I103USRDEF Status for user defiend signals for IEC 60870-5-103 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 L4UFCNT Event counter with limit supervision 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 PCFCNT Pulse-counter logic 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 ETPMMTR Function for energy calculation and demand handling 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 RET670 Metering 2.0 communication general protocol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Station communication Table continues on next page 62 Technical Manual .4 RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 (A25) RET670 Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 Communication LONSPA. SPA SPA communication protocol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ADE LON communication protocol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 HORZCOMM Network variables via LON 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PROTOCOL Operation selection between SPA and IEC 60870-5-103 for SLM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RS485PROT Operation selection for RS485 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RS485GEN RS485 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DNPGEN DNP3.

CH3TCP.0 fault records for TCP/IP and EIA-485 communication protocol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IEC61850-8-1 Parameter setting function for IEC 61850 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 GOOSEINTLK RCV Horizontal communication via GOOSE for interlocking 59 59 59 59 59 59 59 GOOSEBINR CV Goose binary receive 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 GOOSEDPRC V GOOSE function block to receive a double point value 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 GOOSEINTR CV GOOSE function block to receive an integer value 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 GOOSEMVR CV GOOSE function block to receive a measurand value 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 GOOSESPRC V GOOSE function block to receive a single point value 64 64 64 64 64 64 64 GOOSEVCTR CONF GOOSE VCTR configuration for send and receive 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table continues on next page 63 Technical Manual .0 for TCP/ IP communication protocol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CHSEROPT DNP3.0 for EIA-485 communication protocol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CH1TCP.0 for TCP/ IP and EIA-485 communication protocol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 MST1TCP.0 communication general TCP protocol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 CHSERRS48 5 DNP3. CH2TCP. MST2TCP. MST4TCP DNP3. CH4TCP DNP3.0 for serial communication protocol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DNPFREC DNP3. MST3TCP.Section 2 Available functions 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 (A25) RET670 Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 DNPGENTCP DNP3.

Section 2 Available functions RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 (A25) RET670 Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 1MRK 504 139-UEN - VCTRSEND Horizontal communication via GOOSE for VCTR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 GOOSEVCTR RCV Horizontal communication via GOOSE for VCTR 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 MULTICMDR CV. LANCDI. MULTICMDS ND Multiple command and transmit 60/10 60/10 60/10 60/10 60/10 60/10 60/10 FRONT. LANABI. LANAB. LANCD Ethernet configuration of links 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 GATEWAY Ethernet configuration of link one 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 OPTICAL103 IEC 60870-5-103 Optical serial communication 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 RS485103 IEC 60870-5-103 serial communication for RS485 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 AGSAL Generic security application component 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LD0LLN0 IEC 61850 LD0 LLN0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SYSLLN0 IEC 61850 SYS LLN0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LPHD Physical device information 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PCMACCS IED Configuration Protocol 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 SECALARM Component for mapping security events on protocols such as DNP3 and IEC103 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 FSTACCS Field service tool access via SPA protocol over ethernet communication 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ACTIVLOG Activity logging parameters 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ALTRK Service Tracking 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table continues on next page 64 Technical Manual .

Section 2 Available functions 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RET670 (A40) RET670 (B40) RET670 (A25) RET670 Transformer RET670 (B30) Function description RET670 (A30) ANSI RET670 (A10) IEC 61850 SINGLELCCH Single ethernet port link status 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PRPSTATUS Dual ethernet port link status 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 IEC 62439-3 parallel redundancy protocol 0-1 1-P03 1-P03 1-P03 1-P03 1-P03 1-P03 Binary signal transfer receive/ transmit 6/36 6/36 6/36 6/36 6/36 6/36 6/36 Transmission of analog data from LDCM 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6/3/3 6/3/3 6/3/3 6/3/3 6/3/3 6/3/3 6/3/3 Process bus communication IEC 61850-9-2 1) PRP Remote communication Receive binary status from remote LDCM Scheme communication ECPSCH 85 Scheme communication logic for residual overcurrent protection 0-1 1 1 1 1 ECRWPSCH 85 Current reversal and weak-end infeed logic for residual overcurrent protection 0-1 1 1 1 1 1) Only included for 9-2LE products 2.5 Table 2: Basic IED functions Basic IED functions IEC 61850 or function name Description INTERRSIG Self supervision with internal event list SELFSUPEVLST Self supervision with internal event list TIMESYNCHGEN Time synchronization module Table continues on next page 65 Technical Manual .

frame rate control for OEM port AB DOSLANCD Denial of service. SYNCHCMPPS. DSTEND GPS time synchronization module IRIG-B Time synchronization SETGRPS Number of setting groups ACTVGRP Parameter setting groups TESTMODE Test mode functionality CHNGLCK Change lock function SMBI Signal matrix for binary inputs SMBO Signal matrix for binary outputs SMMI Signal matrix for mA inputs SMAI1 .SMAI20 Signal matrix for analog inputs 3PHSUM Summation block 3 phase ATHSTAT Authority status ATHCHCK Authority check AUTHMAN Authority management FTPACCS FTP access with password SPACOMMMAP SPA communication mapping SPATD Date and time via SPA protocol DOSFRNT Denial of service. frame rate control for OEM port CD DOSSCKT Denial of service. SYNCHPPS. SYNCHSPA. DSTENABLE.0 communication general protocol Table continues on next page 66 Technical Manual . SYNCHCMPPS Time synchronization TIMEZONE Time synchronization DSTBEGIN. SYNCHLON. SYNCHCAN. frame rate control for front port DOSLANAB Denial of service. SYNCHPPH.Section 2 Available functions IEC 61850 or function name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Description SYNCHBIN. socket flow control GBASVAL Global base values for settings PRIMVAL Primary system values ALTMS Time master supervision ALTIM Time management ALTRK Service tracking ACTIVLOG Activity logging parameters FSTACCS Field service tool access via SPA protocol over ethernet communication PCMACCS IED Configuration Protocol SECALARM Component for mapping security events on protocols such as DNP3 and IEC103 DNPGEN DNP3. SYNCHSNTP.

0 for serial communication protocol OPTICAL103 IEC 60870-5-103 Optical serial communication RS485103 IEC 60870-5-103 serial communication for RS485 IEC61850-8-1 Parameter setting function for IEC 61850 HORZCOMM Network variables via LON LONSPA SPA communication protocol LEDGEN General LED indication part for LHMI 67 Technical Manual .0 communication general TCP protocol CHSEROPT DNP3.0 for TCP/IP and EIA-485 communication protocol MSTSER DNP3.Section 2 Available functions 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IEC 61850 or function name Description DNPGENTCP DNP3.

68 .

The IED has the ability to receive analog values from primary equipment. During testing and commissioning of the IED the reference channel can be changed to facilitate testing and service values reading. For power measuring and all directional and differential functions the directions of the input currents must be defined in order to reflect the way the current transformers are installed/connected in the field ( primary and secondary connections ). that are sampled by Merging units (MU) connected to a process bus. The signals appear only in the SMT tool when a TRM is included in the configuration with the function selector tool. A reference PhaseAngleRef can be defined to facilitate service values reading. The availability of VT inputs depends on the ordered transformer input module (TRM) type. Setting values are in primary quantities as well and it is important to set the data about the connected current and voltage transformers properly. This analog channels phase angle will always be fixed to zero degrees and all other angle information will be shown in relation to this analog input. In the SMT tool they can be mapped to the desired virtual input (SMAI) of the IED and used internally in the configuration.1 Introduction Analog input channels must be configured and set properly in order to get correct measurement results and correct protection operations. 69 Technical Manual . via the IEC 61850-9-2 LE protocol.2 Function block The function blocks are not represented in the configuration tool.Section 3 Analog inputs 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Section 3 Analog inputs 3. Measuring and protection algorithms in the IED use primary system quantities. 3.

Section 3 Analog inputs 3.3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Signals Table 3: Name TRM_12I Output signals Type Description STATUS BOOLEAN Analogue input module status CH1(I) STRING Analogue current input 1 CH2(I) STRING Analogue current input 2 CH3(I) STRING Analogue current input 3 CH4(I) STRING Analogue current input 4 CH5(I) STRING Analogue current input 5 CH6(I) STRING Analogue current input 6 CH7(I) STRING Analogue current input 7 CH8(I) STRING Analogue current input 8 CH9(I) STRING Analogue current input 9 CH10(I) STRING Analogue current input 10 CH11(I) STRING Analogue current input 11 CH12(I) STRING Analogue current input 12 Table 4: Name TRM_6I_6U Output signals Type Description STATUS BOOLEAN Analogue input module status CH1(I) STRING Analogue current input 1 CH2(I) STRING Analogue current input 2 CH3(I) STRING Analogue current input 3 CH4(I) STRING Analogue current input 4 CH5(I) STRING Analogue current input 5 CH6(I) STRING Analogue current input 6 CH7(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 7 CH8(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 8 CH9(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 9 CH10(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 10 CH11(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 11 CH12(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 12 Table 5: Name TRM_6I Output signals Type Description STATUS BOOLEAN Analogue input module status CH1(I) STRING Analogue current input 1 CH2(I) STRING Analogue current input 2 Table continues on next page 70 Technical Manual .

Section 3 Analog inputs 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Type Description CH3(I) STRING Analogue current input 3 CH4(I) STRING Analogue current input 4 CH5(I) STRING Analogue current input 5 CH6(I) STRING Analogue current input 6 Table 6: Name TRM_7I_5U Output signals Type Description STATUS BOOLEAN Analogue input module status CH1(I) STRING Analogue current input 1 CH2(I) STRING Analogue current input 2 CH3(I) STRING Analogue current input 3 CH4(I) STRING Analogue current input 4 CH5(I) STRING Analogue current input 5 CH6(I) STRING Analogue current input 6 CH7(I) STRING Analogue current input 7 CH8(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 8 CH9(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 9 CH10(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 10 CH11(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 11 CH12(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 12 Table 7: Name TRM_9I_3U Output signals Type Description STATUS BOOLEAN Analogue input module status CH1(I) STRING Analogue current input 1 CH2(I) STRING Analogue current input 2 CH3(I) STRING Analogue current input 3 CH4(I) STRING Analogue current input 4 CH5(I) STRING Analogue current input 5 CH6(I) STRING Analogue current input 6 CH7(I) STRING Analogue current input 7 CH8(I) STRING Analogue current input 8 CH9(I) STRING Analogue current input 9 CH10(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 10 CH11(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 11 CH12(U) STRING Analogue voltage input 12 71 Technical Manual .

4 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Settings Dependent on ordered IED type. 72 Technical Manual .Section 3 Analog inputs 3.

1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 8: Section 3 Analog inputs AISVBAS Non group settings (basic) 73 Technical Manual .

Section 3 Analog inputs Name PhaseAngleRef 74 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Values (Range) TRM40-Ch1 TRM40-Ch2 TRM40-Ch3 TRM40-Ch4 TRM40-Ch5 TRM40-Ch6 TRM40-Ch7 TRM40-Ch8 TRM40-Ch9 TRM40-Ch10 TRM40-Ch11 TRM40-Ch12 TRM41-Ch1 TRM41-Ch2 TRM41-Ch3 TRM41-Ch4 TRM41-Ch5 TRM41-Ch6 TRM41-Ch7 TRM41-Ch8 TRM41-Ch9 TRM41-Ch10 TRM41-Ch11 TRM41-Ch12 MU1-L1I MU1-L2I MU1-L3I MU1-L4I MU1-L1U MU1-L2U MU1-L3U MU1-L4U MU2-L1I MU2-L2I MU2-L3I MU2-L4I MU2-L1U MU2-L2U MU2-L3U MU2-L4U MU3-L1I MU3-L2I MU3-L3I MU3-L4I MU3-L1U MU3-L2U MU3-L3U MU3-L4U MU4-L1I MU4-L2I MU4-L3I MU4-L4I MU4-L1U MU4-L2U MU4-L3U MU4-L4U MU5-L1I MU5-L2I MU5-L3I MU5-L4I MU5-L1U MU5-L2U MU5-L3U MU5-L4U MU6-L1I MU6-L2I MU6-L3I MU6-L4I MU6-L1U MU6-L2U MU6-L3U MU6-L4U Unit - Step - Default TRM40-Ch1 Description Reference channel for phase angle presentation Technical Manual .

99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint5 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint9 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim1 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint10 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim9 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim10 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim5 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec8 1 .Section 3 Analog inputs 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 9: Name TRM_12I Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTStarPoint1 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current Table continues on next page 75 Technical Manual . FromObject= the opposite CTsec7 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim6 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim3 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint7 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec5 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim7 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec11 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint3 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint2 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec10 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec4 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec1 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint6 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint4 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim8 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec9 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint11 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint8 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec3 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec2 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec6 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim4 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim2 1 .

99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint4 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999 V 0. FromObject= the opposite CTsec1 1 .001 .999 V 0.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current Table 10: Name TRM_6I_6U Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTStarPoint1 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999 V 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim1 1 .999.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim2 1 .05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec8 0.999.001 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec4 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec2 1 .00 kV 0.00 kV 0. FromObject= the opposite CTsec12 1 .999 V 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim5 1 .05 .999.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec10 0.05 .999.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim7 0.2000.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint12 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.001 110.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim4 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint5 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.001 110.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint2 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim6 1 .000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim9 0.2000.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim3 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current VTsec7 0.00 kV 0.999 V 0.001 110.2000. FromObject= the opposite CTsec5 1 .2000.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec11 0. FromObject= the opposite CTsec6 1 .000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim10 0.00 kV 0.001 110.000 Rated VT secondary voltage Table continues on next page 76 Technical Manual .001 .001 .05 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint6 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim8 0.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint3 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec3 1 .05 400.Section 3 Analog inputs Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTprim11 1 .999.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim12 1 .001 110.05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec9 0.05 .05 400.001 .

99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current Table continues on next page 77 Technical Manual . FromObject= the opposite CTsec1 1 .001 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint6 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999 V 0. FromObject= the opposite CTsec2 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint2 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim4 1 .00 Rated VT primary voltage Step Default Table 11: TRM_6I Non group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Description Description CTStarPoint1 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.Section 3 Analog inputs 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default VTprim11 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim1 1 .001 110. FromObject= the opposite CTsec3 1 .000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim12 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim5 1 .00 kV 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim6 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim3 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint2 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec12 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim2 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim2 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim1 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec5 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current Table 12: Name TRM_7I_5U Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTStarPoint1 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec6 1 .00 kV 0.05 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint4 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.05 400. FromObject= the opposite CTsec1 1 .05 400.2000.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint5 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.2000. FromObject= the opposite CTsec4 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint3 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.05 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec2 1 .

99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint7 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.05 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current VTsec8 0.05 .05 400.00 Rated VT primary voltage Step Default Table 13: Name TRM_9I_3U Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Description CTStarPoint1 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current Table continues on next page 78 Technical Manual . FromObject= the opposite CTsec3 1 .2000.2000.001 .00 kV 0.999 V 0.001 110.05 400.00 kV 0.2000.001 110.05 .2000.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint5 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim11 0.999.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim12 0.999 V 0.001 .00 kV 0.05 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec7 1 .001 .05 400. FromObject= the opposite CTsec4 1 .00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec11 0.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec9 0.999.999 V 0.999 V 0.001 110.00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec12 0.2000. FromObject= the opposite CTsec1 1 .00 kV 0.05 400. FromObject= the opposite CTsec6 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim1 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec2 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim2 1 .05 400.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim8 0.999.999 V 0.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim10 0.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint2 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.00 kV 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim5 1 .001 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim7 1 .00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec10 0.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim4 1 .001 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint4 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint6 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.05 .001 110.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim3 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec5 1 .Section 3 Analog inputs Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTStarPoint3 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim9 0.001 110.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim6 1 .

10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim6 1 .00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec12 0.001 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec8 1 .001 110.001 110.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint6 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim3 1 .001 .00 Rated VT primary voltage VTsec11 0.00 kV 0. FromObject= the opposite CTsec9 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint7 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.05 400.00 kV 0.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint5 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim8 1 .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint8 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim10 0.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current VTsec10 0.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim11 0.000 Rated VT secondary voltage VTprim12 0.999.05 .2000.2000.00 Rated VT primary voltage 3.001 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim7 1 .2000.05 400.05 400. FromObject= the opposite CTsec6 1 .05 .999. FromObject= the opposite CTsec4 1 .00 kV 0.999 V 0.05 .Section 3 Analog inputs 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description CTStarPoint3 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.999 V 0.99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint4 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object.10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim5 1 .5 Monitored data Table 14: Name Status AISVBAS Monitored data Type INTEGER Values (Range) 0=Ok 1=Error 2=AngRefLow 3=Uncorrelated Unit - Description Service value status 79 Technical Manual .99999 A 1 3000 Rated CT primary current CTStarPoint9 FromObject ToObject - - ToObject ToObject= towards protected object. FromObject= the opposite CTsec5 1 .001 110. FromObject= the opposite CTsec3 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim9 1 . FromObject= the opposite CTsec7 1 .10 A 1 1 Rated CT secondary current CTprim4 1 .999 V 0.

This information must be set in the IED. The convention of the directionality is defined as follows: • • Positive value of current or power means that the quantity has the direction into the object.6 TRM_12I Monitored data Type BOOLEAN Values (Range) 0=Ok 1=Error Unit - Description Analogue input module status TRM_6I_6U Monitored data Type BOOLEAN Values (Range) 0=Ok 1=Error Unit - Description Analogue input module status TRM_6I Monitored data Type BOOLEAN Values (Range) 0=Ok 1=Error Unit - Description Analogue input module status TRM_7I_5U Monitored data Type BOOLEAN Values (Range) 0=Ok 1=Error Unit - Description Analogue input module status TRM_9I_3U Monitored data Type BOOLEAN Values (Range) 0=Ok 1=Error Unit - Description Analogue input module status Operation principle The direction of a current depends on the connection of the CT. For directional functions the directional conventions are defined as follows (see figure 2) 80 Technical Manual . Negative value of current or power means that the quantity has the direction out from the object.Section 3 Analog inputs 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 15: Name STATUS Table 16: Name STATUS Table 17: Name STATUS Table 18: Name STATUS Table 19: Name STATUS 3. The main CTs are typically star connected and can be connected with the star point towards the object or away from the object.

The user has to set the rated secondary and primary currents and voltages of the CTs and VTs to provide the IED with their rated ratios. The settings of the IED is performed in primary values. transformer.vsd IEC05000456 V1 EN Figure 2: Internal convention of the directionality in the IED If the settings of the primary CT is correct. Reverse means the direction is out from the object. The ratios of the main CTs and VTs are therefore basic data for the IED. Definition of direction for directional functions Reverse Definition of direction for directional functions Forward Forward Reverse Protected Object Line. I Measured quantity is positive when flowing towards the object e. Q.g. 81 Technical Manual .Section 3 Analog inputs 1MRK 504 139-UEN - • • Forward means the direction is into the object. Q. and a Forward direction always looks towards the protected object. that is CTStarPoint set as FromObject or ToObject according to the plant condition. I Measured quantity is positive when flowing towards the object Set parameter CTStarPoint Correct Setting is "ToObject" Set parameter CTStarPoint Correct Setting is "FromObject" en05000456. then a positive quantity always flows towards the protected object.g. P. P. The CT and VT ratio and the name on respective channel is done under Main menu/Hardware/Analog modules in the Parameter Settings tool or on the HMI. etc e.

82 .

1 Binary input debounce filter The debounce filter eliminates bounces and short disturbances on a binary input.1 Binary input 4.30 Hz 1 30 Oscillation release limit 83 Technical Manual . the input signal is blocked.1.001 .Section 4 Binary input and output modules 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Section 4 Binary input and output modules 4. The default setting of DebounceTime is 1 ms. 4.3. The time counter is increased once in a millisecond when a binary input is high.001 Debounce time for binary inputs OscBlock 1 . The binary input ON-event gets the time stamp of the first rising edge.020 s 0.2 Oscillation filter Binary input wiring can be very long in substations and there are electromagnetic fields from for example nearby breakers. A new debounced binary input signal is forwarded when the time counter reaches the set DebounceTime value and the debounced input value is high or when the time counter reaches 0 and the debounced input value is low. An oscillation filter is used to reduce the disturbance from the system when a binary input starts oscillating.1.3 Settings 4. The same happens when the signal goes down to 0 again. 4. or decreased when a binary input is low.1.1 Setting parameters for binary input modules Table 20: Name BIM Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Operation Off/On DebounceTime 0.0. If the counter value is greater than the set value OscBlock. The input signal is ignored until the oscillation counter value during 1 s is below the set value OscRelease. after which the counter does not reach 0 again.1.40 Hz 1 40 Oscillation block limit OscRelease 1 . A time counter is used for filtering. An oscillation counter counts the debounced signal state changes during 1 s.001 0.

3.40 Hz 1 40 Oscillation block limit OscRelease 1 .001 0.1.0.020 s 0.30 Hz 1 30 Oscillation release limit 84 Technical Manual .2 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Setting parameters for binary input/output module Table 21: IOMIN Non group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Binary input/output module in operation (On) or not (Off) DebounceTime 0.Section 4 Binary input and output modules 4.001 Debounce time for binary inputs OscBlock 1 .001 .

2.1.1 Identification 5.2.2 device number - - Settings SCREEN Non group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description DisplayTimeout 1 .100 % 10 0 Contrast level for display 0 Default screen DefaultScreen - EvListSrtOrder Latest on top Oldest on top - - Latest on top Sort order of event list AutoIndicationDRP Off On - - Off Automatic indication of disturbance report SubstIndSLD No Yes - - No Substitute indication on single line diagram InterlockIndSLD No Yes - - No Interlock indication on single line diagram BypassCommands No Yes - - No Enable bypass of commands 5.1.120 Min 1 10 Local HMI display timeout ContrastLevel -100 .2 Table 22: SCREEN IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 5.1 Identification Function description IEC 61850 identification Local HMI screen behaviour 5.2 device number - Function block 85 Technical Manual .2 Local HMI signals 5.1 Local HMI screen behaviour 5.2 Function description IEC 61850 identification Local HMI signals LHMICTRL IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37.

2.1 Identification Function description 5.2 IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.vsd IEC09000320 V1 EN Figure 3: 5.3.3 Basic part for LED indication module 5.3 LHMICTRL function block Signals Table 23: LHMICTRL Input signals Name Type CLRLEDS Table 24: BOOLEAN Default 0 Description Input to clear the LCD-HMI LEDs LHMICTRL Output signals Name Type Description HMI-ON BOOLEAN Backlight of the LCD display is active RED-S BOOLEAN Red LED on the LCD-HMI is steady YELLOW-S BOOLEAN Yellow LED on the LCD-HMI is steady YELLOW-F BOOLEAN Yellow LED on the LCD-HMI is flashing CLRPULSE BOOLEAN A pulse is provided when the LEDs on the LCDHMI are cleared LEDSCLRD BOOLEAN Active when the LEDs on the LCD-HMI are not active 5.2 device number Basic part for LED indication module LEDGEN - - Basic part for LED indication module GRP1_LED1 GRP1_LED15 GRP2_LED1 GRP2_LED15 GRP3_LED1 GRP3_LED15 - - Function block 86 Technical Manual .3.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - LHMICTRL CLRLEDS HMI-ON RED-S YELLOW-S YELLOW-F CLRPULSE LEDSCLRD IEC09000320-1-en.

all 15 LED in each of group 1 . local HMI alarm group 1 87 Technical Manual .3 Signals Table 25: Name LEDGEN Input signals Type Default Description BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Input to block the operation of the LEDs RESET BOOLEAN 0 Input to acknowledge/reset the indication LEDs Table 26: Name LEDGEN Output signals Type Description NEWIND BOOLEAN New indication signal if any LED indication input is set ACK BOOLEAN A pulse is provided when the LEDs are acknowledged Table 27: Name GRP1_LED1 Input signals Type Default Description HM1L01R BOOLEAN 0 Red indication of LED1.3 has a similar function block. local HMI alarm group 1 HM1L01G BOOLEAN 0 Green indication of LED1.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - LEDGEN BLOCK RESET NEWIND ACK IEC09000321-1-en.vsd IEC09000321 V1 EN Figure 4: LEDGEN function block GRP1_LED1 ^HM1L01R ^HM1L01Y ^HM1L01G IEC09000322 V1 EN Figure 5: GRP1_LED1 function block The GRP1_LED1 function block is an example.3. 5. local HMI alarm group 1 HM1L01Y BOOLEAN 0 Yellow indication of LED1.

0 Defines the disturbance length tMax 0.100. alarm group 1 is off LabelRed 0 .18 - 1 G1L01_YELLOW Label string shown when LED 1.1 0.4 Table 28: Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Settings LEDGEN Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - On Operation Off/On tRestart 0. alarm group 1 is yellow LabelGreen 0 .18 - 1 G1L01_OFF Label string shown when LED 1. local HMI alarm group 1 LabelOff 0 .0 Maximum time for the definition of a disturbance Table 29: Name GRP1_LED1 Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description SequenceType Follow-S Follow-F LatchedAck-F-S LatchedAck-S-F LatchedColl-S LatchedReset-S - - Follow-S Sequence type for LED 1. alarm group 1 is red LabelYellow 0 .3.100.2 device number - 88 Technical Manual .4.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 5. alarm group 1 is green 5.5 Monitored data Table 30: GRP1_LED1 Monitored data Name LEDStatus 5.18 - 1 G1L01_GREEN Label string shown when LED 1.1 Type INTEGER Values (Range) 1=Red flash 2=Red steady 3=Yellow flash 4=Yellow steady 5=Green flash 6=Green steady 0=Off Unit - Description Status of LED 1.1 1.0 s 0.0 s 0.1 .0 .18 - 1 G1L01_RED Label string shown when LED 1.3. local HMI alarm group 1 Identification Function description LCD part for HMI Function Keys Control module IEC 61850 identification FNKEYMD1 FNKEYMD5 IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37.

18 - 1 LCD_FN1_OFF Label for LED off state Table 34: FNKEYTY1 Non group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Type Off Menu shortcut Control MenuShortcut Menu shortcut for function key Unit - Step - Default Off Description Function key type 89 Technical Manual .3 Signals Table 31: FNKEYMD1 Input signals Name Type LEDCTL1 BOOLEAN Table 32: Type FKEYOUT1 Table 33: Name 0 Description LED control input for function key FNKEYMD1 Output signals Name 5. 5.60.001 0.001 .000 s 0.4 Default Description BOOLEAN Output controlled by function key Settings FNKEYMD1 Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Mode Off Toggle Pulsed - - Off Output operation mode PulseTime 0.200 Pulse time for output controlled by LCDFn1 LabelOn 0 .4. There is a similar block for every function button.18 - 1 LCD_FN1_ON Label for LED on state LabelOff 0 .Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 5.4.2 Function block ^LEDCTL1 FNKEYMD1 ^FKEYOUT1 IEC09000327 V1 EN Figure 6: FNKEYMD1 function block Only the function block for the first button is shown above.4.

1 Display The LHMI includes a graphical monochrome display with a resolution of 320 x 240 pixels.4.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 5.4 Operation principle 5. 5.1. monitoring and controlling. 90 Technical Manual .1 Local HMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IEC13000239-1-en.vsd IEC13000239 V1 EN Figure 7: Local human-machine interface The LHMI of the IED contains the following elements: • • • • Display (LCD) Buttons LED indicators Communication port for PCM600 The LHMI is used for setting.4. The character size can vary. The amount of characters and rows fitting the view depends on the character size and the view that is shown.

the user that is currently logged in and the object identification string which is settable via the LHMI or with PCM600. 2 1 3 IEC13000063-2-en. The content area shows the menu content. pictures or other items do not fit in the display. a vertical scroll bar appears on the right.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The display view is divided into four basic areas. The text in content area is truncated from the beginning if it does not fit in the display horizontally. If text.vsd 4 IEC13000063 V2 EN Figure 8: Display layout 1 Path 2 Content 3 Status 4 Scroll bar (appears when needed) • • • • The path shows the current location in the menu structure. it is truncated from the beginning. If the path is too long to be shown. 91 Technical Manual . Truncation is indicated with three dots. The status area shows the current IED time. and the truncation is indicated with three dots.

The function button panel shows on request what actions are possible with the function buttons.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IEC13000045-2-en. IEC13000281-1-en.vsd IEC13000045 V2 EN Figure 9: Truncated path The number after the function instance. The LED is connected to the required signal with PCM600. Each function button has a LED indication that can be used as a feedback signal for the function button control action. Three alarm LED pages are available. 92 Technical Manual . for example ETHFRNT:1.vsd GUID-C98D972D-D1D8-4734-B419-161DBC0DC97B V1 EN Figure 10: Function button panel The alarm LED panel shows on request the alarm text labels for the alarm LEDs. indicates the instance number.

vsd GUID-5157100F-E8C0-4FAB-B979-FD4A971475E3 V1 EN Figure 11: Alarm LED panel The function button and alarm LED panels are not visible at the same time. If there are un-acknowledged alarm LEDs. the red LED takes priority and is lit. Each LED can indicate three states with the colors: green.4.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IEC13000240-1-en. 5. A lit or un-acknowledged LED is indicated with a highlight. The alarm texts related to each three-color LED are divided into three pages. Pressing the ESC button exits from information pop-ups as well as from the LED panel as such. Pressing the ESC button clears the panel from the display. The LEDs are lit according to priority. with red being the highest and green the lowest priority. Altogether. Pressing the Enter key shows details about the selected LED. The Multipage button has a LED. For example. Information pages for the alarm LEDs are shown by pressing the Multipage button.1. then the Multipage LED blinks. 135 signals can be indicated since there are three LED groups. 93 Technical Manual . There are 15 programmable alarm LEDs on the front of the LHMI. yellow and red. The LEDs can be configured with PCM600 and the operation mode can be selected with the LHMI or PCM600. This LED is lit whenever any LED on any page is lit. if on one page there is an indication that requires the green LED to be lit. The 15 physical three-color LEDs in one LED group can indicate 45 different signals. and on another page there is an indication that requires the red LED to be lit. Pressing that button cycles through the three pages.2 LEDs The LHMI includes three protection status LEDs above the display: Ready. Start and Trip. Each panel is shown by pressing one of the function buttons or the Multipage button. Both the panels have dynamic width that depends on the label string length that the panel contains. Such lines can be selected by using the Up / Down arrow buttons. There are 3 separate pages of LEDs available.

reset indications. 5.vsd GUID-0C172139-80E0-45B1-8A3F-1EAE9557A52D V2 EN Figure 12: LHMI keypad 94 Technical Manual .4. provide help and switch between local and remote control mode.3 Keypad The LHMI keypad contains push-buttons which are used to navigate in different views or menus. They represent the status of the circuit breaker. press the Clear button to enter the Reset menu (refer to description of this menu for details).1. The push-buttons are also used to acknowledge alarms. There are two additional LEDs which are next to the control buttons and .Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - To acknowledge LEDs. IEC13000239-1-en. The keypad also contains programmable push-buttons that can be configured either as menu shortcut or control buttons.

. navigation and command pushbuttons and RJ-45 communication port 1..5 Function button 6 Close 7 Open 8 Escape 9 Left 10 Down 11 Up 12 Right 13 Key 14 Enter 15 Remote/Local 16 Uplink LED 17 Not in use 18 Multipage 19 Menu 20 Clear 21 Help 22 Communication port 95 Technical Manual .vsd GUID-77E71883-0B80-4647-8205-EE56723511D2 V2 EN Figure 13: LHMI keypad with object control.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 24 1 23 2 18 3 19 4 5 6 20 21 22 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 IEC13000249-1-en.

2. with reset functionality. The input and output signals of the function blocks are configured with PCM600. which appear during one disturbance. The other two are intended to be used as signalling system in collecting mode with acknowledgment functionality.2 Status LEDs There are three status LEDs above the LCD in the front of the IED. Two of the latching sequence types are intended to be used as a protection indication system. The input signal for each LED is selected individually using SMT or ACT. A 96 Technical Manual . that controls the color and the operating mode. either in collecting or restarting mode.2. The green LED has a fixed function that present the healthy status of the IED. yellow and red.2. 5. Only LEDs defined for re-starting mode with the latched sequence type 6 (LatchedReset-S) will initiate a reset and a restart at a new disturbance.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 23 Programmable alarm LEDs 24 Protection status LEDs 5.2 LED 5. Re-starting mode • In the re-starting mode of operation each new start resets all previous active LEDs and activates only those. two as follow type and four as latch type.4. Each indication LED on local HMI can be set individually to operate in 6 different sequences.1 Functionality 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The function blocks HMI_LED and HMI_LEDS controls and supplies information about the status of the indication LEDs. The yellow LED can be used to indicate that a disturbance report is triggered (steady) or that the IED is in test mode (flashing). green. This mode is suitable when the LEDs are used as a simplified alarm system. Each LED is controlled by a HMI_LEDS function block.4.4. The yellow and red LEDs are user configured.3 Indication LEDs Operating modes Collecting mode • LEDs. which are used in collecting mode of operation. 5.4. The red LED can be used to indicate a trip command. are accumulated continuously until the unit is acknowledged manually.

When the automatic reset of the LEDs has been performed. In the sequence diagrams the LEDs have the following characteristics: 97 Technical Manual . This means that even if the button is continuously pressed. ACK_RST. to the function. The figures below show the function of available sequences selectable for each LED separately. not level triggered. Manual acknowledgment and manual reset have the same meaning and is a common signal for all the operating sequences and LEDs. The acknowledgment/reset is performed via the • From function input • • button and menus on the LHMI. Sequence 5 is working according to Latched type and collecting mode while Sequence 6 is working according to Latched type and re-starting mode. The function is positive edge triggered. not level triggered. Sequence 3 and 4 Latched type with acknowledgement are only working in collecting mode. Automatic reset • The automatic reset can only be performed for indications defined for restarting mode with the latched sequence type 6 (LatchedReset-S). still persisting indications will be indicated with a steady light. The letters S and F in the sequence names have the meaning S = Steady and F = Flash. For sequence 1 and 2 Follow type. The function is positive edge triggered. the acknowledgment/reset only affects indications active at the moment when the button is first pressed. The active indications can also be acknowledged/reset from an input. the indication obtains corresponding color corresponding to the activated input and operates according to the selected sequence diagrams below.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - disturbance is defined to end a settable time after the reset of the activated input signals or when the maximum time limit has elapsed. Operating sequence The sequences can be of type Follow or Latched. the acknowledgment/reset function is not applicable. This input can for example be configured to a binary input operated from an external push button. For the Follow type the LED follow the input signal completely. For the Latched type each LED latches to the corresponding input signal until it is reset. Acknowledgment/reset • From local HMI • The active indications can be acknowledged/reset manually. At the activation of the input signal.

but the LEDs are flashing instead of showing steady light. Sequence 3 LatchedAck-F-S This sequence has a latched function and works in collecting mode. Follow-S. Every LED is independent of the other LEDs in its operation. It does not react on acknowledgment or reset. two colors Sequence 2 (Follow-F) This sequence is the same as Sequence 1. At the activation of the input signal. An example of the operation when two colors are activated in parallel is shown in Figure 16.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - = No indication G= = Steady light Green Y= = Flash R= Yellow Red IEC09000311.vsd IEC09000312 V1 EN Figure 16: Operating sequence 1. Activating signal LED IEC01000228_2_en. Every LED is independent of the other LEDs in its operation. the corresponding input signals. Activating signal GREEN Activating signal RED LED G G R G IEC09000312_1_en. After acknowledgment the indication disappears if 98 Technical Manual . with a steady light. the indication starts flashing.vsd IEC01000228 V2 EN Figure 15: Operating Sequence 1 (Follow-S) If inputs for two or more colors are active at the same time to one LED the priority is as described above.vsd IEC09000311 V1 EN Figure 14: Symbols used in the sequence diagrams Sequence 1 (Follow-S) This sequence follows all the time.

In Figure 18 it is shown the sequence when a signal of lower priority becomes activated after acknowledgment has been performed on a higher priority signal. 2 colors involved If all three signals are activated the order of priority is still maintained. Activating signal LED Acknow. independent of if the low priority indication appeared before or after acknowledgment. 99 Technical Manual . which are not visible according to Figure 19. will be acknowledged. all indications that appear before the indication with higher priority has been reset. Acknowledgment of indications with higher priority will acknowledge also low priority indications. If the signal is still present after acknowledgment it gets a steady light.vsd IEC01000231 V1 EN Figure 17: Operating Sequence 3 LatchedAck-F-S When an acknowledgment is performed. Activating signal GREEN Activating signal RED LED R R G Acknow IEC09000313_1_en.vsd IEC09000313 V1 EN Figure 18: Operating Sequence 3 (LatchedAck-F-S). en01000231.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - the signal is not present any more. The low priority signal will be shown as acknowledged when the high priority signal resets.

IEC09000314-1-en. alternative 1 If an indication with higher priority appears after acknowledgment of a lower priority indication the high priority indication will be shown as not acknowledged according to Figure 20. Every LED is independent of the other LEDs in its operation. the indication will light up with a steady light. The difference to sequence 3 and 4 is that indications that are still activated will not be affected by the reset that is. 100 Technical Manual .Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Activating signal GREEN Activating signal YELLOW Activating signal RED LED G Y R R Y Acknow. Activating signal GREEN Activating signal YELLOW Activating signal RED LED G G R R Y Acknow. immediately after the positive edge of the reset has been executed a new reading and storing of active signals is performed. At the activation of the input signal. three colors involved. three colors involved. IEC09000315-1-en. Sequence 5 LatchedColl-S This sequence has a latched function and works in collecting mode.vsd IEC09000314 V1 EN Figure 19: Operating sequence 3. but steady and flashing light have been alternated.vsd IEC09000315 V1 EN Figure 20: Operating sequence 3. alternative 2 Sequence 4 (LatchedAck-S-F) This sequence has the same functionality as sequence 3.

Also in this case indications that are still activated will not be affected by manual reset.vsd IEC09000316 V1 EN Figure 22: Operating sequence 5.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Activating signal LED Reset IEC01000235_2_en. two colors Sequence 6 LatchedReset-S In this mode all activated LEDs. 101 Technical Manual . the LED will change color according to Figure 22. are automatically reset at a new disturbance when activating any input signal for other LEDs set to Sequence 6 LatchedReset-S. Activating signal GREEN Activating signal RED LED R G Reset IEC09000316_1_en. Timing diagram for sequence 6 Figure 23 shows the timing diagram for two indications within one disturbance. LEDs set for sequence 6 are completely independent in its operation of LEDs set for other sequences. that is. immediately after the positive edge of that the manual reset has been executed a new reading and storing of active signals is performed. which are set to Sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S).vsd IEC01000235 V2 EN Figure 21: Operating Sequence 5 LatchedColl-S That means if an indication with higher priority has reset while an indication with lower priority still is active at the time of reset.

two indications within same disturbance Figure 24 shows the timing diagram for a new indication after tRestart time has elapsed.vsd IEC01000240 V2 EN Figure 24: Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S).vsd IEC01000239 V2 EN Figure 23: Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S). Disturbance tRestart Disturbance tRestart Activating signal 1 Activating signal 2 LED 1 LED 2 Automatic reset Manual reset IEC01000240_2_en. two different disturbances 102 Technical Manual .Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Disturbance tRestart Activating signal 1 Activating signal 2 LED 1 LED 2 Automatic reset Manual reset IEC01000239_2-en.

Disturbance tRestart Activating signal 1 Activating signal 2 LED 1 LED 2 Automatic reset Manual reset IEC01000241_2_en.Section 5 Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Figure 25 shows the timing diagram when a new indication appears after the first one has reset but before tRestart has elapsed.vsd IEC01000242 V2 EN Figure 26: Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S). two indications within same disturbance but with reset of activating signal between Figure 26 shows the timing diagram for manual reset. Disturbance tRestart Activating signal 1 Activating signal 2 LED 1 LED 2 Automatic reset Manual reset IEC01000242_2_en. manual reset 103 Technical Manual .vsd IEC01000241 V2 EN Figure 25: Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S).

Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI
5.4.3

Function keys

5.4.3.1

Functionality

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Local Human-Machine-Interface (LHMI) has five function buttons, directly to the
left of the LCD, that can be configured either as menu shortcut or control buttons.
Each button has an indication LED that can be configured in the application
configuration.
When used as a menu shortcut, a function button provides a fast way to navigate
between default nodes in the menu tree. When used as a control, the button can
control a binary signal.

5.4.3.2

Operation principle
Each output on the FNKEYMD1 - FNKEYMD5 function blocks can be controlled
from the LHMI function keys. By pressing a function button on the LHMI, the
output status of the actual function block will change. These binary outputs can in
turn be used to control other function blocks, for example, switch control blocks,
binary I/O outputs etc.
FNKEYMD1 - FNKEYMD5 function block also has a number of settings and
parameters that control the behavior of the function block. These settings and
parameters are normally set using the PST.

Operating sequence

The operation mode is set individually for each output, either OFF, TOGGLE or
PULSED.
Setting OFF
This mode always gives the output the value..
Input value

Output value
IEC09000330-1-en.vsd
IEC09000330 V1 EN

Figure 27:

Sequence diagram for setting OFF

Setting TOGGLE
In this mode the output toggles each time the function block detects that the input
has been written. Note that the input attribute is reset each time the function block
executes. The function block execution is marked with a dotted line below.

104
Technical Manual

Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Input value

Output value
IEC09000331_1_en.vsd
IEC09000331 V1 EN

Figure 28:

Sequence diagram for setting TOGGLE

Setting PULSED
In this mode the output will be high for as long as the setting pulse time. After this
time the output will go back to 0. The input attribute is reset when the function
block detects it being high and there is no output pulse.
Note that the third positive edge on the input attribute does not cause a pulse, since
the edge was applied during pulse output. A new pulse can only begin when the
output is zero; else the trigger edge is lost.
Input value
Output value

tpulse

tpulse
IEC09000332_1_en.vsd

IEC09000332 V1 EN

Figure 29:

Sequence diagram for setting PULSED

Input function

All inputs work the same way: When the LHMI is configured so that a certain
function button is of type CONTROL, then the corresponding input on this
function block becomes active, and will light the yellow function button LED when
high. This functionality is active even if the function block operation setting is set
to off.

105
Technical Manual

106

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Section 6

Differential protection

6.1

Transformer differential protection T2WPDIF and
T3WPDIF

6.1.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Transformer differential protection, twowinding

IEC 60617
identification

T2WPDIF

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
87T

3Id/I
SYMBOL-BB V1 EN

Transformer differential protection,
three-winding

T3WPDIF

87T

3Id/I
SYMBOL-BB V1 EN

6.1.2

Functionality
The Transformer differential protection, two-winding T2WPDIF and Transformer
differential protection, three-winding T3WPDIF are provided with internal CT
ratio matching, vector group compensation and settable zero sequence current
elimination.
The function can be provided with up to six three-phase sets of current inputs. All
current inputs are provided with percentage bias restraint features, making the IED
suitable for two- or three-winding transformer in multi-breaker station arrangements.
Two-winding applications
two-winding power
transformer
xx05000048.vsd
IEC05000048 V1 EN

xx05000049.vsd

two-winding power
transformer with
unconnected delta
tertiary winding

IEC05000049 V1 EN

Table continues on next page

107
Technical Manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

xx05000050.vsd
IEC05000050 V1 EN

two-winding power
transformer with two
circuit breakers and
two CT-sets on one
side
two-winding power
transformer with two
circuit breakers and
two CT-sets on both
sides

xx05000051.vsd
IEC05000051 V1 EN

Three-winding applications
three-winding power
transformer with all
three windings
connected

xx05000052.vsd
IEC05000052 V1 EN

three-winding power
transformer with two
circuit breakers and
two CT-sets on one
side
xx05000053.vsd
IEC05000053 V1 EN

Autotransformer with
two circuit breakers
and two CT-sets on
two out of three sides

xx05000057.vsd
IEC05000057 V1 EN

Figure 30:

CT group
arrangement for
differential protection

The setting facilities cover the application of the differential protection to all types
of power transformers and auto-transformers with or without load tap changer as
well as shunt reactors and local feeders within the station. An adaptive stabilizing
feature is included for heavy through-fault currents.By introducing the load tap
changer position, the differential protection pick-up can be set to optimum
sensitivity thus covering internal faults with low fault current level.
Stabilization is included for inrush and overexcitation currents respectively, crossblocking is also available. Adaptive stabilization is also included for system

108
Technical Manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

recovery inrush and CT saturation during external faults. A high set unrestrained
differential current protection element is included for a very high speed tripping at
high internal fault currents.
Included is an sensitive differential protection element based on the theory of
negative sequence current component. This element offers the best possible
coverage of power transformer windings turn to turn faults.

6.1.3

Function block
T2WPDIF
I3PW1CT1*
TRIP
I3PW1CT2*
TRIPRES
I3PW2CT1*
TRIPUNRE
I3PW2CT2*
TRNSUNR
TAPOLTC1
TRNSSENS
OLTC1AL
START
BLOCK
STL1
BLKRES
STL2
BLKUNRES
STL3
BLKNSUNR
BLK2H
BLKNSSEN
BLK2HL1
BLK2HL2
BLK2HL3
BLK5H
BLK5HL1
BLK5HL2
BLK5HL3
BLKWAV
BLKWAVL1
BLKWAVL2
BLKWAVL3
IDALARM
OPENCT
OPENCTAL
IDL1
IDL2
IDL3
IDL1MAG
IDL2MAG
IDL3MAG
IBIAS
IDNSMAG
IEC06000249_2_en.vsd
IEC06000249 V2 EN

Figure 31:

T2WPDIF function block

109
Technical Manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

T3WPDIF
I3PW1CT1*
TRIP
I3PW1CT2*
TRIPRES
I3PW2CT1*
TRIPUNRE
I3PW2CT2*
TRNSUNR
I3PW3CT1*
TRNSSENS
I3PW3CT2*
START
TAPOLTC1
STL1
TAPOLTC2
STL2
OLTC1AL
STL3
OLTC2AL
BLK2H
BLOCK
BLK2HL1
BLKRES
BLK2HL2
BLKUNRES
BLK2HL3
BLKNSUNR
BLK5H
BLKNSSEN
BLK5HL1
BLK5HL2
BLK5HL3
BLKWAV
BLKWAVL1
BLKWAVL2
BLKWAVL3
IDALARM
OPENCT
OPENCTAL
IDL1
IDL2
IDL3
IDL1MAG
IDL2MAG
IDL3MAG
IBIAS
IDNSMAG
IEC06000250_2_en.vsd
IEC06000250 V2 EN

Figure 32:

6.1.4

T3WPDIF function block

Signals
Table 35:
Name

T2WPDIF Input signals
Type

Default

Description

I3PW1CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Three phase winding primary CT1

I3PW1CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Three phase winding primary CT2

I3PW2CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Three phase winding secondary CT1

I3PW2CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Three phase winding secondary CT2

TAPOLTC1

INTEGER

1

Most recent tap position reading on OLTC 1

OLTC1AL

BOOLEAN

0

OLTC1 alarm

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

0

Block of function

BLKRES

BOOLEAN

0

Block of trip for restrained differential feature

BLKUNRES

BOOLEAN

0

Block of trip for unrestrained differential feature

BLKNSUNR

BOOLEAN

0

Block of trip for unrestr. neg. seq. differential
feature

BLKNSSEN

BOOLEAN

0

Block of trip for sensitive neg. seq. differential
feature

110
Technical Manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Table 36:
Name

T2WPDIF Output signals
Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General, common trip signal

TRIPRES

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from restrained differential protection

TRIPUNRE

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestrained differential protection

TRNSUNR

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestr. neg. seq. diff. protection

TRNSSENS

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from sensitive neg. seq. diff. protection

START

BOOLEAN

Common start signal from any phase

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

BLK2H

BOOLEAN

Common second harmonic block signal from any
phase

BLK2HL1

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L1

BLK2HL2

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L2

BLK2HL3

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L3

BLK5H

BOOLEAN

Common fifth harmonic block signal from any
phase

BLK5HL1

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L1

BLK5HL2

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L2

BLK5HL3

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L3

BLKWAV

BOOLEAN

Common block signal, waveform criterion, from
any phase

BLKWAVL1

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L1

BLKWAVL2

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L2

BLKWAVL3

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L3

IDALARM

BOOLEAN

Alarm for sustained diff currents in all three phases

OPENCT

BOOLEAN

An open CT was detected

OPENCTAL

BOOLEAN

Open CT Alarm output signal. Issued after a
delay ...

IDL1

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,
phase L1

IDL2

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,
phase L2

IDL3

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,
phase L3

IDL1MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current,
phase L1

IDL2MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current,
phase L2

IDL3MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current,
phase L3

IBIAS

REAL

Magnitude of the bias current, which is common
to all phases

IDNSMAG

REAL

Magnitude of the negative sequence differential
current
111

Technical Manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Table 37:
Name

T3WPDIF Input signals
Type

Default

Description

I3PW1CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Three phase winding primary CT1

I3PW1CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Three phase winding primary CT2

I3PW2CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Three phase winding secondary CT1

I3PW2CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Three phase winding secondary CT2

I3PW3CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Three phase winding tertiary CT1

I3PW3CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Three phase winding tertiary CT2

TAPOLTC1

INTEGER

1

Most recent tap position reading on OLTC 1

TAPOLTC2

INTEGER

1

Most recent tap position reading on OLTC 2

OLTC1AL

BOOLEAN

0

OLTC1 alarm

OLTC2AL

BOOLEAN

0

OLTC2 alarm

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

0

Block of function

BLKRES

BOOLEAN

0

Block of trip for restrained differential feature

BLKUNRES

BOOLEAN

0

Block of trip for unrestrained differential feature

BLKNSUNR

BOOLEAN

0

Block of trip for unrestr. neg. seq. differential
feature

BLKNSSEN

BOOLEAN

0

Block of trip for sensitive neg. seq. differential
feature

Table 38:
Name

T3WPDIF Output signals
Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General, common trip signal

TRIPRES

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from restrained differential protection

TRIPUNRE

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestrained differential protection

TRNSUNR

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestr. neg. seq. diff. protection

TRNSSENS

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from sensitive neg. seq. diff. protection

START

BOOLEAN

Common start signal from any phase

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

BLK2H

BOOLEAN

Common second harmonic block signal from any
phase

BLK2HL1

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L1

BLK2HL2

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L2

BLK2HL3

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L3

BLK5H

BOOLEAN

Common fifth harmonic block signal from any
phase

Table continues on next page
112
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Name

6.1.5
Table 39:
Name

Type

Description

BLK5HL1

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L1

BLK5HL2

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L2

BLK5HL3

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L3

BLKWAV

BOOLEAN

Common block signal, waveform criterion, from
any phase

BLKWAVL1

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L1

BLKWAVL2

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L2

BLKWAVL3

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L3

IDALARM

BOOLEAN

Alarm for sustained diff currents in all three phases

OPENCT

BOOLEAN

An open CT was detected

OPENCTAL

BOOLEAN

Open CT Alarm output signal. Issued after a
delay ...

IDL1

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,
phase L1

IDL2

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,
phase L2

IDL3

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,
phase L3

IDL1MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current,
phase L1

IDL2MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current,
phase L2

IDL3MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current,
phase L3

IBIAS

REAL

Magnitude of the bias current, which is common
to all phases

IDNSMAG

REAL

Magnitude of the negative sequence differential
current

Settings
T2WPDIF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

-

-

Off

Operation Off / On

SOTFMode

Off
On

-

-

On

Operation mode for switch onto fault

tAlarmDelay

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

10.000

Time delay for diff currents alarm level

IDiffAlarm

0.05 - 1.00

IB

0.01

0.20

Dif. cur. alarm, multiple of base curr,
usually W1 curr.

IdMin

0.05 - 0.60

IB

0.01

0.30

Section1 sensitivity, multi. of base curr,
usually W1 curr.

IdUnre

1.00 - 100.00

IB

0.01

10.00

Unrestr. prot. limit, multiple of Winding 1
rated current

Table continues on next page

113
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Section 6
Differential protection
Name

Values (Range)

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CrossBlockEn

Off
On

-

-

On

Operation Off/On for cross-block logic
between phases

NegSeqDiffEn

Off
On

-

-

On

Operation Off/On for neg. seq.
differential protections

IMinNegSeq

0.02 - 0.20

IB

0.01

0.04

Neg. seq. curr. must be higher than this
level to be used

NegSeqROA

30.0 - 120.0

Deg

0.1

60.0

Operate Angle for int. / ext. neg. seq.
fault discriminator

Unit

Step

Default

Table 40:

T2WPDIF Group settings (advanced)

Name

Values (Range)

Description

EndSection1

0.20 - 1.50

IB

0.01

1.25

End of section 1, multiple of Winding 1
rated current

EndSection2

1.00 - 10.00

IB

0.01

3.00

End of section 2, multiple of Winding 1
rated current

SlopeSection2

10.0 - 50.0

%

0.1

40.0

Slope in section 2 of operate-restrain
characteristic, in %

SlopeSection3

30.0 - 100.0

%

0.1

80.0

Slope in section 3 of operate-restrain
characteristic, in %

I2/I1Ratio

5.0 - 100.0

%

0.1

15.0

Max. ratio of 2nd harm. to fundamental
harm dif. curr. in %

I5/I1Ratio

5.0 - 100.0

%

0.1

25.0

Max. ratio of 5th harm. to fundamental
harm dif. curr. in %

OpenCTEnable

Off
On

-

-

Off

Open CT detection feature. Open
CTEnable Off/On

tOCTAlarmDelay

0.100 - 10.000

s

0.001

3.000

Open CT: time in s to alarm after an
open CT is detected

tOCTResetDelay

0.100 - 10.000

s

0.001

0.250

Reset delay in s. After delay, diff.
function is activated

tOCTUnrstDelay

0.10 - 6000.00

s

0.01

10.00

Unrestrained diff. protection blocked
after this delay, in s

Step

Default

Table 41:

T2WPDIF Non group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

GlobalBaseSelW1

1 - 12

-

1

1

Global base selector for winding 1

GlobalBaseSelW2

1 - 12

-

1

1

Global base selector for winding 2

ConnectTypeW1

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

-

-

WYE (Y)

Connection type of winding 1: Y-wye or Ddelta

ConnectTypeW2

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

-

-

WYE (Y)

Connection type of winding 2: Y-wye or Ddelta

Table continues on next page

114
Technical Manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

ClockNumberW2

0 [0 deg]
1 [30 deg lag]
2 [60 deg lag]
3 [90 deg lag]
4 [120 deg lag]
5 [150 deg lag]
6 [180 deg]
7 [150 deg lead]
8 [120 deg lead]
9 [90 deg lead]
10 [60 deg lead]
11 [30 deg lead]

-

-

0 [0 deg]

Phase displacement between W2 &
W1=HV winding, hour notation

ZSCurrSubtrW1

Off
On

-

-

On

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for
W1 side, On / Off

ZSCurrSubtrW2

Off
On

-

-

On

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for
W2 side, On / Off

TconfigForW1

No
Yes

-

-

No

Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 1,
YES / NO

CT1RatingW1

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on
transf. W1 side

CT2RatingW1

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

CT primary in A, T-branch 2, on transf.
W1 side

TconfigForW2

No
Yes

-

-

No

Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 2,
YES / NO

CT1RatingW2

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on
transf. W2 side

CT2RatingW2

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 2, on
transf. W2 side

LocationOLTC1

Not Used
Winding 1 (W1)
Winding 2 (W2)

-

-

Not Used

Transformer winding where OLTC1 is
located

LowTapPosOLTC1

0 - 10

-

1

1

OLTC1 lowest tap position designation
(e.g. 1)

RatedTapOLTC1

1 - 100

-

1

6

OLTC1 rated tap/mid-tap position
designation (e.g. 6)

HighTapPsOLTC1

1 - 100

-

1

11

OLTC1 highest tap position designation
(e.g. 11)

TapHighVoltTC1

1 - 100

-

1

1

OLTC1 end-tap position with winding
highest no-load voltage

StepSizeOLTC1

0.01 - 30.00

%

0.01

1.00

Voltage change per OLTC1 step in
percent of rated voltage

Step

Default

Table 42:
Name

T3WPDIF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Description

Operation

Off
On

-

-

Off

Operation Off / On

SOTFMode

Off
On

-

-

On

Operation mode for switch onto fault
feature

tAlarmDelay

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

10.000

Time delay for diff currents alarm level

Table continues on next page

115
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Section 6
Differential protection
Name

Unit

Step

Default

IDiffAlarm

0.05 - 1.00

IB

0.01

0.20

Dif. cur. alarm, multiple of base curr,
usually W1 curr.

IdMin

0.05 - 0.60

IB

0.01

0.30

Section1 sensitivity, multi. of base curr,
usually W1 curr.

IdUnre

1.00 - 100.00

IB

0.01

10.00

Unrestr. prot. limit, multi. of base curr.
usually W1 curr.

CrossBlockEn

Off
On

-

-

On

Operation Off/On for cross-block logic
between phases

NegSeqDiffEn

Off
On

-

-

On

Operation Off/On for neg. seq.
differential protections

IMinNegSeq

0.02 - 0.20

IB

0.01

0.04

Neg. seq. curr. limit, mult. of base curr,
usually W1 curr.

NegSeqROA

30.0 - 120.0

Deg

0.1

60.0

Operate Angle for int. / ext. neg. seq.
fault discriminator

Unit

Step

Default

Table 43:

Values (Range)

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Description

T3WPDIF Group settings (advanced)

Name

Values (Range)

Description

EndSection1

0.20 - 1.50

IB

0.01

1.25

End of section 1, multi. of base current,
usually W1 curr.

EndSection2

1.00 - 10.00

IB

0.01

3.00

End of section 2, multi. of base current,
usually W1 curr.

SlopeSection2

10.0 - 50.0

%

0.1

40.0

Slope in section 2 of operate-restrain
characteristic, in %

SlopeSection3

30.0 - 100.0

%

0.1

80.0

Slope in section 3 of operate-restrain
characteristic, in %

I2/I1Ratio

5.0 - 100.0

%

0.1

15.0

Max. ratio of 2nd harm. to fundamental
harm dif. curr. in %

I5/I1Ratio

5.0 - 100.0

%

0.1

25.0

Max. ratio of 5th harm. to fundamental
harm dif. curr. in %

OpenCTEnable

Off
On

-

-

Off

Open CT detection feature. Open
CTEnable Off/On

tOCTAlarmDelay

0.100 - 10.000

s

0.001

3.000

Open CT: time in s to alarm after an
open CT is detected

tOCTResetDelay

0.100 - 10.000

s

0.001

0.250

Reset delay in s. After delay, diff.
function is activated

tOCTUnrstDelay

0.10 - 6000.00

s

0.01

10.00

Unrestrained diff. protection blocked
after this delay, in s

Step

Default

Table 44:

T3WPDIF Non group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

GlobalBaseSelW1

1 - 12

-

1

1

Global base selector for winding 1

GlobalBaseSelW2

1 - 12

-

1

1

Global base selector for winding 2

GlobalBaseSelW3

1 - 12

-

1

1

Global base selector for winding 3

ConnectTypeW1

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

-

-

WYE (Y)

Connection type of winding 1: Y-wye or Ddelta

Table continues on next page

116
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

ConnectTypeW2

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

-

-

WYE (Y)

Connection type of winding 2: Y-wye or Ddelta

ConnectTypeW3

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

-

-

Delta (D)

Connection type of winding 3: Y-wye or Ddelta

ClockNumberW2

0 [0 deg]
1 [30 deg lag]
2 [60 deg lag]
3 [90 deg lag]
4 [120 deg lag]
5 [150 deg lag]
6 [180 deg]
7 [150 deg lead]
8 [120 deg lead]
9 [90 deg lead]
10 [60 deg lead]
11 [30 deg lead]

-

-

0 [0 deg]

Phase displacement between W2 &
W1=HV winding, hour notation

ClockNumberW3

0 [0 deg]
1 [30 deg lag]
2 [60 deg lag]
3 [90 deg lag]
4 [120 deg lag]
5 [150 deg lag]
6 [180 deg]
7 [150 deg lead]
8 [120 deg lead]
9 [90 deg lead]
10 [60 deg lead]
11 [30 deg lead]

-

-

5 [150 deg lag]

Phase displacement between W3 &
W1=HV winding, hour notation

ZSCurrSubtrW1

Off
On

-

-

On

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for
W1 side, On / Off

ZSCurrSubtrW2

Off
On

-

-

On

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for
W2 side, On / Off

ZSCurrSubtrW3

Off
On

-

-

On

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for
W3 side, On / Off

TconfigForW1

No
Yes

-

-

No

Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 1,
YES / NO

CT1RatingW1

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on
transf. W1 side

CT2RatingW1

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

CT primary in A, T-branch 2, on transf.
W1 side

TconfigForW2

No
Yes

-

-

No

Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 2,
YES / NO

CT1RatingW2

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on
transf. W2 side

CT2RatingW2

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 2, on
transf. W2 side

TconfigForW3

No
Yes

-

-

No

Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 3,
YES / NO

CT1RatingW3

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on
transf. W3 side

CT2RatingW3

1 - 99999

A

1

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 2, on
transf. W3 side

Table continues on next page

117
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Section 6
Differential protection
Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

LocationOLTC1

Not Used
Winding 1 (W1)
Winding 2 (W2)
Winding 3 (W3)

-

-

Not Used

Transformer winding where OLTC1 is
located

LowTapPosOLTC1

0 - 10

-

1

1

OLTC1 lowest tap position designation
(e.g. 1)

RatedTapOLTC1

1 - 100

-

1

6

OLTC1 rated tap/mid-tap position
designation (e.g. 6)

HighTapPsOLTC1

1 - 100

-

1

11

OLTC1 highest tap position designation
(e.g. 11)

TapHighVoltTC1

1 - 100

-

1

1

OLTC1 end-tap position with winding
highest no-load voltage

StepSizeOLTC1

0.01 - 30.00

%

0.01

1.00

Voltage change per OLTC1 step in
percent of rated voltage

LocationOLTC2

Not Used
Winding 1 (W1)
Winding 2 (W2)
Winding 3 (W3)

-

-

Not Used

Transformer winding where OLTC2 is
located

LowTapPosOLTC2

0 - 10

-

1

1

OLTC2 lowest tap position designation
(e.g. 1)

RatedTapOLTC2

1 - 100

-

1

6

OLTC2 rated tap/mid-tap position
designation (e.g. 6)

HighTapPsOLTC2

1 - 100

-

1

11

OLTC2 highest tap position designation
(e.g. 11)

TapHighVoltTC2

1 - 100

-

1

1

OLTC2 end-tap position with winding
highest no-load voltage

StepSizeOLTC2

0.01 - 30.00

%

0.01

1.00

Voltage change per OLTC2 step in
percent of rated voltage

6.1.6

Monitored data
Table 45:
Name

T2WPDIF Monitored data
Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

OCTSIDE

INTEGER

-

-

Open CT side : 1 -> W 1
(pri), 2 -> W 2 (sec)

OPENCTIN

INTEGER

-

-

Open CT on Input : 1 for
input 1, 2 for input 2

OPENCTPH

INTEGER

-

-

Open CT in Phase : 1 for
L1, 2 for L2, 3 for L3

IDL1MAG

REAL

-

A

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L1

IDL2MAG

REAL

-

A

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L2

Table continues on next page

118
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

REAL

-

A

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L3

IBIAS

REAL

-

A

Magnitude of the bias
current, which is
common to all phases

IDNSMAG

REAL

-

A

Magnitude of the
negative sequence
differential current

Table 46:
Name

6.1.7

Type

IDL3MAG

T3WPDIF Monitored data
Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

OCTSIDE

INTEGER

-

-

Open CT side : 1 -> W 1
(pri), 2 -> W 2 (sec), 3 ->
W3

OPENCTIN

INTEGER

-

-

Open CT on Input : 1 for
input 1, 2 for input 2

OPENCTPH

INTEGER

-

-

Open CT in Phase : 1 for
L1, 2 for L2, 3 for L3

IDL1MAG

REAL

-

A

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L1

IDL2MAG

REAL

-

A

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L2

IDL3MAG

REAL

-

A

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L3

IBIAS

REAL

-

A

Magnitude of the bias
current, which is
common to all phases

IDNSMAG

REAL

-

A

Magnitude of the
negative sequence
differential current

Operation principle
The task of the power transformer differential protection is to determine whether a
fault is within the protected zone, or outside of the protected zone. The protected
zone is limited by the position of current transformers (see Figure 33), and in
principle can include more objects than just a transformer. If the fault is found to be
internal, the faulty power transformer must be quickly disconnected from the system.
The main CTs are normally supposed to be star connected. The main CTs can be
earthed in anyway (that is, either "ToObject" or "FromObject"). However
internally the differential function will always use reference directions towards the
protected transformer as shown in Figure 33. Thus the IED will always internally
measure the currents on all sides of the power transformer with the same reference

119
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

direction towards the power transformer windings as shown in Figure 33. For more
information see the Application manual.
IW1

E1S1

IW2

Z1S1

Z1S2

IW1

IW2

E1S2

IED

en05000186.vsd
IEC05000186 V1 EN

Figure 33:

Typical CT location and definition of positive current direction

Even in a healthy power transformer, the currents are generally not equal when
they flow through it. This is due to the ratio of the number of turns of the windings
and the connection group of the protected transformer. Therefore the differential
protection must first correlate all currents to each other before any calculation can
be performed.
First, compensation for the protected transformer transformation ratio and
connection group is made, and only then are the currents compared phase-wise.
This makes external auxiliary (interposing) current transformers unnecessary.
Conversion of all currents to the common reference side of the power transformer
is performed by pre-programmed coefficient matrices, which depends on the
protected power transformer transformation ratio and connection group. Once the
power transformer vector group, rated currents and voltages have been entered by
the user, the differential protection is capable to calculate off-line matrix
coefficients required in order to perform the on-line current comparison by means
of a fixed equation.
The negative-sequence-current-based internal-external fault discriminator, is used
with advantage in order to determine whether a fault is internal or external. It not
only positively discriminates between internal and external faults, but can also
independently detect minor faults which may not be sensed by the "usual"
differential protection based on operate-restrain characteristic.
For all differential functions it is the common trip that is used to
initiate a trip of a breaker. The separate trip signals from the
different parts lacks the safety against maloperation. This will in
some cases result in a 6 ms time difference between, for example
restrained trip is issued and common trip is issued. The separate trip
signals are only used for information purpose of which part that has
caused the trip.

120
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

6.1.7.1

Function calculation principles
To make a differential IED as sensitive and stable as possible, restrained
differential characteristics have been developed and is now adopted as the general
practice in the protection of power transformers. The protection should be provided
with a proportional bias, which makes the protection operate for a certain
percentage differential current related to the current through the transformer. This
stabilizes the protection under through fault conditions while still permitting the
system to have good basic sensitivity. The following chapters explain how these
quantities are derived.

Fundamental frequency differential currents

The fundamental frequency differential current is a vectorial sum (sum of
fundamental frequency phasors) of the individual phase currents from the different
sides of the protected power transformer.
Before any differential current can be calculated, the power transformer phase
shift, and its transformation ratio, must be accounted for. Conversion of all currents
to a common reference is performed in two steps:

all current phasors are phase-shifted to (referred to) the phase-reference side,
(whenever possible the first winding with star connection)
all currents magnitudes are always referred to the first winding of the power
transformer (typically transformer high-voltage side)

The two steps of conversion are made simultaneously on-line by the preprogrammed coefficient matrices, as shown in equation 1 for a two-winding power
transformer, and in equation 2 for a three-winding power transformer.
These are the internal compensation within the differential function.
The protected power transformer data is always entered per its
nameplate. The Differential function will correlate nameplate data
and select proper reference windings.

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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

é IDL1 ù
é IL1_ W 1 ù
é IL1_ W 2 ù
Un
_
W
2
ê IDL 2 ú = A × ê IL 2 _ W 1ú +
ê
ú
ê
ú
ê
ú Un _ W 1 × B × ê IL 2 _ W 2 ú
êë IDL3 úû
êë IL3 _ W 1úû
êë IL3 _ W 2 úû
1

3

2

(Equation 1)

EQUATION1880 V1 EN

where:
1.

is the resulting Differential Currents

2.

is the current contribution from the W1 side

3.

is the current contribution from the W2 side

é IDL1 ù
é IL1_ W 1 ù
é IL1_ W 2 ù
é IL1_ W 3 ù
ê IDL 2 ú = A × ê IL 2 _ W 1ú + Un _ W 2 × B × ê IL 2 _ W 2 ú + Un _ W 3 × C × ê IL 2 _ W 3ú
ê
ú
ê
ú Un _ W 1
ê
ú Un _ W 1
ê
ú
êë IL3 _ W 1ûú
ëê IDL3 ûú
ëê IL3 _ W 2 ûú
ëê IL3 _ W 3 ûú
1

2

3

4

(Equation 2)

EQUATION1556 V2 EN

where:
1.

is the resulting Differential Currents

2.

is the current contribution from the W1 side

3.

is the current contribution from the W2 side

4.

is the current contribution from the W3 side

and where, for equation 1 and equation 2:
IDL1

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L1 (in W1 side primary amperes)

IDL2

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L2 (in W1 side primary amperes)

IDL3

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L3 (in W1 side primary amperes)

IL1_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W1 side

IL2_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W1 side

IL3_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W1 side

IL1_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W2 side

IL2_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W2 side

IL3_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W2 side

IL1_W3

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W3 side

IL2_W3

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W3 side

Table continues on next page
122
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

IL3_W3

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W3 side

Ur_W1

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W1 side (setting parameter)

Ur_W2

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W2 side (setting parameter)

Ur_W3

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W3 side (setting parameter)

A, B and C

are three by three matrices with numerical coefficients

Values of the matrix A, B and C coefficients depend on:
1.
2.
3.

The Power transformer winding connection type, such as star (Y/y) or delta (D/
d)
The Transformer vector group such as Yd1, Dy11, YNautod5, Yy0d5 and so
on, which introduce phase displacement between individual windings currents
in multiples of 30°.
The Settings for elimination of zero sequence currents for the individual
windings.

When the end user enters all these parameters, transformer differential function
automatically calculates the matrix coefficients. During this calculations the
following rules are used:
For the phase reference, the first winding with set star (Y) connection is always
used. For example, if the power transformer is a Yd1 power transformer, the HV
winding (Y) is taken as the phase reference winding. If the power transformer is a
Dy1, then the LV winding (y) is taken for the phase reference. If there is no star
connected winding, such as in Dd0 type of power transformers, then the HV delta
winding (D) is automatically chosen as the phase reference winding.
The fundamental frequency differential currents are in general composed of
currents of all sequences, that is, the positive-, the negative-, and the zero-sequence
currents. If the zero-sequence currents are eliminated (see section "Optional
Elimination of zero sequence currents"), then the differential currents can consist
only of the positive-, and the negative-sequence currents. When the zero-sequence
current is subtracted on one side of the power transformer, then it is subtracted
from each individual phase current.
As it can be seen from equation 1 and equation 2 the first entered winding (W1) is
always taken for ampere level reference (current magnitudes from all other sides
are always transferred to W1 side). In other words, within the differential
protection function, all differential currents and bias current are always expressed
in HV side primary Amperes.
It can be shown that the values of the matrix A, B & C coefficients (see equation 1
and equation 2) can be pre-calculated in advance depending on the relative phase
shift between the reference winding and other power transformer windings.
Table 47 summarizes the values of the matrices for all standard phase shifts
between windings.

123
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Table 47:

Matrices for differential current calculation
Matrix with Zero Sequence
Reduction set to On

Matrix for Reference Winding

é 2 -1 -1ù
1 ê
× -1 2 -1ú
ú
3 ê
ëê -1 -1 2 ûú

Matrix for winding with 30°
lagging

é 1 -1 0 ù
× ê 0 1 -1ú
ú
3 ê
ëê -1 0 1 úû

1

é1
1 ê
× 1
3 ê
êë -2

-2
1
1

-2 ú
ú
1 úû
(Equation 6)

é 0 -1 1 ù
× ê 1 0 -1ú
ú
3 ê
êë -1 1 0 úû

1

é -1 -1 2 ù
1 ê
× 2 -1 -1ú
ú
3 ê
êë -1 2 -1úû
é-1 0 1 ù
× ê 1 -1 0 ú
ú
3 ê
êë 0 1 -1úû

1

EQUATION1235 V1 EN

Matrix for winding which is in
opposite phase

é -2
1 ê
× 1
3 ê
ëê 1

1

Matrix for winding with 150°
leading

(Equation 12)

é-1 1 0 ù
× ê 0 -1 1 ú
ú
3 ê
ëê 1 0 -1ûú

1

EQUATION1238 V1 EN

EQUATION1234 V1 EN

(Equation 10)

Not applicable. Matrix on the
left used.

(Equation 11)

-2 1 ú
ú
1 -2 ûú

EQUATION1236 V1 EN

Not applicable. Matrix on the
left used.

é0 0 1 ù
ê1 0 0 ú
ê
ú
êë0 1 0 úû
(Equation 9)

EQUATION1233 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 150°
lagging

(Equation 7)

EQUATION1231 V1 EN

(Equation 8)

EQUATION1232 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 120°
lagging

Not applicable. Matrix on the
left used.

é 0 -1 0 ù
ê 0 0 -1ú
ê
ú
ëê -1 0 0 úû

EQUATION1230 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 90°
lagging

(Equation 4)

EQUATION1228 V1 EN

(Equation 5)

EQUATION1229 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 60°
lagging

é1 0 0 ù
ê0 1 0 ú
ê
ú
ëê0 0 1 úû
(Equation 3)

EQUATION1227 V1 EN

Matrix with Zero Sequence
Reduction set to Off

é -1 0 0 ù
ê 0 -1 0 ú
ê
ú
êë 0 0 -1úû
EQUATION1237 V1 EN

(Equation 13)

Not applicable. Matrix on the
left used.

(Equation 14)

Table continues on next page

124
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Matrix with Zero Sequence
Reduction set to On
Matrix for winding with 120°
leading

é -1 2 -1ù
1 ê
× -1 -1 2 ú
ú
3 ê
êë 2 -1 -1úû
EQUATION1239 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 90°
leading

é 0 1 -1ù
× ê -1 0 1 ú
ú
3 ê
êë 1 -1 0 úû

1

EQUATION1241 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 60°
leading

é1
1 ê
× -2
3 ê
êë 1

1

-2 ù

-2

1 úû

ú
(Equation 18)

é 1 0 -1ù
1 ê
× -1 1 0 ú
ú
3 ê
êë 0 -1 1 úû
EQUATION1244 V1 EN

é0 1 0 ù
ê0 0 1 ú
ê
ú
êë1 0 0 úû
EQUATION1240 V1 EN

(Equation 16)

Not applicable. Matrix on the
left used.

(Equation 17)

1

EQUATION1242 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 30°
leading

(Equation 15)

Matrix with Zero Sequence
Reduction set to Off

é 0 0 -1ù
ê -1 0 0 ú
ê
ú
êë 0 -1 0 úû
EQUATION1243 V1 EN

(Equation 19)

Not applicable. Matrix on the
left used.

(Equation 20)

By using this table complete equation for calculation of fundamental frequency
differential currents for two winding power transformer with YNd5 vector group
and enabled zero sequence current reduction on HV side will be derived. From the
given power transformer vector group the following is possible to be concluded:
1.
2.

The HV star (Y) connected winding will be used as the reference winding and
zero sequence currents shall be subtracted on that side
The LV winding is lagging for 150°

With the help of table 47, the following matrix equation can be written for this
power transformer:

é IDL1ù
é 2 -1 -1ù é IL1_ W1ù
é-1 0 1 ù é IL1_ W 2 ù
ê IDL2ú = 1 × ê-1 2 -1ú × ê IL2 _ W1ú + Ur _ W 2 × 1 × ê 1 -1 0 ú × ê IL2 _ W 2ú
ê
ú 3 ê
ú ê
ú Ur _ W1 3 ê
ú ê
ú
êë IDL3úû
êë-1 -1 2 úû êë IL3_ W1úû
êë 0 1 -1úû êë IL3_ W 2 úû
(Equation 21)

EQUATION2015 V1 EN

where:
IDL1

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L1 (in W1 side primary amperes)

IDL2

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L2 (in W1 side primary amperes)

IDL3

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L3 (in W1 side primary amperes)

IL1_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W1 side

Table continues on next page
125
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

IL2_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W1 side

IL3_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W1 side

IL1_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W2 side

IL2_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W2 side

IL3_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W2 side

Ur_W1

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W1 side (setting parameter)

Ur_W2

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W2 side (setting parameter)

As marked in equation 1 and equation 2, the first term on the right hand side of the
equation, represents the total contribution from the individual phase currents from
the W1 side to the fundamental frequency differential currents, compensated for
eventual power transformer phase shift. The second term on the right hand side of
the equation, represents the total contribution from the individual phase currents
from the W2 side to the fundamental frequency differential currents, compensated
for eventual power transformer phase shift and transferred to the power transformer
W1 side. The third term on the right hand side of the equation, represents the total
contribution from the individual phase currents from the W3 side to the
fundamental frequency differential currents, compensated for eventual power
transformer phase shift and transferred to the power transformer W1 side. These
current contributions are important, because they are used for calculation of
common bias current.
The fundamental frequency differential currents are the "usual" differential
currents, the magnitudes which are applied in a phase-wise manner to the operate restrain characteristic of the differential protection. The magnitudes of the
differential currents can be read as service values from the function and they are
available as outputs IDL1MAG, IDL2MAG, IDL3MAG from the differential
protection function block. Thus they can be connected to the disturbance recorder
and automatically recorded during any external or internal fault condition.

On-line compensation for load tap changer movement

A load tap changer is a mechanical device, which is used to step-wise change
number of turns within one power transformer winding. Consequently the power
transformer overall turns ratio is changed. Typically the load tap changer is located
within the HV winding (that is, winding 1, W1) of the power transformer. By
operating load tap changer, it is possible to step-wise regulate voltage on the LV
side of the power transformer. However at the same time the differential protection
for power transformer becomes unbalanced. Differential function in the IED has builtin feature to continuously monitor the load tap changer position and dynamically
compensate on-line for changes in power transformer turns ratio.
Differential currents are calculated as shown in equation 1 and equation 2. By
setting parameters, the winding location of the OLTC is defined. Also, the voltage
change of each step. Thus, if for example the load tap changer is located within
winding 1 the no-load voltage Vn_W1 will be treated as a function of the actual
load tap changer position in equation 1 and equation 2. Thus for every load tap
changer position a corresponding value for Ur_W1 will be calculated and used in
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the above mentioned equations. By doing this, complete on-line compensation for
load tap changer movement is achieved. Differential protection will be ideally
balanced for every load tap changer position and no false differential current will
appear irrespective of actual load tap changer position.
Typically the minimum differential protection pickup for power transformer with
load tap changer is set between 30% to 40%. However with this load tap changer
compensation feature it is possible to set the differential protection in the IED more
sensitive with a pickup value of 15% to 20%.
Load tap changer position is measured within the IED by Tap changer control and
supervision, (TCLYLTC). Within this function block, the load tap changer position
value is continuously monitored to insure its integrity.
When any error in the load tap changer position is detected an alarm is given. This
signal shall be connected to the OLTCxAL input of the differential function block.
While OLTCxAL input has a logical value of one the differential protection
minimum pickup, originally defined by setting parameter IdMin, will be increased
by the set range of the load tap changer. Alternatively the differential current alarm
feature can be used to alarm for any problems in the whole load tap changer
compensation chain.
It shall be noted that:

two-winding differential protection in the IED can on-line compensate for one
load tap changer within the protected power transformer
three-winding differential protection in the IED can on-line compensate for up
to two load tap changers within the protected power transformer

Differential current alarm

Fundamental frequency differential current level is monitored all the time within
the differential function. As soon as all three fundamental frequency differential
currents are above the set threshold defined by setting parameter IDiffAlarm a
delay on pickup timer is started. When the pre-set time, defined by setting
parameter tAlarmDelay, has expired the differential current alarm is generated and
output signal IDALARM is set to logical value one. This feature can be effectively
used to provide alarm when load tap changer position compensation is used and
something in the whole compensation chain goes wrong. This alarm can be as well
used with some additional IED configuration logic to desensitize the differential
function.

Bias current

The bias current is calculated as the highest current amongst all individual winding
current contributions to the total fundamental frequency differential currents, as
shown in equation 1 and equation 2. All individual winding current contributions
are already referred to the power transformer winding one side (power transformer
HV winding) and therefore they can be compared regarding their magnitudes.
There are six (or nine in the case of a three-winding transformer) contributions to
the total fundamental differential currents, which are the candidates for the
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common bias current. The highest individual current contribution is taken as a
common bias (restrain) current for all three phases. This "maximum principle"
makes the differential protection more secure, with less risk to operate for external
faults and in the same time brings more meaning to the breakpoint settings of the
operate - restrain characteristic.
It shall be noted that if the zero-sequence currents are subtracted from the separate
contributions to the total differential current, then the zero-sequence component is
automatically eliminated from the bias current as well. This ensures that for
secondary injection from just one power transformer side the bias current is always
equal to the highest differential current regardless of the fault type. During normal
through-load operation of the power transformer, the bias current is equal to the
maximum load current from two (three) -power transformer windings.
The magnitudes of the common bias (restrain) current expressed in HV side
amperes can be read as service value from the function. At the same time it is
available as an output IBIAS from the differential protection function block. It can
be connected to the disturbance recorder and automatically recorded during any
external or internal fault condition.
For application with so called "T" configuration, that is, two restraint CT inputs
from one side of the protected power transformer, such as in the case of breaker-anda-half schemes the primary CT ratings can be much higher than the rating of the
protected power transformer. In order to determine the bias current for such T
configuration, the two separate currents flowing in the T-side are scaled down to
the protected power transform level by means of additional settings. This is done in
order to prevent unwanted de-sensitizing of the overall differential protection. In
addition to that, the resultant currents (the sum of two currents) into the protected
power transformer winding, which is not directly measured is calculated, and
included in the common bias calculation. The rest of the bias calculation procedure
is the same as in protection schemes without breaker-and-a-half arrangements.

Optional Elimination of zero sequence currents

To avoid unwanted trips for external earth-faults, the zero sequence currents should
be subtracted on the side of the protected power transformer, where the zero
sequence currents can flow at external earth -faults.
The zero sequence currents can be explicitly eliminated from the differential
currents and common bias current calculation by special, dedicated parameter
settings, which are available for every individual winding.
Elimination of the zero sequence component of current is necessary whenever:

the protected power transformer cannot transform the zero sequence currents
to the other side.
the zero sequence currents can only flow on one side of the protected power
transformer.

In most cases, power transformers do not properly transform the zero sequence
current to the other side. A typical example is a power transformer of the star-delta
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type, for example YNd1. Transformers of this type do not transform the zero
sequence quantities, but zero sequence currents can flow in the earthed starconnected winding. In such cases, an external earth-fault on the star-side causes
zero sequence current to flow on the star-side of the power transformer, but not on
the other side. This results in false differential currents - consisting exclusively of
the zero sequence currents. If high enough, these false differential currents can
cause an unwanted disconnection of the healthy power transformer. They must
therefore be subtracted from the fundamental frequency differential currents if an
unwanted trip is to be avoided.
For delta windings this feature shall be enabled only if an earthing transformer
exists within the differential zone on the delta side of the protected power transformer.
Removing the zero sequence current from the differential currents decreases to
some extent the sensitivity of the differential protection for internal earth -faults. In
order to counteract this effect to some degree, the zero sequence current is
subtracted not only from the three fundamental frequency differential currents, but
from the bias current as well.

Restrained and unrestrained limits of the differential protection

The power transformer differential protection function uses two limits, to which
actual magnitudes of the three fundamental frequency differential currents are
compared at each execution of the function.
The unrestrained (that is, non-stabilized, "instantaneous") part of the differential
protection is used for very high differential currents, where it should be beyond any
doubt, that the fault is internal. This settable limit is constant and not proportional
to the bias current. Neither harmonic, nor any other restrain is applied to this limit,
which is therefore allowed to trip the power transformer instantaneously.
The restrained (stabilized) part of the differential protection compares the
calculated fundamental differential (operating) currents and the bias (restrain)
current, by applying them to the operate - restrain characteristic. Practically, the
magnitudes of the individual fundamental frequency differential currents are
compared with an adaptive limit. This limit is adaptive because it is dependent on
the bias (that is, restrain) current magnitude. This limit is called the operate restrain characteristic. It is represented by a double-slope, double-breakpoint
characteristic, as shown in figure 34. The restrained characteristic is determined by
the following 5 settings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

IdMin (Sensitivity in section 1, multiple of trans. HV side rated current set
under the parameter RatedCurrentW1)
EndSection1 (End of section 1, as multiple of transformer HV side rated
current set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1)
EndSection2 (End of section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated
current set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1)
SlopeSection2 (Slope in section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated
current set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1)
SlopeSection3 (Slope in section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated
current set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1)
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The restrained characteristic in figure 34 is defined by the settings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

IdMin
EndSection1
EndSection2
SlopeSection2
SlopeSection3

operate current
[ times IBase ]

Operate

5

unconditionally
UnrestrainedLimit

4

Operate

3

conditionally

2
Section 1

Section 2

Section 3
SlopeSection3

1
IdMin
SlopeSection2

Restrain

0
0

1

2

3

EndSection1
EndSection2

4

5

restrain current
[ times IBase ]

en05000187-2.vsd
IEC05000187 V2 EN

Figure 34:

Description of the restrained, and the unrestrained operate
characteristics

where:

slope = D Ioperate × 100%
D Irestrain
EQUATION1246 V1 EN

The operate - restrain characteristic is tailor-made and can be designed freely by
the user after his needs. The default characteristic is recommended to be used. It
gives good results in a majority of applications. The operate - restrain characteristic
has in principle three sections with a section-wise proportionality of the operate

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value to the bias (restrain) current. The reset ratio is in all parts of the characteristic
equal to 0.95.
Section 1: This is the most sensitive part on the characteristic. In section 1, normal
currents flow through the protected circuit and its current transformers, and risk for
higher false differential currents is relatively low. An un-compensated on-load tapchanger is a typical reason for existence of the false differential currents in this
section. The slope in section 1 is always zero percent.
Section 2: In section 2, a certain minor slope is introduced which is supposed to
cope with false differential currents proportional to higher than normal currents
through the current transformers.
Section 3: The more pronounced slope in section 3 is designed to result in a higher
tolerance to substantial current transformer saturation at high through-fault
currents, which may be expected in this section.
The operate - restrain characteristic should be designed so that it can be expected that:

for internal faults, the operate (differential) currents are always with a good
margin above the operate - restrain characteristic
for external faults, the false (spurious) operate currents are with a good margin
below the operate - restrain characteristic

Fundamental frequency negative sequence differential currents

Existence of relatively high negative sequence currents is in itself a proof of a
disturbance on the power system, possibly a fault in the protected power
transformer. The negative-sequence currents are a measurable indication of an
abnormal condition, similar to the zero sequence current. One of the several
advantages of the negative sequence currents compared to the zero sequence
currents is that they provide coverage for phase-to-phase and power transformer turnto-turn faults. Theoretically, the negative sequence currents do not exist during
symmetrical three-phase faults, however they do appear during initial stage of such
faults for a long enough time (in most cases) for the IED to make the proper
decision. Further, the negative sequence currents are not stopped at a power
transformer by the Yd, or Dy connection type. The negative sequence currents are
always properly transformed to the other side of any power transformer for any
external disturbance. Finally, the negative sequence currents are not affected by
symmetrical through-load currents.
For power transformer differential protection applications, the negative sequence
based differential currents are calculated by using exactly the same matrix
equations, which are used to calculate the traditional phase-wise fundamental
frequency differential currents. The same equation shall be fed by the negative
sequence currents from the two power transformer sides instead of individual phase
currents, as shown in matrix equation 23 for a case of two-winding, YNd5 power
transformer.

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IDL1_NS. is the Negative Sequence current contribution from the W1 side 3. The second term on the right hand side of the equation. is the Negative Sequence current contribution from the W2 side and where: IDL1_NS is the negative sequence differential current in phase L1 (in W1 side primary amperes) IDL2_NS is the negative sequence differential current in phase L2 (in W1 side primary amperes) IDL3_NS is the negative sequence differential current in phase L3 (in W1 side primary amperes) INS_W1 is the negative sequence current on the W1 side in primary amperes (phase L1 reference) INS_W2 is the negative sequence current on the W2 side in primary amperes (phase L1 reference) Ur_W1 is the transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W1 side (setting parameter) Ur_W2 is the transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on W2 side (setting parameter) a is the complex operator for sequence quantities. a=e j ×120 o =- EQUATION1248 V1 EN 1 2 + j× 3 2 (Equation 24) Because the negative sequence currents always form the symmetrical three phase current system on each transformer side (that is. As marked in equation 23. represents the total contribution of the negative sequence current from the W2 side compensated for eventual power transformer 132 Technical Manual . negative sequence currents in every phase will always have the same magnitude and be phase displaced for 120 electrical degrees from each other). it is only necessary to calculate the first negative sequence differential current that is. the first term on the right hand side of the equation.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - é IDL1 _ NS ù é2 ê IDL 2 _ NS ú = 1 × ê -1 ê ú 3 ê ëê IDL3 _ NS ûú ëê -1 -1 2 -1 -1ù é INS _ W 1 ù Ur _ W 2 ú -1 × ê a × INS _ W 1 ú + × ú ê 2 ú Ur _ W 1 ú ëê a × INS _ W 1ûú 2û 1 é -1 ×ê1 3 ê ëê 0 1 2 0 -1 1 ù é INS _ W 2 ù 0 ú × ê a × INS _ W 2 ú ú ê 2 ú ú ëê a × INS _ W 2 ûú -1û 1 3 (Equation 23) EQUATION1247 V1 EN where: 1. represents the total contribution of the negative sequence current from the W1 side compensated for eventual power transformer phase shift. is the Negative Sequence Differential Currents 2.

In the same time it is available as outputs IDNSMAG from the differential protection function block.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - phase shift and transferred to the power transformer W1 side. IMinNegSeq NegSeqROA 133 Technical Manual . respectively. with two directional tests. The negative sequence fault currents must first be referred to the same phase reference side. with a high sensitivity and at high speed. The internal/external fault discriminator responds to the magnitudes and the relative phase angles of the negative-sequence fault currents at the different windings of the protected power transformer. It is recommended that this feature shall be always used (that is. Then the relative phase displacement between the two negative sequence current phasors is calculated. where the directional characteristic is defined by two setting parameters: 1. The magnitudes of the negative sequence differential current expressed in the HV side A can be read as service values from the function. In case of three-winding power transformers. a little more complex algorithm is applied. These negative sequence current contributions are phasors. On) when protecting three-phase power transformers. to characterize a fault as internal or external. See section "Internal/ external fault discriminator" for more information. defined by expression shown in equation 23. which are further used in directional comparisons. It performs a directional comparison between these two phasors. and the phase position are referred to the HV (W1 side). 2. First. and put to the same magnitude reference. Operation of the internal/external fault discriminator is based on the relative position of the two phasors representing the winding one (W1) and winding two (W2) negative sequence current contributions. and at the same time discriminates with a high degree of dependability between internal and external faults. The overall directional characteristic of the internal/external fault discriminator is shown in figure 35. the LV side phasor is referred to the HV side (W1 side): both the magnitude. Thus. it can be connected to the disturbance recorder and automatically recorded during any external or internal fault condition. The internal/external fault discriminator detects even minor faults. Internal/external fault discriminator The internal/external fault discriminator is a very powerful and reliable supplementary criterion to the traditional differential protection. This is done by the matrix expression (see equation 23).

Therefore this limit value. The default value is ±60 degrees. Only if the magnitudes of both negative sequence current contributions are above the actual limit. This magnitude check guarantees stability of the algorithm.20 times the IBase of the power transformer winding one. no directional comparison is made in order to avoid the possibility to produce a wrong decision.then 10% of the bias current is added to the IminNegSeq. which should be compared. with a step of 0. the internal/external fault discriminator compares the relative phase angle between the negative sequence 134 Technical Manual .1 degree. and 120 degrees is mapped Internal/external fault boundary NegSeqROA (Relay Operate Angle) 180 deg 0 deg IMinNegSeq Internal fault region External fault region 270 deg en05000188-3-en. The setting NegSeqROA represents the Relay Operate Angle. If the above condition concerning magnitudes is fulfilled. If either of the negative sequence current contributions. Note that. On the other hand. the relative position between these two phasors is checked.04. is settable in the range of 0. called IminNegSeq. which determines the boundary between the internal and external fault regions. It can be selected in a range from ±30 degrees to ±90 degrees. in order to enhance stability at higher fault currents. the value of this minimum limit must not be too high. The default setting ±60 degree favours security in comparison to dependability.02 to 0.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 90 deg 120 deg If one or the other of currents is too low. in order to guarantee a good sensitivity of the internal/external fault discriminator.vsd IEC05000188 V3 EN Figure 35: Operating characteristic of the internal/external fault discriminator In order to perform directional comparison of the two phasors their magnitudes must be high enough so that one can be sure that they are due to a fault. The default value is 0. when the power transformer is energized. is too small (less than the set value for IminNegSeq). the relatively very low threshold value IminNegSeq is dynamically increased at currents higher than normal currents: if the bias current is higher than 110% of IBase . then no measurement is done.

Observe that the relative phase angle between these two phasors is 180 electrical degrees at any point in time.4 kA 330 210 240 270 "steady state" for LV side neg. the fault is external (that is.vsd IEC05000189 V1 EN Figure 36: Trajectories of Negative Sequence Current Contributions from HV and LV sides of Yd5 power transformer during external fault 135 Technical Manual . W1 phasors is outside protected zone) For example. seq. differential current from HV side Contribution to neg. No current transformer saturation was assumed for this case. ideally the respective negative sequence current contributions from the W1 and W2 power transformer sides will be exactly 180 degrees apart and equal in magnitude.3 kA 0.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - current contributions from W1 and W2 sides of the power transformer using the following two rules: • • If the negative sequence current contributions from the W1 and the W2 sides are in phase. An example is shown in figure 36. the fault is internal (that is. phasor 90 60 150 30 10 ms 180 0 0. differential current from LV side en05000189. seq.2 kA 0. both phasors are within protected zone) If the negative sequence currents contributions from W1 and W2 sides are 180 degrees out of phase. "steady state" for HV side neg.1 kA 10 ms 0. seq. phasor Contribution to neg. regardless the power transformer turns ratio and phase displacement. seq. for any unsymmetrical external fault. which shows trajectories of the two separate phasors representing the negative sequence current contributions from the HV and LV sides of an Yd5 power transformer (after compensation of the transformer turns ratio and phase displacement) by using equation 23) for an unsymmetrical external fault.

and sensitive negative sequence protections Two sub functions. and from 0 degrees for an internal fault. See figure 37 for an example of a heavy internal fault with transient CT saturation. depending on the setting IminNegSeq. the angle shall ideally be 0 degrees. the relative angle is theoretically equal to 180 degrees. The trustworthy information on whether a fault is internal or external is typically obtained in about 10ms after the fault inception. which are based on the internal/external fault discriminator with the ability to trip a faulty power transformer.vsd IEC05000190 V1 EN Figure 37: Operation of the internal/external fault discriminator for internal fault with CT saturation It shall be noted that additional security measures are implemented in the internal/ external fault discriminator algorithm in order to guarantee proper operation with heavily saturated current transformers.0 kA 240 300 270 1. during heavy faults. but due to possible different negative sequence source impedance angles on the W1 and W2 sides of the protected power transformer. and the magnitudes of the fault currents.5 kA 210 330 trip c o mmand in 12 ms Inte rna l fa ult de cla re d 7 ms a fte r inte rna l fa ult occure d 1. CT saturation might cause the measured phase angle to differ from 180 degrees for an external. During heavy faults. During internal faults. 136 Technical Manual . are parts of the traditional power transformer differential protection. it may differ somewhat from the ideal zero value. Unrestrained. However.5 kA HV s ide contribution to the tota l ne ga tive s e que nce diffe re ntia l curre nt in kA Dire ctiona l limit (within the re gion de limite d by ± 60 de gre e s is inte rna l fa ult) en05000190.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Under external fault conditions. approximately 5ms time to full saturation of the main CT is sufficient in order to produce a correct discrimination between internal and external faults. Dire ctiona l Compa ris on Crite rion: Inte rna l fa ult a s s e e n from the HV s ide 90 e xcurs ion from 0 de gre e s due to CT s a tura tion 60 120 35 ms 30 150 de finite ly a n inte rna l fa ult 180 e xte rna l fa ult re gion 0 0.

This happens because one or more of the fundamental frequency differential currents entered the operate region on the operate . In order to be activated. then the unrestrained negative sequence differential protection places its own trip request. If a fault is classified as external. In this case. this protection is not independent of the traditional restrained differential protection . Sensitive negative sequence based turn-to-turn fault protection The sensitive. This logic guarantees a fast disconnection of a faulty power transformer for any internal fault. This conclusion can be drawn because at external faults. negative sequence current based turn-to-turn fault protection detects the low level faults. Any decision on the way to the final trip request must be confirmed several times in succession in order to cope with eventual CT transients. then their relative positions are determined. simultaneous with a predominant external fault can be suspected. the 2nd. If the same fault has been classified as external. the further analysis of the fault conditions is initiated. Instantaneous differential currents The instantaneous differential currents are calculated from the instantaneous values of the input currents in order to perform the harmonic analysis and waveform 137 Technical Manual . the 5th etc. If the disturbance is characterized as an internal fault.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The unrestrained negative sequence differential protection The unrestrained negative sequence protection is activated if one or more start signals have been set by the traditional differential protection algorithm. If all the instantaneous differential currents in phases where start signals have been issued are free of harmonic pollution. Any block signals by the harmonic and/or waveform criteria. major false differential currents can only exist when one or more current transformers saturate. the false instantaneous differential currents are polluted by higher harmonic components. then a separate trip request will be placed. The essential part of this sensitive protection is the internal/external fault discriminator.restrain characteristic. the sensitive protection requires no start signal from the traditional power transformer biased differential protection. If magnitudes of HV and LV negative sequence current contributions are above the set limit for IminNegSeq.it is activated after the first start signal has been placed. then a (minor) internal fault. For very low level turn-to-turn faults the overall response time of this protection is about 30ms. If the same fault has been positively recognized as internal. which can block the traditional differential protection are overridden. a trip command is prevented. This causes a short additional operating time delay due to this security count. then generally. but not unconditionally. including power transformer iron core. and the differential protection operates quickly without any further delay. The sensitive protection is independent from the traditional differential protection and is a very good complement to it. So. which are not detected by the traditional differential protection until they develop into more severe faults.

which can be read as BLK2HL1 output of the differential protection. The same matrices A.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - analysis upon each one of them (see section "Harmonic and waveform block criteria" for more information). The magnetizing currents of a power transformer flow only on one side of the power transformer and are therefore always the cause of false differential currents. The harmonic analysis (the 2nd and the 5th harmonic) is applied to the instantaneous differential currents. 138 Technical Manual .restrain characteristic. This interval is often called current gap in protection literature. The waveform restrain is a pattern recognition algorithm. or due to magnetizing currents at over-voltages. if the content of the 2nd harmonic in the instantaneous differential current of phase L1 is above the setting I2/I1Ratio. Waveform restrain The waveform restrain criterion is a good complement to the harmonic analysis. For example. Block signals BLKWAVLx are set in those phases where such behavior is detected. Harmonic and waveform block criteria The two block criteria are the harmonic restrain and the waveform restrain. samples. that is. The harmonic analysis is only applied in those phases. then a block signal is set for that phase. Harmonic restrain The harmonic restrain is the classical restrain method traditionally used with power transformer differential protections. which produces start signals by applying the differential currents. to the operate . However. These two criteria have the power to block a trip command by the traditional differential protection. The algorithm does not require any end user settings. The only difference is that the matrix algorithm is fed by instantaneous values of currents. The goal is to prevent an unwanted trip command due to magnetizing inrush currents at switching operations. B and C are used for these calculations. and the bias current. Typical instantaneous differential currents during power transformer energizing are shown in figure 38. The waveform algorithm is automatically adapted dependent only on the power transformer rated data. The instantaneous differential currents are calculated using the same matrix expression as shown in equation 1 and equation 2. which looks for intervals within each fundamental power system cycle with low instantaneous differential current. which are typical for the power transformer inrush currents. where start signals have been set. within differential function this criterion actually searches for long-lasting intervals with low rate-of-change in instantaneous differential current.

This 139 Technical Manual . It should be noted that this is the default setting value for this parameter. As soon as the operating point for this phase is below the set bias characteristic (that is. In this way cross-blocking of the temporary nature is achieved. There is no time settings involved. Cross-blocking between phases The basic definition of the cross-blocking is that one of the three phases can block operation (that is. 2nd or 5th harmonic content). When enabled this feature ensures quick differential protection tripping in cases where a transformer is energized with an internal fault (for example. and intervals of low current. Typical is a high amount of the 2nd harmonic. Operation of this feature is based on the fact that a current gap (term current gap is explained under waveblock feature above) will exist within the first power system cycle when healthy power transformer is energized. In differential algorithm the user can control the cross-blocking between the phases via the setting parameter CrossBlockEn=On. advanced switch onto fault feature. It is recommended to use the value Off with caution in order to avoid the unwanted tripping during initial energizing of the power transformer. tripping) of the other two phases due to the harmonic pollution of the differential current in that phase (that is. If this is not the case the waveblock criterion will reset quickly. forgotten earthing on transformer LV side). This feature can be enabled or disabled by a setting parameter SOTFMode. in the restrain region) cross blocking from that phase will be inhibited. any cross blocking between phases will be disabled. When parameter CrossBlockEn=On cross blocking between phases is introduced.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IEC05000343 V1 EN Figure 38: Inrush currents to a transformer as seen by a protective IED. waveform. When parameter CrossBlockEn=Off. but the phase with the operating point above the set bias characteristic (in the operate region) will be able to cross-block the other two phases if it is itself blocked by any of the previously explained restrained criteria. Switch onto fault feature The transformer differential function has a built-in. and low rate-of-change of current within each period.

When the switch onto fault feature is disabled by the setting parameter SOTFMode. this feature cannot operate. and if the load in the protected circuit is relatively high. as seen by the protection). the open CT condition cannot be detected. An open CT circuit is typically detected in 12–14 ms.120% of rated load and the differential current is higher than 10% of IBase on that phase. In addition to load condition requirement. advanced open CT detection feature.. this feature tries to prevent mal-operation when a loaded main CT connected to Transformer differential protection is by mistake open circuited on the secondary side. the waveblock and second harmonic blocking features work in parallel and are completely independent from each other. If two or even all three-phase currents of one set of CTs are accidentally interrupted at precisely the same time. Damage of secondary equipment may occur due to high voltage from open CT circuit outputs. with the protected multi-terminal circuit under normal load (10. This consequently ensures fast operation of the transformer differential function for a switch onto a fault condition. A sudden inadvertently opened CT circuit may cause an unexpected and unwanted operation of the Transformer differential protection under normal load conditions.. The principle applied to detect an open CT is a simple pattern recognition method. from the point of view of security and reliability. If the differential current is lower than 10% of IBase. the Open CT algorithm only detects an open CT if the load on the power transformer protected object is 10. and produce an alarm signal to the operational personnel to quickly correct the open CT condition. the unwanted trip cannot always be prevented. The open CT detection principle is based on the fact that for an open CT. the current in the phase with the open CT suddenly drops to zero (that is.. under the first 50 ms. Open CT detection feature Transformer differential protection has a built-in. the open CT condition cannot be detected. to have the open CT detection function to block the Transformer differential protection function in case of an open CT condition. Therefore. similar to the waveform check used by the Power Transformer Differential Protection in order to detect the magnetizing inrush condition. the information about what was the cause of the open CT secondary circuit..120% of the rated load). 140 Technical Manual . The open CT function is supposed to detect an open CT under normal conditions. If the load currents are very low or zero.. while the currents of the other two phases continue as before. that is. Note that this feature can only detect interruption of one CT phase current at a time. Open CT function also checks the differential current on faulty phase..120% range. It shall be noted that this feature is only active during initial power transformer energizing. The search for an open CT starts 60 seconds (50 seconds in 60 Hz systems) after the bias current has entered the 10. When enabled. about the nominal load. is vital.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - quick reset of the waveblock criterion will temporarily disable the second harmonic blocking feature of the differential protection function. Transformer differential protection generates a trip signal if the false differential current is sufficiently high. Still. It is always an advantage. The built-in open CT feature can be enabled or disabled by the setting parameter OpenCTEnable (Off/On).

These indications are provided via the following outputs from the Transformer differential protection function: 1. 2= Phase L2. the following conditions must be fulfilled: • • • Bias current is for at least one minute smaller than 120% The open CT condition in the defective CT circuit has been corrected (for example. To reset the open CT circuit alarm automatically. Output OPENCT provides instant information to indicate that an open CT circuit has been detected. CT input and phase in which an open CT condition has been detected. the algorithm stops to search for further open CT circuits. An alarm signal is also produced after a settable delay (tOCTAlarmDelay) to report to operational personnel for quick remedy actions once the open CT is detected. the open CT detection algorithm starts again to search for open CT circuits within the protected zone. 2=CT input No 2). 3. 3= Phase L3). Integer output OPENCTPH provides information on the local HMI regarding in which phase an open CT circuit has been detected (1=Phase L1. except the unrestrained (instantaneous) differential. Integer output OPENCTIN provides information on the local HMI regarding which open CT circuit has been detected (1=CT input No 1. the algorithm is reset either when the missing current returns to the normal value. then all the differential functions are blocked. When the open CT condition is removed (that is. This is to prevent an eventual maloperation after the reconnection of the previously open CT secondary circuit. Output OPENCTAL provides a time-delayed alarm that the open CT circuit has been detected. current asymmetry disappears) The above two conditions are fulfilled for a longer time than defined by the setting parameter tOCTResetDelay If an open CT has been detected in a separate group of three CTs. the previously open CT is reconnected). The open CT algorithm provides detailed information about the location of the defective CT secondary circuit. 4. Time delay is defined by the parameter tOCTAlarmDelay. If an open CT is detected and the output OPENCT set to 1. It waits until the first open CT circuit has been corrected. it can be reset automatically within the differential function. 141 Technical Manual . Once the open CT condition is declared. The algorithm clearly indicates the IED side. which is also defined by a setting (tOCTResetDelay). 2. After the reset. the functions remain blocked for a specified interval of time. Note that once the open CT condition has been detected. It is not possible to externally reset an open CT condition.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The Open CT detection feature can also be explicitly deactivated by setting: OpenCTEnable = 0 (Off). or when all three currents become zero.

The following currents are inputs used in the power transformer differential protection function. Current Reduction en06000554-3-en. They must all be expressed in power system (primary) A. phase L2 IDL2 Instantaneous (sample based) Differential current. Derive equation to calculate differential currents Open CT logic on W1 side Open CT logic on W2 side Phasors & samples Trafo Data Phasors & samples Phasor calculation of individual phase current Differential function Phasor calculation of individual phase current A/D conversion scaling with CT ratio A/D conversion scaling with CT ratio ADM Instantaneous (sample based) Differential current. 142 Technical Manual . phase L3 & phase current contributions from individual windings MAX IBIAS Settings for Zer.1. Seq. phase L3 IDL3 IDNSMAG Negative sequence diff current & NS current contribution from individual windings IDL1MAG Fundamental frequency (phasor based) Diff current.vsd IEC06000544 V3 EN Figure 39: Treatment of measured currents within IED for transformer differential function Figure 39 shows how internal treatment of measured currents is done in case of a twowinding transformer.Section 6 Differential protection 6. phase L1 & phase current contributions from individual windings IDL2MAG Fundamental frequency (phasor based) Diff current. phase L1 IDL1 Instantaneous (sample based) Differential current.7.2 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Logic diagram The simplified internal logics. for transformer differential protection are shown in the following figures. phase L2 & phase current contributions from individual windings IDL3MAG Fundamental frequency (phasor based) Diff current.

Contributions to it from both (all three) power transformer sides are used by the internal/external fault discriminator to detect and classify a fault as internal or external. 3. Instantaneous differential currents are useful for post-fault analysis using disturbance recording Calculates negative-sequence differential current. 3. and LV sides for twowinding power transformers. Calculates three instantaneous differential currents. BLKUNRES IdUnre a AND b>a b TRIPUNREL1 IDL1MAG IBIAS STL1 AND BLOCK BLKRES AND IDL1 2nd Harmonic Wave block 1 Switch on to fault logic OR BLK2HL1 BLKWAVL1 BLK5HL1 5th Harmonic Cross Block from L2 or L3 OpCrossBlock=On AND TRIPRESL1 OR AND Cross Block to L2 or L3 en06000545. 2. The power transformer differential protection: 1. They are used for harmonic. and from the HV. and waveform analysis. Negative sequence currents from all power transformer sides expressed as phasors. Currents from all power transformer sides expressed as fundamental frequency phasors with their real and imaginary parts.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 1.vsd IEC06000545 V1 EN Figure 40: Transformer differential protection simplified logic diagram for Phase L1 143 Technical Manual . These currents are calculated within the protection function by the symmetrical components module. the first LV. The zero-sequence component can optionally be eliminated from each of the three fundamental frequency differential currents and at the same time from the common bias current. 2. Instantaneous values of currents (samples) from the HV. and the second LV side for three-winding power transformers. Calculates three fundamental frequency differential currents and one common bias current. These currents are calculated within the protection function by the fundamental frequency Fourier filters.

vsd IEC05000167-TIFF V2 EN Figure 41: Transformer differential protection simplified logic diagram for external/internal fault discriminator TRIPRESL1 TRIPRESL2 TRIPRESL3 OR TRIPRES OR TRIPUNRE TRIPUNREL1 TRIPUNREL2 TRIPUNREL3 TRNSSENS OR TRIP TRNSUNR en05000278.vsd IEC05000278 V1 EN Figure 42: Transformer differential protection internal grouping of tripping signals 144 Technical Manual . Diff Current Contributions EXTFAULT INTFAULT & OpNegSeqDiff=On IBIAS Constant a b b>a & STL1 STL2 STL3 TRNSSENS t TRNSUNR >1 IEC05000167-2-en.Seq.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Internal/ External Fault discrimin ator Neg.

If a start signal is issued in a phase (see signal STL1). This feature is called the sensitive negative sequence differential protection. If the unrestrained limit is exceeded. The sensitive negative sequence differential protection is independent of any start signals. If a start signal is issued in a phase the harmonic and the waveform block signals are checked. Only a start signal. The sensitive negative sequence differential protection starts whenever both contributions to the total negative sequence differential current (that must be compared by the internal/external fault discriminator) are higher than the value of the setting IMinNegSeq. while the other is the high-set unrestrained limit. then any eventual block signals are overridden and unrestrained negative-sequence trip TRNSUNR and common trip TRIP are issued without any further delay. 42 and 43 can be summarized as follows: 1. This feature is called the unrestrained negative-sequence protection 110% bias. It is meant to detect smaller internal faults such as turn-to-turn faults. even if the fault has been classified as an external fault. If the cross-block logic scheme is applied. an immediate unrestrained trip TRIPUNRE and common trip TRIP are issued.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - STL1 STL2 STL3 OR START OR BLK2H OR BLK5H OR BLKWAV BLK2HL1 BLK2HL2 BLK2HL3 BLK5HL1 BLK5HL2 BLK5HL3 BLKWAVL1 BLKWAVL2 BLKWAVL3 IEC05000279-2-en. The three fundamental frequency differential currents are applied in a phasewise manner to two limits.vsd IEC05000279-TIFF V2 EN Figure 43: Transformer differential protection internal grouping of logical signals Logic in figures 40. 2. If a fault is positively recognized as internal. the instantaneous differential current of that phase (see signal IDL1) is analyzed for the 2nd and the 5th harmonic 145 Technical Manual . 4. which are often not detected by the traditional differential protection. then only if all phases with set start signal are free of their respective block signals. a restrained trip TRIPRES and common trip TRIP are issued If a start signal is issued in a phase. The first limit is the operate-restrain characteristic. a start signal START is set. If the first limit is exceeded. 41. and the fault has been classified as internal. 5. which is free of all of its block signals can result in a trip command. 3. and the condition is stable with no interruption for at least one fundamental frequency cycle the sensitive negative sequence differential protection TRNSSENS and common trip TRIP are issued.

T3WPDIF technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Operating characteristic Adaptable ± 1.0% of Ir Second harmonic blocking (5. than allowed by the settings I2/I1Ratio. and I5/I1Ratio.1. (This means that the cross block signals from the other two phases L2 and L3 is not activated to obtain a trip on the TRIPRESL1 output signal in figure 40) All start and blocking conditions are available as phase segregated as well as common (that is three-phase) signals.0)% of fundamental differential current ± 1. The cross-block logic scheme is automatically applied under such circumstances. Only under these conditions a trip command is allowed (the signal TRIPRESL1 is = 1). IDL1 MAG I Diff Alarm IDL2 MAG I Diff Alarm IDL3 MAG I Diff Alarm a a>b b tAlarm Delay a & a>b IDALARM t b a a>b b en06000546.0-100.0% of set value Minimum pickup (5-60)% of IBase ± 1.0% of Ir Note: fundamental magnitude = 100% of Ir Table continues on next page 146 Technical Manual .8 Differential current alarm logic Technical data Table 48: T2WPDIF. contents (see the blocks with the text inside: 2nd Harmonic. Wave block and 5th Harmonic). (then the outputs from the blocks 2nd harmonic and 5th harmonic is 0) then it is assumed that a minor simultaneous internal fault must have occurred. If there is less harmonic pollution.0% of I for I > Ir Reset ratio > 90% - Unrestrained differential current limit (100-5000)% ofIBase on high voltage winding ± 1.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 6.vsd IEC06000546 V1 EN Figure 44: 6.0% of Ir for I ≤ Ir ± 1.

W1 and each of the windings. HZPDIF can be used to protect tee-feeders or busbars. autotransformers.2. reactors.2 Functionality The 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF functions can be used when the involved CT cores have the same turns ratio and similar magnetizing characteristics. are also required.2 device number 87 SYMBOL-CC V2 EN 6. and a voltage dependent resistor which are both mounted externally to the IED.0% of Ir Note: fundamental magnitude = 100% of Ir Connection type for each of the windings Y or D - Phase displacement between high voltage winding. The external resistor unit shall be ordered under IED accessories in the Product Guide.0)% of fundamental differential current ± 5.0-100. restrained function Min = 10 ms Max = 25 ms Operate time at 0 to 5 x Id.2.2 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF 6. restrained function Min = 20 ms Max = 30 ms Reset time at 2 to 0 x Id. unrestrained function Min = 10 ms Max = 20 ms Reset time at 5 to 0 x Id. W2 and W3. It utilizes an external CT secondary current summation by wiring. One such function block is used for a high- 147 Technical Manual . capacitor banks and so on. External series resistor. motors.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function Range or value Accuracy Fifth harmonic blocking (5.1 Identification Function description 1Ph High impedance differential protection IEC 61850 identification HZPDIF IEC 60617 identification Id ANSI/IEEE C37. unrestrained function Min = 15 ms Max = 30 ms Critical impulse time 2 ms typically at 0 to 5 x Id - 6. Actually all CT secondary circuits which are involved in the differential scheme are connected in parallel. Hour notation 0–11 - Operate time at 0 to 2 x Id.

vsd IEC05000363 V2 EN Figure 45: 6. phase-segregated differential protection. Several function block instances (for example. six) can be available in a single IED.3 Function block HZPDIF ISI* BLOCK BLKTR TRIP ALARM MEASVOLT IEC05000363-2-en.20000 Ohm 1 250 Value of series resistor in Ohms 148 Technical Manual .60.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - impedance restricted earth fault protection.000 s 0.001 5.2.000 Time delay to activate alarm U>Trip 10 .2.4 HZPDIF function block Signals Table 49: HZPDIF Input signals Name Type Description GROUP SIGNAL - Single phase current input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip Table 50: HZPDIF Output signals Name Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Trip signal ALARM BOOLEAN Alarm signal MEASVOLT REAL Measured RMS voltage on CT secondary side 6.900 V 1 100 Operate voltage level in volts on CT secondary side SeriesResistor 50 .2.000 . 6.500 V 1 10 Alarm voltage level in volts on CT secondary side tAlarm 0. Three such function blocks are used to form three-phase.5 Settings Table 51: HZPDIF Group settings (basic) Name Default ISI Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On U>Alarm 5 .

have relatively high knee point voltage. Non-linear resistor (that is. The measuring branch is a series connection of one variable setting resistor (or series resistor) RS with high ohmic value and an over-current element. 2. From the CT junction points a measuring branch is connected.2. connected to this scheme. In order to make a scheme all CT secondary circuits belonging to one phase are connected in parallel.7 Values (Range) REAL Unit - Description kV Measured RMS voltage on CT secondary side Operation principle High impedance protection system is a simple technique which requires that all CTs.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 6. Note that only one phase is shown in this figure. 149 Technical Manual . from the same phase. metrosil) is used in order to protect entire scheme from high peak voltages which may appear during internal faults. this current is result of a differential voltage caused by this parallel CT connection across the measuring branch. RS 3 I U 1 I> (50) 5 4 2 GUID-5CEAF088-D92B-45E5-B98F-3083894A694C V1 EN Figure 46: HZPDIF scheme Where in the Figure: 1. similar magnetizing characteristic and the same ratio. However. Thus. shows the scheme earthing point. the high impedance differential protection responds to the current flowing through the measuring branch. These CTs are installed in all ends of the protected object. shows one main CT secondary winding connected in parallel with all other CTs. used in the protection scheme.2.6 Monitored data Table 52: Name HZPDIF Monitored data Type MEASVOLT 6. Typical high impedance differential scheme is shown in Figure 46.

See the application manual for operating voltage and sensitivity calculation. In case of an external fault causing current transformer saturation. The voltage drop across the saturated current transformer secondary winding appears also across the measuring brunch. That means that there is no any stabilizing quantity (that is. however it will typically be relatively small. The series connection of stabilizing resistor and over-current element is designated as measuring branch. the voltage across the measuring branch shall not rise above the relay set pickup value. These current samples are first multiplied with the set value 150 Technical Manual . bias) in high-impedance differential protection schemes. metrosil). see Figure 47. Thus. across the measuring branch). 6. 3. shows the non-linear resistor (that is. shows the setting (stabilizing) resistor RS. To achieve that a suitable value for setting resistor RS is selected in such a way that the saturated CT secondary winding provides a much lower impedance path for the false differential current than the measuring branch. Therefore in order to guaranty the stability of the differential relay during external faults the operating quantity must not exceed the set pickup value. The function utilizes the raw samples from the single phase current input connected to it. for external faults. U is the voltage across the CT paralleling point (for example. U and I are interrelated in accordance with the following formula U=RS × I. the non-saturated current transformers drive most of the spill differential current through the secondary winding of the saturated current transformer and not through the measuring brunch of the relay.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - It is of utmost importance to insure that only one earthing point exists in such protection scheme. I is the current flowing through the measuring branch. the pick-up value of the relay has to be set above this false operating voltage. 5. 4.7. shows the over-current measuring element.2. 7. even with severe saturation of some of the current transformers. Thus the twenty samples per fundamental power system cycle are available to the HZPDIF function.1 Logic diagram The logic diagram shows the operation principles for the 1Ph High impedance differential protection function HZPDIF. Due to the parallel CT connections the high impedance differential relay can only measure one current and that is the relay operating quantity. 6. Therefore.

The function has block and trip block inputs available as well. The voltage waveform is then filtered in order to get its RMS value. Note that used filtering is designed in such a way that it ensures complete removal of the DC current component which may be present in the primary fault current.0% of I at I > Ir Reset ratio >95% at (30-900) V - Maximum continuous power U>Trip2/SeriesResistor ≤200 W - Operate time at 0 to 10 x Ud Min = 5 ms Max = 15 ms Reset time at 10 to 0 x Ud Min = 75 ms Max = 95 ms Critical impulse time 2 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Ud - Table continues on next page 151 Technical Manual .0% of Ir at I ≤ Ir ± 1. IEC05000301 V1 EN Figure 47: 6. The measured RMS voltage is available as a service value from the function.8 Logic diagram for 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF Technical data Table 53: Function HZPDIF technical data Range or value Accuracy Operate voltage (10-900) V I=U/R ± 1.2. Note that the TRIP signal is intentionally delayed on drop off for 30 ms within the function.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - for the used stabilizing resistor in order to get voltage waveform across the measuring branch. The voltage RMS value is then compared with set Alarm and Trip thresholds.

3.2 device number 87N IdN/I SYMBOL-AA V1 EN 6.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function Range or value Accuracy Operate time at 0 to 2 x Ud Min = 25 ms Max = 35 ms Reset time at 2 to 0 x Ud Min = 50 ms Max = 70 ms Critical impulse time 15 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Ud - 6. The REFPDIF function provides high sensitivity and high speed tripping as it protects each winding separately and thus does not need inrush stabilization.3.3 Low impedance restricted earth fault protection REFPDIF 6. Five currents are measured at the most complicated configuration as shown in Figure 48.2 Functionality Restricted earth-fault protection. low-impedance function REFPDIF can be used on all directly or low-impedance earthed windings. The REFPDIF function is a percentage biased function with an additional zero sequence current directional comparison criterion. low impedance IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification REFPDIF ANSI/IEEE C37. 152 Technical Manual . This gives excellent sensitivity and stability during through faults. REFPDIF can also protect autotransformers.1 Identification Function description Restricted earth-fault protection.

vsd IEC05000058-2 V1 EN Figure 48: 6.3 Examples of applications of the REFPDIF Function block REFPDIF I3P* I3PW1CT1* I3PW1CT2* I3PW2CT1* I3PW2CT2* BLOCK TRIP START DIROK BLK2H IRES IN IBIAS IDIFF ANGLE I2RATIO IEC06000251_2_en.vsd IEC06000251 V2 EN Figure 49: 6.3.autotransformer IEC05000058-2-en.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - CT CT YNdx CT CB CB d Y CB CB Autotransformer CT IED The most typical application CB CT CB CT The most complicated application .3.4 REFPDIF function block Signals Table 54: Name REFPDIF Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for neutral current input I3PW1CT1 GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for primary CT1 current input I3PW1CT2 GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for primary CT2 current input I3PW2CT1 GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for secondary CT1 current input I3PW2CT2 GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for secondary CT2 current input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function 153 Technical Manual .

freq.5 Table 56: Name Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Trip by restricted earth fault protection function START BOOLEAN Start by restricted earth fault protection function DIROK BOOLEAN Directional Criteria has operated for internal fault BLK2H BOOLEAN Block due to 2-nd harmonic IRES REAL Magnitude of fund. freq.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 55: REFPDIF Output signals Name 6.100.10.1 1.1 10.12 Unit - Step 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups 154 Technical Manual . residual current IN REAL Magnitude of fund.0 Maximum sensitivity in % of IBase CTFactorPri1 1.1 1.10.0 CT factor for MV side CT1 (CT1rated/ MVrated current) CTFactorSec2 1. freq.0 .0 %IB 0.0 CT factor for MV side CT2 (CT2rated/ MVrated current) Table 57: Name ROA Table 58: Name GlobalBaseSel REFPDIF Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) 60 .0 CT factor for HV side CT2 (CT2rated/ HVrated current) CTFactorSec1 1.10.1 1.10.0 - 0.0 .0 - 0.0 .0 .90 Unit Deg Step 1 Default 60 Description Relay operate angle for zero sequence directional feature REFPDIF Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .0 CT factor for HV side CT1 (CT1rated/ HVrated current) CTFactorPri2 1. neutral current IBIAS REAL Magnitude of the bias current IDIFF REAL Magnitude of fund.0 .1 1. differential current ANGLE REAL Direction angle from zerosequence feature I2RATIO REAL Second harmonic ratio Settings REFPDIF Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IdMin 4.3.0 - 0.0 - 0.

freq.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 6. Then the residual current phasor is calculated from the three line current phasors. The high sensitivity and the high speed tend to make such a protection unstable. differential current ANGLE REAL - deg Direction angle from zerosequence feature I2RATIO REAL - - Second harmonic ratio 6. low impedance function (REFPDIF) detects earth faults on earthed power transformer windings. This zero sequence current phasor is added to the neutral current vectorially. must be fed separately to REFPDIF. for the sake of simplicity. such as the 3rd harmonic currents.3. which theoretically only exists in case of an earth fault. It is the fastest protection a power transformer winding can have. REFPDIF can be made very sensitive regardless of normal load currents. All three-phase currents. Since REFPDIF is based on the zero sequence current. freq. REFPDIF is a unit protection of the differential type. Special measures must be taken to make it insensitive to conditions for which it should not operate. in order to obtain differential current. 155 Technical Manual . freq.1 Fundamental principles of the restricted earth-fault protection Restricted earth-fault protection.6 Monitored data Table 59: Name REFPDIF Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description IRES REAL - A Magnitude of fund. for example.3. neutral current IBIAS REAL - A Magnitude of the bias current IDIFF REAL - A Magnitude of fund. are fully suppressed. residual current IN REAL - A Magnitude of fund.7. REFPDIF is a differential protection of the low impedance type.7 Operation principle 6.3. and the neutral point current. most often an earthed star winding. while other eventual zero sequence components. The following facts may be observed from Figure 50 and Figure 51. heavy through faults of phase-to-phase type or heavy external earth faults. The fundamental frequency components of all currents are extracted from all input currents. where the three line CTs are shown as connected together in order to measure the residual 3Io current.

the residual current 3Io and the neutral current IN have equal magnitude.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - These three zero-sequence currents are not measured zone of protection Izs1 L1 Power system L1 Izs1 L2 L2 Izs1 L3 L3 3Izs1 Uzs IL1+ IL2+IL3 = 3I0 3I0 = 3Izs1 Ifault IN = -3Izs1 (Summation in the IED) Return path through transformer Current in the neutral (measured as IN ) serves as a directional reference because it has the same direction for both internal and external faults. Return path via power system External fault region block operate IN 3I0 block Zero-sequence differential current for external fault Idiff = abs(3I0 + IN ) Idiff = 3Izs1 .vsd IEC09000108-3 V1 EN Figure 51: 1. The differential current becomes 156 Technical Manual .vsd IEC09000107-3 V1 EN Figure 50: Zero sequence currents at an external earth fault zone of protection L1 Power system L2 L3 Izs2 Izs1 Izs2 Izs1 Izs2 Izs1 L1 L2 L3 3Izs1 Uzs IL1+ IL2+IL3 = 3I0 3I0 = -3Izs2 IN = -3Izs1 Ifault (Summation in the IED) Return path through transformer Return path via power system External fault region block 3I0 block External fault region operate ROA block IN (reference) Internal fault region Current in the neutral (measured as IN ) serves as a directional reference because it has the same direction for both internal and external faults.3Izs1 = 0 ROA External fault region Internal fault region block ROA = Relay Operate Angle IEC09000107-3-en. Zero sequence currents at an internal earth fault For an external earth fault (Figure 50). Zero-sequence differential current for internal fault Idiff = abs(3I0 + IN ) Idiff = 3Izs2 + 3Izs1 > 0 Idiff = Ifault ROA = Relay Operate Angle IEC09000108-3-en. but they are seen within the IED as 180 degrees out-of-phase if the current transformers are connected as in Figure 50. which is the ABB recommended connection.

The two internally processed zero sequence currents are 3Io and IN. if the only point where the system is earthed. The vectorial sum is the REFPDIF differential current. on the secondary CT sides of the current transformers. they will be approximately in phase if the current transformers are oriented as in Figure 48.2 Restricted earth-fault protection. low impedance (REFPDIF) is a protection of differential type. whose settings are independent of any other protection. a fixed bias characteristic is implemented. REFPDIF can be made more stable under heavy external fault conditions.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 2. These faults may also give false zero sequence currents due to saturated line CTs.3. The magnitudes of the two currents may be different. For both internal and external earth faults. not including earth. Such faults. The line zero sequence (residual) current is calculated from 3 line (terminal) currents. It has some advantages compared to the transformer differential protection. the current in the neutral connection IN always has the same direction. To stabilize REFPDIF at external faults. One zero sequence current (3IZS1) flows towards the power transformer neutral point and into the earth. which is equal to Idiff = IN +3Io . when external faults are cleared by other protections. It is less complicated. dependent on the magnitudes of zero sequence impedances of both sides. a directional check is made in agreement with the above points 1 and 2. REFPDIF should also be stable against heavy phase-to-phase internal faults. and can thus be eliminated as a source of danger. no current can flow into the power system. These two primary currents can be expected to have approximately opposite directions (about the same zero sequence impedance angle is assumed on both sides of the earth fault). zero as both CTs ideally measure exactly the same component of the earthfault current. the total earth.7. is at the protected power transformer. Operation is only allowed if the currents 3Io and IN (as shown in Figure 50 and Figure 51) are both within the operating region. if the winding is not connected to the power system (circuit breaker open and power transformer energized from the other side). which is towards the earth (except in case of autotransformers where the direction can vary). 4. which is the orientation recommended by ABB. a unit protection. however are without neutral current.fault current is composed generally of two zero sequence currents. as no current phase correction or magnitude 157 Technical Manual . 3. low impedance differential protection Restricted earth-fault protection. By taking a smaller ROA. while the other zero sequence current (3IZS2) flows into the connected power system. Likewise. However. For an internal fault. No current can flow towards the power system. A bias quantity must give stability against false operations due to high through fault currents. 6. As an additional measure against unwanted operation. as well as under the complex conditions.

which is described in the table 60 and shown in Figure 52. REFPDIF has only one operate-bias characteristic.vsd IEC98000017-5 V1 EN Figure 52: Operate . This “law” is formulated by the operate-bias characteristic. see Figure 52. This characteristic divides the Idiff .0 pu 4 Operate conditionally 3 IdMin range: 0.Ibias plane in two areas. The bias current is a measure of how high the currents are and how difficult the conditions are under which the CTs operate. In case of internal earth faults. With a high bias. current in per unit D I operate slope = ----------------* 100 % D I restrain 5 Characteristic if IdMin = 1. 2 1 The characteristic can be moved up and down (vertically) by changing the setting IdMin Restrain IdMin Slope 70% 0 0 1 2 3 End Section 1 End Section 2 4 5 6 bias current in per unit IEC98000017-5-en.bias characteristic of the Restricted earth-fault protection.04 –1. difficult conditions can be suspected. base sensitivity Idmin (zone 1) % IBase % IBase 30 5 Min. the differential current is theoretically equal to the total earth-fault current.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - correction are needed. REFPDIF is not sensitive to inrush and overexcitation currents. while the one below is the block area.00 IBase Reset Ratio in all sections: 0. low impedance REFPDIF 158 Technical Manual . Table 60: Data of the operate-bias characteristic of REFPDIF Default sensitivity Idmin (zone 1) Max. not even in the case of an eventual on-load tap changer (OLTC). and it will be more likely that the calculated differential current has a component of a false current. Zerosequence diff. The only danger is an eventual current transformer saturation.95 (a constant) Slope 100% 2 Section 1 Section 3 Sec. The bias current is supposed to give stability to REFPDIF. primarily due to CT saturation. The area above the operatebias characteristic is the operate area. base sensitivity End of zone First slope Idmin (zone 1) 1 Second slope % IBase % % IBase 100 % 125 70 100 The differential protection REFPDIF calculates a differential current and a bias current.

is calculated as (with designations as in Figure 50 and Figure 51): Idiff = IN + 3 Io (Equation 25) EQUATION1533 V1 EN where: IN is current in the power transformer neutral as a fundamental frequency phasor. of current in phase L1. that is.7. In general. If there are two feeders included in the zone of protection of REFPDIF. phase L2. phase L3. as a fundamental frequency phasor.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 6. the higher the bias current.3 Calculation of differential current and bias current The differential current (operate current). when deciding whether to trip. as in breaker-and-a-half configurations. the higher the differential current required to produce a trip. as in case of an auto-transformer with two feeders included on both sides. or not to trip. and the current in the neutral point (designated as IN in Figure 50 and in Figure 51). 3Io is residual current of the power transformer terminal currents as a phasor. then their respective residual currents are added within the REFPDIF function so that: I3PW1 = I3PW1CT1 + I3PW1CT2 where the signals are defined in the input and output signal tables for REFPDIF. The bias current is the highest current of all separate input currents to REFPDIF. the corresponding zone (section) of the operate-bias characteristic is applied. then the respective bias current is found as the relatively highest of the following currents: current[1] = max (I3PW1CT1) × 1 CTFactorPri1 (Equation 26) EQUATION1526 V1 EN current[2] = max (I3PW1CT2) × 1 CTFactorPri2 (Equation 27) EQUATION1527 V1 EN current[3] = max (I3PW2CT1) × EQUATION1528 V1 EN 1 CTFactorSec1 (Equation 28) 159 Technical Manual . Dependent on the magnitude of the bias current. The bias current is a measure (expressed internally as a true fundamental frequency current in Amperes) of how difficult the conditions are under which the instrument current transformers operate. see figure 10.3. If there are two three-phase CT inputs.

If a trip request comes first. If an external earth fault has been detected. The circuit breaker’s poles may not open exactly at the same moment. while for an external fault it only develops if a CT saturates. a true differential current develops immediately. IBase shall be set equal to the rated current of the protected winding where REFPDIF function is applied. Earth faults on lines connecting the power transformer occur much more often than earth faults on a power transformer winding. which should prevent malfunctions at heavy external earth faults. then the REFPDIF is temporarily desensitized. and so on. Directional criterion The directional criterion is applied in order to positively distinguish between internal and external earth faults. An external earth fault is thus assumed to have occurred when a high neutral current suddenly appears. at least for a while. For an internal earth fault. The conditions during a heavy external fault. while a false differential current only appears if one or more current transformers saturate. some of the CTs may still be highly saturated. and during the disconnection of such faults by other protections. then the bias current would be equal to the highest current in Amperes. This condition must be detected before a trip request is placed within REFPDIF. or earth-fault protection. If all primary ratings of the CTs were equal to IBase. and also when such a heavy external fault is cleared by some other protection such as overcurrent. It is important therefore that the Restricted earth-fault 160 Technical Manual . before an external fault could be positively detected. and particularly immediately after the clearing of such a fault may be complex.Section 6 Differential protection current[4] = max (I3PW2CT2) × 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 1 CTFactorSec2 EQUATION1529 V1 EN (Equation 29) current[5] = IN EQUATION1530 V1 EN (Equation 30) The bias current is thus generally equal to none of the input currents. 6. A condition for a successful detection is that it takes not less than 4ms for the first CT to saturate. It is important that the restricted earth-fault protection remains stable during heavy external earth and phase-to-phase faults. This check is an additional criterion. while at the same time the differential current Idiff remains low. Any search for external fault is aborted if a trip request has been placed. then it must be an internal fault.3.7. The detection of external earth faults is based on the fact that for such a fault a high neutral current appears first.4 Detection of external earth faults External faults are more common than internal earth faults for which the restricted earth-fault protection should operate.

For an external earth faults with no CT saturation. ROA = 60 to 90 degrees. in degrees. There is a risk that the resulting false differential current Idiff enters the operate area of the operate-restrain characteristic under external fault conditions. the REFPDIF protection operation is only allowed if currents 3Io and IN (as seen in Figure 50 and Figure 51) are both within the operating region determined by the set value of ROA.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - protection. due to too small currents. 161 Technical Manual . REFPDIF is blocked. and immediately after the fault has been cleared by some other protection. However. The current in the neutral (IN) serves as a directional reference because it has the same direction for both internal and external earth faults. a directional test may prevent a malfunction. A directional check is only executed if: 1. nor will their positions in the complex plane be exactly 180 degrees apart. low impedance function (REFPDIF). If a directional check is either unreliable or not possible to do. then the measured currents 3Io and IN may no longer be equal. where ROA stands for Relay Operate Angle. low impedance (REFPDIF) must remain stable during an external fault. The directional criterion in REFPDIF protection makes it a current-polarized protection. if one or more CTs saturate under external fault conditions. If this happens. residual current and bias current are within some windows and some timing criteria are fulfilled. 2. If a directional check is executed. The phase CTs may saturate due to a high DC component with a long duration. then the direction is cancelled as a condition for an eventual trip. Second harmonic analysis When energizing a transformer a false differential current may appear in earth fault protection. but the current through the neutral CT does not have either the same DC component or the same amplitude and the risk for saturation of this CT is not as high. the residual current in the lines (3Io) and the neutral current (IN in Figure 50) are theoretically equal in magnitude and are 180 degrees out-of-phase. a trip request signal has been issued (REFPDIF function START signal set to 1) the residual current in lines (3Io) is at least 3% of the IBase current. If the ratio between second and fundamental harmonic exceeds 40%. A calculation of the content of 2nd harmonic in the neutral current is made when the neutral current. As a result the differential current due to the saturation may be so high that it reaches the operate characteristic.

Section 6 Differential protection 6. As long as the external fault persists. If the result of the check means “external fault”.8 Check if current in the neutral Ineutral (IN) is less than 50% of the base sensitivity Idmin. 3. a flag is set which remains set until the external fault has been cleared. a check is made if the trip request counter is equal to. If an external earth fault has been detected.0% of Ir for I ≤ Ir ± 1. then REFPDIF sets output TRIP to 1. Determine the differential (operate) current Idiff as a phasor.0% of Ir Table continues on next page 162 Technical Manual . an additional temporary trip condition is introduced. If yes.7.3. If yes. the TRIP signal remains zero. and at the same instance of time tREFtrip.0)% of IBase ± 1. and calculate its magnitude. If yes. a directional check can be made.5 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Algorithm of the restricted earth-fault protection 1. 8. search for an eventual heavy external earth fault. Any search for an external fault is aborted if trip request counter is more than zero. Idiff) is above the operate-bias characteristic. 4. 2. the ratio of 2nd to fundamental harmonic is calculated. then REFPDIF algorithm is not used. then direction is no longer a condition for a trip. If point P(Ibias. residual current and bias current are within some windows and some timing criteria are fulfilled. the actual bias current at this instance of time tREFtrip is at least 50% of the highest bias current Ibiasmax (Ibiasmax is the highest recording of any of the three phase currents measured during the disturbance).3. If the counter is less than 2. The external fault flag is reset to zero when Ineutral falls below 50% of the base sensitivity Idmin. If the directional check cannot be executed. The search is only made if the neutral current is at least 50% of the Idmin current. or higher than 2. The directional check is made only if Iresidual (3Io) is more than 3% of the IBase current. then the trip request counter is reset to zero. Check if the point P(Ibias. so that trip request counter is more than zero. When neutral current. Idiff) is found to be below the operate-bias characteristic. 6. only service values are calculated. then the internal trip request is reset. increment the trip request counter by 1. 5. 9. then determine the bias current Ibias. Technical data Table 61: REFPDIF technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Operate characteristic Adaptable ± 1. Finally. This means that REFPDIF is temporarily desensitized.0-100. If the point P(Ibias. 7. If the trip request counter is still zero. 6. If current in the Ineutral (IN) is more than 50% of Idmin. Idiff) is found to be above the operate-bias characteristic).0% of I for I > Ir Reset ratio >95% - Minimum pickup (4. If it is found to be above 60% the trip request counter is reset and TRIP remains zero.

0 degrees Operate time. LDRGFC is more sensitive than the main protection logic to always release operation for all faults detected by the differential function. trip at 0 to 10 x IdMin Min = 15 ms Max = 30 ms - Reset time.4 Additional security logic for differential protection LDRGFC 6. trip at 10 to 0 x IdMin Min = 15 ms Max = 30 ms - Second harmonic blocking 60. Low voltage criterion takes the phase voltages and phase-to-phase voltages as inputs. It helps to reduce the probability for mal-operation of the protection.0% of fundamental (hidden setting) ± 1. It increases the security of protection during the high impedance fault conditions.4. Phase-to-phase current variation function is major one to fulfill the objectives of the startup element. LDRGFC consists of four sub functions: • • • • Phase-to-phase current variation Zero sequence current criterion Low voltage criterion Low current criterion Phase-to-phase current variation takes the current samples as input and it calculates the variation using the sampling value based algorithm.1 Identification Function description Additional security logic for differential protection 6. Zero sequence criterion takes the zero sequence current as input. It increases the security of protection when the three-phase fault occurred on the weak end side.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function Range or value Accuracy Directional characteristic Fixed 180 degrees or ± 60 to ± 90 degrees ± 2.2 IEC 61850 identification LDRGFC IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37. 163 Technical Manual .0% of Ir 6.4.2 device number 11 Functionality Additional security logic for differential protection (LDRGFC) can help the security of the protection especially when the communication system is in abnormal status or for example when there is unspecified asymmetry in the communication link.

3 Function block LDRGFC I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKCV BLKUC BLK3I0 BLKUV REMSTUP START STCVL1L2 STCVL2L3 STCVL3L1 STUC ST3I0 STUV IEC14000015-1-en.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Low current criterion takes the phase currents as inputs and it increases the dependability during the switch onto fault case of unloaded line. The differential function can be allowed to trip as no load is fed through the line and protection is not working correctly. high impedance faults and three phase fault on weak side It is possible to block the each sub function of startup element Startup signal has a settable pulse time • • • • 6. Features: • Startup element is sensitive enough to detect the abnormal status of the protected system Startup element does not influence the operation speed of main protection Startup element would detect the evolving faults.4.4 LDRGFC function block Signals Table 62: Name LDRGFC Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKCV BOOLEAN 0 Block of ph to ph current variation criterion BLKUC BOOLEAN 0 Block of the low current criterion BLK3I0 BOOLEAN 0 Block of zero sequence current criterion BLKUV BOOLEAN 0 Block of under voltage criterion REMSTUP BOOLEAN 0 Startup signal of remote end 164 Technical Manual .vsd IEC14000015 V1 EN Figure 53: 6.4.

000 Reset delay for startup signal OperationCV Off On - - On Operation current variation Off/On ICV> 1 .100 %UB 1 60 Start value for phase voltage criterion in % of UBase UPhPh< 1 .100 %IB 1 5 Start value for low current operation in % of IBase Operation3I0 Off On - - On Operation zero sequence current criterion Off/On I3I0> 1 .Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 63: LDRGFC Output signals Name 6.100 %IB 1 10 Start value for zero sequence current criterion in % of IBase OperationUV Off On - - On Operation under voltage criterion Off/On UPhN< 1 .001 7.5 Table 64: Name Type Description START BOOLEAN General startup signal STCVL1L2 BOOLEAN Start signal for current variation criterion for phase L1L2 STCVL2L3 BOOLEAN Start signal for current variation criterion for phase L2L3 STCVL3L1 BOOLEAN Start signal for current variation criterion for phase L3L1 STUC BOOLEAN Start signal for low current criterion ST3I0 BOOLEAN Start signal for zero sequence current criterion STUV BOOLEAN Start signal for under voltage criterion Settings LDRGFC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off/On tStUpReset 0.000 .000 s 0.100 %IB 1 20 Fixed threshold for ph to ph current variation criterion OperationUC Off On - - On Operation low current criterion Off/On IUC< 1 .4.100 %UB 1 60 Start value for ph to ph voltage criterion in % of UBase 165 Technical Manual .60.

0. current RMS values.000 .001 0.60.000 Time delay for low voltage criterion Table 66: Name GlobalBaseSel 6.002 Time delay for phase to phase current variation tUC 0.4.6 Default Description LDRGFC Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 . phase voltage values. 166 Technical Manual . zero sequence current and remote side startup signals as inputs.000 .000 s 0.001 0.000 .000 Time delay for zero sequence current criterion tUV 0.000 s 0.000 s 0.005 s 0.7 Step LDRGFC Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description IL1 REAL - A Current RMS value for phase L1 IL2 REAL - A Current RMS value for phase L2 IL3 REAL - A Current RMS value for phase L3 3I0 REAL - A Zero sequence current value UL1 REAL - kV Voltage RMS value for phase L1 UL2 REAL - kV Voltage RMS value for phase L2 UL3 REAL - kV Voltage RMS value for phase L3 UL12 REAL - kV Voltage RMS value for ph to ph L1L2 UL23 REAL - kV Voltage RMS value for ph to ph L2L3 UL31 REAL - kV Voltage RMS value for ph to ph L3L1 Operation principle Additional security logic for differential protection (LDRGFC) takes the current samples.000 .60.60.200 Time delay for low current criterion t3I0 0. phase-to-phase voltage values.001 0.001 0.12 Unit Step - 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 67: Name 6.Section 6 Differential protection Table 65: 1MRK 504 139-UEN - LDRGFC Group settings (advanced) Name Values (Range) Unit tCV 0.4.

The phase-to-phase current variation fails in high impedance faults. Phase-to-phase current variation Phase-to-phase current variation one is main startup element. zero sequence current startup signal.8DIT + DI ZD EQUATION2255 V1 EN Where: ΔiФФ sampling value of phase-to-phase current variation ΔIZD setting of fixed threshold. which corresponds to setting ICV>. The default value for the setting is 0.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Startup signal becomes activated when any one of the current variation startup signal. Phase-to-phase current variation takes current samples and generates the startup signal by comparing with the start value. The phase-to-phase current variation criterion is shown below: DiFF > 1. voltage startup signal. and current startup signal is activated. Current startup signal becomes activated when the current value in all phases is less than current start value. Voltage startup signal becomes activated when the any of phase voltage and line voltage is less than the voltage start value and the remote startup signal has to be activated. three-phase fault on weak side and switch onto fault on unloaded line because of low sensitivity in these cases.n) | T n =T EQUATION2256 V1 EN Where: T count of sample values in one cycle 167 Technical Manual .2·IBase. ΔIT float threshold It is the full-circle integral of the phase-to-phase current variation 1 2T -1 DIT = å | DiFF (t . where IBase is the base current. It covers most of the abnormal status of the system. If the zero sequence current value is greater than the start value of zero sequence current then the zero sequence current startup signal will be activated. Phase-to-phase current variation takes the current samples as input and the signal is evaluated using the sampling value based algorithm.

i (k .Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - ΔiФФ is calculated using the below formula: Di (k ) = [i ( k ) .i (k .2i ( k . I3P a b I3IO> BLK3I0 BLOCK a>b AND t3I0 t ST3I0 OR IEC09000778-2-en. tCV STCVL1L2 t I3P cont tCV Current variation subfunction STCVL2L3 t i tCV STCVL3L1 t OR STCV cont IEC10000295-1-en. Phase current samples are included in input signal I3P. Zero sequence current criterion Zero sequence criterion is mainly for detection of remote IED high resistance faults or some gradual faults.[i (k .2 N ) EQUATION2257 V1 EN N is the number of samples in one cycle. Zero sequence current is compared with I3I0> for the t3I0 time to generate the zero sequence current startup signal.N ) + i (k .N )] . The criterion takes the zero sequence current as input.vsd IEC09000778 V2 EN Figure 55: Zero sequence current criterion logic diagram 168 Technical Manual .N ) .vsd IEC10000295 V1 EN Figure 54: Current variation logic diagram tCV is the time setting for the change of current criterion.2 N )] = i ( k ) .

Low voltage criterion Low voltage criterion is mainly for detection of the three phase faults occurring on weak side with pre fault no load condition. The logic for low voltage criterion is shown below: U3P (UPhN) a UPhN< U3P (UPhPh) b a UPhPh< b a<b OR a<b tUV REMSTUP (Recived) AND t STUV BLKUV OR BLOCK IEC09000779-2-en. the STUC output is activated after the set delay tUC. If any of the phase voltage or phase-to-phase voltages is below the set voltage levels for some time duration (tUV) then the low voltage START signal becomes activated after receiving the remote startup signal. 169 Technical Manual . voltage phase-to-phase values and remote startup signals as inputs. The default value for this setting is 0. The zero sequence current criterion can be blocked by activating the BLK3I0 input signal.1 · IBase where IBase is the rated current of the CT. If all currents are below setting IUC<.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Here I3I0> is the setting of the maximum possible non-faulted zero sequence current for the protected line. all the startup signals of the remote ends are logically OR to obtain the REMSTUP signal from the remote side as input. Low voltage criterion can be blocked by activating BLKUV input signal.vsd IEC09000779 V2 EN Figure 56: Low voltage criterion logic diagram Voltage phase value is compared with the start value of voltage phase and voltage phase-to-phase value is compared with the start value of voltage phase-to-phase. Low current criterion The current in each phase is compared to the set current level. The low voltage criterion takes the voltage phase values. If there are more than one remote IED. t3I0 is the time setting for the zero sequence current criterion.

The function will release tripping of the line differential protection up to the end of timer tStUpReset. phase to phase (1-100)% of UBase ± 0.vsd IEC09000780 V2 EN Figure 57: Low current criterion logic diagram Security logic for differential protection The configuration for the additional security logic for differential protection is shown in Figure 58. low current operation (1-100)% of lBase ±1.vsd IEC10000296 V2 EN Figure 58: 6.8 Additional security logic for differential protection.5% of Ur Operate voltage. Phase-phase current variation STCV Zero sequence current criterion ST3IO i I0 > tStUpReset t Low voltage criterion STUV Low current criterion STUC ULOW < START OR Local side start-up Send signal to remote side I0 < REMSTUP IEC10000296-2-en.5% of Ur Table continues on next page 170 Technical Manual . zero sequence current (1-100)% of lBase ±1.4.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - I3P a IUC< b BLKUC BLOCK a<b tUC AND STUC t OR IEC09000780-2-en. Technical data Table 68: LDRGFC technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Operate current.0% of Ir Operate voltage. phase to neutral (1-100)% of UBase ± 0.0% of Ir Operate current. Logic diagram for start up element.

000-60.000-60.2% or ± 40 ms whichever is greater Independent time delay. low current operation at 2 x Iset to 0 (0.2% or ± 40 ms whichever is greater Independent time delay.000-60.000) s ± 0.000-60. low voltage operation at 2 x Uset to 0 (0.2% or ± 40 ms whichever is greater Reset time delay for startup signal at 0 to 2 x Uset (0.Section 6 Differential protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function Range or value Accuracy Independent time delay.2% or ± 40 ms whichever is greater 171 Technical Manual .000) s ± 0. zero sequence current at 0 to 2 x Iset (0.000) s ± 0.000) s ± 0.

172 .

which increases the possibility to detect high resistive faults on heavily loaded lines. 173 Technical Manual . The distance protection zones can operate independently of each other in directional (forward or reverse) or non-directional mode.1 Identification Function description Distance protection zone. quadrilateral characteristic (zone 1) IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMQPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37.2 Functionality The line distance protection is a.1. up to five zone full scheme protection with three fault loops for phase-to-phase faults and three fault loops for phase-to-earth faults for each of the independent zones.2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN Distance protection zone.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Section 7 Impedance protection 7. ZMQAPDIS. quadrilateral characteristic ZMQPDIS. quadrilateral characteristic (zone 2-5) ZMQAPDIS Directional impedance quadrilateral ZDRDIR 21 S00346 V1 EN 21D Z<-> IEC09000167 V1 EN 7.1. ZMQPDIS together with Phase selection with load encroachment FDPSPDIS has functionality for load encroachment. Individual settings for each zone in resistive and reactive reach gives flexibility for use as back-up protection for transformer connected to overhead lines and cables of different types and lengths. ZDRDIR 7.1 Distance measuring zones.

ZDRDIR I3P* U3P* STDIRCND IEC10000007-1-en.Section 7 Impedance protection 7. must be connected to non-adaptive SMAI blocks if ANY OF THE ZONES are set for directional operation.3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block ZMQPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK VTSZ BLKTR STCND DIRCND TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 START STL1 STL2 STL3 STND IEC06000256-2-en. If adaptive SMAI block is used this might result in a wrong directional and reach evaluation.vsd IEC09000884 V1 EN Figure 60: ZMQAPDIS function block (zone 2 . the parameter DFTReference in used SMAI must be set to InternalDFTRef.vsd IEC10000007 V1 EN Figure 61: ZDRDIR function block 174 Technical Manual .1.5) The two inputs I3P — Three phase group signal for current and U3P — Three phase group signal for voltage.vsd IEC06000256 V2 EN Figure 59: ZMQPDIS function block ZMQAPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK VTSZ BLKTR STCND DIRCND TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 START STL1 STL2 STL3 STND IEC09000884-1-en. That is.

1. issued from any phase or loop STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2 STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3 STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start. issued from any phase or loop Table 71: Name ZMQAPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function VTSZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler) DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition 175 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7.4 Signals Table 69: Name ZMQPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function VTSZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler) DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition Table 70: Name ZMQPDIS Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip. issued from any phase or loop TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1 TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2 TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3 START BOOLEAN General Start.

00 Ohm/p 0.01 30. issued from any phase or loop Table 73: ZDRDIR Input signals Name Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input Table 74: ZDRDIR Output signals Name Type STDIRCND 7.3000.00 Zero sequence reactance reach Table continues on next page 176 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 72: ZMQAPDIS Output signals Name Type TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip.00 Positive seq.01 100.1. resistance for zone characteristic angle X0 0.10 . issued from any phase or loop STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2 STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3 STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start.5 Table 75: ZMQPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OperationDir Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1 0. issued from any phase or loop TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1 TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2 TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3 START BOOLEAN General Start.5 Description Description INTEGER Binary coded directional information per measuring loop Settings Signals and settings for ZMQPDIS are valid for zone 1 while signals and settings for ZMQAPDIS are valid for zone 2 .9000.10 .01 5.1000.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Positive sequence reactance reach R1 0.00 Ohm/p 0.01 .

00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/l 0.12 Unit - Table 77: ZMQAPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step 1 Step Default 1 Default Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OperationDir Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1 0.9000.01 5.10 .3000.01 120.00 Positive sequence reactance reach R1 0.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.60.001 0. Ph-Ph Table continues on next page 177 Technical Manual . Ph-Ph OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops OpModetPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.01 .01 100.3000.01 40.00 Ohm/p 0.1000.00 Ohm/l 0.000 Time delay of trip. Ph-E IMinOpPP 10 .1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops IMinOpIN 5 .000 s 0.10 .01 15. Ph-Ph tPP 0.3000.00 Zero seq.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 .000 s 0.10 .01 15. resistance for zone characteristic angle RFPP 0.000 Time delay of trip.10 .01 30.000 .000 .00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.00 Zero seq.001 0.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/p 0.9000. Ph-E OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops OpModetPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer. resistance for zone characteristic angle X0 0.3000.00 Ohm/l 0. Ph-E tPE 0.9000. Ph-Ph RFPE 0.00 Zero sequence reactance reach R0 0.01 .10 .00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-E OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops OpModetPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer. resistance for zone characteristic angle RFPP 0.00 Ohm/l 0.01 30.1000 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate residual current for Phase-Earth loops Table 76: Name GlobalBaseSel Values (Range) Unit Description ZMQPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .10 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Step Default R0 0.01 .00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.01 100.60.00 Positive seq. Ph-Ph RFPE 0.3000.

001 0.60.000 Time delay of trip. Ph-E tPE 0.60.000 .30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops ArgNegRes 90 .000 s 0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit tPP 0. Ph-Ph OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops OpModetPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer. Ph-E IMinOpPP 10 .45 Deg 1 15 Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for forward direction Table 80: Name GlobalBaseSel ZDRDIR Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .175 Deg 1 115 Angle of blinder in second quadrant for forward direction ArgDir 5 .12 Unit - Step 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups ZDRDIR Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IMinOpPP 5 .30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase-phase current for Phase-Phase loops IMinOpPE 5 .000 Time delay of trip.001 0.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 .000 .1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops Table 78: Name GlobalBaseSel Table 79: Name Step Default Description ZMQAPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .12 Unit - Step 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups 178 Technical Manual .000 s 0.

There are 3 to 5 zones depending on product type and variant. which means that each fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults for forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel. Figure 62 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for up to five.vsd IEC05000458 V2 EN Figure 62: The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-tophase fault.1.6 Monitored data Table 81: ZDRDIR Monitored data Name Type Values (Range) Unit Description L1Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L1 L2Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L2 L3Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L3 L1R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L1 L1X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L1 L2R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L2 L2X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L2 L3R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L3 L3X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L3 7. impedance-measuring zones.1 Full scheme measurement The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type.1. L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 1 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 2 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 3 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 4 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 5 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone RV IEC05000458-2-en. 179 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7.1.7 Operation principle 7.7.

7.1. and three intended for phase-to-phase as well as. three intended for phase-to-earth faults.vsd R1+Rn IEC11000427 V1 EN Figure 63: Characteristic for phase-to-earth measuring. three-phase faults.2 Impedance characteristic The distance measuring zone includes six impedance measuring loops. The distance measuring zone will essentially operate according to the nondirectional impedance characteristics presented in figure 63 and figure 64.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current depending on fault type.7. The phaseto-earth characteristic is illustrated with the full loop reach while the phase-tophase characteristic presents the per phase reach. X (Ohm/loop) R1+Rn RFPE RFPE X1+Xn jN RFPE jN Xn = X0-X1 3 Rn = R0-R1 3 R (Ohm/loop) RFPE X1+Xn RFPE RFPE IEC11000427-1-en. Each distance protection zone performs like one independent distance protection IED with six measuring elements. ohm/loop domain 180 Technical Manual .

181 Technical Manual . Note in particular the difference in definition regarding the (fault) resistive reach for phase-to-phase faults and three-phase faults.X 1RVPE XNRV =XX00PE PG 1RVPG -X3 1XRVPE XNRV = XNRV = 33 --1X 11FWPE XX -X X00PE 0PE PG XFWPE FWPG XNFW XNFW XNFW=== 3 3 3 X1 j j R (Ohm/phase) RFPP RFPP 2 2 X1 RFPP 2 R1 RFPP 2 IEC11000428-1-en.vsd IEC11000428 V1 EN Figure 64: Characteristic for phase-to-phase measuring The fault loop reach with respect to each fault type may also be presented as in figure 65.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RFPP X (Ohm/phase) R1 RFPP 2 2 X 0 PE .

5·RFPP R1 + j X1 0. there is of course fault current flowing also in the third phase during a three-phase fault. all reach settings apply to both directions. Therefore.5·RFPP Phase-to-phase element L1-L3 IL3 UL3 IEC08000282-2-en. The result from respective set value is illustrated in figure 66. which is made phase-to-phase. The settings and RFPP are the eventual fault resistances in the faulty place. The impedance reach is symmetric.Zx and ZxRev respectively. where x = 1 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - UL1 IL1 R1 + j X1 Phase-to-earth fault in phase L1 Phase-to-earth element RFPE (Arc + tower resistance) 0 Phase-to-phase fault in phase L1-L2 UL1 IN (R0-R1)/3 + j (X0-X1)/3 ) IL1 R1 + j X1 Phase-to-phase element L1-L2 RFPP IL2 (Arc resistance) UL2 R1 + j X1 UL1 Three-phase fault IL1 R1 + j X1 0. 182 Technical Manual . in the sense that it conforms for forward and reverse direction (there are different forward and reverse settings .5). The zone can be set to operate in Non-directional. The illustration merely reflects the loop measurement. Regarding the illustration of three-phase fault in figure 65.vsd IEC08000282 V2 EN Figure 65: Fault loop model The R1 and jX1 in figure 65 represents the positive sequence impedance from the measuring point to the fault location. Forward or Reverse direction through the setting OperationDir.

4 Measuring principles Fault loop equations use the complex values of voltage.vsd IEC05000182 V1 EN Figure 66: 7. IMinOpIN and IMinOpPP are automatically reduced to 75% of regular set values if the zone is set to operate in reverse direction. that is. ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln. regardless of the phase currents.3 Directional operating modes of the distance measuring zones Minimum operating current The operation of Distance measuring zones.7. For zone 1 with load compensation feature the additional criterion applies. IN is the RMS value of the vector sum of the three-phase currents. current. 7. that all phase-to-earth loops will be blocked when IN < IMinOpIN. that is. residual current 3I0. ILmLn is the RMS value of the vector difference between phase currents Lm and Ln. The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn < IMinOpPE.1. and changes in the current. The 183 Technical Manual . All three current limits IMinOpPE. OperationDir = Reverse.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X X R Non-directional X R Forward R Reverse en05000182. quadrilateral characteristic (ZMQPDIS) is blocked if the magnitude of input currents fall below certain threshold values.1.7. Apparent impedances are calculated and compared with the set limits. The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if ILmLn < IMinOpPP.

UL1 – UL2 Zapp = ------------------------I L1 – IL2 (Equation 31) EQUATION1222 V1 EN Here U and I represent the corresponding voltage and current phasors in the respective phase Ln (n = 1. 3) The earth return compensation applies in a conventional manner to phase-to-earth faults (example for a phase L1 to earth fault) according to equation 32. Z app = U L1 I L1 + I N × KN (Equation 32) EQUATION1223 V2 EN Where: are the phase voltage.Z1 3 × Z1 EQUATION-2105 V2 EN Z 0 = R 0 + jX 0 EQUATION2106 V2 EN Z 1 = R1 + jX 1 EQUATION2107 V2 EN Where R0 is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach X0 is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach R1 is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach X1 is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach 184 Technical Manual . 2. phase current and residual current present to the IED U L1 I L1 IN KN is defined as: KN = Z 0 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - apparent impedances at phase-to-phase faults follow equation 31 (example for a phase L1 to phase L2 fault).

conventional distance protection might overreach at exporting end and underreach at importing end. The formula given in equation 32 is only valid for radial feeder application without load. Im designates the imaginary component of current and voltage and f0 designates the rated system frequency 185 Technical Manual . and changes in current between samples (DI) are brought from the input memory and fed to a recursive Fourier filter. This results in the same reach along the line for all types of faults.× ----w 0 Dt EQUATION1224 V1 EN (Equation 33) in complex notation. The IED has an adaptive load compensation which increases the security in such applications. sampled values of voltage (U). For each of the six supervised fault loops. The filter provides two orthogonal values for each input. These values are related to the loop impedance according to equation 33. current (I).× -----------------w0 Dt EQUATION354 V1 EN (Equation 34) X DIm ( I ) Im ( U ) = R × Im ( I ) + -----.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Here IN is a phasor of the residual current in IED point. and the information is distributed into memory locations. or: X D Re ( I ) Re ( U ) = R × Re ( I ) + -----. X Di U = R × i + -----. Measuring elements receive current and voltage information from the A/D converter. The apparent impedance is considered as an impedance loop with resistance R and reactance X.× ----------------w0 Dt EQUATION355 V1 EN (Equation 35) with w0 = 2 × p × f 0 EQUATION356 V1 EN (Equation 36) where: Re designates the real component of current and voltage. The check sums are calculated and compared. When load is considered in the case of single phase-to-earth fault.

The final result is equal to: Im ( U ) × DRe ( I ) – Re ( U ) × D Im ( I ) R m = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) × Im ( I ) – D Im ( I ) × Re ( I ) (Equation 37) EQUATION357 V1 EN Re ( U ) × Im ( I ) – Im ( U ) × Re ( I ) Xm = w 0 × Dt × ------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) × Im ( I ) – DIm ( I ) × Re ( I ) (Equation 38) EQUATION358 V1 EN The calculated Rm and Xm values are updated each sample and compared with the set zone reach. The equation for the Xm measured reactance can then be solved. the equation in forward direction is according to. The directional evaluations are performed simultaneously in both forward and reverse directions.1. Positive sequence voltage and a phase locked positive sequence memory voltage are used as a reference. This ensures unlimited directional sensitivity for faults close to the IED point.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The algorithm calculates Rm measured resistance from the equation for the real value of the voltage and substitutes it in the equation for the imaginary part. and in all six fault loops.2 × U 1L1 M I L1 < ArgNeg Re s (Equation 39) EQUATION725 V2 EN For the L1-L2 element. 7. The adaptive tripping counter counts the number of permissive tripping results.8 × U 1L1 + 0. 186 Technical Manual . Equation 39 and equation 40 are used to classify that the fault is in forward direction for phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-phase fault.7.5 Directional impedance element for quadrilateral characteristics The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance quadrilateral function ZDRDIR. This effectively removes any influence of errors introduced by the capacitive voltage transformers or by other factors.ArgDir < arg 0. .

2 × U 1L1 L 2 M I L1 L 2 < ArgNeg Re s (Equation 40) EQUATION726 V2 EN where: ArgDir is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic. It should not be changed unless system studies have shown the necessity. see figure 67. by default set to 15 (= -15 degrees) and ArgNegRes is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic. by default set to 115 degrees.8 × U 1L1 L 2 + 0. STDIR= STFWL1*1+STFWL2*2+STFWL3*4+STFWL1L2*8+ +STFWL2L3*16+STFWL3L1*32+STRVL1*64+STRVL2*128+ +STRVL3*256+STRVL1L2*512+STRVL2L3*1024+STRVL3L1*2048 187 Technical Manual .ArgDir < arg 0. U 1L1 U 1L1M I L1 U 1L1L 2 U 1L1L 2 M I L1L 2 is positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1 is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1 is phase current in phase L1 is voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) is memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) is current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees respectively (as shown in figure 67).Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - . ZDRDIR gives binary coded directional information per measuring loop on the output STDIRCND.

So the directional element can use it for all unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults. the memory resets until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value. ensures correct directional discrimination. After 100 ms the following occurs: • If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current (between 10 and 30% of the set IED rated current IBase). For close-in three-phase faults. If the fault was detected in the reverse direction. The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive sequence voltage exceeds 5% of the set base voltage UBase. The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is restored. the trip endures. the condition seals in.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X ArgNegRes ArgDir R en05000722. If the current decreases below the minimum operating value. based on the same positive sequence voltage. • • • If the fault has caused tripping. the U1L1M memory voltage. the measuring element in the reverse direction remains in operation.vsd IEC05000722 V1 EN Figure 67: Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault in Directional impedance quadrilateral function ZDRDIR The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by 180 degrees. 188 Technical Manual .

ZMQPDIS and ZMQAPDIS. Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one logical signal for each separate measuring loop: • • Zone measuring condition. Group functional input signal (STCND).5. L2N and L3N. Two types of function block. The signal contains binary coded information for both forward and reverse direction. are used in the IED. 189 Technical Manual . which follows the operating equations described above.6 Simplified logic diagrams Distance protection zones The design of the distance protection zones are presented for all measuring loops: phase-to-earth as well as phase-to-phase. as presented in figure 68. which are converted within the zone measuring function into corresponding boolean expressions for each condition separately. The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values from Phase selection with load encroachment.7. Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by L1N. The input signal DIRCND is used to give condition for directionality for the distance measuring zones. The zone measurement function filters out the relevant signals depending on the setting of the parameter OperationDir. quadrilateral characteristic function FDPSPDIS within the IED. It must be configured to the STDIR output on ZDRDIR function. The phase-tophase signals are designated by L1L2. and L3L1.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7. Input signal STCND is connected to FDPSPDIS or FMPSPDIS function output STCNDZ.1. ZMQPDIS is used for zone 1 and ZMQAPDIS for zone 2 . L2L3.

is presented in figure 69.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - STZMPP OR STCND STNDL1L2 L1L2 AND L2L3 AND L3L1 AND STNDL3L1 L1N AND STNDL1N L2N AND STNDL2N L3N AND STNDL2L3 STNDL3N STPE OR OR VTSZ BLOCK AND OR BLOCFUNC STND BLK 99000557-2. external start condition Composition of the phase start signals for a case.vsd IEC99000557-TIFF V3 EN Figure 68: Conditioning by a group functional input signal STCND. IEC00000488-TIFF V1 EN Figure 69: Composition of starting signals in non-directional operating mode 190 Technical Manual . when the zone operates in a nondirectional mode.

STNDL1N DIRL1N AND STZMPE. when the zone operates in directional (forward or reverse) mode. as shown in figure 70. OR STNDL2N DIRL2N AND STNDL3N OR DIRL3N AND STNDL1L2 DIRL1L2 AND OR AND 15 ms t STL1 AND 15 ms t STL2 AND 15 ms t STL3 STNDL2L3 DIRL2L3 AND OR STNDL3L1 DIRL3L1 AND STZMPP OR BLK OR AND 15 ms t START IEC09000888-2-en.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits. 191 Technical Manual .vsd IEC09000888 V2 EN Figure 70: Composition of start signals in directional operating mode Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented in figure 71.

00) Ω/ phase ± 2.00) Ω/loop Fault resistance.00) Ω/ phase Zero sequence reactance (0.0 degrees static angular accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0.1.00) Ω/loop Dynamic overreach <5% at 85 degrees measured with CVT’s and 0.10-9000. phaseto-phase and phase-to-earth (10-1000)% of IBase - Positive sequence reactance (0.00) Ω/ phase Positive sequence resistance (0. phase-to-phase (0. zone 1 (5-1000)% of IBase - Minimum operate current.01-1000.1) x Ur Current range: (0.01-3000.00) Ω/ phase Fault resistance.5-30) x Ir Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees Zero sequence resistance (0.8 Tripping logic for the distance protection zone Technical data Table 82: ZMQPDIS Technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Number of zones Max 5 with selectable direction - Minimum operate residual current.10-3000.vsd IEC09000887 V2 EN Figure 71: 7.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Timer tPP=On STZMPP tPP t AND BLKFUNC OR Timer tPE=On STZMPE AND OR tPE t AND AND 15ms AND BLKTR BLK t TRIP OR STL1 AND TRL1 STL2 AND TRL2 STL3 AND TRL3 IEC09000887-2-en. phase-to-earth (0.1-1.10-9000.5<SIR<30 - Table continues on next page 192 Technical Manual .10-3000.0% static accuracy ± 2.

2. The heavy load transfer that is common in many transmission networks may make fault resistance coverage difficult to achieve.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function Range or value Accuracy Definite time delay Ph-Ph and Ph-E operation (0. which can be used for fault analysis. quadrilateral characteristic IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification FDPSPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37. A current-based phase selection is also included.2 Phase selection. for example.1.1 Identification 7.000) s ± 0. FDPSPDIS has a built-in algorithm for load encroachment. Phase selection. The extensive output signals from the phase selection gives also important information about faulty phase(s). Therefore.000-60.2% or ± 40 ms whichever is greater Operate time 25 ms typically IEC 60255-121 Reset ratio 105% typically - Reset time at 0. difficulties to get permission to build new power lines.1 to 2 x Zreach Min = 20 ms Max = 35 ms - 7. quadrilateral characteristic with fixed angle FDPSPDIS is designed to accurately select the proper fault loop in the distance function dependent on the fault type.2 device number 21 Z<phs SYMBOL-DD V1 EN 7. so that single pole tripping and autoreclosing can be used plays an important role in this matter. the rate of expansion and reinforcement of the power system is reduced.2. compare them with the set values. quadrilateral characteristic with fixed angle FDPSPDIS 7. 193 Technical Manual .1 Identification Function description Phase selection with load encroachment.2 Functionality The operation of transmission networks today is in many cases close to the stability limit.2. The ability to accurately and reliably classify the different types of fault. Due to environmental considerations. which gives the possibility to enlarge the resistive setting of both the phase selection and the measuring zones without interfering with the load. The measuring elements continuously measure three phase currents and the residual current and.

forward direction STFWL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 .Section 7 Impedance protection 7.forward direction STFWPE BOOLEAN Earth fault detected in forward direction STRVL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 .reverse direction STRVPE BOOLEAN Earth fault detected in reverse direction Table continues on next page 194 Technical Manual .vsd IEC10000047 V2 EN Figure 72: 7.forward direction STFWL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 .4 FDPSPDIS function block Signals Table 83: Name FDPSPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition Table 84: Name FDPSPDIS Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Trip output START BOOLEAN Start in any phase or loop STFWL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 .reverse direction STRVL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 .2.3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block FDPSPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK DIRCND TRIP START STFWL1 STFWL2 STFWL3 STFWPE STRVL1 STRVL2 STRVL3 STRVPE STNDL1 STNDL2 STNDL3 STNDPE STFW1PH STFW2PH STFW3PH STPE STPP STCNDZ STCNDLE IEC14000047-1-en.2.reverse direction STRVL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 .

00 Ohm/p 0. forward RFRvPE 1.00 Forward resistive reach within the load impedance area RLdRv 1.100 %IPh 1 20 3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth measuring loops RLdFw 1.00 .00 Fault resistance reach. Ph-Ph.3000. reverse IMinOpPP 5 . Ph-E. Ph-E.50 .5 Type Description STNDL1 BOOLEAN Non directional start in L1 STNDL2 BOOLEAN Non directional start in L2 STNDL3 BOOLEAN Non directional start in L3 STNDPE BOOLEAN Non directional start.00 Ohm/l 0.00 Fault resistance reach.00 . reverse RFFwPE 1.50 .00 .70 Deg 1 30 Load angle determining the load impedance area X1 0. phase-earth STFW1PH BOOLEAN Start in forward direction for single-phase fault STFW2PH BOOLEAN Start in forward direction for two.phase fault STFW3PH BOOLEAN Start in forward direction for thre-phase fault STPE BOOLEAN Current conditions release of phase-earth measuring elements STPP BOOLEAN Current conditions release of phase-phase measuring elements STCNDZ INTEGER Start condition (Z< with LE and 3I0 E/F detection) STCNDLE INTEGER Start condition (only LE and 3I0 E/F detection) Settings Table 85: FDPSPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description INBlockPP 10 .3000.00 Ohm/l 0. forward RFRvPP 0.00 .00 Fault resistance reach.50 .9000.500 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 5 .00 Ohm/p 0.01 40.3000.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name 7.00 Ohm/l 0.01 100.01 30.9000.500 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops 195 Technical Manual .00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/l 0.00 Zero sequence reactance reach RFFwPP 0.00 Positive sequence reactance reach X0 0.3000.01 100.100 %IPh 1 40 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loops INReleasePE 10 .9000.01 30.00 Fault resistance reach.01 80. Ph-Ph.01 120.3000.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Reverse resistive reach within the load impedance area ArgLd 5 .01 80.50 .2.

quadrilateral characteristic FDPSPDIS includes six impedance measuring loops.60.000 Time delay to trip. The difference. The characteristic is basically non-directional. The current signals are filtered by Fourier's recursive filter. Ph-Ph TimerPE Off On - - Off Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.000 s 0.000 . and three intended for phase-to-phase faults as well as for three-phase faults.000 Time delay to trip. The start condition STCNDZ is essentially based on the following criteria: 196 Technical Manual . A current-based phase selection is also included. three intended for phase-to-earth faults.001 3.2500 %IB 1 20 Start value for trip from 3I0 over-current element TimerPP Off On - - Off Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer. is in the combination of the measuring quantities (currents and voltages) for different types of faults. and separate trip counter prevents too high overreaching of the measuring elements. Ph-E Table 87: Name GlobalBaseSel 7.6 FDPSPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .12 Unit - Step 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Operation principle The basic impedance algorithm for the operation of the phase selection measuring elements is the same as for the distance zone measuring function.000 s 0. Ph-E tPE 0.001 3. Phase selection with load encroachment. but FDPSPDIS uses information from the directional function to discriminate whether the fault is in forward or reverse direction.2. compared to the distance zone measuring function.2500 %IB 1 120 Start value for phase over-current element IN> 10 .Section 7 Impedance protection Table 86: Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - FDPSPDIS Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description OperationZ< Off On - - On Operation of impedance based measurement OperationI> Off On - - Off Operation of current based measurement IPh> 10 . Ph-Ph tPP 0.60.000 . and compare them with the set values. The measuring elements continuously measure three phase currents and the residual current.

X X R Non-directional (ND) X R R Forward (FW) Reverse (RV) en08000286. 2.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 1. but can be switched off by selecting a high setting. will be determined by the minimum operating current limits. Residual current criteria. It shall be connected to the STDIR output on 197 Technical Manual . STRVL1 and STNDL1. The STCNDLE output is non-directional. There are outputs from FDPSPDIS that indicate whether a start is in forward or reverse direction or non-directional. The directionality is determined by the distance zones directional function. The input DIRCND contains binary coded information about the directional coming from the directional function . separation of faults with and without earth connection Regular quadrilateral impedance characteristic Load encroachment characteristics is always active but can be switched off by selecting a high setting. 2.vsd IEC08000286 V1 EN Figure 73: Characteristics for non-directional. The practical reach. Load encroachment characteristic is always active. that is. forward and reverse operation of Phase selection with load encroachment. refer to section "Load encroachment"). quadrilateral characteristic FDPSPDIS The setting of the load encroachment function may influence the total operating characteristic. The impedance reach outside the load area is theoretically infinite. (for more information. 3. however. The current start condition STCNDLE is based on the following criteria: 1. 3. Residual current criteria No quadrilateral impedance characteristic. Their operating characteristics are illustrated in figure 73. for example STFWL1. These directional indications are based on the sector boundaries of the directional function and the impedance setting of FDPSPDIS function.

The resistance RN and reactance XN are the impedance in the earth-return path defined according to equation 42 and equation 43. the ZMQPDIS. If the binary code is 3 then we have start in forward direction in phase L1 and L2.2. This information is also transferred to the input DIRCND on the distance measuring zones. binary code 192 means start in reverse direction in phase L1 and L2A and B etc. 2 or 3) The characteristic for FDPSPDIS function at phase-to-earth fault is according to figure 74.1 Phase-to-earth fault For a phase-to-earth fault. The code built up for release of the measuring fault loops is as follows: STCND = L1N*1 + L2N*2 + L3N*4 + L1L2*8 + L2L3*16 + L3L1*32 7. in this case information about the condition for opening correct fault loop in the distance measuring element. directional measuring block. in a similar way as DIRCND.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - ZDRDIR. distance measuring block. that is. Index PHS in images and equations reference settings for Phase selection with load encroachment function FDPSPDIS. distance measuring block.6. It shall be connected to the STCND input on the ZMQPDIS. 198 Technical Manual . binary coded information. The code built up for the directionality is as follows: STDIR= STFWL1*1+STFWL2*2+STFWL3*4+STFWL1L2*8+ +STFWL2L3*16+STFWL3L1*32+STRVL1*64+STRVL2*128+ +STRVL3*256+STRVL1L2*512+STRVL2L3*1024+STRVL3L1*2048 If the binary information is 1 then it will be considered that we have start in forward direction in phase L1. The STCNDZ or STCNDLE output contains. ZPHSn = ULn ILn EQUATION1255 V1 EN (Equation 41) where: n corresponds to the particular phase (n=1. The characteristic has a fixed angle for the resistive boundary in the first quadrant of 60°. the measured impedance by FDPSPDIS will be according to equation 41.

R1 3 (Equation 42) EQUATION1256 V1 EN XN = X 0 .vsd IEC06000396 V2 EN Figure 74: Characteristic of FDPSPDIS for phase-to-earth fault (setting parameters in italic). 3 × I0 ³ 0.5 × IMinOpPE EQUATION2108 V1 EN (Equation 44) 199 Technical Manual .X1 3 (Equation 43) EQUATION1257 V1 EN X (ohm/loop) Kr·(X1+XN) RFRvPE RFFwPE X1+XN RFFwPE R (Ohm/loop) RFRvPE 60 deg 60 deg X1+XN Kr = 1 tan(60deg) RFFwPE RFRvPE Kr·(X1+XN) en06000396.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RN = R0 . ohm/loop domain (directional lines are drawn as "line-dot-dot-line") Besides this. the 3I0 residual current must fulfil the conditions according to equation 44 and equation 45.

200 Technical Manual . Iphmax 7.2.ULn -2 × ILn EQUATION1258 V1 EN (Equation 46) ULm is the leading phase voltage. ZPHS = ULm . the measured impedance by FDPSPDIS will be according to equation 46. Phase-to-phase fault For a phase-to-phase fault. ULn the lagging phase voltage and ILn the phase current in the lagging phase n.6.× Iphmax 100 (Equation 45) EQUATION766 V1 EN where: IMinOpPE is the minimum operation current for forward zones INReleasePE is the setting for the minimum residual current needed to enable operation in the phaseto-earth fault loops (in %).2 is the maximum phase current in any of three phases.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 3 × I0 ³ INReleasePE -----------------------------------. The operation characteristic is shown in figure 75.

5·RFFwPP 60 deg 60 deg R (W / 0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X (W / phase) 0. 201 Technical Manual . directional lines drawn as "line-dotdot-line"). 3I 0 < IMinOpPE (Equation 47) EQUATION2109 V1 EN 3I 0 < INBlockPP × Iph max 100 (Equation 48) EQUATION2110 V1 EN where: IMinOpPE is the minimum operation current for earth measuring loops.5·RFFwPP 0.vsd IEC09000047 V2 EN Figure 75: The operation characteristics for FDPSPDIS at phase-to-phase fault (setting parameters in italic.5·RFRvPP 0. there are current conditions that have to be fulfilled in order to release the phase-to-phase loop.5·RFRvPP phase) X1 Kr = 1 tan(60 deg) Kr·X1 0. ohm/phase domain In the same way as the condition for phase-to-earth fault. INBlockPP is 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loop and Iphmax is maximal magnitude of the phase currents.5·RFRvPP Kr·X1 X1 0.5·RFFwPP IEC09000047-2-en. Those are according to equation 47 or equation 48.

that is equation 46.4 The characteristic of FDPSPDIS for three-phase fault (setting parameters in italic) Load encroachment Each of the six measuring loops has its own load encroachment characteristic based on the corresponding loop impedance. the reach is expanded by a factor 2/√3 (approximately 1.2.2. However. As illustrated. counterclockwise. equation 47 and equation 48 are used to release the operation of the function.5·RFRvPP·K3 K3 = 2 3 30 deg IEC05000671-5-en.5·RFFwPP·K3 X1·K3 4 × RFFwPP 6 R (ohm/phase) 0. but can be switched off by selecting a high setting. At the same time the characteristic is rotated 30 degrees.Section 7 Impedance protection 7. 202 Technical Manual . X (ohm/phase) 4 × X1 3 90 deg 0.vsd IEC05000671 V5 EN Figure 76: 7.1547) in all directions. The load encroachment functionality is always active.3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Three-phase faults The operation conditions for three-phase faults are the same as for phase-to-phase fault.6. The outline of the characteristic is presented in figure 77. The characteristic is shown in figure 76.6. the resistive blinders are set individually in forward and reverse direction while the angle of the sector is the same in all four quadrants.

the characteristic for FDPSPDIS (and also zone measurement depending on settings) will be reduced by the load encroachment characteristic (see figure 78. When output signal STCNDZ is selected. left illustration). When output signal STCNDLE is selected.vsd IEC09000042 V1 EN Figure 77: Characteristic of load encroachment function The influence of load encroachment function on the operation characteristic is dependent on the chosen operation mode of FDPSPDIS function. The reach will in this case be limit by the minimum operation current and the distance measuring zones. the operation characteristic will be as the right illustration in figure 78. 203 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X RLdFw ArgLd ArgLd ArgLd RLdRv R ArgLd IEC09000042-1-en.

The figure shows a distance measuring zone operating in forward direction. the operating area is highlighted in black. Thus.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X X R STCNDZ R STCNDLE IEC10000099-1en.vsd IEC10000099 V1 EN Figure 78: Difference in operating characteristic depending on operation mode when load encroachment is activated When FDPSPDIS is set to operate together with a distance measuring zone the resultant operate characteristic could look like in figure 79. 204 Technical Manual .

Notice in particular what happens with the resistive blinders of the "phase selection" "quadrilateral" zone. the angle of the blinder in quadrant one is now 90 degrees instead of the original 60 degrees. 205 Technical Manual . The blinder that is nominally located to quadrant four will at the same time tilt outwards and increase the resistive reach around the R-axis. when the quadrilateral phase-to-phase characteristic is subject to enlargement and rotation the operate area is transformed according to figure 80. Consequently. it will be more or less necessary to use the load encroachment characteristic in order to secure a margin to the load impedance.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X "Phase selection" "quadrilateral" zone Distance measuring zone Load encroachment characteristic R Directional line en05000673. Due to the 30-degree rotation.vsd IEC05000673 V1 EN Figure 79: Operating characteristic in forward direction when load encroachment is activated Figure 79 is valid for phase-to-earth. or load. During a three-phase fault.

from the full RLdFw and RLdRv reach.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X (W / phase) Phase selection ”Quadrilateral” zone Distance measuring zone R (W / phase) IEC09000049-1-en. 206 Technical Manual . Since the load characteristic is based on the same measurement as the quadrilateral characteristic. ohm/phase domain The result from rotation of the load characteristic at a fault between two phases is presented in fig 81. which is valid at load or three-phase fault. it will rotate with the quadrilateral characteristic clockwise by 30 degrees when subject to a pure phase-to-phase fault. At the same time the characteristic will "shrink".vsd IEC09000049 V1 EN Figure 80: Operating characteristic for FDPSPDIS in forward direction for threephase fault. divided by 2/√3.

5 Minimum operate currents The operation of the Phase selection with load encroachment function (FDPSPDIS) is blocked if the magnitude of input currents falls below certain threshold values.2. where ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln.6 Simplified logic diagrams Figure 82 presents schematically the creation of the phase-to-phase and phase-toearth operating conditions. The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn<IMinOpPE. Consider only the corresponding part of measuring and 207 Technical Manual . 7.vsd IEC08000437 V1 EN Figure 81: Rotation of load characteristic for a fault between two phases There is a gain in selectivity by using the same measurement as for the quadrilateral characteristic since not all phase-to-phase loops will be fully affected by a fault between two phases. It should also provide better fault resistive coverage in quadrant one.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X R IEC08000437. The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if (2·ILn<IMinOpPP).2. 7.6.6. The relative loss of fault resistive coverage in quadrant four should not be a problem even for applications on series compensated lines.

within the characteristic. 208 Technical Manual . LDEblock IRELPE 3I 0 ≥ 0. when only a phase-to-earth or phase-to-phase measurement is available within the IED.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - logic circuits. Internal signals ZMLnN and ZMLmLn (m and n change between one and three according to the phase number) represent the fulfilled operating criteria for each separate loop measuring element. Figure 83 presents schematically the composition of non-directional phase selective signals STNDLn.5 ⋅ IMinOpPE & INReleasePE 3I 0 ≥ ⋅ Iphmax 100 15 ms t & OR INBlockPP 3I 0 < ⋅ Iphmax 100 & Bool to integer BLOCK 3I 0 < IMinOpPE STPE & 10 ms 20 ms t t & 15 ms t STCNDLE STPP IRELPP IEC09000149_2_en. refer to figure 82. that is.vsd IEC09000149 V2 EN Figure 82: Phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth operating conditions (residual current criteria) A special attention is paid to correct phase selection at evolving faults. residual current and the load encroachment characteristic. A STCNDLE output signal is created as a combination of the load encroachment characteristic and current criteria. This signal can be configured to STCND functional input signals of the distance protection zone and this way influence the operation of the phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth zone measuring elements.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - INDL1N INDL2N INDL3N OR 15 ms t STNDPE OR 15 ms t STNDL1 OR 15 ms t STNDL2 AND OR 15 ms t STNDL3 AND INDL1L2 IRELPE LDEblockL1N ZML1N LDEblockL2N ZML2N LDEblockL3N ZML3N LDEblockL1L2 ZML1L2 LDEblockL2L3 ZML2L3 LDEblockL3L1 ZML3L1 AND AND AND AND INDL2L3 INDL3L1 IRELPP OR 15 ms t STNDPP IEC00000545-3-en. Figure 84 presents additionally a composition of a STCNDZ output signal. This signal can be configured to STCND functional input signals of the distance protection zone and this way influence the operation of the phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth zone measuring elements and their phase related starting and tripping signals. The directional criteria appears as a condition for the correct phase selection in order to secure a high phase selectivity for simultaneous and evolving faults on lines within the complex network configurations. Internal signals DFWLn and DFWLnLm present the corresponding directional signals for measuring loops with phases Ln and Lm. All directional signals are derived within the corresponding digital signal processor. 209 Technical Manual .vsd IEC00000545-TIFF V3 EN Figure 83: Composition on non-directional phase selection signals Composition of the directional (forward and reverse) phase selective signals is presented schematically in figure 85 and figure 84. Designation FW (figure 85) represents the forward direction as well as the designation RV (figure 84) represents the reverse direction. which is created on the basis of the continuation of the impedance measuring conditions and the load encroachment characteristic.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - INDL1N DRVL1N AND INDL1L2 DRVL1L2 AND OR 15 ms t STRVL1 OR 15 ms t STRVPE OR 15 ms t STRVL2 INDL3L1 DRVL3L1 AND INDL2N DRVL2N AND INDL1L2 AND INDL2L3 DRVL2L3 INDL1N INDL2N INDL3N INDL1L2 INDL2L3 INDL3L1 AND INDL3N DRVL3N AND INDL2L3 Bool to integer 15 ms AND OR INDL3L1 AND t 15 ms OR t STCNDZ STRVL3 STRVPP IEC00000546_2_en.vsd IEC00000546-TIFF V2 EN Figure 84: Composition of phase selection signals for reverse direction 210 Technical Manual .

211 Technical Manual . but for the phase-to-phase loops.vsd IEC05000201 V2 EN Figure 85: Composition of phase selection signals for forward direction Figure 86 presents the composition of output signals TRIP and START. STFWPE and STRVPE. where internal signals STNDPP. STFWPP and STRVPP are the equivalent to internal signals STNDPE.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - AND INDL1N DFWL1N AND AND OR 15 ms t INDL1L2 DFWL1L2 AND OR INDL3L1 DFWL3L1 DFWL2N OR 15 ms t STFWL1 15 ms t STFWPE 15 ms t STFWL2 15 ms t STFW2PH AND AND INDL1L2 AND OR INDL2L3 DFWL2L3 STFW1PH AND AND INDL2N 15 ms t AND OR 15 ms t AND INDL3N DFWL3N AND AND INDL2L3 AND 15 ms t STFWL3 15 ms t STFW3PH 15 ms t STFWPP OR INDL3L1 AND AND OR IEC05000201_2_en.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - TimerPP=Off tPP t AND OR TimerPE=Off tPE t AND AND OR TRIP AND STNDPP STFWPP OR STRVPP OR STNDPE STFWPE START OR STRVPE IEC08000441_2_en.vsd IEC08000441-1 V2 EN Figure 86: TRIP and START signal logic 212 Technical Manual .

ZDSRDIR 7.1 Identification Function description Distance measuring zone.00) Ω/phase Resistive reach.50–3000.7 Technical data Table 88: FDPSPDIS technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Minimum operate current (5-500)% of IBase ± 1. quadrilateral characteristic for series compensated lines (zone 2-5) ZMCAPDIS 21 S00346 V1 EN Directional impedance quadrilateral. phase-to-earth faults.00) Ω/phase (5-70) degrees Reset ratio 105% typically - 7.0% of Ir at I ≤ Ir ± 1.3.5-30) x Ir Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees Fault resistance.1-1. ZMCAPDIS.50–3000. forward and reverse Safety load impedance angle (1.3 Distance measuring zone.2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN Distance measuring zone. zero sequence (0.00) Ω/phase Reactive reach. zero sequence (0. positive sequence (0. positive sequence (0. forward and reverse (1.0% of I at I > Ir Reactive reach.5% static accuracy ± 2.50–3000. phase-tophase faults.00) Ω/loop Fault resistance.1) x Ur Current range: (0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7. quadrilateral characteristic for series compensated lines ZMCPDIS.00–3000.2.00) Ω/phase ± 2.00) Ω/loop Load encroachment criteria: Load resistance.00) Ω/phase Resistive reach.00–9000. quadrilateral characteristic for series compensated lines (zone 1) IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMCPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37.50–9000.0 degrees static angular accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0. including series compensation ZDSRDIR 21D Z<-> IEC09000167 V1 EN 213 Technical Manual . forward and reverse (0.10–1000.

vsd IEC05000034 V1 EN Figure 87: Typical quadrilateral distance protection zone with load encroachment function activated The distance protection zones can operate.3.2 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Functionality The line distance protection is a. for the protection of power lines and cables in complex network configurations.3. 7. Quadrilateral characteristic is available. together with different communication schemes. This makes them suitable. multi-terminal lines. in directional (forward or reverse) or non-directional mode. Individual settings for each zone resistive and reactive reach give flexibility for use on overhead lines and cables of different types and lengths.vsd IEC07000036 V2 EN Figure 88: ZMCPDIS function block 214 Technical Manual . independent of each other. such as parallel lines. up to five zone full scheme protection with three fault loops for phase-to-phase faults and three fault loops for phase-to-earth fault for each of the independent zones.3 Function block ZMCPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK VTSZ BLKTR STCND DIRCND TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 START STL1 STL2 STL3 STND IEC07000036-2-en. ZMCPDIS function has functionality for load encroachment which increases the possibility to detect high resistive faults on heavily loaded lines.Section 7 Impedance protection 7. X Forward operation R Reverse operation en05000034.

Table 89: Name ZMCPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function VTSZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler) DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition Table 90: Name ZMCPDIS Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - ZMCAPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK VTSZ BLKTR STCND DIRCND TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 START STL1 STL2 STL3 STND IEC09000890-1-en.3.4 ZDSRDIR function block Signals Input and output signals is shown for zone 1.vsd IEC07000035 V2 EN Figure 90: 7.vsd IEC09000890 V1 EN Figure 89: ZMCAPDIS function block ZDSRDIR I3P* U3P* STFW STRV STDIRCND IEC07000035-2-en. zone 2 .5 are equal. issued from any phase or loop TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1 TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2 TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3 Table continues on next page 215 Technical Manual .

issued from any phase or loop Table 93: ZDSRDIR Input signals Name Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input 216 Technical Manual . issued from any phase or loop Table 91: Name ZMCAPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function VTSZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler) DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition Table 92: Name ZMCAPDIS Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip. issued from any phase or loop STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2 STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3 STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start. issued from any phase or loop TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1 TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2 TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3 START BOOLEAN General Start. issued from any phase or loop STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2 STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3 STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Type Description START BOOLEAN General Start.

PhE.00 Ohm/l 0.10 . resistance for zone characteristic angle.10 .00 Positive seq.01 . forward R1PE 0.10 . forward X1RvPP 0.00 Ohm/p 0.01 30.3000.10 . resistance for characteristic angle.000 Time delay of trip. Ph-E R0PE 0.3.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.10 .60.00 Ohm/p 0.01 .01 30.5 Table 95: ZMCPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OperationDir Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops X1FwPP 0.01 5. reverse RFRvPP 0.00 Positive seq. resistance for characteristic angle. while settings for ZMCAPDIS are valid for zone 2 .00 Ohm/p 0.10 .1000. Ph-Ph.00 Ohm/l 0.000 s 0. Ph-Ph tPP 0.10 . Ph-E X0PE 0.00 Fault resistance reach. reverse OpModetPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.3000.01 .00 Zero sequence reactance reach.01 30. PhPh. Ph-E.3000.00 Fault resistance reach. Ph-Ph RFFwPP 0.00 Ohm/p 0.3000.00 Ohm/p 0.9000.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.01 100.9000.00 Ohm/p 0. forward X1RvPE 0.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.01 30.3000.00 Ohm/p 0.01 47. PhPh.01 30.001 0. reverse Table continues on next page 217 Technical Manual .10 . PhE.00 Positive sequence reactance reach. Ph-E RFFwPE 0.00 Fault resistance reach. forward R1PP 0.000 .3000.1000. Ph-Ph. Ph-Ph OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops X1FwPE 0.01 100.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 94: ZDSRDIR Output signals Name 7.5 Type Description STFW BOOLEAN Start in forward direction STRV BOOLEAN Start in reverse direction STDIRCND INTEGER Binary coded directional information per measuring loop Settings Settings for ZMCPDIS are valid for zone 1.01 5.01 30.3000.00 Ohm/l 0.00 Zero seq.

3000. reverse OpModetPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.10 .01 . resistance for zone characteristic angle.01 100.00 Ohm/l 0.01 .1000. Ph-Ph OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops X1FwPE 0.01 .01 30.000 s 0.1000. Ph-E Table continues on next page 218 Technical Manual .01 100.000 .10 .1000 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate residual current for Phase-Earth loops Table 96: Name GlobalBaseSel Values (Range) 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Unit Description ZMCPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .00 Fault resistance reach.01 30.01 30. forward R1PP 0.00 Ohm/p 0. PhPh.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 . Ph-E. Ph-E tPE 0.00 Ohm/l 0.9000.60.000 s 0.3000.60.12 Unit - Table 97: ZMCAPDIS Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step 1 Step Default 1 Default Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OperationDir Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops X1FwPP 0.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.001 0. resistance for characteristic angle.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-Ph.10 .00 Zero seq.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-E X0PE 0.10 .00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-E R0PE 0.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.00 Ohm/l 0. Ph-Ph tPP 0.01 30. reverse OpModetPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.3000. resistance for characteristic angle.00 Positive sequence reactance reach. forward X1RvPP 0.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops IMinOpIN 5 . reverse RFRvPP 0.000 Time delay of trip.01 5.01 47.9000.10 .3000.000 .001 0. forward R1PE 0.10 .00 Ohm/p 0. PhE.3000.10 .01 5.00 Ohm/p 0.3000. Ph-E IMinOpPP 10 .Section 7 Impedance protection Name Step Default RFRvPE 0.000 Time delay of trip.00 Positive sequence reactance reach. Ph-Ph RFFwPP 0.00 Positive seq.01 30. Ph-Ph.00 Positive seq. PhPh.

3000. PhE.000 s 0.00 Ohm/p 0.01 100.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-E.70 Deg 1 30 Load angle determining the load impedance area X1FwPP 0. forward R1PP 0.60. resistance for characteristic angle.9000.45 Deg 1 15 Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for forward direction INReleasePE 10 .3000.50 .00 Ohm/l 0.10 .00 Fault resistance reach.01 80. Ph-E IMinOpPP 10 .3000.10 .00 .100 %IPh 1 20 3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth measuring loops INBlockPP 10 .00 .1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops Table 98: Name GlobalBaseSel Values (Range) Unit Description ZMCAPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 . PhPh. Ph-Ph Table continues on next page 219 Technical Manual . Ph-E tPE 0.10 . forward X1RvPE 0. Ph-E.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Step Default RFFwPE 0.00 Positive seq.175 Deg 1 130 Angle of blinder in second quadrant for forward direction ArgDir 5 .12 Unit - Table 99: ZDSRDIR Group settings (basic) Name Values (Range) Unit Step 1 Step Default 1 Default Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Description OperationSC NoSeriesComp SeriesComp - - SeriesComp Special directional criteria for voltage reversal IMinOpPE 5 . reverse RFRvPE 0.01 80.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.01 7.1000.001 0.000 Time delay of trip.00 Ohm/l 0.30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase-phase current for Phase-Phase loops ArgNegRes 90 .100 %IPh 1 40 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loops OperationLdCh Off On - - On Operation of load discrimination characteristic RLdFw 1.00 Forward resistive reach within the load impedance area RLdRv 1.30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops IMinOpPP 5 .00 Ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Ohm/p 0.000 . reverse OpModetPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.01 100.00 Reverse resistive reach within the load impedance area ArgLd 5 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach.00 Fault resistance reach.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 .9000.10 .00 Ohm/p 0.01 40.3000.

reverse Step Default Table 100: Name GlobalBaseSel 7.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.00 Ohm/p 0.50 . forward X1RvPE 0.00 Ohm/l 0. Ph-Ph. forward X1RvPP 0. resistance for zone characteristic angle.00 Ohm/l 0. forward R1PE 0. reverse RFRvPE 1. PhE.50 .12 Unit - 1 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 101: Name ZDSRDIR Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description L1Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L1 L2Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L2 L3Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L3 L1R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L1 L1X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L1 L2R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L2 L2X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L2 L3R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L3 L3X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L3 220 Technical Manual .9000.3000. reverse X0RvPE 0.3000. resistance for characteristic angle.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/p 0. forward R0PE 0.00 Positive sequence reactance reach. Ph-E.01 40.50 .01 120. Ph-E X0FwPE 0.50 .00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/l 0.6 Values (Range) Unit Description ZDSRDIR Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .3000.01 100.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-E.9000.9000.3000.3000.01 120. Ph-E RFFwPE 1.10 .50 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach.01 7. reverse X1FwPE 0.00 Zero seq.50 .00 Fault resistance reach.01 30.01 20.1000.00 Ohm/p 0.01 30. Ph-E. Ph-E.50 . PhE.00 .00 Positive seq.50 .00 Fault resistance reach.3000.9000.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.00 Ohm/l 0.3. reverse RFRvPP 0.01 100.01 40.00 . PhPh.01 40.Section 7 Impedance protection Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Step Default RFFwPP 0. Ph-Ph.

3. 221 Technical Manual . three intended for phase-toearth faults. impedance-measuring zones. Figure 91 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for the basic five.2 Impedance characteristic Distance measuring zone. The distance measuring zone operates according to the non-directional impedance characteristics presented in figure 92 and figure 93.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7.3. and three intended for phase-to-phase as well as.7. L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 1 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 2 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 3 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 4 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 5 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone RV IEC05000458-2-en.3. 7.7.vsd IEC05000458 V2 EN Figure 91: The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-tophase fault The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current depending on fault type. quadrilateral characteristic for series compensated lines (ZMCPDIS) include six impedance measuring loops. Each distance protection zone performs like one independent distance protection IED with six measuring elements. The phase-to-earth characteristic is illustrated with the full loop reach while the phase-to-phase characteristic presents the per-phase reach.1 Full scheme measurement The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type.7 Operation principle 7. three-phase faults. which means that earth fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults for forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel.

ohm/loop domain 222 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X (Ohm/loop) R1PE+RNFw RFRvPE RFFwPE X 0 PE .X 1FwPE 3 X PG.1RVPG 1RvPE XX00PE 1XRVPE XNRV =XXNFw × XNRV XNRv == 3 3 X 1FwPE XNFw = XX0 PE .X-1X FWPE 0 PG 1FWPG XNFW XNFW== 3 3 X1FwPE+XNFw jN jN RNFw = R0 PE .R1PE 3 R (Ohm/loop) RFRvPE RFFwPE X1RvPE+XNRv jN RFRvPE RFFwPE IEC09000625-1-en.vsd IEC09000625 V1 EN Figure 92: Characteristic for the phase-to-earth measuring loops.

vsd IEC09000632 V1 EN Figure 93: Characteristic for the phase-to-phase measuring loops The fault loop reach with respect to each fault type may also be presented as in figure 94.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RFRvPP X (Ohm/phase) R1PP RFFwPP 2 2 X 0 PE .1RVPG X3 1XRVPE XNRV = XNRV = 33 X 0 PE --1X 11FWPE X 0 PE X 0 PG X XFWPE FWPG XNFW XNFW XNFW=== 3 33 X1FwPP j jN RFRvPP RFFwPP 2 2 j R (Ohm/phase) X1RvPP jN RFRvPP RFFwPP 2 2 IEC09000632-1-en.X 1RVPE XNRV =XX00PE PG. 223 Technical Manual . Note in particular the difference in definition regarding the (fault) resistive reach for phase-to-phase faults and three-phase faults.

there is of course fault current flowing also in the third phase during a three-phase fault. The illustration merely reflects the loop measurement. which is made phase-to-phase. It may be convenient to once again mention that the impedance reach is symmetric. The zone may be set to operate in Non-directional. Therefore. The RFPE and RFPP is the eventual fault resistance in the fault place.5·RFPP R1 + j X1 0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - UL1 IL1 R1 + j X1 Phase-to-earth fault in phase L1 Phase-to-earth element RFPE (Arc + tower resistance) 0 Phase-to-phase fault in phase L1-L2 UL1 IN (R0-R1)/3 + j (X0-X1)/3 ) IL1 R1 + j X1 Phase-to-phase element L1-L2 RFPP IL2 (Arc resistance) UL2 R1 + j X1 UL1 Three-phase fault IL1 R1 + j X1 0. all reach settings apply to both directions. The result from respective set value is illustrated in figure 95.vsd IEC08000282 V2 EN Figure 94: Fault loop model The R1 and jX1 in figure 94 represents the positive sequence impedance from the measuring point to the fault location.5·RFPP Phase-to-phase element L1-L3 IL3 UL3 IEC08000282-2-en. Regarding the illustration of three-phase fault in figure 94. 224 Technical Manual . Forward or Reverse direction through the setting OperationDir. forward and reverse direction.

Apparent impedances are calculated and compared with the set limits.7. The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if ILmLnAB (BC or CA)< IMinOpPP. For zone 1 with load compensation feature the additional criterion applies. that is. that all phase-to-earth loops will be blocked when IN < IMinOpIN.3. regardless of the phase currents.ZMCAPDIS) is blocked if the magnitude of input currents fall below certain threshold values.4 Measuring principles Fault loop equations use the complex values of voltage.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X X R Non-directional X R Forward R Reverse en05000182. current. ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln. and changes in the current. residual current 3I0. that is. IMinOpIN and IMinOpPP are automatically reduced to 75% of regular set values if the zone is set to operate in reverse direction.7. 7.3. The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn < IMinOpPE. quadrilateral characteristic for series compensated lines (ZMCPDIS. IN is the RMS value of the vector sum of the three phase currents. The 225 Technical Manual . ILmLn is the RMS value of the vector difference between phase currents Lm and Ln. All three current limits IMinOpPE.3 Directional operating modes of the distance measuring zone Minimum operating current The operation of Distance measuring zone.vsd IEC05000182 V1 EN Figure 95: 7. OperationDir=Reverse.

IL1 and IN are the phase voltage. Z app = U L1 I L1 + I N × KN (Equation 50) EQUATION1223 V2 EN Where: UL1. This results in the same reach along the line for all types of faults. 226 Technical Manual . phase current and residual current present to the IED KN KN = is defined as: Z 0 . UL1 – UL2 Zapp = ------------------------I L1 – IL2 (Equation 49) EQUATION1222 V1 EN Here U and I represent the corresponding voltage and current phasors in the respective phase.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - calculation of the apparent impedances at ph-ph faults follows equation 49 (example for a phase L1 to phase L2 fault). The apparent impedance is considered as an impedance loop with resistance R and reactance X.Z1 3 × Z1 EQUATION-2105 V2 EN Z 0 = R 0 + jX 0 EQUATION2106 V2 EN Z 1 = R1 + jX 1 EQUATION2107 V2 EN Where R0 is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach X0 is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach R1 is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach X1 is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach Here IN is a phasor of the residual current at the IED point. The earth return compensation applies in a conventional manner to ph-E faults (example for a phase L1 to earth fault) according to equation 50.

IED has an adaptive load compensation which increases the security in such applications. The final result is equal to: 227 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The formula given in equation 50 is only valid for no loaded radial feeder applications. and changes in current between samples (DI) are brought from the input memory and fed to a recursive Fourier filter. These values are related to the loop impedance according to equation 51. The equation for the Xm measured reactance can then be solved.× ----------------w0 Dt EQUATION355 V1 EN (Equation 53) with w0 = 2 × p × f 0 EQUATION356 V1 EN (Equation 54) where: Re designates the real component of current and voltage. For each of the six supervised fault loops. Im designates the imaginary component of current and voltage and f0 designates the rated system frequency The algorithm calculates Rm measured resistance from the equation for the real value of the voltage and substitute it in the equation for the imaginary part. When load is considered in the case of single phase-to-earth fault. The filter provides two orthogonal values for each input. X Di U = R × i + -----. conventional distance protection might overreach at exporting end and underreach at importing end. and the information is distributed into memory locations. current (I). Measuring elements receive current and voltage information from the A/D converter.× -----------------w0 Dt EQUATION354 V1 EN (Equation 52) X DIm ( I ) Im ( U ) = R × Im ( I ) + -----. The check sums are calculated and compared. sampled values of voltage (U). or: X D Re ( I ) Re ( U ) = R × Re ( I ) + -----.× ----w 0 Dt EQUATION1224 V1 EN (Equation 51) in complex notation.

The achieved direction criteria are sealed-in when the directional measurement is blocked and kept until the impedance fault criteria is reset (the direction is stored until the fault is cleared).3. The directional evaluations are performed simultaneously in both forward and reverse directions. The polarizing voltage is a memorized positive sequence voltage. The adaptive tripping counter counts the number of permissive tripping results. A nondirectional impedance measurement is used to detect a fault and identify the faulty phase or phases. and in all six fault loops. the control of the memory for polarizing voltage is performed by an undervoltage control. 7. a simple undervoltage type of voltage memory control can not be used in case of voltage reversal. In case of series compensated line. At a three phase fault when no positive sequence voltage remains (all three phases are disconnected) the memory is used for direction polarization during 100 ms. This extrapolation is made with a high accuracy and it is not the accuracy of the memory that limits the time the memory can be used. The memory is starting to run freely instantaneously when a voltage change is detected in any phase. This ensures unlimited directional sensitivity for faults close to the IED point. The memory is continuously synchronized via a positive sequence filter. 228 Technical Manual .7. This effectively removes any influence of errors introduced by the capacitive voltage transformers or by other factors. The network is at a three phase fault under way to a new equilibrium and the post-fault condition can only be predicted accurately for a limited time from the pre-fault condition. In the option for series compensated network the polarizing quantity and memory are controlled by an impedance measurement criterion. In case of a three phase fault after 100 ms the phase of the memorized voltage can not be relied upon and the directional measurement has to be blocked.5 Directionality for series compensation In the basic distance protection function. Thus. The memory predicts the phase of the positive sequence voltage with the pre-fault frequency. Positive sequence voltage and a phase locked positive sequence memory voltage are used as a reference. a voltage reversal can occur with a relatively high voltage also when the memory must be locked.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Im ( U ) × DRe ( I ) – Re ( U ) × D Im ( I ) R m = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) × Im ( I ) – D Im ( I ) × Re ( I ) EQUATION357 V1 EN (Equation 55) Re ( U ) × Im ( I ) – Im ( U ) × Re ( I ) Xm = w 0 × Dt × ------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) × Im ( I ) – DIm ( I ) × Re ( I ) EQUATION358 V1 EN (Equation 56) The calculated Rm and Xm values are updated each sample and compared with the set zone reach.

229 Technical Manual . The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance quadrilateral. by default set to 15 (= -15 degrees) and ArgNegRes is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic.ArgDir < arg U 1L1L 2 M < ArgNeg Re s I L1L 2 (Equation 58) EQUATION2006 V2 EN where: ArgDir is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - This memory control allows in the time domain unlimited correct directional measurement for all unsymmetrical faults also at voltage reversal. STRVL1N=1 adds 2. STFWL2N=1 adds 4. U1L1M is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1 IL1 is phase current in phase L1 U1L1L2M is memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) IL1L2 is current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees respectively. see Figure 96. Only at three phase fault within the range of the set impedance reach of the criteria for control of the polarization voltage the memory has to be used and the measurement is limited to 100 ms and thereafter the direction is sealed-in. by default set to 115 degrees. . Equation 57 and equation 58 are used to classify that the fault is in forward direction for phase-toearth fault and phase-to-phase fault. see Figure 96. including series compensation (ZDSRDIR) function. The special impedance measurement to control the polarization voltage is set separately and has only to cover (with some margin) the impedance to fault that can cause the voltage reversal.ArgDir < arg U 1L1M < ArgNeg Re s I L1 (Equation 57) EQUATION2004 V2 EN For the L1-L2 element. the equation in forward direction is according to: . ZDSRDIR generates a binary coded signal on the output STDIR depending on the evaluation where STFWL1N=1 adds 1. and it should not be changed unless system studies have shown the necessity.

and L3L1).5.6 Simplified logic diagrams Distance protection zones The design of distance protection zones are presented for all measuring loops: phaseto-earth as well as phase-to-phase.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X ArgNegRes ArgDir R en05000722. where n and m represent the corresponding phase numbers (L1L2. 230 Technical Manual . Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one logical signal for each separate measuring loop: • • Zone measuring condition. The phase-to-phase signals are designated by LnLm. Group functional input signal (STCND). L2L3. 7. Two types of function block. L2. ZMCPDIS and ZMCAPDIS.vsd IEC05000722 V1 EN Figure 96: Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by 180 degrees. which follows the operating equations described above. are used in the IED.3. ZMCPDIS is used for zone 1 and ZMCAPDIS for zone 2 .7. and L3). Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by Ln. as presented in figure 97. where n represents the corresponding phase number (L1.

vsd IEC99000557-TIFF V3 EN Figure 97: Conditioning by a group functional input signal STCND Composition of the phase starting signals for a case. quadrilateral characteristic (FDPSPDIS) function output STCNDZ. It is connected to Phase selection with load enchroachment. 231 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values from the phase selection function within the IED. STZMPP OR STCND STNDL1L2 L1L2 AND L2L3 AND L3L1 AND STNDL3L1 L1N AND STNDL1N L2N AND STNDL2N L3N AND STNDL2L3 STNDL3N STPE OR OR VTSZ BLOCK AND OR BLOCFUNC STND BLK 99000557-2. which are converted within the zone measuring function into corresponding boolean expressions for each condition separately. is presented in figure 98. when the zone operates in a nondirectional mode.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IEC00000488-TIFF V1 EN Figure 98: Composition of starting signals in non-directional operating mode Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits. as shown in figure 99. OR STNDL2N DIRL2N AND STNDL3N OR DIRL3N AND STNDL1L2 DIRL1L2 AND OR AND 15 ms t STL1 AND 15 ms t STL2 AND 15 ms t STL3 STNDL2L3 DIRL2L3 AND OR STNDL3L1 DIRL3L1 AND STZMPP OR BLK OR AND 15 ms t START IEC09000888-2-en. STNDL1N DIRL1N AND STZMPE. 232 Technical Manual . when the zone operates in directional (forward or reverse) mode.vsd IEC09000888 V2 EN Figure 99: Composition of starting signals in directional operating mode Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented in figure 100.

Ph-Ph (0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Timer tPP=On STZMPP tPP t AND BLKFUNC OR Timer tPE=On STZMPE AND OR tPE t AND AND 15ms AND BLKTR BLK TRIP t OR STL1 AND TRL1 STL2 AND TRL2 STL3 AND TRL3 IEC09000887-2-en.8 Tripping logic for the distance protection zone one Technical data Table 102: ZMCPDIS.5-30) x Ir Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees Dynamic overreach <5% at 85 degrees measured with CCVT’s and 0.10-3000.01-3000.00) Ω/phase Positive sequence resistance (0.3.10-9000.000-60.0 degrees static angular accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0. ZMCAPDIS Technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Number of zones Max 5 with selectable direction - Minimum operate residual current.5<SIR<30 - Definite time delay Ph-Ph and Ph-E operation (0.2% or ± 35 ms whichever is greater Operate time 25 ms typically IEC 60255-121 Reset ratio 105% typically - Reset time at 0.000) s ± 0.1-1. zone 1 (5-1000)% of IBase - Minimum operate current.1 to 2 x Zreach Min = 20 ms Max = 35 ms - 233 Technical Manual .1) x Ur Current range: (0.00) Ω/loop ± 2.01-9000.00) Ω/phase Fault resistance. Ph-Ph and Ph-E (10-1000)% of IBase - Positive sequence reactance (0.00) Ω/phase Zero sequence reactance (0.00) Ω/loop Fault resistance.10-3000.00) Ω/phase Zero sequence resistance (0. Ph-E (0.10-1000.0% static accuracy ± 2.vsd IEC09000887 V2 EN Figure 100: 7.

which gives high flexibility for all types of lines. The function can be used as under impedance back-up protection for transformers and generators. up to four zone full scheme protection for back-up detection of short circuit and earth faults.2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN 7. 234 Technical Manual .2 Functionality The numerical mho line distance protection is a. Built-in selectable zone timer logic is also provided in the function. The full scheme technique provides back-up protection of power lines with high sensitivity and low requirement on remote end communication.4 Full-scheme distance measuring.1 Identification Function description Full-scheme distance protection. mho characteristic IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMHPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37. Mho characteristic ZMHPDIS 7. The four zones have fully independent measuring and settings.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7.4.4.

4.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7.4.3 Function block ZMHPDIS I3P* TRIP U3P* TRL1 CURR_INP* TRL2 VOLT_INP* TRL3 POL_VOLT* TRPE BLOCK TRPP BLKZ START BLKZMTD STL1 BLKHSIR STL2 BLKTRIP STL3 BLKPE STPE BLKPP STPP EXTNST STTIMER INTRNST DIRCND STCND* LDCND IEC06000423-2-en.4 ZMHPDIS function block Signals Table 103: Name ZMHPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Connection for current sample signals U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Connection for voltage sample signals CURR_INP GROUP SIGNAL - Connection for current signals VOLT_INP GROUP SIGNAL - Connection for voltage signals POL_VOLT GROUP SIGNAL - Connection for polarizing voltage BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKZ BOOLEAN 0 Block due to fuse failure BLKZMTD BOOLEAN 0 Block signal for blocking of time domaine function BLKHSIR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks time domain function at high SIR BLKTRIP BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all operate output signals BLKPE BOOLEAN 0 Blocks phase-to-earth operation BLKPP BOOLEAN 0 Blocks phase-to-phase operation EXTNST BOOLEAN 0 External start INTRNST BOOLEAN 0 Internal start DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler) LDCND INTEGER 0 External load condition (loop enabler) 235 Technical Manual .vsd IEC06000423 V3 EN Figure 101: 7.

005 .180 Deg 1 -15 Angle for earth return compensation factor KN Table continues on next page 236 Technical Manual .00 .000 Positive sequence impedance setting for Phase-Earth loop ZAngPE 10 .4.3.01 0.000 Ohm/p 0.3000.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 104: ZMHPDIS Output signals Name 7.80 Magnitude of earth return compensation factor KN KNAng -180 .00 - 0.5 Table 105: Name Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Trip General TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip phase L1 TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip phase L2 TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip phase L3 TRPE BOOLEAN Trip phase-to-earth TRPP BOOLEAN Trip phase-to-phase START BOOLEAN Start General STL1 BOOLEAN Start phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN Start phase L2 STL3 BOOLEAN Start phase L3 STPE BOOLEAN Start phase-to-earth STPP BOOLEAN Start phase-to-phase STTIMER BOOLEAN Start timer Settings ZMHPDIS Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off/On DirMode Off Offset Forward Reverse - - Forward Direction mode LoadEncMode Off On - - Off Load encroachment mode Off/On ReachMode Overreach Underreach - - Overreach Reach mode Over/Underreach ZnTimerSel Timers seperated Timers linked Internal start Start from PhSel External start - - Timers seperated Zone timer selection OpModePE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops ZPE 0.90 Deg 1 85 Angle for positive sequence line impedance for Phase-Earth loop KN 0.001 30.

000 Ohm/p 0.90 Deg 1 85 Angle for positive sequence line impedance for Phase-Phase elements ZRevPP 0.60.4.30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operation phase to earth current OpModePP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops ZPP 0.4.001 30.000 s 0. 237 Technical Manual .000 Reverse reach of the phase to phase loop(magnitude) tPP 0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description ZRevPE 0.005 .005 .000 Impedance setting reach for phase to phase elements ZAngPP 10 .3000.3000.000 s 0.000 Ohm/p 0.001 0. So each distance protection zone performs like one independent distance protection function with six measuring elements.001 30.000 Ohm/p 0. Ph-ph Table 107: Name GlobalBaseSel ZMHPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .000 .12 Unit - Step Default 1 7.1 Full scheme measurement 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type.005 .001 30.000 Delay time for operation of phase to earth elements IMinOpPE 10 . The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current depending on fault type.30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operation phase to phase current Table 106: Name ZMHPDIS Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description OffsetMhoDir Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Direction mode for offset mho OpModetPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.000 Reverse reach of the phase to earth loop(magnitude) tPE 0.6 Operation principle 7.60.000 .6. Ph-E OpModetPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.001 0.000 Delay time for operation of phase to phase IMinOpPP 10 .3000. which means that each fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults are executed in parallel for all zones.

zone5 IEC09000143-3-en. Enabling of the load encroachment function increases the possibility to detect high resistive faults without interfering 238 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 7. The directional mho characteristic of Figure 102 B) has a dynamic expansion due to the source impedance. zone4 Zs=0 Mho. zone2 R Mho. zone3 Mho. offset mho characteristic and the source impedance influence on the mho characteristic The polarization quantities used for the mho circle are 100% memorized positive sequence voltages. which is only valid where the source impedance is zero. Instead of mho characteristic crossing origin.2 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Impedance characteristic The Mho distance function ZMHPDIS is present with four instances so that four separate zones could be designed. However. The mho distance element has a load encroachment function which cuts off a section of the characteristic when enabled. One example of the operating characteristic is shown in Figure 102 A) where zone 5 is selected offset mho. if the source impedance is high.6. This will give a somewhat less dynamic expansion of the mho circle during faults than a plain cross polarized characteristic. Each instance can be selected to be either forward or reverse with positive sequence polarized mho characteristic. the dynamic expansion of the mho circle might lower the security of the function too much with high loading and mild power swing conditions. the crossing point is moved to the coordinates of the negative source impedance giving an expansion of the circle of Figure 102 B).vsd IEC09000143 V3 EN Figure 102: Mho.4. A B jx X Mho. The function is enabled by setting the setting parameter LoadEnchMode to On. zone1 Zs=Z1 Zs=2Z1 R Offset mho. alternatively self polarized offset mho characteristics is also available.

4. The zone reach for phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-phase fault is set individually in polar coordinates. The offset Mho characteristic can be set in Non-directional.6. The operation for phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase fault can be individually switched On and Off by the setting parameter OpModePE and OpModePP.3 Basic operation characteristics Each impedance zone can be switched On and Off by the setting parameter Operation. Forward or Reverse by the setting parameter OffsetMhoDir. The latter setting is recommended for overreaching pilot zone. For critical applications such as for lines with high SIRs as well as CVTs. where also the relevant settings can be found. If the ReachMode is set to Overreach no reduction of the reach is introduced and no extra filtering introduced. In this mode the reach for faults close to the zone reach is reduced by 20% and the filtering is also introduced to increase the accuracy in the measuring. KNMag = EQUATION1579 V1 EN Z0-Z1 3 × Z1 (Equation 59) 239 Technical Manual . Each zone can be set to Non-directional. it is possible to improve the security by setting the parameter ReachMode to Underreach. Information about the load encroachment from FMPSPDIS to the zone measurement is given in binary format to the input signal LDCND. zone 2 or zone 3 elements and reverse zone where overreaching on transients is not a major issue either because of less likelihood of overreach with higher settings or the fact that these elements do not initiate tripping unconditionally. The algorithm for the load encroachment is located in the Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho function FMPSPDIS. 7.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - with the load impedance. Information about the directional line is given from the directional element and given to the measuring element as binary coded signal to the input DIRCND. The impedance is set by the parameters ZPE and ZPP and the corresponding arguments by the parameters ZAngPE and ZAngPP. Compensation for earth -return path for faults involving earth is done by setting the parameter KNMag and KNAng where KNMag is the magnitude of the earth-return path and KNAng is the difference of angles between KNMag and ZPE . Forward or Reverse by setting the parameter DirMode . When Forward or Reverse is selected a directional line is introduced.

To release the time delay. then the timers will be triggered.Z1 3 × Z1 ) (Equation 60) EQUATION1580 V1 EN where Z0 is the complex zero sequence impedance of the line in Ω/phase Z1 is the complex positive sequence impedance of the line in Ω/phase The phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase measuring loops can be time delayed individually by setting the parameter tPE and tPP respectively.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - KNAng = arg ( Z 0 . the operation mode for the timers. Internal start: Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by the INTRNST input. The operate timers triggering input depends on the parameter ZnTimerSel setting. The function can be blocked in the following ways: • • • • activating of input BLOCK blocks the whole function activating of the input BLKZ (fuse failure) blocks all output signals activating of the input BLKZMTD blocks the delta based time domain algorithm activating of the input BLKHSIR blocks the instantaneous part of the algorithm for high SIR values 240 Technical Manual . Start from PhSel: The phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by the STCND and LDCND inputs. The parameter ZnTimerSel can be set to: • • • • Timers separated: Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by the respective measuring loop start signals. In case when LoadEnchMode is off then only STCND enables the timer. Hence if any of the measuring loop status is high in both two inputs STCND and LDCND. Timers linked: Start of any of the phase-to-earth or phase-to-phase loops will trigger both the phase-to-earth or phase-to-phase timers. This is also the case for instantaneous operation. Each of the two inputs consist binary status information related to the six measuring loops. • External start: Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by the EXTNST input. OpModetPE and OpModetPP. has to be set to On. It is not recommended to use this timer setting for the Zone instance where LoadEnchMode is off.

In both cases the output BLKZ in the Mho supervision logic shall be connected to the input BLKZ in the Mho distance function block (ZMHPDIS) The input signal BLKZMTD is activated during some ms after fault has been detected by ZSMGAPC to avoid unwanted operations due to transients. It shall be connected to the BLKZMTD output signal of ZSMGAPC function.arg(U pol ) (Equation 61) EQUATION1789 V1 EN where U L1L2 is the voltage vector difference between phases L1 and L2 EQUATION1790 V2 EN I L1L2 is the current vector difference between phases L1 and L2 EQUATION1791 V2 EN ZPP is the positive sequence impedance setting for phase-to-phase fault Upol is the polarizing voltage 241 Technical Manual . At SIR values >10.I L1 L 2 × ZPP ) . the use of electronic CVT might cause overreach due to the builtin resonance circuit in the CVT. When the operating phasor leads the reference polarizing phasor by more than 90 degrees. The condition for deriving the angle β is according to equation 61.6.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - • • • activating of the input BLKTRIP blocks all output signals activating the input BLKPE blocks the phase-to-earth fault loop outputs activating the input BLKPP blocks the phase-to-phase fault loop outputs The activation of input signal BLKZ can be made by external fuse failure function or from the loss of voltage check in the Mho supervision logic (ZSMGAPC). the function operates and gives a trip output. 7. This is valid only when permissive underreach scheme is selected by setting ReachMode=Underreach.4. The input BLKHSIR is connected to the output signal HSIR on ZSMGAPC for increasing of the filtering and high SIR values. which reduce the secondary voltage for a while.4 Theory of operation The mho algorithm is based on the phase comparison of a operating phasor and a polarizing phasor. b = arg(U L1 L 2 . Phase-to-phase fault Mho The plain Mho circle has the characteristic as in Figure 103.

The memorized voltage will prevent collapse of the Mho circle for close in faults. Operation occurs if 90≤β≤270 IL1L2·X Ucomp = UL1L2 .vsd IEC07000109 V1 EN Figure 103: Simplified mho characteristic and vector diagram for phase L1-toL2 fault Offset Mho The characteristic for offset mho is a circle where two points on the circle are the setting parameters ZPP and ZRevPP.IL1L2 • ZPP IL1L2 • ZPP ß Upol UL1L2 IL1L2·R en07000109. The angle will be 90° for fault location on the boundary of the circle. 242 Technical Manual . The condition for operation at phase-to-phase fault is that the angle β between the two compensated voltages Ucomp1 and Ucomp2 is greater than or equal to 90° (figure 104). The vector ZPP in the impedance plane has the settable angle AngZPP and the angle for ZRevPP is AngZPP+180°. The angle β for L1-to-L2 fault can be defined according to equation 62.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The polarized voltage consists of 100% memorized positive sequence voltage (UL1L2 for phase L1 to L2 fault).

243 Technical Manual .IL1L2 • ZPP IL1L2 • ZPP ß U Ucomp2 = U = IF•ZF=UL1L2 IL1L2R .IL1L2 • Z RevPP en07000110.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - æ ö ÷ è U-(-IL1L2 × ZRevPP) ø b = arg ç U -IL1L2 × ZPP (Equation 62) EQUATION1792 V1 EN where U is the UL1L2 voltage EQUATION1800 V1 EN ZRevPP is the positive sequence impedance setting for phase-to-phase fault in reverse direction IL1L2jX Ucomp1 = UL1L2 . an extra criteria beside the one for offset mho (90<β<270) is introduced. that is the angle φ between the voltage and the current must lie between the blinders in second quadrant and fourth quadrant. forward direction When forward direction has been selected for the offset mho. Operation occurs if 90≤β≤270 and ArgDir≤φ≤ArgNegRes.vsd IEC07000110 V1 EN Figure 104: Simplified offset mho characteristic and voltage vectors for phase L1-to-L2 fault. Offset mho. See figure 105. Operation occurs if 90≤β≤270.

ZDMRDIR.vsd IEC07000111 V1 EN Figure 105: Simplified offset mho characteristic in forward direction for phase L1-to-L2 fault Offset mho. β is calculated according to equation 62 The directional information is brought to the mho distance measurement from the mho directional element as binary coded information to the input DIRCND. reverse direction The operation area for offset mho in reverse direction is according to figure 106. See Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) for information about the mho directional element. Operation occurs if 90≤β≤270 and 180° .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - where ArgDir is the setting parameter for directional line in fourth quadrant in the directional element.ArgDir ≤φ ≤ ArgNegRes + 180° The β is derived according to equation 62 for the mho circle and φ is the angle between the voltage and current. ArgNegRes is the setting parameter for directional line in second quadrant in the directional element. The operation area in second quadrant is ArgNegRes+180°. ZDMRDIR. IL1L2jX ZPP UL1L2 ArgNegRes f IL1L2 ArgDir en07000111. 244 Technical Manual .

as shown in Figure 107.eps IEC06000469 V1 EN Figure 106: Operation characteristic for reverse phase L1-to-L2 fault Phase-to-earth fault Mho The measuring of earth faults uses earth-return compensation applied in a conventional way.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X ZPP ArgNegRes ϕ IL1L2 ArgDir R UL1L2 ZRevPP en06000469. For an earth fault in phase L1. the compensation voltage Ucomp can be derived. 245 Technical Manual . The compensation voltage is derived by considering the influence from the earth-return path.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Ucomp = U pol . Upol is the 100% of positive sequence memorized voltage UL1 246 Technical Manual . which in general terms can be expressed as ( Z1+ZN = Z 1 × 1 + KN ) where Z1 is the positive sequence impedance of the line (Ohm/phase) KN is the zero-sequence compensator factor The angle β between the Ucomp and the polarize voltage Upol for a L1-to-earth fault is β = arg U L1 − I L1 + 3I 0 ⋅ KN ⋅ ZPE  − arg (Upol )   ( ) (Equation 64) GUID-A9492CDF-D3B7-4DC5-8E06-6638BEE2540B V2 EN where UL1 is the phase voltage in faulty phase L1 IL1 is the phase current in faulty phase L1 3I0 is the zero-sequence current in faulty phase L1 KN Z0-Z1 3 × Z1 the setting parameter for the zero sequence compensation consisting of the magnitude KN and the angle KNAng.I L1 × Z loop (Equation 63) EQUATION1793 V1 EN where Upol is the polarizing voltage (memorized UL1 for Phase L1-to.earth fault) Zloop is the loop impedance.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IL1·X IL1·ZN Ucomp ß IL1 • Zloop IL1·ZPE Upol f IL1 (Ref) IL1·R en06000472_2. The condition for operation at phase-to-earth fault is that the angle β between the two compensated voltages Ucomp1 and Ucomp2 is greater or equal to 90° see figure 108. Offset mho The characteristic for offset mho at earth fault is a circle containing the two vectors from the origin ZPE and ZRevPE where ZPE and ZrevPE are the setting reach for the positive sequence impedance in forward respective reverse direction. The vector ZPE in the impedance plane has the settable angle AngZPE and the angle for ZRevPP is AngZPE+180°.IL1L × ZPE (Equation 65) EQUATION1802 V1 EN U L1 is the phase L1 voltage EQUATION1 805 V1 EN 247 Technical Manual .IL1 × Z Re vPE ) ø b = arg ç UL1.vsd IEC06000472 V2 EN Figure 107: Simplified offset mho characteristic and vector diagram for phase L1-to-earth fault Operation occurs if 90≤β≤270. The angle will be 90° for fault location on the boundary of the circle. The angle β for L1-to-earth fault can be defined as æ ö ÷ è UL1-(.

forward direction In the same way as for phase-to-phase fault.I L1• ZPE IL1 • ZPE ß UL1 U comp2 = UL1 .I L1 • Z Re vPe en 06000465. Beside the basic criteria for offset mho according to equation 65 and 90≤β≤270. ArgNegRes is the setting parameter for directional line in second quadrant in the directional element. Offset mho. also the criteria that the angle φ between the voltage and the current must lie between the blinders in second and fourth quadrant. Operation occurs if 90≤β≤270 and ArgDir≤φ≤ArgNegRes. β is calculated according to equation 65 248 Technical Manual .(-IL1 • ZRevPE) IL1L2 • R .vsd IEC06000465 V1 EN Figure 108: Simplified offset mho characteristic and voltage vector for phase L1to-earth fault Operation occurs if 90≤β≤270. where ArgDir is the setting parameter for directional line in fourth quadrant in the directional element. ZDMRDIR. ZDMRDIR. See figure 109. selection of forward direction of offset mho will introduce an extra criterion for operation.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IL1L 2 • jX U comp1 = UL1 .

The β is derived according to equation 65 for the offset mho circle and φ is the angle between the voltage and current. 249 Technical Manual . reverse direction In the same way as for offset in forward direction.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IL1 jX UL1 ArgNegRes f IL1·R IL1 ArgDir en 06000466. The extra is that the angle between the fault voltage and the fault current shall lie between the blinders in second and fourth quadrant. The conditions for operation of offset mho in reverse direction for L1-to-earth fault is 90≤β≤270 and 180°-Argdir≤φ≤ArgNegRes+180°. see figure 110. the selection of offset mho in reverse direction will introduce an extra criterion for operation compare to the normal offset mho.vsd IEC06000466 V1 EN Figure 109: Simplified characteristic for offset mho in forward direction for L1-toearth fault Offset mho. The operation area in second quadrant is limited by the blinder defined as 180° -ArgDir and in fourth quadrant ArgNegRes+180°.

Group functional input signal (STCND). and L3L1.4. L2N and L3N. which follows the operating equations described above. 250 Technical Manual . The ZMHPDIS function block is used in the IED for each zone. The phase-tophase signals are designated by L1L2.5 Simplified characteristic for offset mho in reverse direction for L1-toearth fault Simplified logic diagrams Distance protection zones The design of the distance protection zones are presented for all measuring loops: phase-to-earth as well as phase-to-phase.eps IEC06000470 V1 EN Figure 110: 7. Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by L1N. L2L3.6. as presented in figure 111. The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values from Phase selection with load encroachment function FMPSPDIS within the IED.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X ZPE ArgNegRes ϕ IL 1 ArgDir R UL1 ZRevPE en06000470. Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one logical signal for each separate measuring loop: • • Zone measuring condition.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - which are converted within the zone measuring function into corresponding boolean expressions for each condition separately. 251 Technical Manual . OffsetMhoDir= Non-directional AND AND DirMode=Offset STCND T F AND AND LoadEnchMode= On/Off LDCND T F True AND Release DIRCND OffsetMhoDir= Forward/Reverse DirMode= Forward/Reverse AND BLKZ BLOCK OR IEC11000216-1-en. start signal STCND is also checked against LDCND signal. Input signal STCND is connected from FMPSPDIS function output signal STCNDPHS. The input signal DIRCND is used to give condition for directionality for the distance measuring zones. The signal contains binary coded information for both forward and reverse direction. Input signal DIRCND must be configured to the STDIRCND output signal on ZDMRDIR function.vsd IEC11000216 V1 EN Figure 111: Simplified logic for release start signal When load encroachment mode is switched on (LoadEnchMode=On). Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits when the zone operates in directional (forward or reverse) mode. as shown in figure 111. The zone measurement function filters out the relevant signals depending on the setting of the parameter DirMode. Composition of the phase start signals is presented in figure 69.

vsd IEC11000217 V1 EN Figure 112: Composition of starting signals Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented in figure 71.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Release STL1N STL2N STL3N STPE OR AND STL1 OR AND AND STL2 OR STL1L2 STL2L3 AND AND STL3 OR STL3L1 AND OR OR START STPP IEC11000217-1-en. 252 Technical Manual .

vsd IEC12000463 V2 EN Figure 114: Zone timer logic 253 Technical Manual . STPE BLOCK & & a a=b b Internal start Internal start a b ³1 TRPE tON t STTIMER & a<b & ³1 tON t && TRPP STPP ZnTimerSel FALSE ³1 internalCommonStart 1 timers seperated 2 timers linked 3 internal start phSelStart 4 start from phSel externalCommonStart 5 external start IEC12000463-3-en.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Timer tPP=On tPP t AND STPP OR Timer tPE=On tPE t AND STPE 15ms AND BLKTRIP TRIP t STL1 AND TRL1 STL2 AND TRL2 STL3 AND TRL3 IEC11000218-1-en.vsd IEC11000218 V1 EN Figure 113: Tripping logic for the distance protection zone Zone timer logic for the distance protection is symbolically presented in figure 114.

000) Ω/phase ± 2.000) W/phase Positive sequence impedance angle.5 Full-scheme distance protection. quadrilateral for earth faults ZMMPDIS. Ph-E Max 4 with selectable direction - Minimum operate current (10–30)% of IBase - Positive sequence impedance. quadrilateral for earth faults (zone 2-5) ZMMAPDIS 21 S00346 V1 EN 254 Technical Manual .4.2% or ± 60 ms whichever is greater Operate time 22 ms typically IEC 60255-121 Reset ratio 105% typically - Reset time at 0.005–3000.5 to 1. Ph-E loop (0.2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN Fullscheme distance protection.5. quadrilateral for earth faults (zone 1) IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMMPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37. ZMMAPDIS 7.1-1. Ph-E loop (10–90) degrees Reverse reach.1 Identification Function description Fullscheme distance protection.7 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Technical data Table 108: ZMHPDIS technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Number of zones.00) Angle for earth compensation factor KN (-180–180) degrees Dynamic overreach <5% at 85 degrees measured with CVT’s and 0.1) x Ur Current range: (0.000-60.000) s ± 0.005–3000.5-30) x Ir Angle: 85 degrees Magnitude of earth return compensation factor KN (0.0% static accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0.5<SIR<30 - Definite time delay Ph-Ph and PhE operation (0.Section 7 Impedance protection 7. Ph-E loop (Magnitude) (0.5 x Zreach Min = 30 ms Max = 45 ms - 7.00–3.

vsd IEC09000947 V1 EN Figure 116: ZMMAPDIS function block 255 Technical Manual . such as parallel lines. which increases the possibility to detect high resistive faults on heavily loaded lines.5.vsd IEC06000454 V2 EN Figure 115: ZMMPDIS function block ZMMAPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKZ BLKTR STCND DIRCND TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 START STL1 STL2 STL3 STND IEC09000947-1-en. The distance protection zones can operate. together with different communication schemes. multi-terminal lines.faults on heavily loaded power lines. This makes them suitable.2 Functionality The distance protection is a .fault for each of the independent zones. up to five zone protection with three fault loops for phase-to-earth.5. The Full-scheme distance protection. The independent measurement of impedance for each fault loop together with a sensitive and reliable built in phase selection makes the function suitable in applications with single phase auto-reclosing. Individual settings for each zone resistive and reactive reach give flexibility for use on overhead lines and cables of different types and lengths.3 Function block ZMMPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKZ BLKTR STCND DIRCND TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 START STL1 STL2 STL3 STND IEC06000454-2-en. for the protection of power lines and cables in complex network configurations.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7. in directional (forward or reverse) or non-directional mode. 7. independent of each other. Built-in adaptive load compensation algorithm prevents overreaching of zone1 at load exporting end at phase to earth. quadrilateral for earth fault functions ZMMDPIS and ZMMAPDIS have functionality for load encroachment.

issued from any phase or loop STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2 STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3 STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start.4 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Signals Table 109: Name ZMMPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler) DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition Table 110: Name ZMMPDIS Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip. issued from any phase or loop TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1 TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2 TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3 START BOOLEAN General Start.Section 7 Impedance protection 7. issued from any phase or loop Table 111: Name ZMMAPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler) DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition 256 Technical Manual .5.

3000. issued from any phase or loop Settings ZMMPDIS Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OperationDir Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1 0. issued from any phase or loop STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2 STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3 STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start. resistance for zone characteristic angle X0 0.12 Unit - Step 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups 257 Technical Manual .001 0. resistance for zone characteristic angle RFPE 1.00 Ohm/p 0.01 15.50 .30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops IMinOpIN 5 .00 Zero seq.00 Positive sequence reactance reach R1 0.01 5.000 .9000.1000.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 112: ZMMAPDIS Output signals Name 7.000 s 0.5 Table 113: Name Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Zero sequence reactance reach R0 0.01 100.000 Time delay of trip. Ph-E IMinOpPE 10 .50 .01 30.10 .5.01 100. Ph-E OpModetPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.3000.9000. issued from any phase or loop TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1 TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2 TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3 START BOOLEAN General Start.30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate residual current for Phase-Earth loops Table 114: Name GlobalBaseSel ZMMPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 . Ph-E tPE 0.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/l 0.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.60.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Positive seq.50 .00 .

3000. resistance for zone characteristic angle X0 0.00 Ohm/p 0.5.00 Ohm/p 0.30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops Table 116: Name GlobalBaseSel ZMMAPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .00 Ohm/p 0.00 Positive sequence reactance reach R1 0.50 .00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.00 Zero sequence reactance reach R0 0.01 100.9000. Figure 117 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for the basic five.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-E tPE 0.000 Time delay of trip.10 .6 Operation principle 7.01 15.Section 7 Impedance protection Table 115: Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - ZMMAPDIS Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OperationDir Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1 0.001 0. Ph-E IMinOpPE 10 .60.50 .01 5.00 Zero seq.1000.1 Full scheme measurement 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups The different fault loops within the IED are operating in parallel in the same principle as a full scheme measurement. 258 Technical Manual .01 40. resistance for zone characteristic angle RFPE 1.50 .12 Unit - Step Default 1 7.000 .000 s 0. Ph-E OpModetPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer. impedance-measuring zones l.9000.00 Ohm/l 0.6.5.00 Positive seq.01 120.00 .3000.

Impedance characteristic The distance measuring zone include three impedance measuring loops.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - L1-N L2-N L3-N Zone 1 L1-N L2-N L3-N Zone 2 L1-N L2-N L3-N Zone 3 L1-N L2-N L3-N Zone 4 L1-N L2-N L3-N Zone 5 en07000080.6. The characteristic is illustrated with the full loop reach. 259 Technical Manual .2 The different measuring loops at line-earth fault and phase-phase fault. The distance measuring zone will essentially operate according to the nondirectional impedance characteristics presented in Figure 118.vsd IEC07000080 V1 EN Figure 117: 7.5. one fault loop for each phase.

ohm/loop domain. UL1 ILn R1 + j X1 Phase-to-earth fault in phase L1 Phase-to-earth element RFPE (Arc + tower resistance) 0 IN (R0-R1)/3 + j (X0-X1)/3 ) en06000412. The fault loop reach may also be presented as in Figure 119.vsd R1PE+Rn IEC08000280 V1 EN Figure 118: Characteristic for the phase-to-earth measuring loops.vsd IEC06000412 V1 EN Figure 119: Fault loop model 260 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X (Ohm/loop) R1PE+Rn RFPE RFPE X1PE+Xn jN RFPE Xn = X0PE-X1PE 3 Rn = R0PE-R1PE 3 jN R (Ohm/loop) RFPE X1PE+Xn RFPE RFPE en08000280-2-en.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The R1 and jX1 in Figure 119 represent the positive sequence impedance from the measuring point to the fault location.vsd IEC05000182 V1 EN Figure 120: 7. The result from respective set value is illustrated in Figure 120. in the sense that it is conform for forward and reverse direction. residual current 3I0. Therefore.3 Directional operating modes of the distance measuring zone Minimum operating current The operation of the distance measuring zone is blocked if the magnitude of input currents fall below certain threshold values. Forward. that is. Both current limits IMinOpPE and IMinOpIN are automatically reduced to 75% of regular set values if the zone is set to operate in reverse direction. that all phase-to-earth loops will be blocked when IN < IMinOpIN. The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn < IMinOpPE. all reach settings apply to both directions. 261 Technical Manual . X X R Non-directional X R Forward R Reverse en05000182. Off or Reverse direction through the setting OperationDir. IN is the RMS value of the vector sum of the three phase currents.5. ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln. OperationDir=Reverse. For zone 1 with load compensation feature the additional criterion applies. The RFPE is presented in order to “convey” the fault resistance reach. The zone may be set to operate in Non-directional. regardless of the phase currents. The impedance reach is symmetric. that is.6.

The calculation of the apparant impedances at phase-to-earth fault follow equation 66 The earth return compensation applies in a conventional manner. 262 Technical Manual . The apparent impedance is considered as an impedance loop with resistance R and reactance X. Here U and I represent the corresponding voltage and current phasors in the respective phase Ln (n = 1. Apparent impedances are calculated and compared with the set limits. This results in the same reach along the line for all types of faults. current. phase current and residual current present to the IED KN KN = is defined as: Z 0 .5. 2. 3).Z1 3 × Z1 EQUATION-2105 V2 EN Z 0 = R 0 + jX 0 EQUATION2106 V2 EN Z 1 = R1 + jX 1 EQUATION2107 V2 EN Where R0 is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach X0 is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach R1 is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach X1 is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach Here IN is a phasor of the residual current in IED point.Section 7 Impedance protection 7.6. IL1 and IN are the phase voltage.4 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Measuring principles Fault loop equations use the complex values of voltage. and changes in the current. Z app = U L1 I L1 + I N × KN (Equation 66) EQUATION1223 V2 EN Where: UL1.

current (I). For each of the six supervised fault loops. and changes in current between samples (DI) are brought from the input memory and fed to a recursive Fourier filter. or: X D Re ( I ) Re ( U ) = R × Re ( I ) + -----. conventional distance protection might overreach at exporting end and underreach at importing end. The equation for the Xm measured reactance can then be solved. When load is considered in the case of single phase-to-earth fault. The check sums are calculated and compared. Measuring elements receive current and voltage information from the A/D converter.× -----------------w0 Dt EQUATION354 V1 EN (Equation 68) X DIm ( I ) Im ( U ) = R × Im ( I ) + -----. These values are related to the loop impedance according to equation 67.× ----------------w0 Dt EQUATION355 V1 EN (Equation 69) with w0 = 2 × p × f 0 EQUATION356 V1 EN (Equation 70) where: Re designates the real component of current and voltage.× ----w 0 Dt EQUATION1224 V1 EN (Equation 67) in complex notation. The filter provides two orthogonal values for each input. The final result is equal to: 263 Technical Manual . X Di U = R × i + -----.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The formula given in equation 66 is only valid for no loaded radial feeder applications. and the information is distributed into memory locations. IED has an adaptive load compensation which increases the security in such applications. sampled values of voltage (U). Im designates the imaginary component of current and voltage and f0 designates the rated system frequency The algorithm calculates Rm measured resistance from the equation for the real value of the voltage and substitute it in the equation for the imaginary part.

This effectively removes any influence of errors introduced by the capacitive voltage transformers or by other factors. STRVL1N=1 adds 2. ZDMRDIR gives a binary coded signal on the output STDIRCND depending on the evaluation where STFWL1N=1 adds 1. U1L1 is positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1 U1L1M is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1 IL1 is phase current in phase L1 The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees respectively (see figure 121) and it should not be changed unless system studies have shown the necessity. This ensures unlimited directional sensitivity for faults close to the IED point.5 Directionality The evaluation of the directionality takes place in the Directional impedance element for mho characteristic ZDMRDIR function. 264 Technical Manual .ArgDir < arg 0.6.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Im ( U ) × DRe ( I ) – Re ( U ) × D Im ( I ) R m = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) × Im ( I ) – D Im ( I ) × Re ( I ) (Equation 71) EQUATION357 V1 EN Re ( U ) × Im ( I ) – Im ( U ) × Re ( I ) Xm = w 0 × Dt × ------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) × Im ( I ) – DIm ( I ) × Re ( I ) (Equation 72) EQUATION358 V1 EN The calculated Rm and Xm values are updated each sample and compared with the set zone reach. by default set to 115 degrees. The adaptive tripping counter counts the number of permissive tripping results.15 × U1L1M I L1 < ArgNeg Re s (Equation 73) EQUATION1617 V1 EN where: ArgDir is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic. . STFWL2N=1 adds 4 etc. see figure 121. The directional evaluations are performed simultaneously in both forward and reverse directions. Equation 73 is used to classify that the fault is in forward direction for line-to-earth fault. Positive sequence voltage and a phase locked positive sequence memory voltage are used as a reference. by default set to 15 (= -15 degrees) and ArgNegRes is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic. and in all six fault loops.85 × U1L1 + 0.5. 7.

based on the same positive sequence voltage.vsd IEC05000722 V1 EN Figure 121: Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by 180 degrees. the measuring element in the reverse direction remains in operation. the trip endures. For close-in three-phase faults.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X ArgNegRes ArgDir R en05000722. 265 Technical Manual . After 100 ms. • • • If the fault has caused tripping. the U1L1M memory voltage. If the fault was detected in the reverse direction. the following occurs: • If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current (between 10 and 30% of the set IED rated current IBase). ensures correct directional discrimination. So the directional element can use it for all unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults. If the current decreases below the minimum operating value. The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is restored. The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive-sequence voltage exceeds 5% of the set base voltage UBase. the condition seals in. the memory resets until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value.

Section 7 Impedance protection 7. and L3E). The zone measurement function filter out the relevant signals on the DIRCND input depending on the setting of the parameter OperationDir. It shall be configured to the DIRCND output on the Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) function. Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one logical signal for each separate measuring loop: • • Zone measuring condition. 266 Technical Manual . L2E.6. The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values from the phase selection function within the IED.5. The input signal DIRCND is used to give condition for directionality for the distance measuring zones. which are converted within the zone measuring function into corresponding boolean expressions for each condition separately. Group functional input signal (STCND).6 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Simplified logic diagrams Distance protection zones The design of distance protection zone 1 is presented for all measuring phase-toearth loops. The signal contains binary coded information for both forward and reverse direction. where n represents the corresponding phase number (L1E. which follows the operating equations described above. quadrilateral characteristic (FDPSPDIS) function output STCNDZ. It is connected to the Phase selection with load enchroachment. as presented in figure 122. Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by LnE.

vsd IEC06000408 V2 EN Figure 122: Conditioning by a group functional input signal STCND Composition of the phase starting signals for a case. 267 Technical Manual . STNDL1N AND 15 ms t STL1 AND 15 ms t STL2 AND 15 ms t STL3 AND 15 ms t START STNDL2N STNDL3N OR BLK en06000409.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - STCND L1N AND STNDL1N L2N AND STNDL2N L3N AND STNDL3N STNDPE OR OR BLKZ BLOCK AND OR STND BLK en06000408-2.vsd IEC06000409 V1 EN Figure 123: Composition of starting signals in non-directional operating mode Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits. is presented in figure 123. when the zone operates in directional (forward or reverse) mode. see figure 124. when the zone operates in a nondirectional mode.

vsd IEC07000081 V1 EN Figure 124: Composition of starting signals in directional operating mode Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented in figure 125. & AND AND & 15 ms t STL1 & 15 ms t STL2 & 15 ms t STL3 & 15 ms t START BLK OR en07000081.vsd IEC07000082 V1 EN Figure 125: Tripping logic for the distance protection zone one 268 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - STNDL1N DIRL1N AND OR STNDL2N DIRL2N STNDL3N DIRL3N STZMPE. Timer tPE=On STZMPE AND tPE t 15ms TRIP BLKTR AND STL1 AND TRL1 STL2 AND TRL2 STL3 AND TRL3 t en07000082.

00) W/phase Positive sequence resistance (0.5-30) x Ir Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees Dynamic overreach <5% at 85 degrees measured with CCVT’s and 0.00) Ω/phase Fault resistance.6 Directional impedance element for mho characteristic and additional distance protection directional function for earth faults ZDMRDIR.000) s ± 0.00) Ω/phase Zero sequence resistance (0.50-3000.1) x Ur Current range: (0.1-1.00) W/loop ± 2.5.00-9000.6.1 Identification Function description Directional impedance element for mho characteristic IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZDMRDIR ANSI/IEEE C37.50-3000.50-9000.0 degrees static angular accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0.7 Technical data Table 117: ZMMPDIS technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Number of zones Max 5 with selectable direction - Minimum operate current (10-30)% of IBase - Positive sequence reactance (0.1 to 2 x Zreach Min = 20 ms Max = 35 ms - 7.10-1000.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7.2% or ± 40 ms whichever is greater Operate time 25 ms typically IEC 60255-121 Reset ratio 105% typically - Reset time at 0.5<SIR<30 - Definite time delay Ph-Ph and PhE operation (0.2 device number - S00346 V1 EN 269 Technical Manual .0% static accuracy ± 2.000-60.00) Ω/phase Zero sequence reactance (0. Ph-E (1.2 device number 21D S00346 V1 EN Function description Additional distance protection directional function for earth faults IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZDARDIR ANSI/IEEE C37. ZDARDIR 7.

Section 7 Impedance protection 7.6.vsd IEC06000422 V2 EN Figure 126: ZDMRDIR function block ZDARDIR I3P* U3P* I3PPOL* DIRCND STFWPE STRVPE DIREFCND IEC06000425-2-en.2 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Functionality The phase-to-earth impedance elements can be supervised by a phase unselective directional function based on symmetrical components (option).vsd IEC06000425 V2 EN Figure 127: 7. 7.3 Function block ZDMRDIR I3P* U3P* DIR_CURR DIR_VOLT DIR_POL STFW STRV STDIRCND IEC06000422_2_en.4 ZDARDIR function block Signals Table 118: Name ZDMRDIR Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input Table 119: Name ZDMRDIR Output signals Type Description CURR GROUP SIGNAL Group signal for current signals to Mho function VOLT GROUP SIGNAL Group signal for voltage signals to Mho function POL GROUP SIGNAL Group signal for polarization voltage signals to Mho function STFW BOOLEAN Start in forward direction STRV BOOLEAN Start in reverse direction STDIRCND INTEGER Binary coded directional information per measuring loop 270 Technical Manual .6.6.

6.30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops IMinOpPP 5 .5 Default Type Description STFWPE BOOLEAN Forward start signal from phase-to-ground directional element STRVPE BOOLEAN Reverse start signal from phase-to-ground directional element DIREFCND INTEGER Start direction Binary coded Settings ZDMRDIR Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description DirEvalType Impedance Comparator Imp/Comp - - Comparator Directional evaluation mode Impedance / Comparator ArgNegRes 90 .12 Unit - Step 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups 271 Technical Manual .175 Deg 1 115 Angle of blinder in second quadrant for forward direction ArgDir 5 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 120: ZDARDIR Input signals Name Type GROUP SIGNAL - Current signals U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Voltage signals I3PPOL GROUP SIGNAL - Polarisation current signals DIRCND INTEGER 0 Binary coded directional signal ZDARDIR Output signals Name Table 122: Name Description I3P Table 121: 7.30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase-phase current for Phase-Phase loops Table 123: Name GlobalBaseSel ZDMRDIR Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .45 Deg 1 15 Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for forward direction IMinOpPE 5 .

100 %UB 1 4 Minimum polarizing voltage in % of UBase IPol> 5 .6.6 ZDARDIR Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .100 %IB 1 10 Minimum polarizing current in % of IBase Table 125: Name ZDARDIR Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description AngleOp 90 .180 Deg 1 160 Operation sector angle Kmag 0.Section 7 Impedance protection Table 124: Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - ZDARDIR Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description PolMode -3U0 -U2 IPol Dual -3U0Comp -U2comp - - -3U0 Polarization quantity for opt dir function for P-E faults AngleRCA -90 .200 %IB 1 5 Minimum operation current in % of IBase UPol> 4 .12 Unit - 1 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 127: Name ZDMRDIR Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description L1Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L1 L2Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L2 L3Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L3 L1R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L1 L1X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L1 L2R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L2 L2X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L2 L3R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L3 L3X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L3 272 Technical Manual .00 Ohm 0.90 Deg 1 75 Characteristic relay angle (= MTA or base angle) I> 5 .3000.01 40.00 Boost-factor in -U0comp and -U2comp polarization Step Default Table 126: Name GlobalBaseSel 7.50 .

ArgDir < arg 0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7. by default set to 115 degrees.7.15 × U1L1M I L1 < ArgNeg Re s (Equation 74) EQUATION1617 V1 EN .6.85 × U1L1 + 0. . Equation 74 and equation 75 are used to classify that the fault is in the forward direction for phase-to-earth fault and phaseto-phase fault respectively. mho characteristic (ZMHPDIS) the following settings for parameter DirEvalType is vital: 273 Technical Manual . by default set to 15 (= -15 degrees) ArgNegRes Setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic.ArgDir < arg 0.1 Directional impedance element for mho characteristic ZDMRDIR The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR).85 × U1L1L 2 + 0.15 × U1L1L 2 M I L1L 2 < ArgNeg Re s (Equation 75) EQUATION1619 V1 EN Where: ArgDir Setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic. see figure 128 for mho characteristics. meaning that the directional lines are based on mho-circles (of infinite radius). When Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) is used together with Fullscheme distance protection. The default setting value Impedance otherwise means that the directional lines are implemented based on an impedance calculation equivalent to the one used for the quadrilateral impedance characteristics.7 Operation principle 7.6. If one sets DirEvalType to Comparator (which is recommended when using the mho characteristic) then the directional lines are computed by means of a comparatortype calculation. U1L1 Positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1 U1L1M Positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1 IL1 Phase current in phase L1 U1L1L2 Voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) U1L1L2M Memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) IL1L2 Current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) The default settings for ArgDir and ArgNegRes are 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees respectively (see figure 128) and they should not be changed unless system studies show the necessity.

ensures correct directional discrimination. the following occurs: • If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current the condition seals in. the U1L1M memory voltage. After 100ms. based on the same positive sequence voltage. the value is 1. This altenative is intended for use together with Distance protection zone. The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive-sequence voltage exceeds 5% of the set base voltage UBase. For close-in three-phase faults. if start in L1N and L3N are detected. the value is 1+4=5. The memory voltage is used for 100ms or until the positive sequence voltage is restored.vsd IEC06000416 V1 EN Figure 128: Setting angles for discrimination of forward fault The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by 180 degrees. quadrilateral characteristic (ZMQPDIS) X Zset reach point ArgNegRes -ArgDir R -Zs en06000416. 274 Technical Manual . The code built up for release of the measuring fault loops is as follows: STDIRCND = L1N*1 + L2N*2 + L3N*4 + L1L2*8 + L2L3*16 + L3L1*32 Example: If only L1N start. thus the directional element can use it for all unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - • • • alternative Comparator is strongly recommended alternative Imp/Comp should generally not be used alternative Impedance should not be used.

STRVL3N. no directional indications will be given until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value. STRVL1L2. and may be viewed as service values: • • • • • • • • • 7.2 resistance phase L1 reactance phase L1 resistance phase L2 reactance phase L2 resistance phase L3 reactance phase L3 direction phase L1 direction phase L2 direction phase L3 Additional distance protection directional function for earth faults ZDARDIR A Mho element needs a polarizing voltage to operate. STFWL1L2. The benefits include: 275 Technical Manual . The positive-sequence memorypolarized elements are generally preferred. that is.7. If the current decreases below the minimum operate value. Values for the following parameters are calculated. that is. STRVL2L3 and STRVL3L1. the measuring element in the reverse direction remains in operation. If the fault was detected in the reverse direction.6. STFWL1N. the trip continues. The Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) function has the following output signals: The STDIRCND output provides an integer signal that depends on the evaluation and is derived from a binary coded signal as follows: bit 11 (2048) bit 10 (1024) bit 9 (512) bit 8 (256) bit 7 (128) bit 6 (64) STRVL3L1= 1 STRVL2L3= 1 STRVL1L2= 1 STRVL3N=1 STRVL2N=1 STRVL1N=1 bit 5 (32) bit 4 (16) bit 3 (8) bit 2 (4) bit 1 (2) bit 0 (1) STFWL3L1= 1 STFWL2L3= 1 STFWL1L2= 1 STFWL3N=1 STFWL2N=1 STFWL1N=1 The STFW output is a logical signal with value 1 or 0. STFWL2L3 and STFWL3L1. STRVL1N. It is made up as an ORfunction of all the forward starting conditions. The STRV output is similar to the STFW output.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - • • • If the fault has caused tripping. STFWL3N. STRVL2N. STFWL2N. the only difference being that it is made up as an ORfunction of all the reverse starting conditions.

Section 7 Impedance protection • • • 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The greatest amount of expansion for improved resistive coverage. A common polarizing reference for all six distance-measuring loops. Memory action for all fault types. These elements always expand back to the source. . directional elements using sequence components are very reliable for directional discrimination.3U 0 AngleOp AngleRCA 3I 0 en06000417. There are however some situations that can cause security problems like reverse phase to phase faults and double phase-to-earth faults during high load periods. 276 Technical Manual . additional directional element is used. To solve these. For phase-to-earth faults. Zero-sequence voltage polarization is utilizing the phase relation between the zerosequence voltage and the zero-sequence current at the location of the protection. during a pole-open period. The measurement principle is illustrated in figure 129. This is very important for close-in threephase faults. The directional element can be based on one of following types of polarization: • • • Zero-sequence voltage Negative-sequence voltage Zero-sequence current These additional directional criteria are evaluated in the Additional distance protection directional function for earth faults (ZDARDIR).vsd IEC06000417 V1 EN Figure 129: Principle for zero-sequence voltage polarized additional directional element Negative-sequence voltage polarization is utilizing the phase relation between the negative-sequence voltage and the negative-sequence current at the location of the protection. This is important for single-pole tripping.

voltage and current.vsd IEC06000418 V1 EN Figure 130: Principle for zero sequence compensation Note that the sequence based additional directional element cannot give per phase information about direction to fault. for that phase must indicate correct direction. These polarization quantities. L3N Additional directional element AND Release of distance measuring element L1N. The enable signals are per phase and to enable the measuring element in a specific phase.vsd IEC06000419 V1 EN Figure 131: Earth distance element directional supervision 277 Technical Manual . That means if polarizing voltage is greater than UPOL> setting.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Zero-sequence current polarization is utilizing the phase relation between the zerosequence current at the location of the protection and some reference zerosequence current. and if polarizing current is greater than IPol>. This is why it is an AND-function with the normal directional element that works on a per phase base. are stabilized against minimum polarizing voltage (UPOL>) and current (IPOL>). L2N. the current in the neutral of a power transformer. L2N. both the additional directional element and the normal directional element. I0 Z0 SA I0 Z0 SB Z0 Line Charac te ris tic ang le U0 U0 K*I0 U0 + K*I0 IF en06000418. L3N AND per phase en06000419. Normal directional element L1N. for example. The same also applies for the negativesequence function. The principle of zero-sequence voltage polarization with zero-sequence current compensation is described in figure 130. then only they are used for direction determination.

7.7.7.2 IEC 60617 identification ZSMGAPC - ANSI/IEEE C37. 7.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7. ZSMGAPC can mainly be decomposed in two different parts: 1.7 Mho impedance supervision logic ZSMGAPC 7. It also includes the functionality for loss of potential logic as well as for the pilot channel blocking scheme.7.3 A fault inception detection logic High SIR detection logic Function block ZSMGAPC I3P* BLKZMTD U3P* BLKCHST BLOCK CHSTOP REVSTART HSIR BLOCKCS CBOPEN IEC06000426-2-en.1 Identification Function description IEC 61850 identification Mho Impedance supervision logic 7.2 device number - Functionality The Mho impedance supervision logic (ZSMGAPC) includes features for fault inception detection and high SIR detection.4 ZSMGAPC function block Signals Table 128: Name ZSMGAPC Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Three phase current samples and DFT magnitude U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Three phase phase-neutral voltage samples and DFT magnitude BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of the function REVSTART BOOLEAN 0 Indication of reverse start BLOCKCS BOOLEAN 0 Blocks the blocking carrier signal to remote end CBOPEN BOOLEAN 0 Indicates that the breaker is open 278 Technical Manual . 2.vsd IEC06000426 V2 EN Figure 132: 7.

0 Line impedance IMinOp 10 .30 %IB 1 20 Minimum operating current for SIR measurement Table 131: Name ZSMGAPC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description DeltaI 0 .6 Operation principle 7.7.5 Table 130: Name Type Description BLKZMTD BOOLEAN Block signal for blocking of time domained mho BLKCHST BOOLEAN Blocking signal to remote end to block overreaching zone CHSTOP BOOLEAN Stops the blocking signal to remote end HSIR BOOLEAN Indication of source impedance ratio above set limit Settings ZSMGAPC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description PilotMode Off On - - Off Pilot mode Off/On Zreach 0.1 Fault inception detection Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups The aim for the fault inception detector is to detect quickly that a fault has occurred on the system.7.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 129: ZSMGAPC Output signals Name 7.1 .7. 279 Technical Manual .1 38.0 Ohm 0.3000.100 %UB 1 5 Voltage change level in % of UBase for fault inception detection Delta3U0 0 .100 %UB 1 5 Zero seq voltage change level in % of UBase SIRLevel 5 .6.12 Unit - Step 1 7.200 %IB 1 10 Current change level in % of IBase for fault inception detection Delta3I0 0 .15 - 1 10 Settable level for source impedance ratio Table 132: Name GlobalBaseSel ZSMGAPC Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .200 %IB 1 10 Zero seq current change level in % of IBase DeltaU 0 .

but not a fault inception. 2.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The fault inception detection detects instantaneous changes in any phase currents or zero sequence current in combination with a change in the corresponding phase voltage or zero sequence voltage. ZSMGAPC function has a built in loss of voltage detection based on the evaluation of the change in phase voltage or the change in zero sequence voltage (3U0). During fault inception a lot of transients are developed which in turn might cause the distance function to overreach. A reverse fault should not have been detected while the carrier send signal was not blocked. If loss of voltage is detected. the function issues a CHSTOP signal to unblock the remote end. the input signal CBCLOSE has to be activated A reverse fault should have been detected while the carrier send signal is not blocked. The setting PilotMode has to be set to On The breaker has to be closed. 2. that is. the distance protection function is blocked. It operates if the change in phase voltages exceeds the setting DeltaU or 3U0 exceeds the setting Delta3U0. that is. The function has to be in pilot mode. Those blocks are generated by activating the output BLKZ. the output signal FLTDET is activated indicating that a system fault has occurred. the setting PilotMode has to be set to On The carrier send signal should be blocked. 3. This is done by 280 Technical Manual . This is also the case if a fuse failure is detected by the external fuse failure function and activate the input FUSEFAIL. a block signal BLKCHST is issued and send to remote end in order to block the overreaching zones. which are connected to the input BLKZ on the distance Mho function block. 3. The Mho supervision logic (ZSMGAPC) increases the filtering during the most transient period of the fault. If the setting PilotMode is set to On in blocking scheme and the fault inception function has detected a system fault. input signal REVSTART is activated and input signal BLOCKCS is not activated Or A fault inception is detected If it is later detected that it was an internal fault that made the function issue the BLKCHST signal. Different criteria has to be fulfilled for sending the BLKCHST signal: 1. that is. If the change of any phase current and corresponding phase voltage or 3U0 and 3I0 exceeds the settings DeltaI and DeltaU respectively. that is. input signal BLOCKCS is On and. The criteria that have to be fulfilled for this are: 1. input signals REVSTART and BLOCKCS are not activated. that is. Delta3U0 and Delta3I0 and the input signal BLOCK is not activated.

1 Identification Function description Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification FMPSPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN 7.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - activating the output BLKZMD. The output signals from the phase selection function produce important information about faulty phase(s).8. increasing the risk for overreach of the distance function. which gives the possibility to enlarge the resistive setting of the measuring zones without interfering with the load.8 Faulty phase identification with load encroachment FMPSPDIS 7. The heavy load transfer that is common in many transmission networks may in some cases interfere with the distance protection zone reach and cause unwanted operation.2 Functionality The ability to accurately and reliably classify different types of fault so that single phase tripping and autoreclosing can be used plays an important roll in today's power systems. The SIR function calculates the SIR value as the source impedance divided by the setting Zreach and activates the output signal HSIR if the calculated value for any of the six basic shunt faults exceed the setting SIRLevel. which is connected to the input BLKZMTD on mho distance function block. 281 Technical Manual . The HSIR signal is intended to block the delta based mho impedance function. High SIR detection High SIR values increases the likelihood that CVT will introduce a prolonged and distorted transient. which can be used for fault analysis as well.8. The phase selection function is design to accurately select the proper fault loop(s) in the distance function dependent on the fault type. 7. Therefore the function has a built in algorithm for load encroachment.

3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block FMPSPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK ZSTART TR3PH 1POLEAR STL1 STL2 STL3 STPE STCNDPHS STCNDPLE STCNDLE START IEC06000429-2-en.vsd IEC06000429 V2 EN Figure 133: 7.4 FMPSPDIS function block Signals Table 133: Name FMPSPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function ZSTART BOOLEAN 0 Start from underimpdeance function TR3PH BOOLEAN 0 Three phase tripping initiated 1POLEAR BOOLEAN 0 Single pole autoreclosing in progress Table 134: Name FMPSPDIS Output signals Type Description STL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 STL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 STPE BOOLEAN Earth fault detected STCNDPHS INTEGER Binary coded starts from phase selection STCNDPLE INTEGER Binary coded starts from ph sel with load encroachment STCNDLE INTEGER Binary coded starts from load encroachment only START BOOLEAN Indicates that something has started 282 Technical Manual .8.8.Section 7 Impedance protection 7.

01 80.5 Table 135: Name Settings FMPSPDIS Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IMaxLoad 10 .6.100 %UB 1 5 Minimum operate negative sequence voltage for ph sel INRelPE 10 .100 %IB 1 10 Delta current level in % of IBase DeltaUMinOp 5 .00 .1 The phase selection function Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho (FMPSPDIS) function can be decomposed into six different parts: 1.100 %IB 1 20 3I0 limit for release ph-e measuring loops in % of max phase current INBlockPP 10 .8.00 Load encroachment resistive reach in ohm/phase ArgLd 5 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7.100 %IB 1 40 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loops in % of max phase current Table 137: Name GlobalBaseSel FMPSPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .00 Ohm/p 0.3000.70 Deg 1 20 Load encroachment inclination of load angular sector Table 136: Name FMPSPDIS Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description DeltaIMinOp 5 .100 %UB 1 80 Pos seq voltage limit for identification of 3ph fault I1LowLevel 5 .8. 3.12 Unit - Step 1 Default 1 7.100 %UB 1 20 Minimum operate positive sequence voltage for ph sel U2MinOp 1 .200 %IB 1 10 Pos seq current level for identification of 3-ph fault in % of IBase U1MinOp 5 .6 Operation principle 7.100 %UB 1 20 Delta voltage level in % of UBase U1Level 5 .5000 %IB 1 200 Maximum load for identification of three phase fault in % of IBase RLd 1. A high speed delta based current phase selector A high speed delta based voltage phase selector A symmetrical components based phase selector 283 Technical Manual .8. 2.

Under steady state load conditions or when no fault is present.ΔUL3)>DeltaUMinOp Max(ΔIL1. A slow evolving fault may not produce sufficient harmonics to detect the fault.ΔUL2. The condition for fault type classification for the voltages and currents can be expressed as: 284 Technical Manual .ΔIL2. which uses Power Line Carrier (PLC) communication system along the protected line. the output of the filter is zero or close to zero.Section 7 Impedance protection 4. The current and voltage delta based phase selector gives a real output signal if the following criterion is fulfilled (only phase L1 shown): Max(ΔUL1. The algorithm uses an adaptive relationship between phases to determine if a fault has occurred. When a fault occurs. Both voltages and currents are filtered out and evaluated. The aim of the delta based phase selector is to provide very fast and reliable phase selection for releasing of tripping from the high speed Mho measuring element and is essential to Directional Comparison Blocking scheme (DCB). 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Fault evaluation and selection logic A load encroachment logic A blinder logic The total function can be blocked by activating the input BLOCK. The delta voltages ΔULn and delta current ΔILn (n index for phase order) are the voltage and current between sample t and sample t-1. The filter output is processed by the delta function. The delta phase selector employs adaptive techniques to determine the fault type. currents and voltages change resulting in sudden changes in the currents and voltages resulting in non-fundamental waveforms being introduced on the line. The logic determines the fault type by summing up all phase values and dividing by the largest value.ΔIL3)>DeltaIMinOp where: ΔUL1. and determines the faulty phases. The current and voltage samples for each phase passes through a notch filter that filters out the fundamental components. ΔUL2 and ΔUL3 are the voltage change between sample t and sample t-1 DeltaUMinOp and DeltaIMinOp are the minimum harmonic level settings for the voltage and current filters to decide that a fault has occurred. Delta based current and voltages The delta based fault detection function uses adaptive technique and is based on patent US4409636. however. 5. in such a case speed is no longer the issue and the sequence components phase selector will operate. At this point the notch filter produces significant non-zero output. 6.

∆UL3) (Equation 76) EQUATION1621 V2 EN FaulType = ∑ ( ∆IL1. Each detection of either phase-to-earth or additional phases further reduce the initial time delay and allow the delta phase selector output to be faster. This way a premature single phase-to-earth fault detection is not released for a phase-tophase fault. Different phases of faults may be detected at slightly different times due to differences in the angles of incidence of fault on the wave shape. At this point the filter does not know if earth was involved or not. If phase-to-phase fault is detected. In order not to get too abrupt change. the logic determines the largest quantity. If another phase picks up during the time delay.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - FaulType = ∑ ( ∆UL1. When the DELTAREL signal has disappeared the delta logic is reset. The delta function is released if the input DELTAREL is activated at the same time as input DELTABLK is not activated. ∆IL3) (Equation 77) EQUATION1622 V2 EN The value of FaultType for different shunt faults are as follows: Under ideal conditions: (Patent pending) Single phase-to-earth. however. the fault is deemed as phase-to-earth. If. Activating the DELTABLK input blocks the delta function. ∆IL 2. Typically there are induced harmonics in the non-faulted lines that will affect the result. When a single phase-to-earth fault has been detected. the reset is decayed in pre-defined steps. the two largest phase quantities will be detected and asserted as outputs. FaultType=1 Phase-to-phase fault FaultType=2 Three-phase fault. ∆UL2. If the timer expires. This method allows for a significant tolerance in the evaluation of FaultType over its entire range. ∆IL2. Therefore the output is forced to wait a certain time by means of a timer. the wait time is reduced by a certain amount. and a fault is detected in one phase only. earth current is detected before the timer expires. and asserts that phase. ∆IL3) MAX ( ∆IL1. The faults detected by the delta based phase selector are coordinated in a separate block. ∆UL 2. 285 Technical Manual . the phaseto-earth fault is released sooner. 2 for phase-to-phase fault and 3 for three-phase fault. The release signal has an internal pulse timer of 100 ms. ∆UL3) MAX ( ∆UL1. There is no time delay if all three phases are faulty. FaultType=3 The output signal is 1 for single phase-to-earth fault.

It is a complement to the earth-fault signal built-in in the sequence based phase selector. It is a complement to the earth-fault signal built-in in the Symmetrical component based phase selector. |3I0|>maxIph × INRelPE where: |3I0| is the magnitude of the zero sequence current 3I0 maxIph is the maximum magnitude of the phase currents INRelPE is a setting parameter for the relation between the magnitude of 3I0 and the maximum phase current The earth-fault loop is also released if the evaluation of the zero sequence current by the main sequence function meets the following conditions: |3I0|>IBase × 0. The condition for releasing the phase-to-earth loop is as follows: The output from this detection is used to release the earth-fault loop.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Symmetrical component based phase selector The symmetrical component phase selector uses preprocessed calculated sequence voltages and currents as inputs. and secondly by the evaluation of the zero and negative sequence voltage. The output signal is used to release the earth-fault loop. All the symmetrical quantities mentioned further in this section are with reference to phase L1. It also uses sampled values of the phase currents. The complementary based zero-sequence current function evaluates the presence of earth fault by calculating the 3I0 and comparing the result with the setting parameter INRelPE.to-phase to earth fault D Logic for detection of three-phase fault Presence of earth-fault detection This detection of earth fault is performed in two levels.5 |3I0|>maxIph ×INRelPE where: maxIph is the maximal current magnitude found in any of the three phases INRelPE is the setting of 3I0 limit for release of phase-to-earth measuring loop in % of IBase IBase is the global setting of the base current (A) 286 Technical Manual . first by evaluation of the magnitude of zero sequence current. The function is made up of four main parts: A Detection of the presence of earth fault B A phase-to-phase logic block based on U1/U2 angle relationship C A phase-to-earth component based on patent US5390067 where the angle relationships between U2/I0 and U2/U1 is evaluated to determine earth fault or phase.

2/√(3) and 3I0<0. with evaluation of zero and negative sequence voltage.vsd IEC06000383 V2 EN Figure 134: Definition of fault sectors for phase-to-phase fault 287 Technical Manual . IEC06000383-2-en.1 × IBase or 3I0<maxIph × INRelPE where: 3U0 is the magnitude of the zero sequence voltage U2 is the magnitude of the negative sequence voltage at the relay measuring point k5 is design parameter ILmax is the maximal phase current IMinOp is the setting of minimum operate phase current in % of IBase Phase-to-phase fault detection The detection of phase-to-phase fault is performed by evaluation of the angle difference between the sequence voltages U2 and U1. The release of the earth-fault loops can then be achieved if all of the following conditions are fulfilled: |3U0|>|U2| × 0.2 |U1|> UBase × 0.5 |3U0|>|U1| × 0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - In systems where the source impedance for zero sequence is high the change of zero sequence current may not be significant and the above detection may fail. In those cases the detection enters the second level.

Angle relationship between U2 and I0 2. there will not be any release of the individual phase signals.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The phase-to-phase loop for the faulty phases will be determined if the angle between the sequence voltages U2 and U1 lies within the sector defined according to figure 134 and the following conditions are fulfilled: |U1|>U1MinOP |U2|>U2MinOp where: U1MinOP and U2MinOp are the setting parameters for positive sequence and negative sequence minimum operate voltages The positive sequence voltage U1L1 in figure 134 above is reference.vsd IEC06000384 V3 EN Figure 135: Condition 1: Definition of faulty phase sector as angle between U2 and I0 The angle is calculated in a directional function block and gives the angle in radians as input to the U2 and I0 function block. If there is a three-phase fault. Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase-to-earth-fault detection The detection of phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase-to-earth fault (US patent 5390067) is based on two conditions: 1. 80° L2-E sector L3-E sector U2L1 (Ref) 200° L1-E sector 320° IEC06000384_2_en. The input angle is released only if 288 Technical Manual . even if the general conditions for U2 and U1 are fulfilled. Angle relationship between U2 and U1 The condition 1 determines faulty phase at single phase-to-earth fault by evaluating the argument between U2 and I0.

If the angle is within the boundaries for a specific sector. see figure 136. Forward 200° 20° Reverse en06000385. 289 Technical Manual . Only one sector signal is allowed to be activated at the same time. This is done by the directional element. The sector function for condition 1 has an internal release signal which is active if the main sequence function has classified the angle between U0 and I0 as valid. The fault is classified as forward direction if the angle between U0 and I0 lies between 20 to 200 degrees.05 · IBase |3I0|>maxIph · INRelPE where: U2 and IN are the magnitude of the negative sequence voltage and zerosequence current (3I0) U2MinOp is the setting parameter for minimum operating negative sequence voltage maxIph is the maximum phase current INRelPE is the setting parameter for 3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth loop The angle difference is phase shifted by 180 degrees if the fault is in reverse direction. The following conditions must be fulfilled for activating the release signals: |U2|>U2MinOp |3I0|> 0. the phase indication for that sector will be active see figure 135.vsd IEC06000385 V1 EN Figure 136: Directional element used to release the measured angle between Uo and I0 The input radians are summarized with an offset angle and the result evaluated.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - the fault is in forward direction.

140° L3-E sector 20° L1-E sector U1L1 (Ref) L2-E sector 260° IEC06000413_2_en. the corresponding phase for that sector will be activated. however. The condition 2 is released if both the following conditions are fulfilled: |U2|>U2MinOp |U1|>U1MinOP where: |U1| and |U2| are the magnitude of the positive and negative sequence voltages. A phase shift is introduced so that the fault sectors will have the same angle boarders as for condition 1. Since this is a phase-to-phase voltage relationship. the fault is deemed as single phase-to-earth. If the sectors. do not match the fault is determined to be the complement of the second condition.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The condition 2 looks at the angle relationship between the negative sequence voltage U2 and the positive sequence voltage U1. there is no need for shifting phases if the fault is in reverse direction. a phase-to-phase-to. Condition 1 and Condition 2 ⇒ Fault type L3-E L3-E L3-E L2-E L1-E L2-L3-E The sequence phase selector is blocked when earth is not involved or if a threephase fault is detected.vsd IEC06000413 V2 EN Figure 137: Condition 2: U2 and U1 angle relationship If both conditions are true and there is sector match. If the calculated angle between U2 and U1 lies within one sector. that is. 290 Technical Manual . U1MinOP and U2MinOp are the setting parameters for positive sequence and negative sequence minimum operating voltages.earth fault.

The condition for not detecting phase-to-phase faults is determined by three conditions.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Three-phase fault detection Unless it has been categorized as a single or two-phase fault. Those are: 1: earth fault is detected or |3I0|> 0. the function classifies it as a three-phase fault if the following conditions are fulfilled: |U1|<U1Level and |I1|>I1LowLevel or |I1|>IMaxLoad where: |U1| and |I1| are the positive sequence voltage and current magnitude U1Level .1 · maxIph 3: |3I0|>maxIph · INBlockPP or |I2|<maxIph · I2ILmax 291 Technical Manual . The conditions for not detecting earth fault are the inverse of equation 5 to 10.1 · IBase and |I2|<0.05 · IBase and |3I0|>maxIph ·INRelPE 2: phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase faults are not fulfilled and maxIph<0. Each of them gives condition for not detecting phase-to-phase fault. I1LowLevel are the setting of limits for positive sequence voltage and current IMaxLoad is the setting of the maximum load current The output signal for detection of three-phase fault is only released if not earth fault and phase-to-phase fault in the main sequence function is detected.

STL1.vsd IEC06000386 V2 EN Figure 138: Simplified diagram for fault evaluation. As illustrated. STL2 and STL3 gets activated. IL2 and IL3 INRelPE is the setting parameter for 3I0 limit for release of phase-to-earth fault loops |I2| is the magnitude of the negative sequence current I2ILmax is the setting parameter for the relation between negative sequence current to the maximum phase current in percent of IBase INBlockPP is the setting parameter for 3I0 limit for blocking phase to phase measuring loops Fault evaluation and selection logic The phase selection logic has an evaluation procedure that can be simplified according to figure 138.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - where: maxIph is the maximum of the phase currents IL1. all four outputs START. The outline of the characteristic is presented in figure 139. If the internal signal 3 Phase fault is activated. a DeltaIL1 b DeltaUL1 Sequence based function L1L2 fault a OR b a>b then c=a else c=b c a<b then c=b else c=a c FaultPriority Adaptive release dependent on result from Delta logic OR L1N fault 3 Phase fault STL1 & IL1Valid BLOCK IEC06000386-2-en. phase L1 Load encroachment logic Each of the six measuring loops has its own load (encroachment) characteristic based on the corresponding loop impedance. Only phase L1 is shown in the figure. The load encroachment functionality is always activated in faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho (FMPSPDIS) function but the influence on the zone measurement can be switched On/Offin the respective impedance measuring function. the resistive reach in forward and reverse direction and the angle of the sector is the 292 Technical Manual .

STL2 and STL3. L2 or L3). This is done by the signal STCNDPHS. the corresponding phase-to-earth element is enabled. There are six individual measuring loops with the blinder functionality. STPE is expected to be made available for twophase and three-phase faults for the correct output to be selected. Blinder Blinder provides a mean to discriminate high load from a fault.vsd IEC06000414 V1 EN Figure 139: Influence on the characteristic by load encroachment logic Outputs The output of the sequence components based phase selector and the delta logic phase selector activates the output signals STL1. X jX Operation area Operation area RLd ArgLd ArgLd R R ArgLd ArgLd RLd Operation area No operation area No operation area en06000414. 293 Technical Manual . The phase selector also gives binary coded signals that are connected to the zone measuring element for opening the correct measuring loop(s).Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - same in all four quadrants. If only one phase is started (L1. The reach for the phase selector will be reduced by the load encroachment function. The fault loop is indicated by one of the decimal numbers below. as shown in figure 139. The operating characteristic is illustrated in figure 139. Three phase-to-earth loops which estimate the impedance according to Zn = Uph / Iph and three phase-to-phase loops according to Zph-ph = Uph-ph / Iph-ph The start operations from respective loop are binary coded into one word and provides an output signal STCNDPLE. If an earth fault is detected the signal STPE gets activated.

1–1. each fault type has an associated value. 0= no faulted phases 1= L1E 2= L2E 3= L3E 4= -L1L2E 5= -L2L3E 6= -L3L1E 7= -L1L2L3E 8= -L1L2 9= -L2L3 10= -L3L1 11= L1L2L3 An additional logic is applied to handle the cases when phase-to-earth outputs are to be asserted when the earth input G is not asserted. 7. which represents the corresponding zone measuring loop to be released. The signal must be connected to the input LDCND for selected mho impedance measuring zones .00) W/phase (5–70) degrees Accuracy ± 2.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The output STCNDPHS provides release information from the phase selection part only.00–3000. In these signals. STCNDPLE provides release information from the phase selection part and the load encroachment part combined. STCNDPLE is connected to the input STCND for selected quadrilateral impedance measuring zones to be blocked. The load encroachment at the measuring zone must be activated to release the blocking from the load encroachment function. The values are presented in table 137. The output signal STCNDPLE is activated when the load encroachment is operating.8.1) x Ur Current range: (0.0% static accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0. forward and reverse Range or value (1. STCNDLE provides release information from the load encroachment part only.7 Technical data Table 138: FMPSPDIS technical data Function Load encroachment criteria: Load resistance. that is. both parts have to issue a release at the same time (this signal is normally not used in the zone measuring element).5–30) x Ir Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees 294 Technical Manual .

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7. Mho alternative quadrilateral characteristic is available. separate settings ZMRPDIS. The distance protection zones can operate. separate settings (zone 1) IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMRPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37.1 Identification Function description Distance protection zone.9 Distance protection zone. 295 Technical Manual . quadrilateral characteristic. ZMRAPDIS and ZDRDIR 7. quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle FRPSPDIS has functionality for load encroachment.9. Individual settings for each zone in resistive and reactive reach gives flexibility for use as back-up protection for transformer connected to overhead lines and cables of different types and lengths.9. in directional (forward or reverse) or non-directional mode. independent of each other. quadrilateral characteristic.2 device number 21D Functionality The line distance protection is up to five zone full scheme protection with three fault loops for phase-to-phase faults and three fault loops for phase-to-earth fault for each of the independent zones. quadrilateral characteristic.2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN Distance protection zone.2 IEC 61850 identification ZDRDIR IEC 60617 identification Z<-> ANSI/IEEE C37. ZMRPDIS together with Phase selection. separate settings (zone 2-5) ZMRAPDIS 21 S00346 V1 EN Function description Directional impedance quadrilateral 7. which increases the possibility to detect high resistive faults on heavily loaded lines.

vsd IEC09000639 V1 EN 7.3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block ZMRPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKZ BLKTR STCND DIRCND TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 START STL1 STL2 STL3 STND IEC08000248-1-en.vsd IEC08000248 V1 EN Figure 140: ZMRPDIS function block ZMRAPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKZ BLKTR STCND DIRCND TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 START STL1 STL2 STL3 STND IEC08000290_1_en.4 Signals Table 139: Name ZMRPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler) DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition 296 Technical Manual .vsd IEC08000290 V1 EN Figure 141: ZMRAPDIS function block ZDRDIR I3P* U3P* STDIRCND IEC09000639-1-en.Section 7 Impedance protection 7.9.9.

issued from any phase or loop STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2 STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3 STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start. issued from any phase or loop 297 Technical Manual . issued from any phase or loop TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1 TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2 TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3 START BOOLEAN General Start. issued from any phase or loop STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2 STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3 STND BOOLEAN Non-directional start. issued from any phase or loop TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1 TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2 TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3 START BOOLEAN General Start. issued from any phase or loop Table 141: Name ZMRAPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKZ BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all output by fuse failure signal BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all trip outputs STCND INTEGER 0 External start condition (loop enabler) DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition Table 142: Name ZMRAPDIS Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 140: Name ZMRPDIS Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip.

00 Ohm/p 0. resistance for zone characteristic angle.1000.00 Ohm/p 0.000 Time delay of trip.60.3000.00 Positive seq.10 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 143: ZDRDIR Input signals Name Type GROUP SIGNAL - group connection for current abs 2 U3P GROUP SIGNAL - group connection for voltage abs 2 ZDRDIR Output signals Name Type STDIRCND Table 145: Name Description I3P Table 144: 7. Ph-E tPE 0.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.10 .3000. Ph-Ph X0PE 0.01 .00 Ohm/l 0.9.00 Positive sequence reactance reach Ph-E R1PE 0.000 s 0.000 Time delay of trip.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Positive seq.01 100.01 .01 5.000 s 0.00 Ohm/p 0.000 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach PhPh R1PP 0.1000. Ph-E RFPE 0.01 30. Ph-Ph tPP 0.9000.10 . Ph-E Table continues on next page 298 Technical Manual .01 30.001 0. Ph-E RFPP 0.01 .01 100. resistance for characteristic angle.00 Ohm/p 0.10 .00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.00 Ohm/l 0.5 Default Description INTEGER Binary coded directional information per measuring loop Settings ZMRPDIS Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OperationDir Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1PP 0.001 0.01 30. Ph-E R0PE 0. resistance for characteristic angle.00 Zero seq.000 .60.10 .01 5. Ph-E OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops OpModetPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.3000.9000. Ph-Ph X1PE 0.01 15. Ph-Ph OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops OpModetPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.3000.

01 30.000 s 0.00 Ohm/p 0.12 Unit - Step 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups ZMRAPDIS Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OperationDir Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Operation mode of directionality NonDir / Forw / Rev X1PP 0.60.000 Time delay of trip.3000.01 100. Ph-E R0PE 0.00 Ohm/p 0.9000.60.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops IMinOpIN 5 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach PhPh R1PP 0.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops 299 Technical Manual .00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop.10 .01 5.00 Ohm/l 0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IMinOpPP 10 .000 s 0. Ph-Ph X1PE 0.00 Ohm/p 0.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 .000 .1000. Ph-E RFPP 0.01 30.000 Time delay of trip.000 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach Ph-E R1PE 0.00 Ohm/p 0.01 30. Ph-Ph X0PE 0.00 Ohm/l 0.01 5.10 .3000. Ph-E OperationPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of PhasePhase loops OpModetPP Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.10 .001 0.001 0.00 Positive seq.01 100.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.1000 %IB 1 20 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 10 . Ph-Ph OperationPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth loops OpModetPE Off On - - On Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.9000.1000.01 15.01 .3000.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-E RFPE 0.00 Ohm/p 0. resistance for characteristic angle.1000 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate residual current for Phase-Earth loops Table 146: Name GlobalBaseSel Table 147: Name ZMRPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 . Ph-E IMinOpPP 10 .10 .01 .3000.00 Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop. Ph-E tPE 0. resistance for characteristic angle.00 Zero seq.10 . Ph-Ph tPP 0.00 Positive seq. resistance for zone characteristic angle.01 .

1 Full scheme measurement 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type. which means that each fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults for forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel.12 Unit - Step Default 1 7.12 Unit - Step Default 1 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups ZDRDIR Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IMinOpPP 5 .6 Operation principle 7.175 Deg 1 115 Angle of blinder in second quadrant for forward direction ArgDir 5 . 300 Technical Manual .9. Figure 62 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for up to five.45 Deg 1 15 Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for forward direction Table 150: Name GlobalBaseSel ZDRDIR Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .30 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops ArgNegRes 90 .30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase-phase current for Phase-Phase loops IMinOpPE 5 .6. There are 3 to 5 zones depending on product type and variant.9.Section 7 Impedance protection Table 148: Name GlobalBaseSel Table 149: Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - ZMRAPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 . impedance-measuring zones.

6. three intended for phase-to-earth faults. 301 Technical Manual .9.2 Impedance characteristic The distance measuring zone includes six impedance measuring loops. The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current depending on fault type. and three intended for phase-to-phase as well as.vsd IEC05000458 V2 EN Figure 142: The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-tophase fault. 7.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 1 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 2 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 3 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 4 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 5 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone RV IEC05000458-2-en. three-phase faults. The phaseto-earth characteristic is illustrated with the full loop reach while the phase-tophase characteristic presents the per phase reach. Each distance protection zone performs like one independent distance protection IED with six measuring elements. The distance measuring zone will essentially operate according to the nondirectional impedance characteristics presented in figure 63 and figure 64.

vsd R1PE+Rn IEC08000280 V1 EN Figure 143: Characteristic for phase-to-earth measuring . ohm/loop domain 302 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X (Ohm/loop) R1PE+Rn RFPE RFPE X1PE+Xn jN RFPE Xn = X0PE-X1PE 3 Rn = R0PE-R1PE 3 jN R (Ohm/loop) RFPE X1PE+Xn RFPE RFPE en08000280-2-en.

vsd IEC07000062 V2 EN Figure 144: Characteristic for phase-to-phase measuring The fault loop reach with respect to each fault type may also be presented as in figure 65. Note in particular the difference in definition regarding the (fault) resistive reach for phase-to-phase faults and three-phase faults.X 1RVPE XNRV =XX00PE PG. 303 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RFPP X (Ohm/phase) R1PP RFPP 2 2 X 0 PE .1RVPG X3 1XRVPE XNRV = XNRV = 33 X 0 PE --1X 11FWPE X 0 PE X 0 PG X XFWPE FWPG XNFW XNFW XNFW=== 3 33 X1PP j j R (Ohm/phase) RFPP RFPP 2 2 X1PP RFPP 2 R1PP RFPP 2 en07000062.

The zone can be set to operate in Non-directional. in the sense that it conforms for forward and reverse direction. The settings RFPE and RFPP are the eventual fault resistances in the faulty place.5·RFPP R1 + j X1 0. The result from respective set value is illustrated in figure 66.vsd IEC08000282 V2 EN Figure 145: Fault loop model The R1 and jX1 in figure 65 represents the positive sequence impedance from the measuring point to the fault location. The impedance reach is symmetric. 304 Technical Manual . The illustration merely reflects the loop measurement. Forward or Reverse direction through the setting OperationDir. there is of course fault current flowing also in the third phase during a three-phase fault. Regarding the illustration of three-phase fault in figure 65.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - UL1 IL1 R1 + j X1 Phase-to-earth fault in phase L1 Phase-to-earth element RFPE (Arc + tower resistance) 0 Phase-to-phase fault in phase L1-L2 UL1 IN (R0-R1)/3 + j (X0-X1)/3 ) IL1 R1 + j X1 Phase-to-phase element L1-L2 RFPP IL2 (Arc resistance) UL2 R1 + j X1 UL1 Three-phase fault IL1 R1 + j X1 0. all reach settings apply to both directions. which is made phase-to-phase. Therefore.5·RFPP Phase-to-phase element L1-L3 IL3 UL3 IEC08000282-2-en.

3 Directional operating modes of the distance measuring zones Minimum operating current The operation of Distance measuring zones.vsd IEC05000182 V1 EN Figure 146: 7. IN is the RMS value of the vector sum of the three-phase currents. For zone 1 with load compensation feature the additional criterion applies. ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln.6. IMinOpIN and IMinOpPP are automatically reduced to 75% of regular set values if the zone is set to operate in reverse direction. that is OperationDir=Reverse 7. quadrilateral characteristic (ZMRPDIS) is blocked if the magnitude of input currents fall below certain threshold values. current. All three current limits IMinOpPE. ILmLn is the RMS value of the vector difference between phase currents Lm and Ln. The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn < IMinOpPE. Apparent impedances are calculated and compared with the set limits. that is residual current 3I0. The 305 Technical Manual .9. that all phase-to-earth loops can be blocked when IN < IMinOpIN.9.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X X R Non-directional X R Forward R Reverse en05000182. The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if ILmLn< IMinOpPP. regardless of the phase currents. and changes in the current.6.4 Measuring principles Fault loop equations use the complex values of voltage.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - apparent impedances at phase-to-phase faults follow equation 31 (example for a phase L1 to phase L2 fault).Z1 3 × Z1 EQUATION-2105 V2 EN Z 0 = R 0 + jX 0 EQUATION2106 V2 EN Z 1 = R1 + jX 1 EQUATION2107 V2 EN Where R0 is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach X0 is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach R1 is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach X1 is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach 306 Technical Manual . 3) The earth return compensation applies in a conventional manner to phase-to-earth faults (example for a phase L1 to earth fault) according to equation 32. phase current and residual current present to the IED U L1 I L1 IN KN is defined as: KN = Z 0 . 2. Z app = U L1 I L1 + I N × KN (Equation 79) EQUATION1223 V2 EN Where: are the phase voltage. UL1 – UL2 Zapp = ------------------------I L1 – IL2 (Equation 78) EQUATION1222 V1 EN Here U and I represent the corresponding voltage and current phasors in the respective phase Ln (n = 1.

× -----------------w0 Dt EQUATION354 V1 EN (Equation 81) X DIm ( I ) Im ( U ) = R × Im ( I ) + -----. The apparent impedance is considered as an impedance loop with resistance R and reactance X. conventional distance protection might overreach at exporting end and underreach at importing end. The formula given in equation 32 is only valid for radial feeder application without load. This results in the same reach along the line for all types of faults.× ----------------w0 Dt EQUATION355 V1 EN (Equation 82) with w0 = 2 × p × f 0 EQUATION356 V1 EN (Equation 83) where: Re designates the real component of current and voltage. The IED has an adaptive load compensation which increases the security in such applications. current (I). and the information is distributed into memory locations. X Di U = R × i + -----. The check sums are calculated and compared. and changes in current between samples (DI) are brought from the input memory and fed to a recursive Fourier filter.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Here IN is a phasor of the residual current in IED point. When load is considered in the case of single phase-to-earth fault. These values are related to the loop impedance according to equation 33. sampled values of voltage (U). The filter provides two orthogonal values for each input. Measuring elements receive current and voltage information from the A/D converter. For each of the six supervised fault loops. or: X D Re ( I ) Re ( U ) = R × Re ( I ) + -----.× ----w 0 Dt EQUATION1224 V1 EN (Equation 80) in complex notation. Im designates the imaginary component of current and voltage and f0 designates the rated system frequency 307 Technical Manual .

The equation for the Xm measured reactance can then be solved. This ensures unlimited directional sensitivity for faults close to the IED point.5 Directional impedance element for quadrilateral characteristics The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance quadrilateral function ZDRDIR. Positive sequence voltage and a phase locked positive sequence memory voltage are used as a reference. The final result is equal to: Im ( U ) × DRe ( I ) – Re ( U ) × D Im ( I ) R m = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) × Im ( I ) – D Im ( I ) × Re ( I ) (Equation 84) EQUATION357 V1 EN Re ( U ) × Im ( I ) – Im ( U ) × Re ( I ) Xm = w 0 × Dt × ------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) × Im ( I ) – DIm ( I ) × Re ( I ) (Equation 85) EQUATION358 V1 EN The calculated Rm and Xm values are updated each sample and compared with the set zone reach.ArgDir < arg 0. The adaptive tripping counter counts the number of permissive tripping results. . 308 Technical Manual . This effectively removes any influence of errors introduced by the capacitive voltage transformers or by other factors. The directional evaluations are performed simultaneously in both forward and reverse directions.9. Equation 39 and equation 40 are used to classify that the fault is in forward direction for phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-phase fault. and in all six fault loops. the equation in forward direction is according to.8 × U 1L1 + 0. 7.2 × U 1L1 M I L1 < ArgNeg Re s (Equation 86) EQUATION725 V2 EN For the L1-L2 element.6.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The algorithm calculates Rm measured resistance from the equation for the real value of the voltage and substitutes it in the equation for the imaginary part.

U 1L1 U 1L1M I L1 U 1L1L 2 U 1L1L 2 M I L1L 2 is positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1 is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1 is phase current in phase L1 is voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) is memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) is current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1) The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees respectively (as shown in figure 67).8 × U 1L1 L 2 + 0.ArgDir < arg 0. by default set to 15 (= -15 degrees) and ArgNegRes is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic. by default set to 115 degrees. see figure 67.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - .2 × U 1L1 L 2 M I L1 L 2 < ArgNeg Re s (Equation 87) EQUATION726 V2 EN where: ArgDir is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic. ZDRDIR gives binary coded directional information per measuring loop on the output STDIRCND. It should not be changed unless system studies have shown the necessity. STDIR= STFWL1*1+STFWL2*2+STFWL3*4+STFWL1L2*8+ +STFWL2L3*16+STFWL3L1*32+STRVL1*64+STRVL2*128+ +STRVL3*256+STRVL1L2*512+STRVL2L3*1024+STRVL3L1*2048 309 Technical Manual .

The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive sequence voltage exceeds 5% of the set base voltage UBase. • • • If the fault has caused tripping. the memory resets until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value. If the current decreases below the minimum operating value.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X ArgNegRes ArgDir R en05000722. the trip endures. After 100 ms the following occurs: • If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current (between 10 and 30% of the set IED rated current IBase). So the directional element can use it for all unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults. the condition seals in. If the fault was detected in the reverse direction. the U1L1M memory voltage.vsd IEC05000722 V1 EN Figure 147: Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault in Directional impedance quadrilateral function ZDRDIR The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by 180 degrees. based on the same positive sequence voltage. ensures correct directional discrimination. 310 Technical Manual . the measuring element in the reverse direction remains in operation. The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is restored. For close-in three-phase faults.

The signal contains binary coded information for both forward and reverse direction.9.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7.6 Simplified logic diagrams Distance protection zones The design of the distance protection zones are presented for all measuring loops: phase-to-earth as well as phase-to-phase.6. Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by L1N. The phase-tophase signals are designated by L1L2. and L3L1. quadrilateral characteristic function FRPSPDIS within the IED. which follows the operating equations described above. Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one logical signal for each separate measuring loop: • • Zone measuring condition. The zone measurement function filter out the relevant signals depending on the setting of the parameter OperationDir. 311 Technical Manual . Input signal STCND is connected to FRPSPDISfunction output STCNDZ. L2N and L3N. It must be configured to the STDIRCND output on directional function ZDRDIR function. The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values from Phase selection with load encroachment. Group functional input signal (STCND). as presented in figure 68. L2L3. which are converted within the zone measuring function into corresponding boolean expressions for each condition separately. The input signal DIRCND is used to give condition for directionality for the distance measuring zones..

vsd IEC99000557-TIFF V3 EN Figure 148: Conditioning by a group functional input signal STCND. when the zone operates in a nondirectional mode. STNDL1N OR STNDL2N STNDL3N STNDL1L2 OR AND 15 ms t STL1 AND 15 ms t STL2 AND 15 ms t STL3 AND 15 ms t START STNDL2L3 STNDL3L1 OR OR BLK IEC09000889-1-en. external start condition Composition of the phase start signals for a case.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - STZMPP OR STCND STNDL1L2 L1L2 AND L2L3 AND L3L1 AND STNDL3L1 L1N AND STNDL1N L2N AND STNDL2N L3N AND STNDL2L3 STNDL3N STPE OR OR VTSZ BLOCK AND OR STND BLK BLOCFUNC 99000557-2.vsd IEC09000889 V1 EN Figure 149: Composition of starting signals in non-directional operating mode 312 Technical Manual . is presented in figure 69.

as shown in figure 70.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits. STNDL1N DIRL1N AND STZMPE. when the zone operates in directional (forward or reverse) mode. 313 Technical Manual .vsd IEC09000888 V2 EN Figure 150: Composition of start signals in directional operating mode Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented in figure 71. OR STNDL2N DIRL2N AND STNDL3N OR DIRL3N AND STNDL1L2 DIRL1L2 AND OR AND 15 ms t STL1 AND 15 ms t STL2 AND 15 ms t STL3 STNDL2L3 DIRL2L3 AND OR STNDL3L1 DIRL3L1 AND STZMPP OR BLK OR AND 15 ms t START IEC09000888-2-en.

00) Ω/loop Dynamic overreach <5% at 85 degrees measured with CVT’s and 0.10-3000.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Timer tPP=On STZMPP tPP t AND BLKFUNC OR Timer tPE=On STZMPE AND OR tPE t AND AND 15ms AND BLKTR BLK t TRIP OR STL1 AND TRL1 STL2 AND TRL2 STL3 AND TRL3 IEC09000887-2-en.7 Tripping logic for the distance protection zone Technical data Table 151: ZMRPDIS.00) Ω/ phase Fault resistance.9. zone 1 (5-1000)% of IBase - Minimum operate current.10-3000.0 degrees static angular accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0.1-1.00) Ω/loop Fault resistance.0% static accuracy ± 2. phase-to-earth (0. phaseto-phase and phase-to-earth (10-1000)% of IBase - Positive sequence reactance (0.00) Ω/ phase Positive sequence resistance (0.10-9000.01-1000. phase-to-phase (0.5-30) x Ir Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees Zero sequence resistance (0.1) x Ur Current range: (0.10-9000. ZMRAPDIS technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Number of zones Max 5 with selectable direction - Minimum operate residual current.00) Ω/ phase Zero sequence reactance (0.01-3000.5<SIR<30 - Table continues on next page 314 Technical Manual .vsd IEC09000887 V2 EN Figure 151: 7.00) Ω/ phase ± 2.

quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification FRPSPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37. The measuring elements continuously measure three phase currents and the residual current and.2% or ± 40 ms whichever is greater Operate time 25 ms typically IEC 60255-121 Reset ratio 105% typically - Reset time at 0.000-60. 315 Technical Manual . so that single pole tripping and autoreclosing can be used plays an important role in today's power systems. compare them with the set values. quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle FRPSPDIS is designed to accurately select the proper fault loop in the distance function dependent on the fault type.000) s ± 0.10. Phase selection. The heavy load transfer that is common in many transmission networks may make fault resistance coverage difficult to achieve.2 Functionality The ability to accurately and reliably classify the different types of fault. quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle FRPSPDIS 7. A current-based phase selection is also included.10.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function Range or value Accuracy Definite time delay phase-phase and phase-earth operation (0. which gives the possibility to enlarge the resistive setting of both the phase selection and the measuring zones without interfering with the load. Therefore.1 Identification Function description Phase selection.2 device number 21 Z<phs SYMBOL-DD V1 EN 7. FRPSPDIS has a built-in algorithm for load encroachment.10 Phase selection.1 to 2 x Zreach Min = 20 ms Max = 35 ms - 7. The extensive output signals from the phase selection gives also important information about faulty phase(s) which can be used for fault analysis.

3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block FRPSPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK DIRCND TRIP START STFWL1 STFWL2 STFWL3 STFWPE STRVL1 STRVL2 STRVL3 STRVPE STNDL1 STNDL2 STNDL3 STNDPE STFW1PH STFW2PH STFW3PH STPE STPP STCNDZ STCNDLE IEC08000430-2-en.forward direction STFWL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 .forward direction STFWL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 .10.vsd IEC08000430 V2 EN Figure 152: 7.reverse direction STRVL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 .4 FRPSPDIS function block Signals Table 152: Name FRPSPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function DIRCND INTEGER 0 External directional condition Table 153: Name FRPSPDIS Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Trip output START BOOLEAN Start in any phase or loop STFWL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 .reverse direction STRVL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 .reverse direction STRVPE BOOLEAN Earth fault detected in reverse direction Table continues on next page 316 Technical Manual .forward direction STFWPE BOOLEAN Earth fault detected in forward direction STRVL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 .Section 7 Impedance protection 7.10.

01 40. Ph-Ph. forward RFRvPE 1.100 %IPh 1 20 3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth measuring loops RLdFw 1.00 Ohm/l 0. forward RFRvPP 0.1000. resistance for zone characteristic angle.50 .00 Ohm/l 0.01 30. reverse IMinOpPP 5 .01 100.3000. resistance for characteristic angle. Ph-Ph R1PE 0. Ph-E.50 Positive seq.00 .00 Ohm/p 0.00 .00 Ohm/p 0.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Ohm/p 0. phase-earth STFW1PH BOOLEAN Start in forward direction for single-phase fault STFW2PH BOOLEAN Start in forward direction for two.00 Fault resistance reach.70 Deg 1 30 Load angle determining the load impedance area X1 0.01 80.500 %IB 1 5 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops 317 Technical Manual .01 15.10. Ph-E.00 Reverse resistive reach within the load impedance area ArgLd 5 .00 Fault resistance reach.00 Ohm/p 0.10 .00 Forward resistive reach within the load impedance area RLdRv 1.50 .00 Zero sequence reactance reach R0PE 0.00 Ohm/l 0.50 .00 Fault resistance reach. Ph-Ph.01 1.00 Positive seq.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name 7.50 .00 Zero seq. reverse RFFwPE 1.9000.00 Ohm/p 0.00 .100 %IPh 1 40 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loops INReleasePE 10 .50 .9000. resistance for characteristic angle.01 100.00 Ohm/l 0.9000.1000.01 120. Ph-E RFFwPP 0.01 80.3000.3000.3000.01 30.5 Table 154: Name Type Description STNDL1 BOOLEAN Non directional start in L1 STNDL2 BOOLEAN Non directional start in L2 STNDL3 BOOLEAN Non directional start in L3 STNDPE BOOLEAN Non directional start.3000.00 Ohm/p 0.3000.00 .00 Ohm/p 0.10 .500 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops IMinOpPE 5 .01 5.phase fault STFW3PH BOOLEAN Start in forward direction for thre-phase fault STPE BOOLEAN Current conditions release of phase-earth measuring elements STPP BOOLEAN Current conditions release of phase-phase measuring elements STCNDZ INTEGER Start condition (Z< with LE and 3I0 E/F detection) STCNDLE INTEGER Start condition (only LE and 3I0 E/F detection) Settings FRPSPDIS Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description INBlockPP 10 . Ph-E X0 0.00 Positive sequence reactance reach R1PP 0.

001 3. The difference. that is. but FRPSPDIS uses information from the directional function ZDRDIR to discriminate whether the fault is in forward or reverse direction. Ph-Ph TimerPE Off On - - Off Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.000 Time delay to trip. but can be switched off by selecting a high setting. quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle (FRPSPDIS) includes six impedance measuring loops. will be determined by the minimum operating current limits.000 s 0. The characteristic is basically non-directional.000 Time delay to trip. Load encroachment characteristic is always active.10. and three intended for phase-to-phase as well as for three-phase faults.12 Unit - Step 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Operation principle The basic impedance algorithm for the operation of the phase selection measuring elements is the same as for the distance zone measuring function. Ph-Ph tPP 0. Ph-E tPE 0. The current start condition STCNDLE is based on the following criteria: • • • Residual current criteria No quadrilateral impedance characteristic.001 3. The impedance reach outside the load area is theoretically infinite.000 s 0. Phase selection. however.6 FRPSPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 . compared to the distance zone measuring function. three intended for phase-to-earth faults.Section 7 Impedance protection Table 155: Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - FRPSPDIS Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description TimerPP Off On - - Off Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer.000 . separation of faults with and without earth connection Regular quadrilateral impedance characteristic Load encroachment characteristics is always active but can be switched off by selecting a high setting.60.60. The practical reach. The start condition STCNDZ is essentially based on the following criteria: • • • Residual current criteria. is in the combination of the measuring quantities (currents and voltages) for different types of faults. 318 Technical Manual .000 . Ph-E Table 156: Name GlobalBaseSel 7.

that is. for more information. It shall be connected to the STDIR output on ZDRDIR. If the binary code is 3 then we have start in forward direction in phase L1 and L2 etc.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The STCNDLE output is non-directional. 319 Technical Manual . quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle (FRPSPDIS) The setting of the load encroachment function may influence the total operating characteristic. There are output from FRPSPDIS that indicate whether a start is in forward or reverse direction or non-directional. STRVL1 and STNDL1. X X R Non-directional (ND) X R R Forward (FW) Reverse (RV) en08000286.vsd IEC08000286 V1 EN Figure 153: Characteristics for non-directional. the ZMRPDIS block. The code built up for the directionality is as follows: STDIR= STFWL1*1+STFWL2*2+STFWL3*4+STFWL1L2*8+ +STFWL2L3*16+STFWL3L1*32+STRVL1*64+STRVL2*128+ +STRVL3*256+STRVL1L2*512+STRVL2L3*1024+STRVL3L1*2048 If the binary information is 1 then it will be considered that we have start in forward direction in phase L1. These directional indications are based on the sector boundaries of the directional function and the impedance setting of FRPSPDIS function. for example STFWL1. refer to section "Load encroachment". forward and reverse operation of Phase selection. The directionality is determined by the distance zones directional function ZDRDIR. The input DIRCND contains binary coded information about the directional coming from the directional function ZDRDIR. Their operating characteristics are illustrated in figure 73. This information is also transferred to the input DIRCND on the distance measuring zones.

1 Phase-to-earth fault For a phase-to-earth fault.X1 3 EQUATION1257 V1 EN (Equation 90) 320 Technical Manual . The characteristic has a settable angle for the resistive boundary in the first quadrant of 70°. the measured impedance by FRPSPDIS is according to equation 41.R1 RN = 3 EQUATION1256 V1 EN XN = (Equation 89) X 0 . in a similar way as DIRCND. ZPHSn = ULn ILn (Equation 88) EQUATION1255 V1 EN where: n corresponds to the particular phase (n=1. RN = R 0 PE . The resistance RN and reactance XN are the impedance in the earth-return path defined according to equation 44 and equation 45. Index PHS in images and equations reference settings for Phase selection. The code built up for release of the measuring fault loops is as follows: STCNDZ = L1N*1 + L2N*2 + L3N*4 + L1L2*8 + L2L3*16 + L3L1*32 7.R1PE 3 EQUATION-2125 V1 EN (Equation 89) R0 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The STCNDZ or STCNDLE output contains. in this case information about the condition for opening correct fault loop in the distance measuring element.10. quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle (FRPSPDIS). It shall be connected to the STCND input on the ZMRPDIS distance measuring zones block.6. binary coded information. 2 or 3) The characteristic for FRPSPDIS function at phase-to-earth fault is according to figure 74.

321 Technical Manual .× Iphmax 100 (Equation 92) EQUATION766 V1 EN where: IMinOpPE is the minimum operation current for forward zones INReleasePE is the setting for the minimum residual current needed to enable operation in the phaseto-earth fault loops (in %).vsd IEC09000633 V1 EN Figure 154: Characteristic of FRPSPDIS for phase to earth fault (directional lines are drawn as "line-dot-dot-line") Besides this. Iphmax is the maximum phase current in any of three phases. the 3I0 residual current must fulfil the conditions according to equation 44 and equation 45. 3 × I0 ³ 0.5 × IMinOpPE (Equation 91) EQUATION2108 V1 EN 3 × I0 ³ INReleasePE -----------------------------------.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X (ohm/loop) R1PE+RN RFRvPE RFFwPE X1+XN RFFwPE R (Ohm/loop) RFRvPE X1+XN RFFwPE RFRvPE R1PE+RN IEC09000633-1-en.

5·RFFwPP X1 0.5·RFFwPP R (ohm/phase) 0. 322 Technical Manual . the measured impedance by FRPSPDIS is according to equation 46.2 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Phase-to-phase fault For a phase-to-phase fault. The operation characteristic is shown in figure 75.5·RFRvPP R1PP X1 0.6.ULn -2 × ILn (Equation 93) EQUATION1258 V1 EN ULm is the leading phase voltage. Those are according to equation 47 or equation 48.10.5·RFRvPP 0.Section 7 Impedance protection 7. X (ohm/phase) 0. ULn the lagging phase voltage and ILn the phase current in the lagging phase n. there are current conditions that have to be fulfilled in order to release the phase-to-phase loop.5·RFFwPP IEC09000634-1-en.5·FRvPP R1PP 0. ZPHS = ULm .vsd IEC09000634 V1 EN Figure 155: The operation characteristic for FRPSPDIS at phase-to-phase fault (directional lines are drawn as "line-dot-dot-line") In the same way as the condition for phase-to-earth fault.

equation 47 and equation 48 are used to release the operation of the function.1547) in all directions. At the same time the characteristic is rotated 30 degrees.3 is maximal magnitude of the phase currents. 323 Technical Manual .6. counterclockwise. INBlockPP is 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loop and Iphmax 7.10. the reach is expanded by a factor 2/√3 (approximately 1. Three-phase faults The operation conditions for three-phase faults are the same as for phase-to-phase fault. that is equation 46. The characteristic is shown in figure 76. However.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 3I 0 < IMinOpPE (Equation 94) EQUATION2109 V1 EN 3I 0 < INBlockPP × Iph max 100 (Equation 95) EQUATION2110 V1 EN where: IMinOpPE is the minimum operation current for forward earth measuring loops.

the resistive blinders are set individually in forward and reverse direction while the angle of the sector is the same in all four quadrants. 324 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X (ohm/phase) 4 × X1PP 3 0. The outline of the characteristic is presented in figure 78.6. but can be switched off by selecting a high setting.vsd IEC09000635 V2 EN Figure 156: 7.5·RFFwPP·K3 X1·K3 30 deg RFwPP × 2 3 R (ohm/phase) 0.5·RFRvPP·K3 K3 = 2 / sqrt(3) 30 deg IEC09000635-1-en.10.4 The characteristic of FRPSPDIS for three-phase fault (set angle 70°) Load encroachment Each of the six measuring loops has its own load encroachment characteristic based on the corresponding loop impedance. As illustrated. The load encroachment functionality is always active.

vsd IEC09000042 V1 EN Figure 157: Characteristic of load encroachment function The influence of load encroachment function on the operation characteristic is dependent on the chosen operation mode of FRPSPDIS function. 325 Technical Manual . the operation characteristic will be as in figure 78. When output signal STCNDI is selected. the characteristic for FRPSPDIS (and also zone measurement depending on settings) will be reduced by the load encroachment characteristic.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X RLdFw ArgLd ArgLd ArgLd RLdRv R ArgLd IEC09000042-1-en. When output signal STCNDZ is selected. see figure 79. The reach will in this case be limit by the minimum operation current and the distance measuring zones.

the operating area of the zone together with the load encroachment is highlighted in black.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X X R STCNDZ R STCNDLE IEC10000099-1en. The figure shows a distance measuring zone operating in forward direction. Thus.vsd IEC10000099 V1 EN Figure 158: Difference in operating characteristic depending on operation mode when load encroachment is activated When FRPSPDIS is set to operate together with a distance measuring zone the resultant operate characteristic could look like in figure 79. 326 Technical Manual .

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X "Phase selection" "quadrilateral" zone Distance measuring zone Load encroachment characteristic R Directional line en05000673. Due to the 30-degree rotation.vsd IEC05000673 V1 EN Figure 159: Operating characteristic in forward direction when load encroachment is activated Figure 79 is valid for phase-to-earth. it will be more or less necessary to use the load encroachment characteristic in order to secure a margin to the load impedance. The blinder that is nominally located to quadrant four will at the same time tilt outwards and increase the resistive reach around the R-axis. the angle of the blinder in quadrant one is now 100 degrees instead of the original 70 degrees (if the angle setting is 70 degrees). or load. 327 Technical Manual . Notice in particular what happens with the resistive blinders of the "phase selection" "quadrilateral" zone. During a three-phase fault. when the quadrilateral phase-to-phase characteristic is subject to enlargement and rotation the operate area is transformed according to figure 80. Consequently.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X (W / phase) Phase selection ”Quadrilateral” zone Distance measuring zone R (W / phase) IEC09000049-1-en. At the same time the characteristic will "shrink" by 2/√3. it will rotate with the quadrilateral characteristic clockwise by 30 degrees when subject to a pure phase-to-phase fault. which is valid at load or three-phase fault. Since the load characteristic is based on the same measurement as the quadrilateral characteristic. ohm/phase domain The result from rotation of the load characteristic at a fault between two phases is presented in fig 81. 328 Technical Manual .vsd IEC09000049 V1 EN Figure 160: Operating characteristic for FRPSPDIS in forward direction for threephase fault. from the full RLdFw and RLdRv reach.

10. 7. quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle (FRPSPDIS) is blocked if the magnitude of input currents falls below certain threshold values.vsd IEC08000437 V1 EN Figure 161: Rotation of load characteristic for a fault between two phases There is a gain in selectivity by using the same measurement as for the quadrilateral characteristic since not all phase-to-phase loops will be fully affected by a fault between two phases. The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if (2·ILn<IMinOpPP). 329 Technical Manual . The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn<IMinOpPE. It should also provide better fault resistive coverage in quadrant one. where ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln. The relative loss of fault resistive coverage in quadrant four should not be a problem even for applications on series compensated lines.5 Minimum operate currents The operation of Phase selection.6.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X R IEC08000437.

vsd IEC09000149 V2 EN Figure 162: Phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth operating conditions (residual current criteria) A special attention is paid to correct phase selection at evolving faults.5 ⋅ IMinOpPE & INReleasePE 3I 0 ≥ ⋅ Iphmax 100 15 ms t & OR INBlockPP 3I 0 < ⋅ Iphmax 100 & Bool to integer BLOCK 3I 0 < IMinOpPE STPE & 10 ms 20 ms t t & 15 ms t STCNDLE STPP IRELPP IEC09000149_2_en. Consider only the corresponding part of measuring and logic circuits. refer to figure 82. Internal signals ZMLnN and ZMLmLn (m and n change between one and three according to the phase number) represent the fulfilled operating criteria for each separate loop measuring element. LDEblock IRELPE 3I 0 ≥ 0. 330 Technical Manual .6. This signal can be configured to STCND functional input signals of the distance protection zone and this way influence the operation of the phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth zone measuring elements and their phase related starting and tripping signals.10.6 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Simplified logic diagrams Figure 82 presents schematically the creation of the phase-to-phase and phase-toearth operating conditions.Section 7 Impedance protection 7. Figure 83 presents schematically the composition of non-directional phase selective signals STNDLn. A STCNDLE output signal is created as a combination of the load encroachment characteristic and current criteria. when only a phase-to-earth or phase-to-phase measurement is available within the IED. that is within the characteristic.

Figure 84 presents additionally a composition of a STCNDZ output signal. Designation FW (figure 85) represents the forward direction as well as the designation RV (figure 84) represents the reverse direction. Internal signals DFWLn and DFWLnLm present the corresponding directional signals for measuring loops with phases Ln and Lm. All directional signals are derived within the corresponding digital signal processor. 331 Technical Manual . This signal can be configured to STCND functional input signals of the distance protection zone and this way influence the operation of the phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth zone measuring elements and their phase related starting and tripping signals. The directional criteria appears as a condition for the correct phase selection in order to secure a high phase selectivity for simultaneous and evolving faults on lines within the complex network configurations.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - INDL1N INDL2N INDL3N OR 15 ms t STNDPE OR 15 ms t STNDL1 OR 15 ms t STNDL2 AND OR 15 ms t STNDL3 AND INDL1L2 IRELPE LDEblockL1N ZML1N LDEblockL2N ZML2N LDEblockL3N ZML3N LDEblockL1L2 ZML1L2 LDEblockL2L3 ZML2L3 LDEblockL3L1 ZML3L1 AND AND AND AND INDL2L3 INDL3L1 IRELPP OR 15 ms t STNDPP IEC00000545-3-en. which is created on the basis of impedance measuring conditions.vsd IEC00000545-TIFF V3 EN Figure 163: Composition on non-directional phase selection signals Composition of the directional (forward and reverse) phase selective signals is presented schematically in figure 84 and figure 85.

vsd IEC00000546-TIFF V2 EN Figure 164: Composition of phase selection signals for reverse direction 332 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - INDL1N DRVL1N AND INDL1L2 DRVL1L2 AND OR 15 ms t STRVL1 OR 15 ms t STRVPE OR 15 ms t STRVL2 INDL3L1 DRVL3L1 AND INDL2N DRVL2N AND INDL1L2 AND INDL2L3 DRVL2L3 INDL1N INDL2N INDL3N INDL1L2 INDL2L3 INDL3L1 AND INDL3N DRVL3N AND INDL2L3 Bool to integer 15 ms AND OR INDL3L1 AND t 15 ms OR t STCNDZ STRVL3 STRVPP IEC00000546_2_en.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - AND INDL1N DFWL1N AND AND OR 15 ms t INDL1L2 DFWL1L2 AND OR INDL3L1 DFWL3L1 DFWL2N OR 15 ms t STFWL1 15 ms t STFWPE 15 ms t STFWL2 15 ms t STFW2PH AND AND INDL1L2 AND OR INDL2L3 DFWL2L3 STFW1PH AND AND INDL2N 15 ms t AND OR 15 ms t AND INDL3N DFWL3N AND AND INDL2L3 AND 15 ms t STFWL3 15 ms t STFW3PH 15 ms t STFWPP OR INDL3L1 AND AND OR IEC05000201_2_en. where internal signals STNDPP. 333 Technical Manual . STFWPE and STRVPE. but for the phase-to-phase loops. STFWPP and STRVPP are the equivalent to internal signals STNDPE.vsd IEC05000201 V2 EN Figure 165: Composition of phase selection signals for forward direction Figure86 presents the composition of output signals TRIP and START.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - TimerPP=Off tPP t AND OR TimerPE=Off tPE t AND AND OR TRIP AND STNDPP STFWPP OR STRVPP OR STNDPE STFWPE START OR STRVPE IEC08000441_2_en.vsd IEC08000441-1 V2 EN Figure 166: TRIP and START signal logic 334 Technical Manual .

zero sequence (0.1 Identification Function description High speed distance protection zone (zone 1) IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMFPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37. Ph-Ph faults.10–1000.1) x Ur Current range: (0.00) Ω/phase (5-70) degrees Reset ratio 105% typically - 7.50–3000.00) Ω/phase Reactive reach.11 High speed distance protection ZMFPDIS 7. forward and reverse (1.2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN 7.00) Ω/phase Resistive reach.00) Ω/phase ± 2. operate time for basic faults within 60% of the line length and up to around SIR 5. forward and reverse (0.7 Technical data Table 157: FRPSPDIS technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Minimum operate current (5-500)% of IBase ± 1.00) Ω/phase Resistive reach.50–9000.00–3000.11. positive sequence (0. 335 Technical Manual .0% static accuracy ± 2.50–3000.0 degrees static angular accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0. Ph-E faults.00–9000.00) Ω/loop Fault resistance. At the same time. These faults are handled with outmost security and dependability.50–3000. forward and reverse Safety load impedance angle (1.5-30) x Ir Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees Fault resistance. zero sequence (0.0% of I at I > Ir Reactive reach.11.00) Ω/loop Load encroachment criteria: Load resistance.10.2 Functionality The High speed distance protection (ZMFPDIS) is providing sub-cycle.1-1. like faults on long heavily loaded lines and faults generating heavily distorted signals. although sometimes with reduced operating speed. it is specifically designed for extra care during difficult conditions in high voltage transmission networks. positive sequence (0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7. down towards half-cycle.0% of Ir at I ≤ Ir ± 1.

such as parallel lines.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The ZMFPDIS function is a six zone full scheme protection with three fault loops for phase-to-phase faults and three fault loops for phase-to-earth faults for each of the independent zones. while one zone (ZRV) is designed to measure in the reverse direction. delta quantities).e. where these elements were represented with separate function-blocks. multi-terminal lines. A new built-in adaptive load compensation algorithm prevents overreaching of the distance zones in the load exporting end during phase-to-earth faults on heavily loaded power lines. which makes the function suitable in applications with singlephase autoreclosing. there is also a phase selection criterion operating in parallel which bases its operation only on voltage and current phasors. The operation of the phase-selection element is primarily based on current change criteria (i. Naturally. zone1 and zone2 is designed to measure in forward direction only. with significantly increased dependability. The ZMFPDIS function-block itself incorporates a phase-selection element and a directional element. 336 Technical Manual . and so on. together with a communication scheme. for protection of power lines and cables in complex network configurations. However. including close-in three-phase faults. It also reduces underreach in the importing end. This makes them suitable. contrary to previous designs in the 670-series. The directional element utilizes a set of well-established quantities to provide fast and correct directional decision during various power system operating conditions. simultaneous faults and faults with only zerosequence in-feed. The zones can operate independently of each other in directional (forward or reverse) or non-directional mode.

4 ZMFPDIS function block Signals Table 158: Name ZMFPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of entire function Table continues on next page 337 Technical Manual .11.11.3 Function block ZMFPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK VTSZ BLKZ1 BLKZ2 BLKZ3 BLKZ4 BLKZ5 BLKZRV BLKTRZ1 BLKTRZ2 BLKTRZ3 BLKTRZ4 BLKTRZ5 BLKTRZRV TRIPZ1 TRL1Z1 TRL2Z1 TRL3Z1 TRIPZ2 TRL1Z2 TRL2Z2 TRL3Z2 TRIPZ3 TRIPZ4 TRIPZ5 TRIPZRV STARTZ1 STNDZ1 STARTZ2 STL1Z2 STL2Z2 STL3Z2 STNDZ2 STARTZ3 STNDZ3 STARTZ4 STNDZ4 STARTZ5 STNDZ5 STARTZRV STL1ZRV STL2ZRV STL3ZRV STNDZRV STARTND STNDL1 STNDL2 STNDL3 STFWL1 STFWL2 STFWL3 STFWPE STRVL1 STRVL2 STRVL3 STRVPE STFW1PH STFW2PH STFW3PH STPE STPP IEC11000433-2-en.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7.vsd IEC11000433 V2 EN Figure 167: 7.

zone direction TRIPZRV BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone RV reverse dir.forward direction TRL2Z2 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L2 from zone 2 .forward direction TRL2Z1 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L2 from zone 1 .forward direction Table continues on next page 338 Technical Manual .forward direction TRL3Z2 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L3 from zone 2 .forward direction TRIPZ2 BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone 2 forward direction TRL1Z2 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L1 from zone 2 .zone direction TRIPZ5 BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone 5 . STARTZ1 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 1 forward direction STNDZ1 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 1 .any direction STARTZ2 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 2 forward direction STL1Z2 BOOLEAN Start in phase L1 from zone 2 .forward direction TRL3Z1 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L3 from zone 1 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Type Default Description VTSZ BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of entire function BLKZ1 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 1 BLKZ2 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 2 BLKZ3 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 3 BLKZ4 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 4 BLKZ5 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 5 BLKZRV BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of reverse zone BLKTRZ1 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 1 BLKTRZ2 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 2 BLKTRZ3 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 3 BLKTRZ4 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 4 BLKTRZ5 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 5 BLKTRZRV BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of reverse zone Table 159: Name ZMFPDIS Output signals Type Description TRIPZ1 BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone 1 forward direction TRL1Z1 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L1 from zone 1 .forward direction TRIPZ3 BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone 3 .zone direction TRIPZ4 BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone 4 .

reverse direction STL3ZRV BOOLEAN Start in phase L3 from zone RV .reverse direction STRVL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 .reverse direction STFW1PH BOOLEAN Single-phase fault detected .forward direction STFWL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 .forward direction STPE BOOLEAN Ph-E zone measurement enabled . STL1ZRV BOOLEAN Start in phase L1 from zone RV .forward direction STRVL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 .reverse direction STRVL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 .any direction STFWL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 .forward direction STFWPE BOOLEAN Fault with earth connection detected .forward direction STFWL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 .forward direction STNDZ2 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 2 .zone direction STNDZ3 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 3 .any direction STARTZRV BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone RV reverse dir.forward direction STFW2PH BOOLEAN Two-phase fault detected .any direction 339 Technical Manual .any direction STARTZ4 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 4 .any direction STNDL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 .reverse direction STRVPE BOOLEAN Fault with earth connection detected .forward direction STFW3PH BOOLEAN Three-phase fault detected .zone direction STNDZ4 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 4 .zone direction STNDZ5 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 5 .reverse direction STL2ZRV BOOLEAN Start in phase L2 from zone RV .any direction STNDL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 .any direction STPP BOOLEAN Ph-Ph zone measurement enabled .any direction STARTND BOOLEAN Fault detected in any phase or phases .any direction STNDL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 .any direction STARTZ5 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 5 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Type Description STL2Z2 BOOLEAN Start in phase L2 from zone 2 .forward direction STL3Z2 BOOLEAN Start in phase L3 from zone 2 .reverse direction STNDZRV BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone RV .any direction STARTZ3 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 3 .

01 .01 15.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.01 .00 Fault resistance reach.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 1 RFPEZ1 0.01 60.00 .Section 7 Impedance protection 7.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 2 X0Z2 0.00 Ohm/p 0.001 0.reverse XLd 0.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.000 s 0. zone 1 tPPZ1 0.00 Zero sequence resistive reach.00 Zero sequence resistive reach. Ph-E.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops.00 Ohm/p 0.01 100.00 .3000.01 120. Phase-Earth.00 Ohm/l 0. Ph-Ph.01 40.01 .00 .1000.9000.3000.00 Ohm/l 0.01 400.5000.9000. zone 1 R1PPZ1 0.00 Positive sequence resistive reach.60.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 1 tPEZ1 0. PhPh.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Resistance determining the load impedance area .00 Positive sequence reactance reach.9000.1000.00 Resistance determining the load impedance area .01 15.01 5.000 Time delay to trip.01 .01 5.01 100. zone 1 OpModeZ2 Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops. zone 2 X1Z2 0.00 Reactance determining the load impedance area ArgLd 5 .000 . zone 2 R1Z2 0.3000.000 . PhE.70 Deg 1 30 Angle determining the load impedance area CVTtype Any Passive type None (Magnetic) - - Passive type CVT selection determining filtering of the function OpModeZ1 Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops.00 Ohm/p 0.forward RLdRv 0. zone 1 RFPPZ1 0. zone 1 X1PEZ1 0.01 30.1000.001 0.01 .01 .00 Zero sequence reactance reach. Phase-Phase.60.01 .3000.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/p 0.01 30. zone 1 X1PPZ1 0.00 .00 Positive sequence resistive reach.01 60.000 Time delay to trip.11.00 .6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops. zone 1 X0Z1 0.5 Table 160: Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Settings ZMFPDIS Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Mode Off / On RLdFw 0.00 Positive sequence resistive reach. zone 1 IMinOpPEZ1 5 .01 30.5000.01 .10000.01 .00 Ohm/p 0.9000.00 Ohm/p 0.01 .000 s 0.00 Fault resistance reach. zone 2 R0Z2 0. zone 2 Table continues on next page 340 Technical Manual .01 5.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 1 R1PEZ1 0.00 Zero sequence reactance reach. zone 1 IMinOpPPZ1 5 . Ph-E. zone 1 R0Z1 0. PhPh.3000.

001 0. zone 3 RFPEZ3 0. Phase-Phase.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops.01 40. zone 4 IMinOpPPZ4 5 .9000. Ph-Ph.00 Fault resistance reach.000 . Phase-Earth.001 1.000 s 0.60.01 15.001 0.01 30.001 1.00 .01 .3000. zone 2 IMinOpPPZ2 5 .9000. Ph-E.00 Zero sequence resistive reach. zone 4 X0Z4 0.60. zone 4 R0Z4 0. Phase-Phase.9000.01 . zone 4 tPEZ4 0.00 Fault resistance reach.01 100. zone 4 RFPEZ4 0.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Ohm/p 0.60.000 s 0.01 5. zone 3 R1Z3 0. zone 3 R0Z3 0.3000.01 120.3000.00 Zero sequence resistive reach.000 s 0. Phase-Earth.00 Positive sequence reactance reach. zone 3 DirModeZ3 Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Direction of zone 3 (which will be the Fw direction of zone 3) X1Z3 0. zone 2 RFPEZ2 0.01 15.00 Positive sequence resistive reach. zone 2 IMinOpPEZ2 5 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach.800 Time delay to trip. zone 3 tPEZ3 0.00 Unit Ohm/l 0.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.3000.1000.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops.01 100.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 4 DirModeZ4 Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Direction of zone 4 (which will be the Fw direction of zone 4) X1Z4 0.000 s 0.60.00 Description Fault resistance reach.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 2 tPEZ2 0. zone 4 Table continues on next page 341 Technical Manual .00 Fault resistance reach.000 .01 .000 s 0.000 . Phase-Phase.000 .00 Ohm/p 0.9000. zone 2 OpModeZ3 Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops. zone 3 RFPPZ3 0.01 .01 120.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 3 IMinOpPPZ3 5 .000 .9000.00 .001 0.400 Time delay to trip.800 Time delay to trip.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Step Default RFPPZ2 Values (Range) 0.00 Ohm/l 0.01 .01 .01 . zone 3 tPPZ3 0.01 40.00 Ohm/p 0.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops.200 Time delay to trip. Ph-E.00 Positive sequence resistive reach.00 Ohm/l 0. zone 4 RFPPZ4 0.60.00 . Ph-Ph.00 Ohm/l 0.01 .01 .00 Zero sequence reactance reach. zone 3 OpModeZ4 Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops.01 30.00 Ohm/l 0.01 5.01 .01 100. Ph-E.200 Time delay to trip.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops. Phase-Earth.01 30.1000. zone 3 X0Z3 0.00 Ohm/l 0. zone 4 tPPZ4 0.9000.9000. zone 3 IMinOpPEZ3 5 .400 Time delay to trip.9000.000 s 0. Ph-Ph. zone 2 tPPZ2 0.00 Ohm/p 0.000 .60. zone 4 R1Z4 0.00 .001 0.

01 100.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 5 IMinOpPEZ5 5 .00 Ohm/l 0.01 5. zone RV R0ZRV 0.000 s 0.00 . Phase-Earth.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.3000. Ph-Ph.000 Time delay to trip.000 .600 Time delay to trip.01 40. zone 5 OpModeZRV Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops. Phase-Earth.000 s 0.01 .00 Ohm/p 0. zone RV 342 Technical Manual . zone RV X1ZRV 0.001 1.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops.00 Zero sequence reactance reach.9000.01 120. zone RV R1ZRV 0.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/p 0.000 .00 Fault resistance reach.00 Positive sequence reactance reach.60.01 .000 s 0. zone 5 RFPEZ5 0.01 .3000. zone 5 RFPPZ5 0. zone RV IMinOpPEZRV 5 .60.00 Zero sequence resistive reach.00 Positive sequence resistive reach.00 Ohm/l 0.00 .00 Positive sequence reactance reach. Phase-Phase. zone RV IMinOpPPZRV 5 .000 Time delay to trip. zone 5 DirModeZ5 Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Direction of zone 5 (which will be the Fw direction of zone 5) X1Z5 0.01 100. zone 5 tPPZ5 0.001 1. Phase-Phase.01 30.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops.3000.01 5.00 Ohm/p 0.001 0. Ph-E.01 .00 Ohm/p 0. zone 4 OpModeZ5 Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops.9000. zone 5 IMinOpPPZ5 5 .9000.1000.00 Ohm/l 0.9000.00 Fault resistance reach. zone RV tPPZRV 0.00 .001 0.01 120.00 Fault resistance reach.600 Time delay to trip. zone RV tPEZRV 0.01 40. zone RV X0ZRV 0.01 15. zone RV RFPPZRV 0.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops.00 Ohm/p 0.1000.000 .00 Ohm/p 0.60.01 .01 . zone 5 X0Z5 0. Ph-E.00 Zero sequence resistive reach.00 Ohm/l 0.Section 7 Impedance protection Name Values (Range) 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Unit Step Default Description IMinOpPEZ4 5 .60.01 30.000 .01 .01 15.9000.3000. zone 5 R0Z5 0. zone 5 tPEZ5 0.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops. Ph-Ph.9000.01 .00 Positive sequence resistive reach.00 Fault resistance reach.00 .6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops. zone 5 R1Z5 0. zone RV RFPEZRV 0.000 s 0.

zone 2 TimerLinksZ2 LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone 2 TimerModeZ3 Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output.400 %IPh 1 400 3I0 limit for releasing Phase-to-Earth measuring loops TimerModeZ1 Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output. zone 1 TimerLinksZ1 LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone 1 TimerModeZ2 Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output. of start source for all ZoneLinked trip delay timers INReleasePE 5 . zone 5 TimerLinksZ5 LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone 5 TimerModeZRV Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 161: Name ZMFPDIS Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description ZoneLinkStart Phase Selection 1st starting zone - - Phase Selection Select. zone RV TimerLinksZRV LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone RV 343 Technical Manual . zone 3 TimerLinksZ3 LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone 3 TimerModeZ4 Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output. zone 4 TimerLinksZ4 LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone 4 TimerModeZ5 Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output.

7. BLKZx instead of BLKZ3) when the description is equally valid for all zones.12 Step - 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 163: Name 7.11. 7.e.7 Unit ZMFPDIS Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description L1Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L1 L2Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L2 L3Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L3 L1L2Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in loop L1L2 L2L3Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in loop L2L3 L3L1Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in loop L3L1 L1R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L1 L1X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L1 L2R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L2 L2X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L2 L3R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L3 L3X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L3 Operation principle Settings.Section 7 Impedance protection Table 162: Name GlobalBaseSel 7. input and output names are sometimes mentioned in the following text without its zone suffix (i.6 1MRK 504 139-UEN - ZMFPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .1 Filtering Practically all voltage. current and impedance quantities used within the ZMFPDIS function are derived from fundamental frequency phasors filtered by a half cycle filter.11. 344 Technical Manual .11.

in fact. instead there will be a slightly variable underreach. So. L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 1 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 2 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 3 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 4 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 5 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone RV IEC05000458-2-en. 7. more diverse than can be distinguished by the algorithm itself in the course of a few milliseconds. which refers to the type of ferro-resonance suppression device that is employed. accuracy will be affected by even harmonics. on average in the same order as the magnitude ratio between the harmonic and fundamental component. There are basically two types of CVTs from the function point of view. So. At the same time these transients can be very diverse in nature from one type to the other. A half cycle filter will not be able to reject both even and odd harmonics.vsd IEC05000458 V2 EN Figure 168: The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-tophase fault Each distance protection zone performs like one independent distance protection function with six measuring elements.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The phasor filter is frequency adaptive in the sense that its coefficients are changed based on the estimated power system frequency. It is well-known that transients from CVTs may have a significant impact on the transient overreach of a distance protection.2 Distance measuring zones The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type. while odd harmonics will be completely attenuated. a setting (CVTtype) is introduced in order to inform the algorithm about the type of CVT applied and thus providing the advantage of knowing how performance should be optimized.7.11. even during the first turbulent milliseconds of the fault period. Figure 91 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for the six distance zones. which means that earth fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults for forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel. Even harmonics will not cause the distance zones to overreach however. the passive and the active type. The active type requires more rigorous filtering which will have a 345 Technical Manual .

It is not primarily the damping of transients that is important. simultaneous faults closer 346 Technical Manual . On the other hand. In this case. Only in some particularly difficult faults on heavily loaded lines the continuous criteria might not be sufficient. One such circular characteristic exists for every measuring loop and quadrilateral characteristic. It is worth mentioning here that the IEC 60044-5 transient classification is of little or no use in this connection. or when the zero sequence current is relatively high due to a source with low Z0/Z1 ratio. For avoiding overreach and at the same time achieving fast operate times. The continuous criteria will in the vast majority of cases operate in parallel and carry on the fault indication after the current change phase has ended. 7.3 Phase-selection element The operation of the phase-selection element is primarily based on current change criteria (i. in order to distinguish fault from load.e. comply with the same transient class. delta quantities). This implies that the circular characteristic will always have somewhat shorter reach than the quadrilateral zone. Naturally. However. The phase-selection element can. it is not restricted by a load encroachment characteristic during the current change phase. There are no specific reach settings for this circular zone. In fact. the indication will be restricted to a pulse lasting for one or two power system cycles. one each on the two circuits of a double line. or close to the reach limit. one passive and the other active type. i.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - negative impact on operate times. with significantly increased dependability. even if two CVTs. in these situations zone measurement will be released both for the related phase-to-earth loops and the phase-to-phase loop simultaneously. a supplementary circular characteristic that includes some alternative processing (retained from REL 531) is implemented. owing to the current change criteria. there is also a phase selection criterion operating in parallel which bases its operation only on voltage and current phasors.7. This is a substantial difference compared to the previous phase selection function in the 500. for example. This significantly improves performance for remote phase-to-earth faults on heavily loaded lines. how difficult it is to filter out the specific frequency.11. One exception however is three-phase faults. SIR 5 and above. So. distinguish faults with minimum influence from load and fault impedance. FDPSPDIS). In other words. for which the load encroachment characteristic always has to be applied. it is the frequency content of the transients that is decisive. this will be evident primarily at higher source impedance ratios (SIRs). the active type requires more extensive filtering in order to avoid transient overreach.and 670-series (that is. when the estimated fault impedance resides within the load area defined by the load encroachment characteristic. It uses the normal quadrilateral zone settings to determine a reach that will be appropriate. Measurement in two phase-to-earth loops at the same time is associated with so-called simultaneous faults: two earth faults at the same time.e. Phase-to-phase-earth faults (also called double earth faults) will practically always activate phase-to-phase zone measurements.

should it be desirable to use phase-to-earth (and only phase-to-earth) zone measurement for phase-to-phase-earth faults. This has been the standard method up to now in the 670-series (ZDRDIR).4 Directional element Several criteria are employed when making the directional decision. IL1L2 is the current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1). The basis is provided by comparing a sum of positive sequence voltage and memory voltage with phase currents. the measurement will be performed in the phaseto-earth loops only for a phase-to-phase-earth fault. a basic negative sequence directional evaluation is taken into account as a reliable reference during high load condition. For extra security. In cases where the fault current infeed is more or less completely of zero sequence nature (all phase currents in phase). instead of the phase current. are defined by the following equations.11. U1L1L2M is the memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1). the directional sectors that represent forward direction. the change in phase current is used. −15° < arg ( (1 − k ) ⋅U1 L1 + k ⋅ U 1L1M ) I L1 < 120° (Equation 96) EQUATION2546 V2 EN −15° < arg ( (1 − k ) ⋅U1 L1L 2 + k ⋅ U 1L1L 2 M ) I L1L 2 < 120° (Equation 97) EQUATION2547 V2 EN Where: U1L1 is the positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - to the remote bus will gradually take on the properties of a phase-to-phase-earth fault and the function will eventually use phase-to-phase zone measurements also here. Finally. especially in making a very fast decision. U1L1L2 is the voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1). U1L1M is the positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1. However. this method is complemented with an equivalent comparison where. zero sequence directional evaluation is used whenever there is more or less exclusive zero sequence in-feed. k is the factor determining the amount of memory voltage. one per measuring loop. Fundamentally. 347 Technical Manual . there is a setting INReleasePE that can be lowered from its excessive default value to the level above which phaseto-earth measurement should be activated. 7. IL1 is the phase current in phase L1.7. Moreover.

A built-in supervision feature within high-speed distance protection itself.11. 7.6 Power swings There is need for external blocking of the ZMFPDIS function during power swings. the binary input VTSZ is used for this purpose. The value of the k factor determining the amount of memory voltage used is normally 0.11.8.11. Namely. The phase-to-earth characteristic is given in ohms-per-loop domain while the phase-to-phase characteristic is given in ohms-per-phase domain. Typically. the intentional time delay will be introduced if no current magnitude change greater than 5% of IBase has been detected for any of the three phase currents. 7. based on phase current change.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The corresponding reverse directional sectors range from 165 to -60 degrees. 348 Technical Manual . if the ‘SeriesComp’ option is chosen (only available in ZMFCPDIS) the value is changed to 0. 7.7.5 Fuse failure The ZMFPDIS function has to be blocked by an additional function like the Fuse failure supervision (SDDRFUF) or an equivalent external device.7.7. will ensure that the SDDRFUF blocking signal is received in time.95.7 Measuring principles All ZMFPDIS zones operate according to the non-directional impedance characteristics presented in Figure 169 and Figure 170. However. either from the Power Swing Blocking function (ZMRPSB) or an external device.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - X (Ohm/loop) R1PE+Rn RFPE RFPE X1PE+Xn jN RFPE Xn = X0PE-X1PE 3 Rn = R0PE-R1PE 3 jN R (Ohm/loop) RFPE X1PE+Xn RFPE RFPE IEC11000415-1-en.vsd R1PE+Rn IEC11000415 V1 EN Figure 169: ZMFPDIS Characteristic for phase-to-earth measuring. ohm/loop domain 349 Technical Manual .

vsd IEC11000416 V1 EN Figure 170: ZMFPDIS Characteristic for phase-to-phase measuring The faulty loop in relation to the fault type can be presented as in Figure 171. 350 Technical Manual . Note in particular that the setting RFPP always represents the total fault resistance of the loop. regardless the fact that the fault resistance (arc) may be divided into parts like for three-phase or phase-to-phase faults. The main intension with this illustration is to make clear how the fault resistive reach should be interpreted and set. The R1 + jX1 represent the positive sequence impedance from the measuring point to the fault location.1RVPG X3 1XRVPE XNRV = XNRV = 33 PE 11FWPE XX 00 PE -X-1X X 0 PG XFWPE FWPG XNFW = XNFW XNFW== 3 3 3 X1PP j j R (Ohm/phase) RFPP RFPP 2 2 X1PP RFPP 2 R1PP RFPP 2 IEC11000416-1-en.X 1RVPE XNRV =XX00PE PG.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RFPP X (Ohm/phase) R1PP RFPP 2 2 X 0 PE .

11.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - UL1 IL1 R1 + j X1 Phase-to-earth fault in phase L1 Phase-to-earth element RFPE (Arc + tower resistance) 0 UL1 Phase-to-phase fault in phase L1-L2 IN (R0-R1)/3 + j (X0-X1)/3 ) IL1 R1 + j X1 Phase-to-phase element L1-L2 RFPP IL2 (Arc resistance) UL2 R1 + j X1 Three-phase fault or Phase-tophase-earth fault UL1 IL1 R1 + j X1 0.8 Fault loop model Load encroachment In some cases the measured load impedance might enter the set zone characteristic without any fault on the protected line. especially for phase-to-earth faults at 351 Technical Manual . that is. the ability to detect resistive faults. Such a solution has the drawback that it will reduce the sensitivity of the distance protection.5·RFPP R1 + j X1 0. The IED has a built in feature which shapes the characteristic according to the characteristic shown in Figure 172. The effect of load encroachment is illustrated to the left in Figure 172. The phenomenon is called load encroachment and it might occur when an external fault is cleared and high emergency load is transferred on the protected line. that is.7. to have a security margin between the distance zone characteristic and the minimum load impedance. The entrance of the load impedance inside the characteristic is of course not desirable and the way to handle this with conventional distance protection is to consider this with the resistive reach settings.5·RFPP Phase-to-phase element L1-L3 IL3 UL3 IEC11000419-2-en.vsd IEC11000419 V2 EN Figure 171: 7. The load encroachment algorithm will increase the possibility to detect high fault resistances.

See section "". For short lines.9 Load encroachment phenomena and shaped load encroachment characteristic Simplified logic schemes PHSL1.... FWL2. An FW signal is activated if the criteria for a forward fault or load is fulfilled for its particular loop.11. for a given setting of the load angle ArgLd.RVL3L1 are the internal binary signals from the Directional element. medium long lines. However. the resistive blinder for the zone measurement can be set according to Figure 172 affording higher fault resistance coverage without risk for unwanted operation due to load encroachment..vsd IEC09000248 V1 EN Figure 172: 7.. if current transformer saturation is detected. The internal input 'IN present' is activated if the residual current (3I0) exceeds 10% of the maximum phase current magnitude and at the same time is above 5% of IBase.. 352 Technical Manual .. RVL2. The use of the load encroachment feature is essential for long heavily loaded lines.7..FWL3L1 and RVL1. PHSL2.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - remote line end. the major concern is to get sufficient fault resistance coverage.. Separate resistive blinder setting is available in forward and reverse direction. The function can also preferably be used on heavy loaded.PHSL3L1 are internal binary logical signals from the Phaseselection element. For example. They correspond directly to the six loops of the distance zones and determine which loops should be released to operate. X X Z1 Z1 Load impedance area in forward R direction ArgLd ArgLd ArgLd R ArgLd RLdRv RLdFw IEC09000248_1_en. where there might be a conflict between the necessary emergency load transfer and necessary sensitivity of the distance protection. FWL1. The equivalent applies to the reverse (RV) signals. this criterion is changed to residual voltage (3U0) exceeding 5% of UBase/sqrt(3) instead. Load encroachment is not a major problem.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - FW(Ln & LmLn) DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z1 FW(Ln & LmLn) DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z2 RV(Ln & LmLn) DIR(Ln & LmLn)ZRV DirModeZ3-5 TRUE (1) FW(Ln & LmLn) RV(Ln & LmLn) Non-directional Forward Reverse DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z3-5 IEC12000137-2-en.vsd IEC12000137 V2 EN Figure 173: ZML1Zx PHSL1 DIRL1Zx ZML2Zx PHSL2 DIRL2Zx ZML3Zx PHSL3 DIRL3Zx ZML1L2Zx PHSL1L2 DIRL1L2Zx ZML2L3Zx PHSL2L3 DIRL2L3Zx ZML3L1Zx PHSL3L1 DIRL3L1Zx Connection of directional signals to Zones PEZx OR AND AND AND AND OR AND L1Zx AND OR AND L2Zx AND OR AND L3Zx AND AND AND OR OR PPZx NDZx IEC12000140-1-en.vsd IEC12000140 V1 EN Figure 174: Intermediate logic 353 Technical Manual .

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - TimerModeZx = Enable Ph-Ph.vsd IEC12000139 V2 EN Figure 175: Logic for linking of timers 354 Technical Manual . Ph-E PPZx AND PEZx AND BLOCK VTSZ BLKZx BLKTRZx OR tPPZx AND t AND AND t TZx OR tPEZx AND OR TimerLinksZx OR ZoneLinkStart STPHS OR Phase Selection 1st starting zone LNKZ1 LNKZ2 LNKZRV OR LNKZ3 LNKZ4 LNKZ5 OR LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links FALSE (0) AND LNKZx TimerLinksZx = LoopLink & ZoneLink IEC12000139-2-en.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 15 ms t TZx TRIPZx AND BLKTRZx BLOCK VTSZ BLKZx OR AND OR AND AND 15 ms t L1Zx 15 ms t L2Zx 15 ms t L3Zx PPZx PEZx OR 15 ms t 15 ms t NDZx AND AND AND AND AND TRL1Zx TRL2Zx TRL3Zx STL1Zx STL2Zx STL3Zx STARTZx STNDZx IEC12000138-1-en.vsd IEC12000138 V1 EN Figure 176: Start and trip outputs 355 Technical Manual .

vsd IEC12000133 V1 EN Figure 177: Additional start outputs 1 356 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 15 ms t OR STPE AND PHSL1 PHSL2 OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t PHSL3 PHSL1L2 PHSL2L3 PHSL3L1 OR BLOCK VTSZ 15 ms t AND AND AND STPP AND OR OR STARTND STPHS IEC12000133-1-en.

vsd IEC12000134 V1 EN Figure 178: Additional start outputs 2 PHSL1 RVL1 PHSL2 RVL2 PHSL3 RVL3 AND AND OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t AND PHSL1L2 RVL1L2 PHSL2L3 RVL2L3 PHSL3L1 RVL3L1 AND AND STRVL1 AND STRVL2 AND STRVL3 AND AND OR IN present BLOCK VTSZ AND STRVPE OR IEC12000141-1-en.vsd IEC12000141 V1 EN Figure 179: Additional start outputs 3 357 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - PHSL1 FWL1 PHSL2 FWL2 PHSL3 FWL3 AND AND OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t AND PHSL1L2 FWL1L2 PHSL2L3 FWL2L3 PHSL3L1 FWL3L1 AND AND STFWL1 AND STFWL2 AND STFWL3 AND AND OR IN present BLOCK VTSZ AND STFWPE STFW1PH =1 OR STFW2PH =2 STFW3PH =3 IEC12000134-1-en.

Ph-E and Ph-Ph (0.12.1) x Ur Current range: (0.Section 7 Impedance protection 7.00) ohm/p Zero sequence resistive reach (0.01 -9000. Ph-E and Ph-Ph operation (0.0 deg static angular accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0. operate time for basic faults within 60% of the line length and up to around SIR 5.00 . 3 fixed directions - Minimum operate current.5-30) x Ir Angle: At 0 deg and 85 deg 7. like faults on long heavily loaded 358 Technical Manual .00) ohm/ phase Zero sequence reactance reach (0. At the same time.00) ohm/l Dynamic overreach < 5% at 85 deg measured with CVTs and 0.1 to 2 x Zreach Min = 20 ms Max = 35 ms - Reset ratio 105% typically - ±2.1-1.1000.0% or ±35 ms whichever is greater Operate time 16 ms typically IEC 60255-121 Reset time at 0.8 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Technical data Table 164: ZMFPDIS.000-60.2 Functionality High speed distance protection (ZMFCPDIS) provides sub-cycle.0% of static accuracy ±2.1 Identification Function description High speed distance protection zone (zone 1-6) IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMFCPDIS ANSI/IEEE C37. Ph-E and Ph-Ph loop (0.01 . ZMFCPDIS technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Number of zones 3 selectable directions.00 .12.01 . it is specifically designed for extra care during difficult conditions in high voltage transmission networks.00) ohm/p Fault resistance reach.2 device number 21 S00346 V1 EN 7.3000.5 < SIR < 30 Definite time delay to trip.11.9000.000) s ±2.00) ohm/ phase Positive sequence resistance reach. down towards halfcycle.0% of Ir Positive sequence reactance reach. Ph-Ph and Ph-E (5-6000)% of IBase ±1.3000.12 High speed distance protection ZMFCPDIS 7. Ph-E and Ph-Ph loop (0.

359 Technical Manual . including close-in threephase faults. simultaneous faults and faults with only zero-sequence in-feed. This makes them suitable. together with a communication scheme. It also reduces underreach in the importing end. The zones can operate independently of each other in directional (forward or reverse) or non-directional mode. although sometimes with reduced operating speed. and so on. where these elements were represented with separate function blocks. with significant increased dependability. High speed distance protection ZMFCPDIS is fundamentally the same function as ZMFPDIS but provides more flexibility in zone settings to suit more complex applications. for protection of power lines and cables in complex network configurations. Naturally. A new built-in adaptive load compensation algorithm prevents overreaching of the distance zones in the load exporting end during phase-to-earth faults on heavily loaded power lines. such as parallel lines. These faults are handled with outmost security and dependability. which makes the function suitable in applications with singlephase autoreclosing. In operation for series compensated networks. there is also a part operating with continuous criteria that operates in parallel The directional element utilizes a set of well-established quantities to provide fast and correct directional evaluation during various conditions. The ZMFCPDIS function is a six-zone full scheme protection with three fault loops for phase-to-phase faults and three fault loops for phase-to-earth faults for each of the independent zones.1MRK 504 139-UEN - Section 7 Impedance protection lines and faults generating heavily distorted signals. contrary to previous designs in the 670–series. The operation of the phase-selection element is primarily based on current change criteria. The ZMFCPDIS function block incorporates a phase-selection element and a directional element. such as series compensated lines. the parameters of the directional function are altered to handle voltage reversal. multi-terminal lines.

12.4 ZMFCPDIS function block Signals Table 165: Name ZMFCPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of entire function VTSZ BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of entire function Table continues on next page 360 Technical Manual .vsd IEC11000422 V1 EN Figure 180: 7.12.Section 7 Impedance protection 7.3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block ZMFCPDIS I3P* TRIPZ1 U3P* TRL1Z1 BLOCK TRL2Z1 VTSZ TRL3Z1 BLKZ1 TRIPZ2 BLKZ2 TRL1Z2 BLKZ3 TRL2Z2 BLKZ4 TRL3Z2 BLKZ5 TRIPZ3 BLKZRV TRIPZ4 BLKTRZ1 TRIPZ5 BLKTRZ2 TRIPZRV BLKTRZ3 STARTZ1 BLKTRZ4 STNDZ1 BLKTRZ5 STARTZ2 BLKTRZRV STL1Z2 STL2Z2 STL3Z2 STNDZ2 STARTZ3 STNDZ3 STARTZ4 STNDZ4 STARTZ5 STNDZ5 STARTZRV STL1ZRV STL2ZRV STL3ZRV STNDZRV STARTND STFWL1 STFWL2 STFWL3 STFWPE STRVL1 STRVL2 STRVL3 STRVPE STFW1PH STFW2PH STFW3PH STPE STPP IEC11000422-1-en.

forward direction Table continues on next page 361 Technical Manual .zone direction TRIPZ5 BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone 5 . STARTZ1 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 1 forward direction STNDZ1 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 1 .forward direction TRIPZ3 BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone 3 .forward direction TRL3Z2 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L3 from zone 2 .forward direction TRL2Z1 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L2 from zone 1 .zone direction TRIPZ4 BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone 4 .any direction STARTZ2 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 2 forward direction STL1Z2 BOOLEAN Start in phase L1 from zone 2 .forward direction TRL3Z1 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L3 from zone 1 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Type Default Description BLKZ1 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 1 BLKZ2 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 2 BLKZ3 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 3 BLKZ4 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 4 BLKZ5 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 5 BLKZRV BOOLEAN 0 Resets all outputs and internal timers of reverse zone BLKTRZ1 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 1 BLKTRZ2 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 2 BLKTRZ3 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 3 BLKTRZ4 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 4 BLKTRZ5 BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 5 BLKTRZRV BOOLEAN 0 Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of reverse zone Table 166: Name ZMFCPDIS Output signals Type Description TRIPZ1 BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone 1 forward direction TRL1Z1 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L1 from zone 1 .zone direction TRIPZRV BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone RV reverse dir.forward direction TRIPZ2 BOOLEAN Trip in any phase or phases from zone 2 forward direction TRL1Z2 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L1 from zone 2 .forward direction STL2Z2 BOOLEAN Start in phase L2 from zone 2 .forward direction TRL2Z2 BOOLEAN Trip in phase L2 from zone 2 .

any direction STARTZRV BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone RV reverse dir.any direction STNDL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 .zone direction STNDZ5 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 5 .reverse direction STRVL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 .any direction STPP BOOLEAN Ph-Ph zone measurement enabled .reverse direction STRVL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 .reverse direction STNDZRV BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone RV .any direction STNDL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Type Description STL3Z2 BOOLEAN Start in phase L3 from zone 2 . STL1ZRV BOOLEAN Start in phase L1 from zone RV .forward direction STFWL2 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L2 .forward direction STNDZ2 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 2 .reverse direction STFW1PH BOOLEAN Single-phase fault detected .any direction STARTZ3 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 3 .any direction STARTZ5 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 5 .reverse direction STL2ZRV BOOLEAN Start in phase L2 from zone RV .reverse direction STL3ZRV BOOLEAN Start in phase L3 from zone RV .any direction STARTND BOOLEAN Fault detected in any phase or phases .reverse direction STRVPE BOOLEAN Fault with earth connection detected .forward direction STFWPE BOOLEAN Fault with earth connection detected .forward direction STFWL3 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L3 .forward direction STRVL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 .forward direction STFW2PH BOOLEAN Two-phase fault detected .any direction STFWL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 .zone direction STNDZ3 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 3 .any direction STNDL1 BOOLEAN Fault detected in phase L1 .any direction STARTZ4 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 4 .any direction 362 Technical Manual .forward direction STFW3PH BOOLEAN Three-phase fault detected .zone direction STNDZ4 BOOLEAN Start in any phase or phases from zone 4 .forward direction STPE BOOLEAN Ph-E zone measurement enabled .

000 .00 Ohm/l 0.00 Resistance determining the load impedance area .3000.01 100. zone 1 X1FwPPZ1 0. reach.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops. Ph-Ph.01 .60. Ph-E.00 Fault resistance reach. Phase-Earth.01 .01 . forw & rev dir.01 .01 . zone 1.00 .001 0.01 30.00 Positive seq. seq. Ph-E.01 30. zone 1.01 100. forward dir.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops.000 s 0. Ph-Ph.forward RLdRv 0.01 60. zone 1.01 30.01 15.00 Ohm/p 0.5 Table 167: Name Settings ZMFCPDIS Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Mode Off / On OperationSC NoSeriesComp SeriesComp - - NoSeriesComp Selection of series compensation operation Off / On RLdFw 0.01 . zone 1.10000.01 5.3000.12.00 Positive seq. Ph-E.9000.3000. forward dir.3000. X1RvPPZ1 0.00 Resistance determining the load impedance area .00 Ohm/p 0.000 Time delay to trip.00 Pos. forward dir.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-Ph. reach.00 Zero seq.00 Ohm/p 0. reverse direction X1FwPEZ1 0.00 .000 .9000.00 Reactance determining the load impedance area ArgLd 5 .5000.1000.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-E.01 400.01 .01 .60. zone 1. zone 1.1000.70 Deg 1 30 Angle determining the load impedance area CVTtype Any Passive type None (Magnetic) - - Passive type CVT selection determining the filtering of the function OpModeZ1 Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops. forward direction R0FwPEZ1 0.01 30. resistive reach. R1FwPPZ1 0. zone 1 tPEZ1 0.01 30.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-E.00 Ohm/p 0.000 Time delay to trip.00 Pos.01 60.000 s 0. X1RvPEZ1 0.01 .00 Fault resistance reach. forward dir.5000. reverse direction tPPZ1 0.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-E. Phase-Phase.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/l 0.01 5.3000.9000. react. R1FwPEZ1 0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7. reactance reach. zone 1. seq. forward direction RFPEZ1 0. zone 1. zone 1. RFPPZ1 0. zone 1 IMinOpPPZ1 5 . react.00 . forw & rev dir.reverse XLd 0. resistive reach. reactance reach.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-Ph.00 Positive seq. reactance reach. zone 1 Table continues on next page 363 Technical Manual . zone 1.01 .00 Positive seq. resistive reach.001 0.00 Zero seq. zone 1 IMinOpPEZ1 5 . X0FwPEZ1 0.

Ph-E.00 Ohm/l 0. Ph-E.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Ohm/p 0. reactance reach.00 Positive seq. zone direction R1FwPPZ3 0.01 .Section 7 Impedance protection Name Values (Range) 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Unit Step Default Description OpModeZ2 Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops.00 . zone 2.400 Time delay to trip.01 . R1FwPPZ2 0. zone 2 OpModeZ3 Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops.01 40. resistive reach.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Positive seq.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-Ph.3000.01 40.00 .00 Positive seq. X0FwPEZ2 0.01 .01 40. Phase-Phase.00 Ohm/l 0.000 . Ph-E. Ph-Ph.001 0.00 Pos. X1RvPPZ2 0.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 2.9000. zone 2 tPEZ2 0.3000. reactance reach. forward dir. Ph-Ph. zone 2. opposite to zone dir RFRvPPZ3 0. zone 2 IMinOpPPZ2 5 .3000.01 .01 . seq.60.60.01 . R1FwPEZ2 0.01 . reach.01 . Ph-Ph.3000. forward dir. zone 3. Ph-E.01 30.9000.01 40. forward dir.01 15.00 Zero seq. Ph-E.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops. zone 3.01 40.000 . reverse direction tPPZ2 0. Ph-Ph. reach. zone 2.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops.01 30. RFPPZ2 0.9000.01 120. zone 3. resistive reach.00 Ohm/p 0.3000. forw & rev dir.9000.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 2. seq. X1RvPEZ2 0.00 .00 Zero seq. zone 2.000 s 0.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 2.1000. forward dir.00 Ohm/p 0. zone direction RFFwPPZ3 0.3000.01 . resistive reach.00 Ohm/l 0. react. zone 2.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 3. Ph-Ph. react.3000. X1FwPEZ3 0.3000.00 Positive seq. zone 2 X1FwPPZ2 0. zone 3.01 40.00 Ohm/p 0. reverse direction X1FwPEZ2 0.1000.9000.001 0.00 Pos. zone direction Table continues on next page 364 Technical Manual . Phase-Earth. zone 3 DirModeZ3 Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Direction of zone 3 (which will be the Fw direction of zone 3) X1FwPPZ3 0. seq.00 Ohm/p 0. resistive reach.000 s 0. forward direction R0FwPEZ2 0.01 5. zone direction X1RvPPZ3 0.01 5.01 5. reactance reach.01 . reactance reach.00 Positive seq.00 Ohm/l 0.01 .01 40. forward direction RFPEZ2 0.00 .400 Time delay to trip.00 Pos.1000. forw & rev dir.01 . Ph-E. zone 2 IMinOpPEZ2 5 . reach.00 Positive seq.01 30. zone 2.00 Fault resistance reach. react.01 100. Ph-Ph. opposite to zone dir. Ph-Ph. zone 3. Ph-Ph. reactance reach. zone 2.00 Positive seq. Ph-E.00 Fault resistance reach.

Ph-E.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops. Ph-E. zone 3. opposite to zone dir.01 40.00 Ohm/l 0.00 Fault resistance reach. reactance reach. zone 3.01 . zone direction X1RvPEZ3 0.01 40.01 .00 Fault resistance reach.800 Time delay to trip. zone 4.1000.00 Ohm/p 0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Step Default R1FwPEZ3 Values (Range) 0.01 .00 Ohm/p 0. resistive reach.00 Fault resistance reach.1000.01 30.00 Ohm/p 0.9000. Ph-E.01 5. resistive reach.01 40.001 0. zone 4. zone 4.00 Zero seq.00 Ohm/l 0.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 3 IMinOpPPZ3 5 . zone direction X0FwPEZ3 0. zone 3.3000.00 Pos. zone 4.9000. seq.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/l 0.00 Unit Ohm/p 0. zone direction R1FwPEZ4 0.00 Fault resistance reach. Phase-Phase.01 . Ph-E.01 40. zone 3.00 Positive seq.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 4.01 30.01 5.00 Ohm/p 0.9000.9000. react.01 . zone direction RFFwPEZ4 0.3000.00 Zero seq. reach. Ph-E.01 .800 Time delay to trip. Ph-Ph.01 100.000 . zone 4 DirModeZ4 Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Direction of zone 4 (which will be the Fw direction of zone 4) X1FwPPZ4 0. Ph-E.9000.01 15. resistive reach.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Ohm/l 0. opposite to zone dir RFRvPPZ4 0. react.01 100.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Zero seq.3000. zone 4.01 40.00 .00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-E. opposite to zone dir. Ph-E.3000. zone 3. reach. X1FwPEZ4 0.000 s 0.01 .00 Description Positive seq. Ph-E.01 .01 . Ph-E.3000.3000. zone direction X1RvPEZ4 0.000 s 0.01 .00 Positive seq. zone 3 IMinOpPEZ3 5 . zone direction RFFwPEZ3 0.01 . reactance reach.01 .00 Pos. Ph-E. opposite to zone dir. seq.01 .01 120. Ph-Ph. Ph-E.00 Ohm/p 0. zone direction X1RvPPZ4 0. zone direction RFFwPPZ4 0. opposite to zone dir RFRvPEZ3 0.00 Ohm/l 0. Ph-E.00 Ohm/p 0. zone 3 OpModeZ4 Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops.00 .01 .01 5.001 0.00 Zero seq.01 100. resistive reach. reactance reach. zone 3. Ph-Ph. Phase-Earth.00 .01 120. Ph-Ph.9000. zone 4. Table continues on next page 365 Technical Manual . seq.01 100. Ph-Ph. zone 3 tPEZ3 0.01 15. zone direction X0FwPEZ4 0.60.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops.9000. zone 4. opposite to zone dir RFRvPEZ4 0. react. reach.9000. zone 4.00 Ohm/l 0. zone 4.3000. zone 4.1000.00 Pos.00 Positive seq.00 Fault resistance reach. zone 4. tPPZ3 0.00 Positive seq.000 . zone direction R0FwPEZ3 0. reactance reach. zone direction R0FwPEZ4 0.00 . zone direction R1FwPPZ4 0. resistive reach.60.

00 . zone 5.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops.00 Positive seq.01 15.01 .60. opposite to zone dir. zone 4 IMinOpPEZ4 5 . zone 4 IMinOpPPZ4 5 . react.00 Ohm/p 0. Phase-Phase.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops.9000.00 Ohm/p 0.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops.00 .3000.01 120.00 Ohm/p 0.000 s 0. zone 5 DirModeZ5 Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Forward Direction of zone 5 (which will be the Fw direction of zone 5) X1FwPPZ5 0. zone direction RFFwPEZ5 0. X1FwPEZ5 0. reactance reach. zone RV. zone direction R1FwPPZ5 0. Ph-Ph.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Fault resistance reach.00 Positive seq.00 Pos.000 . zone direction R0FwPEZ5 0.00 Ohm/p 0.01 40.3000.01 . opposite to zone dir.60.001 1.000 .00 Fault resistance reach.00 Ohm/l 0.000 .1000.3000.9000. zone direction X0FwPEZ5 0.001 1. zone 5 IMinOpPEZ5 5 . zone 5.01 40.01 40.9000. zone 5 OpModeZRV Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops. react.000 s Step 0.01 .00 Positive seq.000 s 0.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops. Ph-E.600 Time delay to trip. Phase-Earth.00 Ohm/p 0.1000.00 Ohm/p 0. resistive reach. reach. Ph-E.00 Zero seq.60.01 40. reactance reach.200 Description Time delay to trip.01 5.01 . Ph-E.01 40.01 100. reactance reach. reverse dir.00 Ohm/l 0.00 .600 Time delay to trip. reach. opposite to zone dir RFRvPPZ5 0. seq. resistive reach. zone 5. zone 5 tPEZ5 0.00 Fault resistance reach. zone 4 tPEZ4 0. zone 5.00 Ohm/p 0. zone direction X1RvPEZ5 0. Phase-Phase.3000. zone 5. zone 5. Ph-E.000 .60.9000. zone direction R1FwPEZ5 0.00 Ohm/p 0.01 . zone 5. resistive reach.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-Ph. tPPZ5 0.Section 7 Impedance protection Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Values (Range) Unit tPPZ4 0.01 . Ph-E.000 s 0.3000.200 Time delay to trip. seq. zone 5 IMinOpPPZ5 5 . zone direction RFFwPPZ5 0. zone 5. Table continues on next page 366 Technical Manual .001 Default 1.00 Positive seq.3000. zone 5.01 30.00 Ohm/l 0.00 Zero seq. Ph-Ph.00 Ohm/l 0.01 5.00 Pos. Ph-Ph.01 .001 1. Phase-Earth. zone 5. zone 5.00 Positive seq. Ph-E. Ph-Ph. Ph-Ph. zone RV X1FwPPZRV 0.01 . Ph-E.01 . reactance reach. opposite to zone dir RFRvPEZ5 0. zone 5. zone direction X1RvPPZ5 0.01 30.01 100.9000.01 . zone 4 OpModeZ5 Disable-Zone Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops.

3000.3000.00 Ohm/p 0. Ph-Ph. reach.00 Positive seq.01 5.00 Pos. zone RV IMinOpPEZRV 5 .00 . reach.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current for Phase-Earth loops. resistive reach.00 Fault resistance reach.01 30. Ph-E. zone RV. Ph-E.9000. Phase-Earth. reverse dir.00 Ohm/p 0. rev & forw dir. of start source for all ZoneLinked trip delay timers INReleasePE 5 . X1RvPEZRV 0.00 .00 Pos.1000. react.01 15.01 40.00 Ohm/l 0.6000 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate ph-ph current for Phase-Phase loops.400 %IPh 1 400 3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth measuring loops TimerModeZ1 Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output.00 Fault resistance reach. Ph-Ph.9000.00 Ohm/l 0. zone 2 TimerLinksZ2 LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone 2 Table continues on next page 367 Technical Manual .3000. zone RV.001 0.9000.00 .00 Positive seq. resistive reach. rev & forw dir.60.1000. reverse direction R0FwPEZRV 0. react.01 . zone RV.01 5.00 Ohm/p 0.000 s 0.00 Ohm/p 0. zone RV.00 Ohm/p 0.01 .000 s 0.00 Zero seq. Ph-E.01 . zone RV.00 Pos.000 . reverse direction RFPEZRV 0.00 Ohm/p 0. seq.001 0.60.01 40. seq. zone RV. zone RV IMinOpPPZRV 5 . X1RvPPZRV 0.3000. seq. react.01 . zone RV. reach.01 . reverse direction R1FwPEZRV 0. Ph-Ph.00 Zero seq.01 100. zone RV.000 . forward direction tPPZRV 0. zone RV.00 Ohm/p 0. zone RV tPEZRV 0. Ph-E.01 . reverse dir. resistive reach.01 120. zone RV Table 168: Name Values (Range) Unit Description ZMFCPDIS Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description ZoneLinkStart Phase Selection 1st starting zone - - Phase Selection Select.000 Time delay to trip.01 40. reactance reach.000 Time delay to trip. Ph-E.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Step Default R1FwPPZRV 0. forward direction X1FwPEZRV 0. X0FwPEZRV 0. Ph-E. RFPPZRV 0. Phase-Phase. zone 1 TimerLinksZ1 LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone 1 TimerModeZ2 Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output.

6 ZMFCPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 . zone 4 TimerLinksZ4 LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone 4 TimerModeZ5 Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output.Section 7 Impedance protection Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description TimerModeZ3 Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output. zone 5 TimerLinksZ5 LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone 5 TimerModeZRV Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output.12.12 Unit Step - 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 170: Name ZMFCPDIS Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description L1Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L1 L2Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L2 L3Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in phase L3 Table continues on next page 368 Technical Manual . zone 3 TimerLinksZ3 LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone 3 TimerModeZ4 Disable all Enable Ph-E Enable PhPh Enable Ph-E PhPh - - Enable Ph-E PhPh On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip output. zone RV TimerLinksZRV LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links - - LoopLink (tPPtPE) How start of trip delay timers should be linked for zone RV Table 169: Name GlobalBaseSel 7.

A half-cycle filter will not be able to reject both even and odd harmonics.e. 7. current and impedance quantities used within the ZMFCPDIS function are derived from fundamental frequency phasors filtered by a half-cycle filter. on average in the same order as the magnitude ratio between the harmonic and the fundamental component.1 Filtering Practically all voltage.7. 7. So. Even harmonics will not cause the distance zones to overreach.12. accuracy will be affected by even harmonics.12. input and output names are sometimes mentioned in the following text without its zone suffix (i. which means that earth fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults for forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel. 369 Technical Manual .12. The phasor filter is frequency adaptive in the sense that its coefficients are changed based on the estimated power system frequency. while odd harmonics will be completely attenuated.7 Type Values (Range) Unit Description L1L2Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in loop L1L2 L2L3Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in loop L2L3 L3L1Dir INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction in loop L3L1 L1R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L1 L1X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L1 L2R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L2 L2X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L2 L3R REAL - Ohm Resistance in phase L3 L3X REAL - Ohm Reactance in phase L3 Operation principle Settings. BLKZx instead of BLKZ3) when the description is equally valid for all zones. Figure 91 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for the six distance zones.2 Distance measuring zones The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type. instead there will be a slightly variable underreach.7.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name 7.

One such circular characteristic exists for every measuring loop and quadrilateral characteristic. It is well-known that transients from CVTs may have a significant impact on the transient overreach of a distance protection. the active type requires more extensive filtering in order to avoid transient overreach. more diverse than can be distinguished by the algorithm itself in the course of a few milliseconds. It is worth mentioning here that the IEC 60044-5 transient classification is of little or no use in this connection. 370 Technical Manual . So.vsd IEC05000458 V2 EN Figure 181: The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-tophase fault The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current depending on fault type. However. even if two CVTs. At the same time these transients can be very diverse in nature from one type to the other. For avoiding overreach and at the same time achieving fast operate times. So. even during the first turbulent milliseconds of the fault period. or close to the reach limit. It is not primarily the damping of transients that is important.e. a setting is introduced in order to inform the algorithm about the type of CVT applied and thus providing the advantage of knowing how performance should be optimized. it is the frequency content of the transients that is decisive. The active type requires more rigorous filtering which will have a negative impact on operate times. how difficult it is to filter out the specific frequency. There are basically two types of CVTs from the function point of view. This implies that the circular characteristic will always have somewhat shorter reach than the quadrilateral zone.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 1 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 2 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 3 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 4 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone 5 L1-N L2-N L3-N L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Zone RV IEC05000458-2-en. in fact. comply with the same transient class. SIR 5 and above. which refers to the type of ferro-resonance suppression device that is employed. Each distance protection zone performs like one independent distance protection function with six measuring elements. the passive and the active type. this will be evident primarily at higher source impedance ratios (SIRs). one passive and the other active type. It uses the normal quadrilateral zone settings to determine a reach that will be appropriate. There are no specific reach settings for this circular zone. a supplementary circular characteristic that includes some alternative processing (retained from REL 531) is implemented. i.

In this case. in these situations zone measurement will be released both for the related phase-to-earth loops and the phaseto-phase loop simultaneously. distinguish faults with minimum influence from load and fault impedance.12. The current change criteria itself can however only be relied on for a short period following the fault inception (during what we will call the current change phase). One exception. The basis is provided by comparing a sum of positive sequence voltage and memory voltage 371 Technical Manual . simultaneous faults closer to the remote bus will gradually take on the properties of a phase-to-phase-earth fault and the function will eventually use phase-to-phase zone measurements also here. Only in some particularly difficult faults on heavily loaded lines the continuous criteria might not be sufficient.4 Directional element Several criteria are employed when making the directional decision.3 Phase-selection element The operation of the phase-selection element is primarily based on current change criteria. however. it is not restricted by a load encroachment characteristic during the current change phase. Phase-to-phase-earth faults (also called double earth faults) will practically always activate phase-to-phase zone measurements.12. the measurement will be performed in the phase-to-earth loops only for a phase-to-phase-earth fault. one each on the two circuits of a double line. the phase-selection element also operates on continuous criteria. in order to distinguish fault from load. FDPSPDIS). the setting INReleasePE can be lowered from its excessive default value to the level above which phase-to-earth measurement should be activated.7. for example.In fact. This significantly improves performance for remote phase-to-earth faults on heavily loaded lines. This is a substantial difference compared to the previous phase selection function in the 500. Measurement in two phase-to-earth loops at the same time is associated with so-called simultaneous faults: two earth faults at the same time. On the other hand.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7. should it be desirable to use phase-to-earth (and only phase-to-earth) zone measurement for phase-to-phase-earth faults. is three-phase faults. when the estimated fault impedance resides within the load area defined by the load encroachment characteristic.and 600-series (that is. In other words. The continuous criteria will in the vast majority of cases operate in parallel and carry on the fault indication after the current change phase has ended. naturally. 7. for which the load encroachment characteristic always has to be applied. or when the zero sequence current is relatively high due to a source with low Z0/Z1 ratio. The phase-selection element can. the indication will be restricted to a pulse lasting for one or two power system cycles. Subsequent switching in the network may render the change in current invalid. In cases where the fault current infeed is more or less completely lack of zero sequence nature (all phase currents in phase). So.7. However. owing to the current change criteria.

are defined by the following equations (examples for L1and L1L2 only): −15° < arg ( (1 − k ) ⋅U1 L1 + k ⋅ U 1L1M ) I L1 < 120° (Equation 98) EQUATION2546 V2 EN −15° < arg ( (1 − k ) ⋅U1 L1L 2 + k ⋅ U 1L1L 2 M ) I L1L 2 < 120° (Equation 99) EQUATION2547 V2 EN Where: U1L1 is the positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1. this method is complemented with an equivalent comparison where. the change in phase current is used.8. Moreover. if the SeriesComp option is chosen (only available in ZMFCPDIS) the value is changed to 0. For extra security. there is a built-in supervision based on change in current that will delay operation before the SDDRFUF blocking signal is received. IL1 is the phase current in phase L1. U1L1L2M is the memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1). Finally. especially in making a very fast decision. Fundamentally.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - with phase currents. This has been the standard method up to now in the 600-series (ZDRDIR). zero sequence directional evaluation is used whenever there is more or less exclusive zero sequence in-feed. Typically. U1L1L2 is the voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1).7. instead of the phase current. k is the factor determining the amount of memory voltage. IL1L2 is the current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1). The corresponding reverse directional sectors range from 165 to -60 degrees. However. 7. However. the directional sectors that represent forward direction. one per measuring loop. 372 Technical Manual .12. The value of the k factor determining the amount of memory voltage used is normally 0.5 Fuse failure The ZMFCPDIS function has to be blocked by an additional function like the Fuse failure supervision (SDDRFUF) or an equivalent external device. The delay will be introduced if no (vector) magnitude change greater than 5% of IBase has been detected in any of the phase currents.95. U1L1M is the positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1. to guarantee that also very fast operation is blocked in a fuse failure situation. a basic negative sequence directional evaluation is taken into account as a reliable reference during high load condition. the binary input VTSZ is used for this purpose.

The phase-to-earth characteristic is illustrated with the full loop reach while the phase-to-phase characteristic presents the per-phase reach. 7. either from the Power Swing Blocking function (ZMRPSB) or an external device.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7.X-1X FWPE 0 PG 1FWPG XNFW XNFW== 3 3 X1FwPE+XNFw jN jN RNFw = R0 PE .R1PE 3 R (Ohm/loop) RFRvPE RFFwPE X1RvPE+XNRv jN RFRvPE RFFwPE R1PE+RNRv IEC11000417-1-en.X 1FwPE 3 PG. X (Ohm/loop) R1PE+RNFw RFFwPE RFRvPE X 0 PE .1RVPGX 1RvPE XX00PE X 1XRVPE XNRV = XNFw × XNRVXNRv == 33 X 1FwPE XNFw = XX0 PE .vsd IEC11000417 V1 EN Figure 182: ZMFCPDIS Characteristic for phase-to-earth measuring loops.7 Measuring principles All ZMFCPDIS zones operate according to the non-directional impedance characteristics presented in figure 182 and figure 183.12.6 Power swings There is need for external blocking of the ZMFCPDIS function during power swings. ohm/ loop domain 373 Technical Manual .12.7.7.

which are the settings designated ‘Fw’. the reverse zone ZRV. Therefore.X 1RVPE XNRV =XX00PE PG. that are set to DirMode=Reverse will get their operating impedances inverted (rotated 180 degrees) internally in order to make use of the main settings. The main intension with this illustration is to make clear how the fault resistive reach should be interpreted. X1FwPEZ3.vsd IEC11000418 V1 EN Figure 183: ZMFCPDIS Characteristic for the phase-to-phase measuring loops Note that for ZMFCPDIS. 374 Technical Manual . even while the fault resistance (arc) may be divided into parts like for three-phase or phase-to-phase-toearth faults. that is. The fault loop reach in relation to each fault type may also be presented as in figure 171.1RVPG X3 1XRVPE XNRV = XNRV = 33 PE 11FWPE XX 00 PE -X-1X X 0 PG XFWPE FWPG XNFW = XNFW XNFW== 3 3 3 X1FwPP j jN RFRvPP RFFwPP 2 2 j R (Ohm/phase) X1RvPP jN RFRvPP RFFwPP 2 2 IEC11000418-1-en. as well as any of zones 3-5. a reverse zone will have its Fw-settings (RFFwPPZRV. towards the busbar instead of the line. The R1 and jX1 represent the positive sequence impedance from the measuring point to the fault location.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RFRvPP X (Ohm/phase) R1PP RFFwPP 2 2 X 0 PE . Note in particular that the setting RFPP always represents the total fault resistance of the loop. and so on) applied in the third quadrant.

..RVL3L1 are the internal binary signals from the Directional element...7. They correspond directly to the six loops of the distance zones and determine which loops should be released to possibly issue a start or a trip. this criterion is changed to residual voltage (3U0) exceeding 5% of UBase/sqrt(3) instead..5·RFPP Phase-to-phase element L1-L3 IL3 UL3 IEC11000419-2-en. However. The equivalent applies to the reverse (RV) signals. if current transformer saturation is detected...8 Fault loop model Simplified logic schemes PHSL1.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - UL1 IL1 R1 + j X1 Phase-to-earth fault in phase L1 Phase-to-earth element RFPE (Arc + tower resistance) 0 UL1 Phase-to-phase fault in phase L1-L2 IN (R0-R1)/3 + j (X0-X1)/3 ) IL1 R1 + j X1 Phase-to-phase element L1-L2 RFPP IL2 (Arc resistance) UL2 R1 + j X1 Three-phase fault or Phase-tophase-earth fault UL1 IL1 R1 + j X1 0.12. The internal input 'IN present' is true if the residual current (3I0) exceeds 7% of IBase. 375 Technical Manual . FWL2.5·RFPP R1 + j X1 0. An FW signal is set true if the criteria for a forward fault or load is fulfilled for its particular loop. RVL2.PHSL3L1 are internal binary logical signals from the Phaseselection element..vsd IEC11000419 V2 EN Figure 184: 7. FWL1.FWL3L1 and RVL1.. PHSL2.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 15 ms t OR STPE AND PHSL1 PHSL2 OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t PHSL3 PHSL1L2 PHSL2L3 PHSL3L1 OR BLOCK VTSZ 15 ms t AND AND AND STPP AND OR OR STARTND STPHS IEC12000133-1-en.vsd IEC12000133 V1 EN Figure 185: Additional start outputs 1 376 Technical Manual .

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - PHSL1 FWL1 PHSL2 FWL2 PHSL3 FWL3 AND AND OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t AND PHSL1L2 FWL1L2 PHSL2L3 FWL2L3 PHSL3L1 FWL3L1 AND AND STFWL1 AND STFWL2 AND STFWL3 AND AND OR IN present BLOCK VTSZ AND =1 STFWPE STFW1PH OR =2 =3 STFW2PH STFW3PH IEC12000134-1-en.vsd IEC12000134 V1 EN Figure 186: Additional start outputs 2 FW(Ln & LmLn) DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z1 FW(Ln & LmLn) DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z2 RV(Ln & LmLn) DIR(Ln & LmLn)ZRV DirModeZ3-5 TRUE (1) FW(Ln & LmLn) RV(Ln & LmLn) Non-directional Forward Reverse DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z3-5 IEC12000137-2-en.vsd IEC12000137 V2 EN Figure 187: Connection of directional signals to zones 377 Technical Manual .

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 15 ms t TZx TRIPZx AND BLKTRZx BLOCK VTSZ BLKZx OR AND OR AND AND 15 ms t L1Zx 15 ms t L2Zx 15 ms t L3Zx PPZx PEZx OR 15 ms t 15 ms t NDZx AND AND AND AND AND TRL1Zx TRL2Zx TRL3Zx STL1Zx STL2Zx STL3Zx STARTZx STNDZx IEC12000138-1-en.vsd IEC12000138 V1 EN Figure 188: Start and trip outputs 378 Technical Manual .

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - TimerModeZx = Enable Ph-Ph. Ph-E PPZx AND PEZx AND BLOCK VTSZ BLKZx BLKTRZx OR tPPZx AND t AND AND t TZx OR tPEZx AND OR TimerLinksZx OR ZoneLinkStart STPHS OR Phase Selection 1st starting zone LNKZ1 LNKZ2 LNKZRV OR LNKZ3 LNKZ4 LNKZ5 OR LoopLink (tPP-tPE) LoopLink & ZoneLink No Links FALSE (0) AND LNKZx TimerLinksZx = LoopLink & ZoneLink IEC12000139-2-en.vsd IEC12000139 V2 EN Figure 189: Logic for linking of timers 379 Technical Manual .

vsd IEC12000141 V1 EN Figure 190: Additional start outputs 3 380 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - PHSL1 RVL1 PHSL2 RVL2 PHSL3 RVL3 AND AND OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t OR 15 ms t AND PHSL1L2 RVL1L2 PHSL2L3 RVL2L3 PHSL3L1 RVL3L1 AND AND STRVL1 AND STRVL2 AND STRVL3 AND AND OR IN present BLOCK VTSZ AND STRVPE OR IEC12000141-1-en.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - ZML1Zx PHSL1 DIRL1Zx ZML2Zx PHSL2 DIRL2Zx ZML3Zx PHSL3 DIRL3Zx ZML1L2Zx PHSL1L2 DIRL1L2Zx ZML2L3Zx PHSL2L3 DIRL2L3Zx ZML3L1Zx PHSL3L1 DIRL3L1Zx PEZx OR AND AND AND AND OR AND L1Zx AND OR AND L2Zx AND OR AND L3Zx AND AND AND OR OR PPZx NDZx IEC12000140-1-en.vsd IEC12000140 V1 EN Figure 191: Intermediate logic 381 Technical Manual .

13.3000) Ω/phase Positive sequence resistance reach. Ph-E and Ph-Ph loop (30 . Ph-E and Ph-Ph operation (0.00) Ω/p Fault resistance reach.13.1.2.9000.000) s Operate time 16 ms typically Reset time at 0.1 to 2 x Zreach Min = 20 ms Max = 35 ms Reset ratio 105% typically " +. 3 fixed directions - Minimum operate current.00 .00 .12. 382 Technical Manual .000 .1 .5 < SIR <30 Definite time delay to trip.2 Functionality Power swings may occur after disconnection of heavy loads or trip of big generation plants.9000.2% or ±35 ms whichever is greater IEC 60255-121 - 7.0% static accuracy +.00) Ω/p Zero sequence resistive reach (15.1 Identification Function description Power swing detection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZMRPSB ANSI/IEEE C37.5 .00) Ω/l Dynamic overreach < 5% at 85 deg measured with CVT's and 0.1) x Ur Current range: (0.0 deg static angular accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0.8 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Technical data Table 171: ZMFCPDIS technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Number of zones 3 selectable directions. Ph-E and Ph-Ph (1.13 Power swing detection ZMRPSB 7. Ph-E and Ph-Ph loop (30 .60.3000) Ω/phase Zero sequence reactance reach (100.0% of In Positive sequence reactance reach.6000)% of IBase ±1.2.30) x Ir Angle: At 0 deg and 85 deg" ±0.2 device number 68 Zpsb SYMBOL-EE V1 EN 7.Section 7 Impedance protection 7.00 . Ph-Ph and Ph-E (5 .3000.

4 ZMRPSB function block Signals Table 172: Name ZMRPSB Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKI01 BOOLEAN 0 Block inhibit of start output for slow swing condition BLKI02 BOOLEAN 0 Block inhibit of start output for subsequent residual current detection BLK1PH BOOLEAN 0 Block one-out-of-three-phase operating mode REL1PH BOOLEAN 0 Release one-out-of-three-phase operating mode BLK2PH BOOLEAN 0 Block two-out-of-three-phase operating mode REL2PH BOOLEAN 0 Release two-out-of-three-phase operating mode I0CHECK BOOLEAN 0 Residual current (3I0) detection used to inhibit start output TRSP BOOLEAN 0 Single-pole tripping command issued by tripping function EXTERNAL BOOLEAN 0 Input for external detection of power swing 383 Technical Manual .13. to allow fault clearance. 7. Occurrence of earth-fault currents during a power swing inhibits the ZMRPSB function.vsd IEC06000264 V2 EN Figure 192: 7.3 Function block ZMRPSB I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKI01 BLKI02 BLK1PH REL1PH BLK2PH REL2PH I0CHECK TRSP EXTERNAL START ZOUT ZIN IEC06000264-2-en.13.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Power swing detection function ZMRPSB is used to detect power swings and initiate block of all distance protection zones.

01 0.1000.75 Multiplication factor for inner resistive load boundary.000 .00 Ohm/p 0.01 30.00 Ohm/l 0.01 .01 30.3000. reverse tEF 0.000 s 0.30 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate current in % of IBase Table 175: ZMRPSB Group settings (advanced) Name Values (Range) Unit tP1 0.045 Timer for detection of initial power swing tP2 0. reverse R1FInRv 0.50 .60.00 Outer resistive load boundary.01 .01 .01 .60.01 .1000.70 Deg 1 25 Load angle determining load impedance area RLdOutRv 0. reverse kLdRFw 0.01 0.01 30.000 s 0.00 Inner reactive boundary.3000.00 Fault resistance line to inner resistive boundary.250 Waiting timer for activation of tP2 timer Step Default Description Table continues on next page 384 Technical Manual .00 Fault resistance coverage to inner resistive line.001 3.3000.001 0.00 Ohm/p 0.00 Outer resistive load boundary.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 173: ZMRPSB Output signals Name 7.000 Timer for overcoming single-pole reclosing dead time IMinOpPE 5 .000 s 0.90 Mult 0.015 Timer for detection of subsequent power swings tW 0. forward kLdRRv 0.000 .01 30.00 Ohm/p 0.3000.01 30. forward X1InRv 0.001 0.00 Inner reactive boundary.01 .90 Mult 0.60.00 Ohm/p 0. reverse OperationLdCh Off On - - On Operation of load discrimination characteristic RLdOutFw 0.01 .1000. forward ArgLd 5 .00 Line resistance for inner characteristic angle R1FInFw 0.50 .00 Ohm/l 0.001 0.13.0. forward R1LIn 0.000 s 0.60.000 .01 30.000 .75 Multiplication factor for inner resistive load boundary.01 30.00 Ohm/p 0.5 Table 174: Name Type Description START BOOLEAN Power swing detected ZOUT BOOLEAN Measured impedance within outer impedance boundary ZIN BOOLEAN Measured impedance within inner impedance boundary Settings ZMRPSB Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Mode On / Off X1InFw 0.0.

60.12 Unit - Step 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Operation principle Power swing detection (ZMRPSB ) function comprises an inner and an outer quadrilateral measurement characteristic with load encroachment.001 0.000 . 385 Technical Manual . Its principle of operation is based on the measurement of the time it takes for a power swing transient impedance to pass through the impedance area between the outer and the inner characteristics.000 s 0.000 Timer giving delay to inhibit at very slow swing Table 176: Name GlobalBaseSel 7. The impedance measuring principle is the same as that used for the distance protection zones.60.000 .000 s 0. One-out-of-three or two-out-of-three operating modes can be selected according to the specific system operating conditions. The impedance and the characteristic passing times are measured in all three phases separately.001 0.500 Timer for holding power swing START output tR1 0. as shown in figure 193.6 Step Default Description ZMRPSB Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .60.13.300 Timer giving delay to inhibit by the residual current tR2 0.000 .000 s 0.001 2. Power swings are identified by transition times longer than a transition time set on corresponding timers.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit tH 0.

1 Resistive reach in forward direction To avoid load encroachment.vsd IEC09000222 V1 EN Figure 193: Operating characteristic for ZMRPSB function (setting parameters in italic) The impedance measurement within ZMRPSB function is performed by solving equation 100 and equation 101 (n = 1. the resistive reach is limited in forward direction by setting the parameter RLdOutFw which is the outer resistive load boundary value while the inner resistive boundary is calculated according to equation 102. 386 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - jX X1OutFw X1InFw DRv R1LIn ZL DFw j R1FInRv R1FInFw DFw j ArgLd ArgLd DRv DFw DFw R DFw DRv DFw RLdInRv RLdInFw DRv j RLdOutRv RLdOutFw DRv X1InRv X1OutRv IEC09000222_1_en.6. 7.13. 3 for each corresponding phase L1. æ ULn ö ÷÷ £ Rset Re çç I L n è ø EQUATION1183 V2 EN (Equation 100) æ ULn ö Imçç ÷÷ £ Xset n I L è ø EQUATION1184 V2 EN (Equation 101) The Rset and Xset are R and X boundaries. 2. L2 and L3).

a distance between the inner and outer boundary. RLdInRv = kLdRRv·RLdOutRv EQUATION1187 V2 EN (Equation 103) where: kLdRRv is a settable multiplication factor less than 1 From the setting parameter RLdOutRv and the calculated value RLdInRv. 7. is calculated. 387 Technical Manual .13. The angle is the same as the line angle and derived from the setting of the reactive reach inner boundary X1InFw and the line resistance for the inner boundary R1LIn. This value is valid for R direction in second and third quadrant and for X direction in third and fourth quadrant. The distance to the inner resistive load boundary RLdInRv is determined by using the setting parameter kLdRRv in equation 103. DFw. This value is valid for R direction in first and fourth quadrant and for X direction in first and second quadrant. From the setting parameter RLdOutFw and the calculated value RLdInFw a distance between the inner and outer boundary.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RLdInFw = kLdRFw·RLdOutFw EQUATION1185 V2 EN (Equation 102) where: kLdRFw is a settable multiplication factor less than 1 The slope of the load encroachment inner and outer boundary is defined by setting the parameter ArgLd. The fault resistance coverage for the inner boundary is set by the parameter R1FInFw. The quadrilateral characteristic in the first quadrant is tilted to get a better adaptation to the distance measuring zones.6. is calculated. The outer boundary is internally calculated as the sum of DRv+R1FInRv. The inner resistive characteristic in the second quadrant outside the load encroachment part corresponds to the setting parameter R1FInRv for the inner boundary.2 Resistive reach in reverse direction To avoid load encroachment in reverse direction. the resistive reach is limited by setting the parameter RLdOutRv for the outer boundary of the load encroachment zone. The load encroachment in the fourth quadrant uses the same settings as in the first quadrant (same ArgLd and RLdOutFw and calculated value RLdInFw). DRv.

which are usually not as fast as the later swings are. The tP2 timer become activated for the detection of the consecutive swings. The distance between the inner and outer boundary is the same as for the load encroachment in reverse direction. where: DRv = RLdOutRv . They are internal signals.KLdRRv · RLdOutRv 7. where: DFw = RLdOutFw . set on the tW waiting timer.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The inner resistive characteristic in the third quadrant outside the load encroachment zone consist of the sum of the settings R1FInRv and the line resistance R1LIn. calculated by ZMRPSB function. Figure 194 presents a composition of an internal detection signal DET-L1 in this particular phase. L2 and L3). that is DRv.3 Reactive reach in forward and reverse direction The inner characteristic for the reactive reach in forward direction correspond to the setting parameter X1InFw and the outer boundary is defined as X1InFw + DFw. The tP1 timer in figure 194 serve as detection of initial power swings. The argument of the tilted lines outside the load encroachment is the same as the tilted lines in the first quadrant.13. Signals ZOUTLn (outer boundary) and ZINLn (inner boundary) in figure 194 are related to the operation of the impedance measuring elements in each phase separately (n represents the corresponding L1.KLdRFw · RLdOutFw The inner characteristic for the reactive reach in reverse direction correspond to the setting parameter X1InRv for the inner boundary and the outer boundary is defined as X1InRv + DRv. IMinOpPE. The upper part 388 Technical Manual .6.13. Figure 195 presents a composition of the detection signals DET1of3 and DET2of3.6. if the measured impedance exit the operate area and returns within the time delay. ZMRPSB function can operate in two operating modes: • • The 1 out of 3 operating mode is based on detection of power swing in any of the three phases.4 Basic detection logic The operation of the Power swing detection ZMRPSB is only released if the magnitude of the current is above the setting of the min operating current. 7. The 2 out of 3 operating mode is based on detection of power swing in at least two out of three phases.

int. All tP1 and tP2 timers in the figure have the same settings. ZOUTL1 ZINL1 0-tP1 0 AND AND OR -loop -loop 0-tP2 0 OR AND ZOUTL2 ZOUTL3 detected AND DET-L1 OR 0 0-tW IEC05000113-2-en.int.vsd IEC05000113 V2 EN Figure 194: DET-L1 DET-L2 DET-L3 Detection of power swing in phase L1 DET1of3 . & IEC01000057-2-en.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - of figure 194 (internal input signal ZOUTL1. AND-gates and tP-timers) are duplicated for phase L2 and L3.vsd IEC01000057-TIFF V2 EN Figure 195: Detection of power swing for 1-of-3 and 2-of-3 operating mode 389 Technical Manual . ZINL1. >1 & & >1 DET2of3 .

Selection of the operating mode is possible by the proper configuration of the functional input signals REL1PH.int. REL1PH BLK1PH DET2of3 .vsd IEC05000114 V1 EN Figure 196: 7. The internal signals DET1of3 and DET2of3 relate to the detailed logic diagrams in figure 194 and figure 195 respectively. and BLK2PH. The load encroachment characteristic can be switched off by setting the parameter OperationLdCh = Off. but notice that the DFw and DRv will still be calculated from RLdOutFw and RLdOutRv. REL2PH.int.5 Simplified block diagram for ZMRPSB function Operating and inhibit conditions Figure 196 presents a simplified logic diagram for the Power swing detection function ZMRPSB. BLK1PH.13. REL2PH BLK2PH AND tH OR AND t OR START AND EXTERNAL en05000114.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - ZOUTL1 ZOUT OR ZOUTL2 ZINL1 ZOUTL3 TRSP ZIN OR ZINL2 AND ZINL3 tEF AND t I0CHECK 10 ms t AND BLKI02 OR tR1 AND t INHIBIT OR -loop tR2 AND BLKI01 t BLOCK -loop DET1of3 . The characteristic will in this case be only quadrilateral. There are four different ways to form the internal INHIBIT signal: 390 Technical Manual .6.

The INHIBIT internal signal is activated.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - • • • • 7.5-30) x Ir Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37.1 Identification Function description IEC 61850 identification Power swing logic PSLPSCH ± 2.000-60.000) s ± 0.13. if the power swing has been detected and the measured impedance remains within its operate characteristic for the time.000) s ± 0.1) x Ur Current range: (0. if the functional input I0CHECK appears within the time delay.14. set on tR1 timer.0% of Ir 7.2% or ± 20 ms whichever is greater Minimum operate current (5-30)% of IBase ± 1. when the circuit breaker closes onto persistent single-phase fault after single-phase autoreclosing dead time. The INHIBIT internal signal is activated after the time delay. which is longer than the time delay set on tR2 timer.10-3000.00) W/loop Power swing detection operate time (0. The INHIBIT logical signals becomes logical 1. It is possible to disable this condition by connecting the logical 1 signal to the BLKI02 functional input.7 Logical 1 on functional input BLOCK inhibits the output START signal instantaneously.000-60. This function prevents the operation of ZMRPSB function in cases.2 device number - 391 Technical Manual .00) W/phase Resistive reach (0. set on tEF timer and the impedance has been seen within the outer characteristic of ZMRPSB operate characteristic in all three phases.10–1000.14 Power swing logic PSLPSCH 7. It is possible to disable this condition by connecting the logical 1 signal to the BLKI01 functional input. Technical data Table 177: ZMRPSB technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Reactive reach (0.2% or ± 10 ms whichever is greater Second swing reclaim operate time (0.1-1. if an earth-fault appears during the power swing (input IOCHECK is high) and the power swing has been detected before the earth-fault (activation of the signal I0CHECK). if the initial singlephase fault and single-phase opening of the circuit breaker causes the power swing in the remaining two phases.0% static accuracy Conditions: Voltage range: (0.

Section 7
Impedance protection
7.14.2

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Functionality
Power Swing Logic (PSLPSCH) is a complementary function to Power Swing
Detection (ZMRPSB) function. It provides possibility for selective tripping of
faults on power lines during system oscillations (power swings or pole slips), when
the distance protection function should normally be blocked. The complete logic
consists of two different parts:

Communication and tripping part: provides selective tripping on the basis of
special distance protection zones and a scheme communication logic, which
are not blocked during the system oscillations.
Blocking part: blocks unwanted operation of instantaneous distance protection
zone 1 for oscillations, which are initiated by faults and their clearing on the
adjacent power lines and other primary elements.

7.14.3

Function block
PSLPSCH
BLOCK
STZMUR
STZMOR
STPSD
STDEF
STZMPSD
CACC
AR1P1
CSUR
CR

TRIP
STZMURPS
BLKZMUR
BLKZMOR
CS

IEC07000026-3-en.vsd
IEC07000026 V3 EN

Figure 197:

7.14.4

PSLPSCH function block

Signals
Table 178:
Name

PSLPSCH Input signals
Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

0

Block of function

STZMUR

BOOLEAN

0

Start of the underreaching zone

STZMOR

BOOLEAN

0

Start of the overreaching zone

STPSD

BOOLEAN

0

Power swing detected

STDEF

BOOLEAN

0

Start from Earth Fault Protection in forward or
reverse direction

STZMPSD

BOOLEAN

0

Operation of Power Swing Detection external
characteristic

CACC

BOOLEAN

0

Overreaching ZM zone to be accelerated

AR1P1

BOOLEAN

0

Single pole auto-reclosing in progress

CSUR

BOOLEAN

0

Carrier send by the underreaching power-swing
zone

CR

BOOLEAN

0

Carrier receive signal during power swing
detection operation

392
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Table 179:

PSLPSCH Output signals

Name

7.14.5
Table 180:
Name

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip through Power Swing Logic

STZMURPS

BOOLEAN

Start of Underreaching zone controlled by PSL to
be used in configuration

BLKZMUR

BOOLEAN

Block trip of underreaching impedance zone

BLKZMOR

BOOLEAN

Block trip of overreaching distance protection
zones

CS

BOOLEAN

Carrier send signal controlled by the power swing

Settings
PSLPSCH Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

-

-

Off

Operation Off / On

tDZ

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.050

Permitted max oper time diff between
higher and lower zone

tDZMUR

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.200

Delay for oper of underreach zone with
detected diff in oper time

tCS

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.100

Conditional timer for sending the CS at
power swings

tTrip

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.100

Conditional timer for tripping at power
swings

tBlkTr

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.300

Timer for blocking the overreaching
zones trip

7.14.6

Operation principle

7.14.6.1

Communication and tripping logic
Communication and tripping logic as used by the power swing distance protection
zones is schematically presented in figure 198.

393
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

STDEF
AR1P1

&

STPSD
BLOCK

&

tCS
t

&

tTrip

tBlkTr
t

CS

CSUR

&

BLKZMPS

t
CACC
CR

&

>1

TRIP

en06000236.vsd
IEC06000236 V1 EN

Figure 198:

Simplified logic diagram – power swing communication and tripping
logic

The complete logic remains blocked as long as there is a logical one on the
BLOCK functional input signal. Presence of the logical one on the STDEF
functional input signal also blocks the logic as long as this block is not released by
the logical one on the AR1P1 functional input signal. The functional output signal
BLKZMPS remains logical one as long as the function is not blocked externally
(BLOCK is logical zero) and the earth-fault is detected on protected line (STDEF
is logical one), which is connected in three-phase mode (AR1P1 is logical zero).
Timer tBlkTr prolongs the duration of this blocking condition, if the measured
impedance remains within the operate area of the Power Swing Detection
(ZMRPSB) function (STPSD input active). The BLKZMPS can be used to block
the operation of the power-swing zones.
Logical one on functional input CSUR, which is normally connected to the TRIP
functional output of a power swing carrier sending zone, activates functional output
CS, if the function is not blocked by one of the above conditions. It also activates
the TRIP functional output.
Initiation of the CS functional output is possible only, if the STPSD input has been
active longer than the time delay set on the security timer tCS.
Simultaneous presence of the functional input signals PLTR_CRD and CR (local
trip condition) also activates the TRIP functional output, if the function is not
blocked by one of the above conditions and the STPSD signal has been present
longer then the time delay set on the trip timer tTrip.

7.14.6.2

Blocking logic
Figure 199 presents the logical circuits, which control the operation of the
underreaching zone (zone 1) at power swings, caused by the faults and their
clearance on the remote power lines.

394
Technical Manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

&
BLKZMH

&
STZML
BLOCK
STMZH
STZMPSD
STPSD

tZL
t

&
&

tDZ
t

&

>1

STZMLL

>1

&
-loop

en06000237.vsd
IEC06000237 V1 EN

Figure 199:

Control of underreaching distance protection (Zone 1) at power
swings caused by the faults and their clearance on adjacent lines
and other system elements

The logic is disabled by a logical one on functional input BLOCK. It can start only
if the following conditions are simultaneously fulfilled:


STPSD functional input signal must be a logical zero. This means, that Power
swing detection (ZMRPSB) function must not detect power swinging over the
protected power line.
STZMPSD functional input must be a logical one. This means that the
impedance must be detected within the external boundary of ZMRPSB function.
STZMOR functional input must be a logical one. This means that the fault
must be detected by the overreaching distance protection zone, for example
zone 2.

The STZMURPS functional output, which can be used in complete terminal logic
instead of a normal distance protection zone 1, becomes active under the following
conditions:

If the STZMUR signal appears at the same time as the STZMOR or if it
appears with a time delay, which is shorter than the time delay set on timer
tDZ.
If the STZMUR signal appears after the STZMOR signal with a time delay
longer than the delay set on the tDZ timer, and remains active longer than the
time delay set on the tZL timer.

The BLKZMOR functional output signal can be used to block the operation of the
higher distance protection zone, if the fault has moved into the zone 1 operate area
after tDZ time delay.

395
Technical Manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Table 181:

PSLPSCH technical data

Function

Range or value

Permitted maximum
operating time difference
between higher and lower
zone

(0.000 — 60.0000) s

± 0,2% or ± 15 ms
whichever is greater

Delay for operation of
underreach zone with
detected difference in
operating time

(0.000 — 60.0000) s

± 0,2% or ± 15 ms
whichever is greater

Conditional timer for sending
the CS at power swings

(0.000 — 60.0000) s

± 0,2% or ± 15 ms
whichever is greater

Conditional timer for tripping
at power swings

(0.000 — 60.0000) s

± 0,2% or ± 15 ms
whichever is greater

Timer for blocking the
overreaching zones trip

(0.000 — 60.0000) s

± 0,2% or ± 15 ms
whichever is greater

7.15

Pole slip protection PSPPPAM

7.15.1

Identification

7.15.2

Accuracy

Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Pole slip protection

PSPPPAM

IEC 60617
identification
Ucos

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
78

Functionality
Sudden events in an electric power system such as large changes in load, fault
occurrence or fault clearance, can cause power oscillations referred to as power
swings. In a non-recoverable situation, the power swings become so severe that the
synchronism is lost, a condition referred to as pole slipping. The main purpose of
the pole slip protection (PSPPPAM) is to detect, evaluate, and take the required
action for pole slipping occurrences in the power system.

396
Technical Manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

7.15.3

Function block
PSPPPAM
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKGEN
BLKMOTOR
EXTZONE1

TRIP
TRIP1
TRIP2
START
ZONE1
ZONE2
GEN
MOTOR
SFREQ
SLIPZOHM
SLIPZPER
UCOS
UCOSPER

IEC10000045-1-en.vsd
IEC10000045 V1 EN

Figure 200:

7.15.4

PSPPPAM function block

Signals
Table 182:
Name

PSPPPAM Input signals
Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Current group connection

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Voltage group connection

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

0

Block of function

BLKGEN

BOOLEAN

0

Block operation in generating direction

BLKMOTOR

BOOLEAN

0

Block operation in motor direction

EXTZONE1

BOOLEAN

0

Extension of zone1 with zone2 region

Table 183:
Name

PSPPPAM Output signals
Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRIP1

BOOLEAN

Trip1 after the N1Limit slip in zone1

TRIP2

BOOLEAN

Trip2 after the N2Limit slip in zone2

START

BOOLEAN

Common start signal

ZONE1

BOOLEAN

First slip in zone1 region

ZONE2

BOOLEAN

First slip in zone2 region

GEN

BOOLEAN

Generator is faster than the system

MOTOR

BOOLEAN

Generator is slower than the system

SFREQ

REAL

Slip frequency

SLIPZOHM

REAL

Slip impedance in ohms

SLIPZPER

REAL

Slip impedance in percent of ZBase

UCOS

REAL

UCosPhi voltage

UCOSPER

REAL

UCosPhi voltage in percent of UBase

397
Technical Manual

Section 7
Impedance protection
7.15.5
Table 184:
Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Settings
PSPPPAM Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

-

-

Off

Operation On / Off

OperationZ1

Off
On

-

-

On

Operation Zone1 On / Off

OperationZ2

Off
On

-

-

On

Operation Zone2 On / Off

ImpedanceZA

0.00 - 1000.00

%

0.01

10.00

Forward impedance in % of Zbase

ImpedanceZB

0.00 - 1000.00

%

0.01

10.00

Reverse impedance in % of Zbase

ImpedanceZC

0.00 - 1000.00

%

0.01

10.00

Impedance of zone1 limit in % of Zbase

AnglePhi

72.00 - 90.00

Deg

0.01

85.00

Angle of the slip impedance line

StartAngle

0.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

110.0

Rotor angle for the start signal

TripAngle

0.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

90.0

Rotor angle for the trip1 and trip2 signals

N1Limit

1 - 20

-

1

1

Count limit for the trip1 signal

N2Limit

1 - 20

-

1

3

Count limit for the trip2 signal

Table 185:
Name
ResetTime

Table 186:
Name

PSPPPAM Group settings (advanced)
Values (Range)

Unit

0.000 - 60.000

s

Step
0.001

Default
5.000

Description
Time without slip to reset all signals

PSPPPAM Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

MeasureMode

PosSeq
L1L2
L2L3
L3L1

-

-

PosSeq

Measuring mode (PosSeq, L1L2, L2L3,
L3L1)

InvertCTcurr

No
Yes

-

-

No

Invert current direction

GlobalBaseSel

1 - 12

-

1

1

Selection of one of the Global Base
Value groups

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

7.15.6

Monitored data
Table 187:
Name

7.15.7

PSPPPAM Monitored data
Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

SFREQ

REAL

-

Hz

Slip frequency

SLIPZOHM

REAL

-

Ohm

Slip impedance in ohms

SLIPZPER

REAL

-

%

Slip impedance in
percent of ZBase

UCOS

REAL

-

kV

UCosPhi voltage

UCOSPER

REAL

-

%

UCosPhi voltage in
percent of UBase

Operation principle
If the generator is faster than the power system, the rotor movement in the
impedance and voltage diagram is from right to left and generating is signaled. If
the generator is slower than the power system, the rotor movement is from left to
right and motoring is signaled (the power system drives the generator as if it were a
motor).
The movements in the impedance plane can be seen in Figure 201. The transient
behavior is described by the transient EMF's EA and EB, and by X'd, XT and the
transient system impedance ZS.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Zone 1
EB

Zone 2

X’d

XT

XS

IED

B

EA

A

jX

A
XS

Pole slip
impedance
movement

XT

d

Apparent generator
impedance

R

X’d
B

IEC06000437_2_en.vsd
IEC06000437 V2 EN

Figure 201:

Movements in the impedance plain

where:
X'd

= transient reactance of the generator

XT

= short-circuit reactance of the step-up transformer

ZS

= impedance of the power system A

The detection of rotor angle is enabled when:



the minimum current exceeds 0.10 IN (IN is IBase parameter set under general
setting).
the maximum voltage falls below 0.92 UBase
the voltage Ucosφ (the voltage in phase with the generator current) has an
angular velocity of 0.2...8 Hz and
the corresponding direction is not blocked.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

en07000004.vsd
IEC07000004 V1 EN

Figure 202:

Different generator quantities as function of the angle between the
equivalent generators

An alarm is given when movement of the rotor is detected and the rotor angle
exceeds the angle set for 'WarnAngle'.
Slipping is detected when:

a change of rotor angle of min. 50 ms is recognized
the slip line is crossed between ZA and ZB.

When the impedance crosses the slip line between ZB and ZC it counts as being in
zone 1 and between ZC and ZA in zone 2. The entire distance ZA-ZB becomes zone
1 when signal EXTZONE1 is high (external device detects the direction of the
centre of slipping).
After the first slip, the signals ZONE1 or ZONE2 and – depending on the direction
of slip - either GEN or MOTOR are issued.
Every time pole slipping is detected, the impedance of the point where the slip line
is crossed and the instantaneous slip frequency are displayed as measurements.
Further slips are only detected, if they are in the same direction and if the rate of
rotor movement has reduced in relation to the preceding slip or the slip line is
crossed in the opposite direction outside ZA-ZB. A further slip in the opposite
direction within ZA-ZB resets all the signals and is then signalled itself as a first slip.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

The TRIP1 tripping command and signal are generated after N1 slips in zone 1,
providing the rotor angle is less than TripAngle. The TRIP2 signal is generated
after N2 slips in zone 2, providing the rotor angle is less than TripAngle.
All signals are reset if:


the direction of movement reverses
the rotor angle detector resets without a slip being counted or
no rotor relative movement was detected during the time ResetTime.

Imin > 0.10 IBase

Ucosj < 0.92 UBase

AND
START

AND

0.2 £ Slip.Freq. £ 8 Hz

d ³ startAngle
ZONE1

AND

Z cross line ZA - ZC

ZONE2

AND

Z cross line ZC - ZB

Counter
N1Limit

a
b

a³b

TRIP1

AND

d £ tripAngle

OR
Counter

N2Limit

a
b a³b

TRIP

TRIP2

AND

en07000005.vsd
IEC07000005 V1 EN

Figure 203:

7.15.8

Simplified logic diagram for pole slip protection PSPPPAM

Technical data
Table 188:

PSPPPAM technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Impedance reach

(0.00 - 1000.00)% of Zbase

± 2.0% of Ur/Ir

Zone 1 and Zone 2 trip counters

(1 - 20)

-

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

7.16

Out-of-step protection OOSPPAM

7.16.1

Identification
Function description
Out-of-step protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

OOSPPAM

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
78

<

7.16.2

Functionality
The out-of-step protection OOSPPAM function in the IED can be used for both
generator protection and as well for line protection applications.
The main purpose of the OOSPPAM function is to detect, evaluate, and take the
required action during pole slipping occurrences in the power system.
The OOSPPAM function detects pole slip conditions and trips the generator as fast
as possible, after the first pole-slip if the center of oscillation is found to be in zone
1, which normally includes the generator and its step-up power transformer. If the
center of oscillation is found to be further out in the power system, in zone 2, more
than one pole-slip is usually allowed before the generator-transformer unit is
disconnected. A parameter setting is available to take into account the circuit
breaker opening time. If there are several out-of-step relays in the power system,
then the one which finds the center of oscillation in its zone 1 should operate first.
Two current channels I3P1 and I3P2 are available in OOSPPAM function to allow
the direct connection of two groups of three-phase currents; that may be needed for
very powerful generators, with stator windings split into two groups per phase,
when each group is equipped with current transformers. The protection function
performs a simple summation of the currents of the two channels I3P1 and I3P2.

7.16.3

Function block
OOSPPAM
I3P1*
I3P2*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKGEN
BLKMOT
EXTZ1

TRIP
TRIPZ1
TRIPZ2
START
GENMODE
MOTMODE
R
X
SLIPFREQ
ROTORANG
UCOSPHI

IEC12000188-3-en.vsd
IEC12000188 V3 EN

Figure 204:

OOSPPAM function block
403

Technical Manual

Section 7
Impedance protection
7.16.4

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Signals
Table 189:
Name

OOSPPAM Input signals
Type

Default

Description

I3P1

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Group connection for three-phase current input 1

I3P2

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Group connection for three-phase current input 2

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Group connection for three-phase voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

0

Block of function

BLKGEN

BOOLEAN

0

Block operation in generating direction

BLKMOT

BOOLEAN

0

Block operation in motor direction

EXTZ1

BOOLEAN

0

Extension of zone1 reach to zone2 settings

Table 190:
Name

OOSPPAM Output signals
Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip, issued when either zone 1 or zone
2 give trip

TRIPZ1

BOOLEAN

Zone 1 trip

TRIPZ2

BOOLEAN

Zone 2 trip

START

BOOLEAN

Set when measured impedance enters lens
characteristic

GENMODE

BOOLEAN

Generator rotates faster than the system during
pole slip

MOTMODE

BOOLEAN

Generator rotates slower than the system during
pole slip

R

REAL

Real part of measured positive-sequence
impedance % of UBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

X

REAL

Imaginary part of measured positive-seq
impedance % of UBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

SLIPFREQ

REAL

Slip frequency in Hz

ROTORANG

REAL

Rotor angle as estimated by the out-of-step
function

UCOSPHI

REAL

Estimated Ucos(Phi) voltage during pole slip, in V

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

7.16.5
Table 191:
Name

Settings
OOSPPAM Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

-

-

Off

Operation Off / On

OperationZ1

Off
On

-

-

On

Operation Zone1 Off / On

ReachZ1

1.00 - 100.00

% ZFw

0.01

50.00

Percentage part of total forward
impedance; defines Z1 reach

OperationZ2

Off
On

-

-

On

Operation Zone2 Off / On

tBreaker

0.000 - 1.000

s

0.001

0.040

Breaker opening time; use default 0s
value if it is unknown

Table 192:
Name

OOSPPAM Group settings (advanced)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

NoOfSlipsZ1

1 - 20

-

1

1

Number of pole-slips in zone 1 required
to get zone 1 trip

NoOfSlipsZ2

1 - 60

-

1

3

Number of pole-slips in zone 2 required
to get zone 2 trip

tReset

1.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

6.000

Time without any slip required to
completely reset function

Table 193:
Name

OOSPPAM Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

GlobalBaseSel

1 - 12

-

1

1

Selection of one of the Global Base
Value groups

ForwardR

0.00 - 1000.00

%ZB

0.01

1.00

Real part of total forward impedance for
Z2, in % of UBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

ForwardX

0.00 - 1000.00

%ZB

0.01

10.00

Imag. part of total forward impedance for
Z2, in % of UBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

ReverseR

0.00 - 1000.00

%ZB

0.01

1.00

Real part of source impedance behind
relay, in % of UBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

ReverseX

0.00 - 1000.00

%ZB

0.01

10.00

Imag. part of source impedance behind
relay, in % of UBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

InvertCTCurr

No
Yes

-

-

No

Invert current direction

Table 194:
Name

OOSPPAM Non group settings (advanced)
Step

Default

StartAngle

Values (Range)
90.0 - 130.0

Unit
Deg

0.1

110.0

Description
Angle between two rotors to get the start
signal, in deg

TripAngle

15.0 - 90.0

Deg

0.1

60.0

Maximum rotor angle to allow trip
signals, in deg

405
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Section 7
Impedance protection
7.16.6

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Monitored data
Table 195:
Name

7.16.7

OOSPPAM Monitored data
Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

CURRENT

REAL

-

A

Magnitude of the
measured positivesequence current, in A

VOLTAGE

REAL

-

kV

Magnitude of the
measured positivesequence voltage, in V

R

REAL

-

%

Real part of measured
positive-sequence
impedance % of UBase/
(sqrt(3)*IBase)

X

REAL

-

%

Imaginary part of
measured positive-seq
impedance % of UBase/
(sqrt(3)*IBase)

SLIPFREQ

REAL

-

Hz

Slip frequency in Hz

ROTORANG

REAL

-

deg

Rotor angle as estimated
by the out-of-step
function

UCOSPHI

REAL

-

kV

Estimated Ucos(Phi)
voltage during pole slip,
in V

Operation principle
General
Under balanced and stable conditions, a generator operates with a constant rotor
angle (power angle), delivering active electrical power to the power system, which
is approximately equal to the input mechanical power on the generator axis.The
currents and voltages are constant and stable. An out-of-step condition is
characterized by periodic changes in the rotor angle, that leads to a wild flow of the
synchronizing power; so there are also periodic changes of rotational speed,
currents and voltages. When displayed in the complex impedance plane, these
changes are characterized by a cyclic change in the complex load impedance Z(R,
X) as measured at the terminals of the generator, or at the location of the
instrument transformers of a power line connecting two power subsystems. This is
shown in Figure 205.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Imaginary part (X) of Z in Ohms

1.5

← trajectory

of Z(R, X)

The 2nd
pole slip
occurred

1

The 1st
pole slip
occurred

X in Ohms

to the 3rd
pole-slip

Pre-disturbance
RE
normal load
- - - ----------- - - - Z(R, X)
------Zone 2
3 ---1 ----0
-- 2
--^ --^ ^ ^ ^ --^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ---^ ^-- ^ ^ ^ -^
-Zone 1
------- relay
----R in Ohms
limit of reach → ------- - →----- ------ 0- - - pre-disturbance Z(R, X)
lens determined

- -- - - - -by the setting
1 → Z(R, X) under 3-phase fault
StartAngle = 120°
SE
2 → Z(R, X) when fault cleared

0.5

0

-0.5

3 → Z when pole-slip declared

-1

-1.5

-1

-0.5
0
0.5
Real part (R) of Z in Ohms

1

1.5
IEC10000109-1-en.vsd

IEC10000109 V1 EN

Figure 205:

Loci of the complex impedance Z(R, X) for a typical case of
generator losing step after a short circuit that was not cleared fast
enough

Under typical, normal load conditions, when the protected generator supplies the
active and the reactive power to the power system, the complex impedance Z(R, X)
is in the 1st quadrant, point 0 in Figure 205. One can see that under a three-phase
fault conditions, the centre of oscillation is at the point of fault, point 1, which is
logical, as all three voltages are zero or near zero at that point. Under the fault
conditions the generator accelerated and when the fault was finally cleared, the
complex impedance Z(R, X) jumped to the point 2. By that time, the generator has
already lost its step, Z(R, X) continues its way from the right-hand side to the lefthand side, and the 1st pole-slip cannot be avoided. If the generator is not
immediately disconnected, it will continue pole-slipping — see Figure 205, where
two pole-slips (two pole-slip cycles) are shown. Under out-of-step conditions, the
centre of oscillation is where the locus of the complex impedance Z(R, X) crosses
the (impedance) line connecting the points SE (Sending End), and RE (Receiving
End). The point on the SE – RE line where the trajectory of Z(R, X) crosses the
impedance line can change with time and is mainly a function of the internal
induced voltages at both ends of the equivalent two-machine system, that is, at
points SE and RE.
Measurement of the magnitude, direction and rate-of-change of load impedance
relative to a generator’s terminals provides a convenient and generally reliable
means of detecting whether machines are out-of-step and pole-slipping is taking
place. Measurement of the rotor (power) angle δ is important as well.
Rotor (power) angle δ can be thought of as the angle between the two lines,
connecting point 0 in Figure 205, that is, Z(R, X) under normal load, with the

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

points SE and RE, respectively. These two lines are not shown in Figure 205.
Normal values of the power angle, that is, under stable, steady-state, load
conditions, are from 30 to 60 electrical degrees. It can be observed in Figure 206
that the angle reaches 180 degrees when the complex impedance Z(R, X) crosses
the impedance line SE – RE. It then changes the sign, and continues from -180
degrees to 0 degrees, and so on. Figure 206 shows the rotor (power) angle and the
magnitude of Z(R, X) against time for the case from Figure 205.

Impe dance Z in Ohm and rotor a ngle in radian ®

4
3

|Z| in Ohms
angle in rad

normal
load

rotor (power)
angle

Z(R, X) unde r fa ult lies
on the impe dance line
or nea r (for 3-ph faults )

2

|Z|

1

0
0
fault 500 ms
fa ult
occ urrs

-1

Unde r 3-pha s e fa ult
condition rotor a ngle
of a pp. ±180 de gre e s
is m e a s ure d ...

-2

3
2

-3

1

1
-4

0

200

400

Z(R,X) cros s e d
the im pe da nce line , Z-line ,
conne cting points S E - RE

600
800
1000
Time in millis econds ®

1200

1400

IEC10000110-2-en.vsd
IEC10000110 V2 EN

Figure 206:

Rotor (power) angle and magnitude of the complex impedance
Z(R, X) against the time

In order to be able to fully understand the principles of OOSPPAM, a stable case,
that is, a case where the disturbance does not make a generator to go out-of-step,
must be shown.

408
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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

1

SE

Imaginary part (X) of Z in Ohms →

0.8

RE

G
relay

0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6

this circle forms
the right-hand side
edge of the lens

-0.8
-1

Z(R,X) 20 ms
after line out

fault

- - - - - RE
- ----- ----- 4 - ---zone 2 - ------ 2
---1
------ fault→
-3
X-line → ^ -^ ^ ^ ^ ---^ ^
^
^
^ ^ ^ ^ ^-- ^ ^ ^ -^
----- Z-line→
--------limit of
-- relay
lens → -reach
-110° -----zone 1- ------------ ------- ---- - -- - - -- - SE

0.6

-1

X [Ohm]

-0.5

pre-fault
Z(R,X)
5
0

6

R

0 → pre-fault Z(R, X)
3 → Z(R, X) under fault
5 → Z 20 ms after line out
6 → pow er line reclosed

0
0.5
Real part (R) of Z in Ohms →

1

1.5

IEC10000111-1-en.vsd

IEC10000111 V1 EN

Figure 207:

A stable case where the disturbance does not make the generator
to go out-of-step

It shall be observed that for a stable case, as shown in Figure 207, where the
disturbance does not cause the generator to lose step, the complex impedance Z(R,
X) exits the lens characteristic on the same side (point 4) it entered it (point 2), and
never re-enters the lens. In a stable case, where the protected generator remains in
synchronism, the complex impedance returns to quadrant 1, and, after the
oscillations fade, it returns to the initial normal load position (point 0), or near.

7.16.7.1

Lens characteristic
A precondition in order to be able to construct a suitable lens characteristic is that
the power system in which OOSPPAM is installed, is modeled as a two-machine
equivalent system, or as a single machine – infinite bus equivalent power system.
Then the impedances from the position of OOSPPAM in the direction of the
normal load flow (that is from the measurement point to the remote system) can be
taken as forward. The lens characteristic, as shown in Figure205 and Figure207, is
obtained so that two equal in size but differently offset Mho characteristics are set
to overlap. The resultant lens characteristic is the loci of complex impedance Z(R,
X) for which the rotor (power) angle is constant, for example 110 degrees or 120
degrees; if the rotor (power) angle approaches this value, then there is a high risk to
have an out of step condition. The limit-of- reach circle is constructed
automatically by the algorithm; it is about 10% wider than the the circle that has
the line SE-RE as diameter (that is the out-of-step characteristic which corresponds
to the rotor (power) angle of 90 degrees). Figure 208 illustrates construction of the
lens characteristic for a power system.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Imaginary part (X) of Z in Ohms

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6

X
Position of the OOS
- RE
- - - - relay is the origin of
-- - -- ----the R - X plane
---- Ze
-- Zone 2
-X-line
---determined
-- Zline
--by the → ^ ^- ^
^ ^ ^-- ^
setting
^ ^ ^ ^
^ ^ ^ --- ^
-ReachZ1
^ ^ ^--Ztr
R
----- Zone 1 -relay
-120° -- Z(R,X)
---Z-line --←
-- Zgen
----limit-of-reach → - locus
-- Lens is the
--- ←
-circle depends on -of
constant
rotor (power)
---the position of the
- e.g. 120°.
-- - --angle,
- points SE and RE
- - -- - - - - - -Lens' width determined
SE
by the setting StartAngle
-0.8

-0.6

-0.4

-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
Real part (R) of Z in Ohms

0.6

0.8

1

IEC10000112-1-en.vsd
IEC10000112 V1 EN

Figure 208:

Construction of the lens characteristic for a power system

ReverseZ
ReverseZ(ReverseR,
ReverseX))
Zgen(Rgen , Xgen)

ForwardZ(ForwardR, ForwardX)

Ztr(Rtr, Xtr)

Generator
13.8 kV

Zline(Rline, Xline)

Infinite power
system

Transformer
13.8 / 220 kV
13.8 kV

G

d

Y

Zeq(Req, Xeq)

Power line
220 kV

System
equivalent

SE

REG

RE
Out-Of-Step
protection
OOSPPAM

ReverseR = Rg
ReverseX = Xd’

ForwardR = Rtr + Rline + Req
ForwardX = Xtr + Xline + Xeq

All impedances must be referred to the generator voltage 13.8 kV
IEC10000113-2-en.vsd

IEC10000113 V2 EN

Figure 209:

Example of an actual power system

To be able to automatically construct the lens characteristic for a system shown in
Figure 209, the actual power system must be modeled as a two-machine equivalent
system, or as a single machine – infinite bus equivalent system, the following
information is necessary: Zgen(Rgen, Xgen), Ztr(Rtr, Xtr), Zline(Rline, Xline),
Zeq(Req, Xeq), and the setting StartAngle , for example 120 degrees. All
impedances must be referred to the voltage level where the out-of-step protection
relay is placed; in the case shown in Figure 209 the relay is connected to the
terminals of the generator and, therefore, the previous quantities shall be referred to
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

the generator nominal voltage and nominal current. The impedances from the
position of the out-of-step protection in the direction of the normal load flow can
be taken as forward.
The out-of-step relay, as in Figure 209 looks into the system and the impedances in
that direction are forward impedances:

ForwardX = Xtr + Xline + Xeq (All values referred to generator voltage)
ForwardR = Rtr + Rline + Req (All values referred to generator voltage)

The impedances that can be measured in the reverse direction are:

ReverseX = Xd' (Generator transient reactance suitable for this protection)
ReverseR = Rg (Relatively very small, can often be neglected)

Resistances are much smaller than reactances, but in general can not be neglected.
The ratio (ForwardX + ReverseX) / (ForwardR + ReverseR) determines the
inclination of the Z-line, connecting the point SE (Sending End) and RE
(Receiving End), and is typically approximately 85 degrees. While the length of the
Z-line depends on the values of ForwardX, ReverseX, ForwardR, and ReverseR,
the width of the lens is a function of the setting StartAngle .The lens is broader for
smaller values of the StartAngle , and becomes a circle for StartAngle = 90 degrees.
When the complex impedance Z(R, X) enters the lens, pole slipping is imminent,
and a start signal is issued. The angle recommended to form the lens is 110 or 120
degrees, because it is this rotor (power) angle where problems with dynamic
stability usually begin. Rotor (power) angle 120 degrees is sometimes called “the
angle of no return” because if this angle is reached under generator power swings,
the generator is most likely to lose step.

7.16.7.2

Detecting an out-of-step condition
An out-of-step condition is characterized by periodic changes of the rotor angle,
that leads to a wild flow of the synchronizing power; so there are also periodic
changes of rotational speed, currents and voltages. When displayed in the complex
impedance plane, these changes are characterized by a cyclic change in the
complex load impedance Z(R, X) as measured at the terminals of the generator, or
at the location of the instrument transformers of a power line connecting two power
sub-systems. This was shown in Figure 205. When a synchronous machine is out-ofstep, pole-slips occur. To recognize a pole-slip, the complex impedance Z(R,X)
must traverse the lens from right to left in case of a generator and in the opposite
direction in case of a motor. Another requirement is that the travel across the lens
takes no less than a specific minimum traverse time, typically 40...60 milliseconds.
The above timing is used to discriminate a fault from an out-of-step condition. In
Figure 205, some important points on the trajectory of Z(R, X) are designated.
Point 0: the pre-fault, normal load Z(R, X). Point 1: impedance Z under a threephase fault with low fault resistance: Z lies practically on, or very near, the Z-line.
Transition of the measured Z from point 0 to point 1 takes app. 20 ms, due to
Fourier filters. Point 2: Z immediately after the fault has been cleared. Transition of
411

Technical Manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

the measured Z from point 1 to point 2 takes approximately 20 ms, due to Fourier
filters. The complex impedance then travels in the direction from the right to the
left, and exits the lens on the opposite side. When the complex impedance exits the
lens on the side opposite to its entrance, the 1st pole-slip has already occurred and
more pole-slips can be expected if the generator is not disconnected. Figure 205
shows two pole-slips. Figures like Figure 205 and Figure 207 are always possible
to draw by means of the analog output data from the pole-slip function, and are of
great help with eventual investigations of the performance of the out-of-step function.

7.16.7.3

Maximum slip frequency
A pole-slip may be detected if it has a slip frequency lower than a maximum value
fsMax. The specific value of fsMax depends on the setting (parameter) StartAngle
(which determines the width of the lens characteristic). A parameter in this
calculation routine is the value of the minimum traverse time, traverseTimeMin.
The minimum traverse time is the minimum time that the travel of the complex
impedance Z(R, X) through the lens, from one side to the other, must last in order
to recognize that a pole-slip has occurred. The value of the internal constant
traverseTimeMin is a function of the set StartAngle.For values of StartAngle <=
110°, traverseTimeMin = 50 ms. For values StartAngle > 110°, traverseTimeMin =
40 ms. The expression which relates the maximum slip frequency fsMax and the
traverseTimeMin is as follows:
fsMax [ Hz ] ≅


StartAngle [°] 
1000
⋅  1.000 

traverseTimeMin [ ms ] 
180 [°]

(Equation 104)

IECEQUATION2319 V1 EN

The maximum slip frequency fsMax for traverseTimeMin = 50 ms is:
StartAngle = 90° → fsMax = 20 × 0.500 = 10.000 Hz
StartAngle = 100° → fsMax = 20 × 0.444 = 8.888 Hz
StartAngle = 110° → fsMax = 20 × 0.388 = 7.777 Hz

(default 110°)

The maximum slip frequency fsMax for traverseTimeMin = 40 ms is:
StartAngle = 120° → fsMax = 25 × 0.333 = 8.333 Hz
StartAngle = 130° → fsMax = 25 × 0.277 = 6.944 Hz

The minimum value of fsMax is 6.994 Hz. When StartAngle = 110 degrees, fsMax
= 7.777 Hz. This implies, that the default StartAngle = 110 degrees covers 90% of
cases as, the typical final slip frequency is between 2 - 5Hz. In practice, however,
before the slip frequency, for example 7.777 Hz, is reached, at least three pole-slips
have occurred. In other words, if we consider a linear increase of frequency from
50 Hz to 57.777 Hz, at least three pole-slips will occur (in fact: (57.777 - 50) / 2 =
3.889). The exact instantaneous slip-frequency expressed in Hz (corresponding to
number of pole slips per second) is difficult to calculate. The easiest and most
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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

exact method is to measure time between two successive pole slips. This means
that, the instantaneous slip-frequency is measured only after the second pole-slip, if
the protected machine is not already disconnected after the first pole-slip. The
measured value of slipsPerSecond (SLIPFREQ) is equal to the average slipfrequency of the machine between the last two successive pole-slips.

7.16.7.4

Taking care of the circuit breaker
Although out-of-step events are relatively rare, the out-of-step protection should
take care of the circuit breaker health. The electromechanical stress to which the
breaker is exposed shall be minimized. The maximum currents flowing under out-ofstep conditions can be even greater that those for a three-phase short circuit on
generator terminals; see Figure 211. The currents flowing are highest at rotor angle
180 degrees, and smallest at 0 degrees, where relatively small currents flow. To
open the circuit breaker at 180 degrees, when not only the currents are highest, but
the two internal (that is, induced) voltages at both ends are in opposition, could be
fatal for the circuit breaker. There are two methods available in order to minimize
the stress; the second method is more advanced than the first one.

The first method
The circuit breaker is only allowed to break the current when the rotor angle has
become less than the set value TripAngle, on its way to 0 electrical degrees. A
recommended value for the setting TripAngle is 90 degrees or less, for example 60
degrees. Figure 210 illustrates the case with TripAngle = 90 degrees. The offset
Mho circle represents loci of the complex impedance Z(R, X) for which the rotor
(power) angle is 90 degrees. If the circuit breaker must not open before the rotor
angle has reached 90 degrees on its way towards 0 degrees, then it is clear that the
circle delimits the R – X plane into a “no trip” and a “trip” region. For TripAngle =
90 degrees, the trip command will be issued at point 3 when the complex
impedance Z(R, X) exits the circle. By that time the relay logic had already
ascertained the loss of step, and the general decision to trip the generator has
already been taken.

The second method
This method is more exact. If the break-time of the circuit breaker is known, (and
specified as the setting tBreaker) than it is possible to initiate a trip (break)
command almost exactly tBreaker milliseconds before the rotor (power) angle
reaches 0 degrees, where the currents are at their minimum possible values. The
breaker contacts open at almost exactly 0 degrees, as illustrated in Figure 211 for
tBreaker = 0.060 s. The point in time when the breaker opening process must be
initiated is estimated by solving on-line the so called “synchronizer” differential
equation. Note that if tBreaker is left on the initial (default) value, which is zero
(0), then the alternative setting TripAngle decides when the trip command is given.
If specified tBreaker > 0, for example tBreaker = 0.040 second, then automatically,
the TripAngle is ignored and the second, more exact method applied.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Imaginary part (X) of Z in Ohms →

0.6

trip
region

0.4

3
here rotor
angle
is -90°

0.2

0

X[Ohm]

loci of Z(R, X)
no trip
region
no trip
region

-0.6

here
rotor angle
is +90°

-0.4

rotor angle
= ±180°

relay

R[Ohm]

← Z - line connects
points SE & RE

← this circle

is loci of
the rotor
angle = 90°

outside the
circle is the trip
region for
TripAngle <= 90°

-0.4

1
2

no trip
region
inside
circle

-0.2

RE - Receiving End (infinite bus)

SE - Sending End (generator)
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
Real part (R) of Z in Ohms →

0.6

0.8

IEC10000114-1-en.vsd
IEC10000114 V1 EN

Figure 210:

The imaginary offset Mho circle represents loci of the impedance
Z(R, X) for which the rotor angle is 90 degrees

Current in kA, trip command to CB, rotor angle in rad →

35

very high currents due
to out-of-step condition

pos. seq. current in kA
trip command to CB

30

rotor angle in radian
fault cleared →

25

← 2nd

20

current increases under
fault conditions
current decreases

15
fault
occurs

10
5

trip command →
issued here
← normal load current

← min. current
← tBreaker = 60 ms

← rotor angle

0
-5

← after 1st
pole slip

angle towards 0°
0

200

400
600
800
Time in milliseconds →

1000

1200

IEC10000115-1-en.vsd
IEC10000115 V1 EN

Figure 211:

Trip initiation when the break-time of the circuit breaker is known

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

7.16.7.5

Design
At every execution of the function the following is calculated: active power P,
reactive power Q, rotor angle ROTORANG, quantity UCOSPHI, the positivesequence current CURRENT and voltage VOLTAGE. All other quantities, that can as
well be read as outputs, are only calculated if the Z(R, X) enters the limit of reach
zone, which is a circle in the complex (R – X) plane. When the complex impedance
Z(R, X) enters the limit-of-reach region, the algorithm:

determines in which direction the impedance Z moves, that is, the direction the
lens is traversed
measures the time taken to traverse the lens from one side to the other one

If the traverse time is more than the limit 40 or 50 ms, a pole-slip is declared. If the
complex impedance Z(R, X) exits the lens on the same side it entered, then it is a
stable case and the protected machine is still in synchronism. If a pole-slip has been
detected, then it is determined in which zone the centre of oscillation is located. If
the number of actual pole-slips exceeds the maximum number of allowed poleslips in either of the zones, a trip command is issued taking care of the circuit
breaker safety.
UPSRE
UPSIM
UPSMAG
IPSRE
IPSIM

R
X

Calculation of
R and X parts
of the complex
positivesequence
impedance
Z(R, X)

R
X

Z(R,X)
Z(R,X)
within limit of
reach?

NO

Return

YES
Z(R,X)
within lens
characteristic?

UCOSPHI
NO

ROTORANG
Function alert
SLIPFREQ

YES
LEFT
Motor losing
step ?

Calculation of
positive- sequence
active power P,
reactive power Q,
rotor angle
ROTORANG
and
UCOSPHI

Z(R,X)
entered lens
from?

GENMODE
Z(R,X)
RIGHT
exited lens
on the left- hand
side?
Generator losing
step ?
YES
Was
traverse time
more than
50 ms?

P

ROTORANG

NO

YES (pole- slip!)

Q

UCOSPHI

MOTMODE

NO

ZONE 2

>= 1

Number
of pole- slips
exceeded in
a zone?

TRIP

NO

ZONE 1

Open
circuit
breaker
safely

TRIPZ1
TRIPZ2

IEC10000116-3-en.vsd
IEC10000116 V3 EN

Figure 212:

OOSPPAM Simplified function block

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7.16.8

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Technical data
Table 196:

OOSPPAM technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Impedance reach

(0.00 - 1000.00)% of Zbase

± 2.0% of Ur/(√3 ⋅ Ir)

Rotor start angle

(90.0 - 130.0) degrees

± 5.0 degrees

Rotor trip angle

(15.0 - 90.0) degrees

± 5.0 degrees

Zone 1 and Zone 2 trip counters

(1 - 20)

-

7.17

Phase preference logic PPLPHIZ

7.17.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Phase preference logic

7.17.2

PPLPHIZ

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Functionality
Phase preference logic function PPLPHIZ is intended to be used in isolated or high
impedance earthed networks where there is a requirement to trip only one of the
faulty lines at cross-country fault.
Phase preference logic inhibits tripping for single phase-to-earth faults in isolated
and high impedance earthed networks, where such faults are not to be cleared by
distance protection. For cross-country faults, the logic selects either the leading or
the lagging phase-earth loop for measurement and initiates tripping of the preferred
fault based on the selected phase preference. A number of different phase
preference combinations are available for selection.

7.17.3

Function block
PPLPHIZ
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
RELL1N
RELL2N
RELL3N
STCND

START
ZREL

IEC07000029-2-en.vsd
IEC07000029 V2 EN

Figure 213:

7.17.4

PPLPHIZ function block

Signals

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

Table 197:

PPLPHIZ Input signals

Name

Type
GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

-

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

0

Block of function

RELL1N

BOOLEAN

0

Release condition for the L1 to earth loop

RELL2N

BOOLEAN

0

Release condition for the L2 to earth loop

RELL3N

BOOLEAN

0

Release condition for the L3 to earth loop

STCND

INTEGER

0

Integer coded external release signals

PPLPHIZ Output signals

Name

Table 199:
Name

Description

I3P

Table 198:

7.17.5

Default

Type

Description

START

BOOLEAN

Indicates start for earth fault(s), regardless of
direction

ZREL

INTEGER

Integer coded output release signal

Settings
PPLPHIZ Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

OperMode

No Filter
NoPref
1231c
1321c
123a
132a
213a
231a
312a
321a

-

-

No Filter

Operating mode (c=cyclic,a=acyclic)

UPN<

0 - 100

%UB

1

70

Operate value of phase undervoltage in
% of UBase/sqrt(3)

UPP<

0 - 100

%UB

1

50

Operate value of line to line
undervoltage (% of UBase)

3U0>

5 - 300

%UB

1

20

Operate value of residual voltage in % of
UBase/sqrt(3)

IN>

10 - 200

%IB

1

20

Operate value of residual current (% of
IBase)

tUN

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.100

Pickup-delay for residual voltage

tOffUN

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.100

Dropoff-delay for residual voltage

tIN

0.000 - 60.000

s

0.001

0.150

Pickup-delay for residual current

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Table 200:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

7.17.6

1MRK 504 139-UEN -

PPLPHIZ Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base
Value groups

Operation principle
Phase preference logic PPLPHIZ has 10 operation modes, which can be set by the
parameter OperMode. The different modes and their explanation are shown in
table 201 below. The difference between cyclic and acyclic operation can be
explained by the following example. Assume a L1 fault on one line and a L3 fault
on another line. For OperMode = 1231c the line with L3 fault will be tripped (L3
before L1) while for OperMode = 123a the line with L1 1 fault will be tripped (L1
before L3).
Table 201:
OperMode

Operation modes for Phase preference logic
Description

No filter

No filter, phase-to-phase measuring loops are not blocked during single phase-toearth faults. Tripping is allowed without any particular phase preference at crosscountry faults

No pref

No preference, trip is blocked during single phase-to-earth faults, trip is allowed
without any particular phase preference at cross-country fault

1231 c

Cyclic 1231c; L1 before L2 before L3 before L1

1321 c

Cyclic 1321c; L1 before L3 before L2 before L1

123 a

Acyclic 123a; L1 before L2before L3

132 a

Acyclic 132a; L1 before L3 before L2

213 a

Acyclic 213a; L2 before L1 before L3

231 a

Acyclic 231a; L2 before L3 before L1

312 a

Acyclic 312a; L3 before L1 before L2

321 a

Acyclic 321a; L3 before L2 before L1

The function can be divided into two parts; one labeled voltage and current
discrimination and the second one labeled phase preference evaluation, see
figure 214.
The aim with the voltage and current discrimination part is to discriminate faulty
phases and to determine if there is a cross-country fault. If cross-country fault is
detected, an internal signal “Detected cross-country fault” is created and sent to the
phase preference part to be used in the evaluation process for determining the
condition for trip.
The voltage and current discrimination part gives phase segregated start signals if
the respective measured phase voltage is below the setting parameter UPN< at the
same time as the zero sequence voltage is above the setting parameter 3U0>. If
there is a start in any phase the START output signal will be activated.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN -

The internal signal for detection of cross-country fault, DetectCrossCountry, that
come from the voltage and current discrimination part of the function can be
achieved in three different ways:
1.
2.

3.

The magnitude of 3I0 has been above the setting parameter IN> for a time
longer than the setting of pick-up timer tIN.
The magnitude of 3I0 has been above the setting parameter IN> at the same
time as the magnitude of 3U0 has been above the setting parameter 3U0>
during a time longer than the setting of pick-up timer tUN.
The magnitude of 3I0 has been above the setting parameter IN> at the same
time as one of the following conditions are fulfilled:

the measured phase-to-phase voltage in at least one of the phase
combinations has been below the setting parameter UPP< for more than
20 ms.
At least two of the phase voltages are below the setting parameter UPN<
for more than 20 ms.

The second part, phase preference evaluation, uses the internal signal
DetectCrossCountry from the voltage and current evaluation together with the
input signal STCND together with phase selection start condition (from phase
selection functions) connected to input STCND, and the information from the
setting parameter OperMode are used to determine the condition for trip. To
release the Phase preference logic, at least two out of three phases must be faulty.
The fault classification whether it is a single phase-to-earth, two-phase or crosscountry fault and which phase to be tripped at cross-country fault is converted into
a binary coded signal and sent to the distance protection measuring zone to release
the correct measuring zone according to the setting of OperMode. This is done by
activating the output ZREL and it shall be connected to the input STCND on the
distance zone measuring element.
The code built up for release of the measuring fault loops is as follows: STCND =
L1N*1 + L2N*2 + L3N*4 + L1L2*8 + L2L3*16 + L3L1*32. Example: if only
L1N start the value is 1, if start L1N and L3N are choosen, the value is 1+4=5.
The release signals from phase selection will only be gated with the cross-country
check from IN and UN but without time delay. If no phase selection start has
occurred, the release is based on current and voltage discriminating part only.
The input signal STCND consist of binary information of fault type and is
connected to the output STCND on phase selection function. The fault must be
activated in at least two phases to be classified as a cross-country fault in the phase
preference part of the logic.
The input signals RELxxx are additional fault release signals that can be connected
to external protection functions through binary input.
The output START and trip signals can be blocked by activating the input BLOCK

419
Technical Manual

residual voltage (5 .000 .200)% of IBase ± 1.300)% of UBase ± 0.5% of U for U > Ur Reset ratio.5% of Ur for U ≤ Ur ± 0. residual current (10 .2% or ± 25 ms whichever is greater Table continues on next page 420 Technical Manual .0% of I for I > Ir Reset ratio.vsd IEC09000220 V2 EN Figure 214: Simplified block diagram for Phase preference logic Table 202: PPLPHIZ technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Operate value.000) s ± 0. phase-to-phase and phase-to-neutral undervoltage (1 .5% of Ur Reset ratio.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - UL1 UL2 UL3 UL1UL2 UL2UL3 UL3UL1 IN Voltage and Current Discrimination UN UPN< START AND UPP< IN> Detect CrossCountry fault UN0> OperMode RELL1N RELL2N Phase Preference Evaluation ZREL AND RELL3N STCND BLOCK IEC09000220_1_en.0% of Ir for I ≤ Ir ± 1. residual voltage > 95% - Operate value. residual current > 95% - Independent time delay for residual current at 0 to 2 x Iset (0. undervoltage < 105% - Operate value.60.100)% of UBase ± 0.

421 Technical Manual . 1321c Acyclic: 123a.2 x Uset (0.18. in addition.2 to 0. The three zones have fully independent measuring loops and settings. Built-in compensation for the step-up transformer vector group connection is available.000) s ± 0.000 .Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function Range or value Accuracy Independent time delay for residual voltage at 0.2% or ± 25 ms whichever is greater Independent dropoff-delay for residual voltage at 1. 321a 7. 312a.1 Identification Function description Under impedance function for generators and transformers IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ZGVPDIS ANSI/ IEEEidentification 21G S00346 V1 EN 7.000) s ± 0.60.2% or ± 25 ms whichever is greater Operating mode No Filter. generatortransformer and transmission system. 213a.18.8 x Uset (0. 132a. NoPref Cyclic: 1231c. The functionality also comprises an under voltage sealin feature to ensure issuing of a trip even if the current transformer goes into saturation and.18 Under impedance protection for generators and transformers ZGVPDIS 7.8 to 1.60.000 . the positive-sequence-based load encroachment feature for the second and the third impedance zone. 231a.2 Functionality The under impedance protection is a three zone full scheme impedance protection using offset mho characteristics for detecting faults in the generator.

4 ZGVPDIS function block Signals Table 203: Name ZGVPDIS Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Connection for current sample signals U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Connection for voltage sample signals BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of the function BLKZ BOOLEAN 0 Block due to fuse failure BLKUV BOOLEAN 0 Block of the under voltage seal in Table 204: Name ZGVPDIS Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN General Trip TRZ1 BOOLEAN Trip signal Zone 1 TRZ2 BOOLEAN Trip signal Zone 2 TRZ3 BOOLEAN Trip signal Zone 3 TRUV BOOLEAN Trip from Under voltage seal in START BOOLEAN General start STZ1 BOOLEAN Start signal Zone 1 STZ2 BOOLEAN Start signal Zone 2 STZ3 BOOLEAN Start signal Zone 3 STUV BOOLEAN Start of under voltage seal in 422 Technical Manual .Section 7 Impedance protection 7.vsd IEC14000018 V1 EN Figure 215: 7.3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block ZGVPDIS I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKZ BLKUV TRIP TRZ1 TRZ2 TRZ3 TRUV START STZ1 STZ2 STZ3 STUV IEC14000018-1-en.18.18.

0 Zone 2 forward reach in % of rated impedance.0 % Zb 0.001 5.000 s 0.1 75.0 .90 Deg 1 80 Impedance angle in degrees.0 Zone 1 forward reach in % of rated impedance.200.0 Zone 3 reverse reach in % of rated impedance. 100%=full load tZ1 0.100. common for all zones IMinOp 5 .000 Time delay to operate for under voltage seal in Table 206: Name ZGVPDIS Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description RLd 5 .000 .80 %IB 1 10 Minimum operate phase current OpModeZ1 Off PP Loops - - PP Loops Operation mode of Zone 1: Off/Ph-Ph loops Z1Fwd 3. 100%=full load Z3Rev 3.90 %UB 1 70 Start value of under voltage seal in tU< 0. 100%=full load tZ2 0.500 Time delay to operate for Zone 3 OpModeU< Off Z2Start Z3Start - - Off Enable under voltage seal in (Off/Z2Start/ Z3Start) U< 5 .0 % Zb 0.000 s 0.60.85 Deg 1 38 Load encroachment inclination of load angular sector LoadEnchModZ2 Off On - - Off Enable load encroachement for Zone 2 Off/On LoadEnchModZ3 Off On - - On Enable load encroachement for Zone 3 Off/On 423 Technical Manual .200.5 Table 205: Name Settings ZGVPDIS Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On ImpedanceAng 5 .1 8.001 1.200.60.001 0.000 Time delay to operate for Zone 1 OpModeZ2 Off PP Loops EnhancedReach - - EnhancedReach Operation mode of Zone 2: Off/Ph-Ph/ EnhancedReach Z2Fwd 3.0 .60.120 % Zb 1 50 Resistive reach in % for load encroachment charateristics ArgLd 5 .0 % Zb 0.100.000 s 0.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 7. 100%=full load Z1Rev 3.200. 100%=full load Z2Rev 3.000 .500 Time delay to operate for Zone 2 OpModeZ3 Off PP Loops EnhancedReach - - EnhancedReach Operation mode of Zone 3: Off/Ph-Ph/ EnhancedReach Z3Fwd 3.000 s 0.1 15.60.18.1 8.0 .000 .0 Zone 1 reverse reach in % of rated impedance.0 % Zb 0.0 % Zb 0.000 .0 % Zb 0.001 0. 100%=full load tZ3 0.1 8.0 Zone 2 reverse reach in % of rated impedance.0 .1 8.0 .0 .0 Zone 3 forward reach in % of rated impedance.

Zone2 and zone3 can be selected for phase –to-phase or Enhanced reach loop. Each zone consists of measuring loops which uses self-polarized offset mho characteristics with both forward and reverse reach settings for the detection of the 424 Technical Manual .12 Step - 1 Description 1 Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 208: ZGVPDIS Monitored data Name 7.18.7 Default Type Values (Range) Unit Description UL1 REAL - kV Voltage in phase L1 UL2 REAL - kV Voltage in phase L2 UL3 REAL - kV Voltage in phase L3 IL1 REAL - A Current in phase L1 IL2 REAL - A Current in phase L2 IL3 REAL - A Current in phase L3 Operation principle The full scheme backup distance element constitutes of three operating zones.18.6 1MRK 504 139-UEN - ZGVPDIS Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit 1 . Each measuring loop use the offset mho characteristic The base value of impedance can be calculated according to equation 105. ZBase is the base value of impedance UBase is the line-to-line voltage rating at the generator terminal IBase is the line current rating at the generator terminal The minimum operating current is provided using the setting IMinOp.Section 7 Impedance protection Table 207: Name GlobalBaseSel 7. Zone1 has only the phase-to-phase loops enabled. All the outputs will be blocked by activation of the BLOCK or BLKZ input. Offset mho characteristic ZGVPDIS consists of three distance elements operated for three zones separately. ZBase = UBase 3 IBase (Equation 105) IECEQUATION1400024 V1 EN Where.

The operating characteristics of all the three zones are shown in Figure 216. Zone1 ImpedanceAng R IEC11000294-2-en.vsd IEC11000294 V2 EN Figure 216: Offset mho characteristics of three zones The complete functionality is shown in figure 217. The ImpedanceAngle setting is common to all three zones. Zone2 Offset Mho. jX Offset Mho.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - fault in the respective zone. 425 Technical Manual . Zone3 Offset Mho.

426 Technical Manual .1 Block diagram of ZGVPDIS Operation principle of zone 1 In general.18.7. Under impedance functionality is provided as selective protection for the phase-tophase faults in zone 1. Zone 1 functionality can be set to PP Loops or Off using the setting OpModeZ1. Hence the functionality of zone 1 includes only phase-tophase measuring loops. Figure 218 shows the functionality of zone 1. the zone 1 must cover the generator winding.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - U3P STZ1 I3P ZONE 1 BLKZ OpModeZ1 Z1Fwd Z1Rev tZ1 BLOCK TRZ1 START ³1 STZ2 ZONE 2 OpModeZ2 Z2Fwd Z2Rev tZ2 LoadEnchModZ2 TRZ2 OPERATE ³1 ³1 STZ3 ZONE 3 OpModeZ3 Z3Fwd Z3Rev tZ3 LoadEnchModZ3 TRZ3 LoadEnch RLd ArgLd BLCKUV UVSealIn TRUV OpModeU< U< tU< STUV IEC11000295-3-en. the cables or busbars and step up transformer.vsd IEC11000295 V2 EN Figure 217: 7.

vsd IEC11000297 V3 EN Figure 218: Block diagram of zone 1 The functionality included in zone 1: • • • • Comparator to detect. Forward and reverse reach values are provided in percentage of impedance base value at generator. if the operating impedance has entered inside zone 1 offset mho characteristic. 427 Technical Manual . Comparator characteristics The comparator consists of offset mho characteristics.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - BLOCK BLKZ U3P I3P Comparator ZL1L2 < OpModeZ1 Z1Fwd Z1Rev ImpedanceAng Comparator ZL2L3 < STZ1 tZ1 ³1 TRZ1 t OPModeZ1 Z1Fwd Z1Rev ImpedanceAng Comparator ZL3L1 < OpModeZ1 Z1Fwd Z1Rev ImpedanceAng IEC11000297-3-en. All three phase-to-phase loops are implemented separately. Operate time delay is provided. Three individual comparators are provided in the three phase-to-phase loops. The offset mho characteristic is as shown in figure 219.

I L1L2 · Z1Fwd ß Ucomp2=UL1L2 + IL1L2 · Z1REV IL1L2 · R . 428 Technical Manual . Z1Fwd and Z1Rev are the forward and reverse reach percentage values and ImpedanceAng is the characteristic angle provided for the zone 1 operation region.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IL1L2 · jX IL1L2 · Z 1Fwd Ucomp1=UL1L2 .IL1L2· Z1REV IEC11000296-2-en.18.7.2 Operation principle of zone 2 Figure 220 shows the function block diagram describing the functionality of zone 2.vsd IEC11000296 V2 EN Figure 219: Simplified offset mho characteristics for L1-L2 fault in zone 1 Criteria: Operation occurs if 90° ≤ β ≤ 270°. In the above characteristics. 7. Z 1Fwd = Z 1Fwd Ð ImpedanceAng (Equation 106) IECEQUATION14000025 V2 EN Z 1Rev = Z 1revÐ ImpedanceAng (Equation 107) IECEQUATION14000026 V2 EN Voltage and current phasors selected for phase-to-phase loops are: Sl.No Phase-to-phase loop 1 2 3 L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Voltage phasor Current phasor UL1L 2 IL1L 2 UL2 L3 IL 2 L3 UL3L1 IL3L1 Operate time The operate time delay for zone 1 can be provided using the setting tZ1.

429 Technical Manual . The time to trip is provided in order to coordinate with the zone 1 element on the shortest outgoing line from the bus.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - U3P Zero sequence Voltage Compensation I3P BLKZ Measuring Loop EnhancedReach OpModeZ2 Z2Fwd Z2Rev ImpedanceAng ³1 Measuring Loop phase-to-phase STZ2 & (ZL1L2<. It also covers to some degree. The OpModeZ2 can be selected as Off or PP Loops or EnhancedReach. If the OpModeZ2 is selected as EnhancedReach the phase-to-earth measuring loop (L1E. It also protects LV winding of generator transformer and phase-to-earth. L2E and L3E with maximum phase current) is used for the measurement.vsd IEC11000298 V2 EN Figure 220: Block diagram of zone 2 Zone 2 can be used to cover up to the HV side of the transformer and the HV bus bar. Zero sequence compensation for the phase voltages is given in phase-to-earth measuring loops in order to prevent operation for the stator earth faults. Figure 221 shows the logic to detect the phase to earth loop with maximum phase current.ZL2L3<. Zone 2 can be selected for different measuring loops using the setting OpModeZ2. the stator winding. phase-to-phase and three-phase faults in the HV side of transformer and the bus.ZL3L1<) OpModeZ2 Z2Fwd Z2Rev ImpedanceAng tZ2 t TRZ2 LoadEnchModZ2 Load Encroachment RLd ArgLd T 1 F IEC11000298-2-en. A separate maximum current feature is provided in phase-to-earth loop selection which gives correct reach measurement for phase-to-phase fault on HV side. Zone 2 coverage provides backup for the phase-to-phase and three-phase faults in generator.

The reach settings for zone 2 can be provided using the Z2Fwd. Z2Rev and ImpedanceAng settings. The Z2Fwd is forward reach setting and Z2Rev is reverse reach setting.vsd IEC11000307 V1 EN Figure 221: Logic diagram for the selection of the maximum current loop The phase-to-earth voltage is compensated with zero sequence voltage in order to avoid the function operating for earth faults in zone 1. complete generator stator winding and LV winding of the power transformer.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - a i1Mag b A startPh1 startPh2 & i2Mag a b a b & ³1 start B a==b startPh3 & & ³1 i3Mag & a==b C a==b MAX IEC11000307_1_en. that is.vsd IEC11000299 V2 EN Figure 222: Simplified offset mho characteristics for L1-to-E fault in zone 2 430 Technical Manual . The offset mho characteristics for phase-to-phase loop is shown in Figure 223. The offset mho characteristic for phase-to-earth loop is shown in Figure 222. IL1  jX IL1  Z 2 Fwd Ucomp1  UL1E  U 0  IL1  Z 2 Fwd ß Ucomp 2  U L1E  U 0  IL1  Z 2 REV IL1  R  IL1  Z 2 REV IEC11000299-2-en.

Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IL1L 2  jX IL1L2  Z 2 Fwd Ucomp1  UL1L2  IL1L2  Z 2 Fwd ß Ucomp 2  UL1L 2  IL1L 2  Z 2 REV IL1L 2  R  IL1L 2  Z 2 REV IEC11000300-2-en.vsd IEC11000300 V2 EN Figure 223: Simplified offset mho characteristics for L1-to-L2 fault in zone 2 Operation occurs if 90° ≤ β ≤ 270°.No 1 2 3 Measuring Loop L1-L2 L2-L3 L3-L1 Voltage Phasor Current Phasor UL1L 2 IL1L 2 UL2 L3 IL 2 L3 UL3L1 IL3L1 Enhanced Reach: 431 Technical Manual . Z 2 Fwd = Z 2 Fwd Ð ImpedanceAng Z 2 Rev = Z 2 RevÐ ImpedanceAng (Equation 108) GUID-007D6357-B7CF-4C21-B772-2245F06C83A2 V2 EN Voltage and current phasors selected for different measuring loops: Phase Phase: Sl. Impedance defined in the Figure 222 and 223 is described in equation 108.

7.3 Operation principle of zone 3 Zone 3 is used to cover up to the HV side of the transformer. phase-phase and threephase faults on the HV side of the system. Similarly the load encroachment for zone 3 can be enabled by setting LoadEnchModZ3 to On. Load encroachment can be enabled for zone 2 by setting LoadEnchModZ2 to On.U 0 IL1 UL 2 E .18. The zone 3 will provide protection from phase-to-earth.. This feature avoids the function from operating due to load encroachment. 7.U 0 IL3 Operate time The operate time delay for zone 2 can be provided using the setting tZ2. The load encroachment characteristic is based on positive sequence quantities and can be set using the settings RLd and ArgLd. RLd is the positive sequence resistive reach value in percentage. ArgLd is angle in degrees from the origin to the resistive axis as shown in Figure 224. The zone 3 functionality is same as zone 2 hence the explanation of zone 2 applies except the zone 3 has separate reach (Z3Fwd.4 Load encroachment The load encroachment characteristics can be set for zone2 and zone3.No Measuring Loop 1 IL1 2 IL2 3 IL3 Voltage Phasor Current Phasor UL1E . The load encroachment feature for zone 2 can be set using LoadEnchModZ2 to On or Off. 432 Technical Manual .U 0 IL2 UL3E . Zone 2 is provided load encroachment detection feature based on positive sequence components measurements.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Sl. Z3Rev).18. The time to trip should be provided in order to coordinate with the transmission line protection.7. 7. interconnecting bus network and outgoing lines. operate timer (tZ3) and load encroachment enable (LoadEnchModZ3) settings.

where as under impedance function will reset due to CT saturation. 433 Technical Manual . This can be selected using the setting OpModeU< .18.7.5 Load encroachment characteristics Under voltage seal-in The under voltage seal-in logic ensures the trip under fault condition. select Z3Start to choose zone 3 for triggering the seal-in logic. provided the respective selected zone start is also high. Figure 225 shows the functionality of under voltage seal-in for zone 2 and zone 3. If it is constantly high for a time longer than the setting tU<. If any loop detects lower voltage. Under voltage seal-in is activated from the criterion based on line-to-line voltage magnitude. Once the under voltage seal-in logic is triggered. Similarly.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Load encroachment characteristic jX ArgLd ArgLd -RLd ArgLd RLd R ArgLd IEC11000304_1_en IEC11000304 V1 EN Figure 224: 7. the under voltage seal-in logic gets triggered. The voltage criteria checks by comparing all three line-to-line voltage levels with the level given by the setting parameter U<. The start signal of zone 2 and zone 3 elements trigger the under voltage seal-in. The setting OpModeU< can be selected as Off or Z2Start or Z3Start. Select Z2Start to choose zone 2 for triggering the seal-in logic. the pick-up signal STUV becomes high. the tripping signal TRUV is issued as a pulse signal with a duration of one second.

1.8 x set impedance Min = 15 ms Independent time delay to operate at 1.0% of set impedance Conditions: Voltage range: (0.18.1) x Ur Current range: (0.2% or ±40 ms whichever is greater 434 Technical Manual .200.0)% of Zr where Zr=UBase/√3∗IBase ±5.000 – 60.8 x set impedance Max = 35 ms (0.1 .30) x Ir Impedance angle (5 .vsd IEC11000306 V2 EN Figure 225: 7.0 .1) x Ur Current range: (0.2 to 0.000) s - ±0.1.0 .1 .0% of set impedance Conditions: Voltage range: (0.2 to 0.90) degrees - Reset ratio 105% typically - Start time at 1.5 .30) x Ir Reverse reach (3.5 .200.0)% of Zr where Zr=UBase/√3∗IBase ±5.8 Under voltage seal-in for zone 2 and zone 3 Technical data Table 209: ZGVPDIS Technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Number of zones 3 Forward reach (3.Section 7 Impedance protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - STUV - q1 BLOCK BLKUV ³1 Zone 2 Start OpModeU< = 0 = 1 = 2 = Off Z2Start Z3Start int tU< & b0 & Zone 3 Start a U< b uP2P3 a U< b uP3P1 U< 10 ms t ³1 TRUV tPulse =1sec & b1 uP1P2 t - q1 ³1 Drop-Off timer a<b ³1 a<b a a<b b IEC11000306.

vsd IEC04000391 V2 EN Figure 226: 8.1.3 Function block PHPIOC I3P* BLOCK ENMULT TRIP TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 IEC04000391-2-en. 8.1.1 Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3phase output PHPIOC 8.1 Identification Function description IEC 61850 identification Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output IEC 60617 identification PHPIOC ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 50 3I>> SYMBOL-Z V1 EN 8.1.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Section 8 Current protection 8.2 Functionality The instantaneous three phase overcurrent function has a low transient overreach and short tripping time to allow use as a high set short-circuit protection function.4 PHPIOC function block Signals Table 210: Name PHPIOC Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Three phase current BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function ENMULT BOOLEAN 0 Enable current start value multiplier 435 Technical Manual .1.

0 Description Multiplier for operate current level PHPIOC Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .5.1.2500 %IB 1 200 Operate phase current level in % of IBase Table 213: Name StValMult Table 214: Name GlobalBaseSel 8.1.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 211: PHPIOC Output signals Name 8.5 .0 Step - 0. These phase current values are fed to the instantaneous phase overcurrent 436 Technical Manual . The RMS value of each phase current is derived from the fundamental frequency components.12 Unit Step - 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 215: Name 8.5 Table 212: Name Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Trip signal from any phase TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1 TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2 TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3 Settings PHPIOC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OpMode 2 out of 3 1 out of 3 - - 1 out of 3 Select operation mode 2-out of 3 / 1-out of 3 IP>> 5 .7 Unit PHPIOC Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description IL1 REAL - A Current in phase L1 IL2 REAL - A Current in phase L2 IL3 REAL - A Current in phase L3 Operation principle The sampled analogue phase currents are pre-processed in a discrete Fourier filter (DFT) block.1.1 Default 1. as well as sampled values of each phase current.6 PHPIOC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) 0.

2.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - protection 3-phase output function PHPIOC. = 15ms Max. PHPIOC can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK. = 5ms Max.0% of Ir at I ≤ Ir ± 1. = 15 ms - Reset time at 10 to 0 x Iset Min. If a phase current is larger than the set operation current a signal from the comparator for this phase is set to true. If the parameter is set to 2 out of 3 at least two phase signals must be activated for trip.8 Technical data Table 216: PHPIOC technical data Function 8. There is an operation mode (OpMode) setting: 1 out of 3 or 2 out of 3. 8.1. In some applications the operation value needs to be changed. without delay. = 25ms Max. There is also a possibility to activate a preset change of the set operation current (StValMult) via a binary input (ENMULT). This signal will.0% of I at I > Ir Reset ratio > 95% at (50–2500)% of IBase - Operate time at 0 to 2 x Iset Min.2 Range or value Accuracy Operate current (5-2500)% of lBase ± 1. = 25ms - Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset - Operate time at 0 to 10 x Iset Min. activate the output signal TRLn (n=1. for example due to transformer inrush currents. = 15 ms Max. = 40 ms - Critical impulse time 2 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Iset - Dynamic overreach < 5% at t = 100 ms - Four step phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output OC4PTOC 437 Technical Manual .3) for this phase and the TRIP signal that is common for all three phases. = 25 ms - Reset time at 2 to 0 x Iset Min. In a comparator the RMS values are compared to the set operation current value of the function (IP>>). If the parameter is set to 1 out of 3 any phase trip signal will be activated.

All IEC and ANSI inverse time characteristics are available together with an optional user defined time characteristic.2. The directional function needs voltage as it is voltage polarized with memory.1 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Identification Function description Four step phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification OC4PTOC 3I> 4 4 ANSI/IEEE C37.2 device number 51/67 alt TOC-REVA V1 EN 8. The function can be set to be directional or non-directional independently for each of the steps. Second harmonic blocking level can be set for the function and can be used to block each step individually 438 Technical Manual .Section 8 Current protection 8.2 Functionality The four step three-phase overcurrent protection function OC4PTOC has an inverse or definite time delay independent for step 1 to 4 separately.2.

2.4 OC4PTOC function block Signals Table 217: Name OC4PTOC Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip BLKST1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of Step1 BLKST2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of Step2 Table continues on next page 439 Technical Manual .3 Function block OC4PTOC I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKTR BLKST1 BLKST2 BLKST3 BLKST4 ENMULT1 ENMULT2 ENMULT3 ENMULT4 TRIP TR1 TR2 TR3 TR4 TRL1 TRL2 TRL3 TR1L1 TR1L2 TR1L3 TR2L1 TR2L2 TR2L3 TR3L1 TR3L2 TR3L3 TR4L1 TR4L2 TR4L3 START ST1 ST2 ST3 ST4 STL1 STL2 STL3 ST1L1 ST1L2 ST1L3 ST2L1 ST2L2 ST2L3 ST3L1 ST3L2 ST3L3 ST4L1 ST4L2 ST4L3 2NDHARM DIRL1 DIRL2 DIRL3 IEC06000187-2-en.2.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8.vsd IEC06000187 V2 EN Figure 227: 8.

the current multiplier is in use for step1 ENMULT2 BOOLEAN 0 When activated. the current multiplier is in use for step4 Table 218: Name OC4PTOC Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Trip TR1 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step1 TR2 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step2 TR3 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step3 TR4 BOOLEAN Common trip signal from step4 TRL1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L1 TRL2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L2 TRL3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from phase L3 TR1L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L1 TR1L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L2 TR1L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step1 phase L3 TR2L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L1 TR2L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L2 TR2L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step2 phase L3 TR3L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step3 phase L1 TR3L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step3 phase L2 TR3L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step3 phase L3 TR4L1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step4 phase L1 TR4L2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step4 phase L2 TR4L3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step4 phase L3 START BOOLEAN General start signal ST1 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step1 ST2 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step2 ST3 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step3 ST4 BOOLEAN Common start signal from step4 STL1 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L2 Table continues on next page 440 Technical Manual . the current multiplier is in use for step3 ENMULT4 BOOLEAN 0 When activated.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Type Default Description BLKST3 BOOLEAN 0 Block of Step3 BLKST4 BOOLEAN 0 Block of Step4 ENMULT1 BOOLEAN 0 When activated. the current multiplier is in use for step2 ENMULT3 BOOLEAN 0 When activated.

89 Deg 1 80 Relay operation angle (ROA) StartPhSel 1 out of 3 2 out of 3 3 out of 3 - - 1 out of 3 Number of phases required for op (1 of 3. forward.2.5 Table 219: Name Type Description STL3 BOOLEAN Start signal from phase L3 ST1L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L1 ST1L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L2 ST1L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step1 phase L3 ST2L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L1 ST2L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L2 ST2L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step2 phase L3 ST3L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step3 phase L1 ST3L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step3 phase L2 ST3L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step3 phase L3 ST4L1 BOOLEAN Start signal from step4 phase L1 ST4L2 BOOLEAN Start signal from step4 phase L2 ST4L3 BOOLEAN Start signal from step4 phase L3 ST2NDHRM BOOLEAN Second harmonic detected DIRL1 INTEGER Direction for phase1 DIRL2 INTEGER Direction for phase2 DIRL3 INTEGER Direction for phase3 Settings OC4PTOC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On AngleRCA 40 . nodir.65 Deg 1 55 Relay characteristic angle (RCA) AngleROA 40 . reverse) Table continues on next page 441 Technical Manual . 2 of 3.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name 8. 3 of 3) DirMode1 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 1 (off.

inv. inv.001 0. IEC S. inv.T.000 s 0. IEC Def.1 2.T.T. IEC Ext. IEC Very inv. inv.E. inv. Time Selection of time delay curve type for step 2 I2> 5 . IEC Norm.000 Independent (definite) time delay of step 1 k1 0. ANSI Def. inv.T. L. L.E. inv. Time L. L.000 . IEC Norm. Time Selection of time delay curve type for step 1 I1> 5 .400 Independent (definite) time delay of step 2 Table continues on next page 442 Technical Manual .T.V.60. inv. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Very inv.Section 8 Current protection Name Values (Range) 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Unit Step Default Description Characterist1 ANSI Ext.10. inv. inv.T.T. inv.01 0.0 - 0.0 Multiplier for current operate level for step 1 DirMode2 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 2 (off. inv.00 - 0. inv.60. inv. ANSI Norm. IEC S. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def. ANSI Mod.T. ANSI Mod.0 . Time L. ANSI Norm.001 0. inv.000 . inv.000 . inv. IEC inv. ANSI Def.000 s 0. IEC inv.001 0. nodir. IEC Ext.2500 %IB 1 1000 Operating phase current level for step 1 in % of IBase t1 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 1 I1Mult 1. forward. reverse) Characterist2 ANSI Ext.T. IEC L. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def. L.T. inv.999.000 s 0.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 1 IMin1 1 .60.2500 %IB 1 500 Operating phase current level for step 2 in % of IBase t2 0. IEC Very inv. inv. IEC Def.10000 %IB 1 100 Minimum operate current for step1 in % of IBase t1Min 0. inv. IEC L.05 .V.

reverse) Table continues on next page 443 Technical Manual . inv.000 .10000 %IB 1 50 Minimum operate current for step2 in % of IBase t2Min 0.T. forward.000 s 0. IEC Very inv.1 2.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Step Default k2 Values (Range) 0. Time Selection of time delay curve type for step 3 I3> 5 .01 0.001 0. inv.800 Independent (definite) time delay of step 3 k3 0.0 Multiplier for current operate level for step 3 DirMode4 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 4 (off. L.999.60. IEC Norm.T. IEC inv.999.1 2.0 Multiplier for current operate level for step 2 DirMode3 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 3 (off. IEC L. reverse) Characterist3 ANSI Ext. forward. inv. inv.60.10000 %IB 1 33 Minimum operate current for step3 in % of IBase t3Min 0. inv.000 s 0.0 .V. ANSI Mod.001 0. inv.60.05 .000 s 0. inv. IEC Def.0 .000 .00 - 0. ANSI Norm.001 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 2 I2Mult 1.T.0 - 0.01 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 3 I3Mult 1.000 . nodir. L. ANSI Very inv.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 3 IMin3 1 . nodir.00 Unit - 0. IEC Ext.T.E. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.10.10. ANSI Def. inv. inv. Time L.2500 %IB 1 250 Operating phase current level for step 3 in % of IBase t3 0.0 - 0.T. inv. IEC S.05 .05 Description Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 2 IMin2 1 .

000 - 0.005 .2500 %IB 1 175 Operating phase current level for step 4 in % of IBase t4 0. ANSI Def.05 Time multiplier for the inverse time delay for step 4 IMin4 1 .T.001 13.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 1 tPRCrv1 0.000 .001 0. ANSI Norm. L. inv.100 %IB 1 7 Minimum current for phase selection in % of IBase 2ndHarmStab 5 .200.020 Constant reset time for step 1 tPCrv1 0. inv. Time L.T. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.10000 %IB 1 17 Minimum operate current for step4 in % of IBase t4Min 0.05 .01 0.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 1 tBCrv1 0.00 - 0. inv. inv.00 - 0.60. inv.T.00 .000 Independent (definite) time delay of step 4 k4 0. inv.001 0.005 .E.60.0 Multiplier for current operate level for step 4 Table 220: Name OC4PTOC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IMinOpPhSel 1 . IEC S.01 0.500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 1 Table continues on next page 444 Technical Manual . IEC Norm.000 s 0.000 .001 0.T.1 2. IEC Def.1 . inv.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 1 tCCrv1 0. IEC Very inv.10.0 - 0.3.000 - 0.60.100 %IB 1 20 Operate level of 2nd harmonic curr in % of fundamental curr ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 1 tReset1 0.999.000 - 0.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 1 tACrv1 0. L. IEC inv. IEC Ext.V. inv.000 s 0.10.000 s 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse curves for step 4 I4Mult 1.20.T. ANSI Very inv.001 2.005 .0 . inv. Time Selection of time delay curve type for step 4 I4> 5 .0 - 0.3. IEC L.1 1.000 .Section 8 Current protection Name Values (Range) 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Unit Step Default Description Characterist4 ANSI Ext.

500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 1 tCRCrv1 0.000 - 0.1 .500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 3 tTRCrv3 0.00 - 0.10.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 3 tBCrv3 0.01 0.100.005 .001 0.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 2 tACrv2 0.000 - 0.1 .001 13.200.100.020 Constant reset time for step 3 tPCrv3 0.000 s 0.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 1 HarmBlock1 Off On - - Off Enable block of step 1 from harmonic restrain ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 2 tReset2 0.60.005 .001 1.005 .005 .1 1.000 - 0.1 1.0 - 0.60.000 - 0.3.0 - 0.000 .500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 2 tTRCrv2 0.005 .0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 3 tPRCrv3 0.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 3 tCCrv3 0.001 1.001 13.1 1.000 .500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 2 tCRCrv2 0.20.005 .1 .500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 3 tCRCrv3 0.000 - 0.10.3.020 Constant reset time for step 2 tPCrv2 0.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description tTRCrv1 0.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 2 tPRCrv2 0.001 0.00 .000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 3 tACrv3 0.10.3.001 13.000 s 0.005 .500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 2 tBCrv2 0.001 0.005 .000 - 0.00 - 0.1 .001 13.100.005 .1 1.3.10.10.000 - 0.001 13.001 0.0 - 0.01 0.1 .000 - 0.0 - 0.200.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 2 tCCrv2 0.000 - 0.0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 3 HarmBlock3 Off On - - Off Enable block of step 3 from harmonic restrain ResetTypeCrv4 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 4 Table continues on next page 445 Technical Manual .0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 2 HarmBlock2 Off On - - Off Enable block of step 2 from harmonic restrain ResetTypeCrv3 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Selection of reset curve type for step 3 tReset3 0.1 1.20.00 .0 - 0.

01 0.001 0.000 .005 .10.00 Parameter B for customer programmable curve for step 4 tCCrv4 0.6 Monitored data Table 222: Name OC4PTOC Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description DIRL1 INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction for phase1 DIRL2 INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction for phase2 DIRL3 INTEGER 1=Forward 2=Reverse 0=No direction - Direction for phase3 IL1 REAL - A Current in phase L1 IL2 REAL - A Current in phase L2 IL3 REAL - A Current in phase L3 446 Technical Manual .500 Parameter PR for customer programmable curve for step 4 tTRCrv4 0.00 - 0.000 s 0.500 Parameter TR for customer programmable curve for step 4 tCRCrv4 0.001 0.000 - 0.2.3.005 .0 Parameter CR for customer programmable curve for step 4 HarmBlock4 Off On - - Off Enable block of step 4 from harmonic restrain Table 221: Name Step Default Description OC4PTOC Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description MeasType DFT RMS - - DFT Selection between DFT and RMS measurement GlobalBaseSel 1 .1 1.00 .005 .020 Constant reset time for step 4 tPCrv4 0.001 13.60.001 1.000 Parameter P for customer programmable curve for step 4 tACrv4 0.1 1.500 Parameter A for customer programmable curve for step 4 tBCrv4 0.20.0 Parameter C for customer programmable curve for step 4 tPRCrv4 0.100.Section 8 Current protection Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Values (Range) Unit tReset4 0.0 - 0.3.1 .0 - 0.000 - 0.005 .000 - 0.200.001 13.10.000 - 0.12 - 1 1 Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups 8.1 .

Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8. The protection design can be divided in four parts: • • • • The direction element The harmonic Restraint Blocking function The four step over current function The mode selection If VT inputs are not available or not connected. For each step x .2. setting parameter DirModex shall be left to default value.vsd IEC05000740 V2 EN Figure 228: Functional overview of OC4PTOC 447 Technical Manual . 2. one for each step. an operation mode is set by DirModex: Off/Non-directional/Forward/ Reverse. where x is step 1.7 Operation principle The Four step phase overcurrent protection OC4PTOC is divided into four different sub-functions. faultState Direction Element I3P dirPh1Flt dirPh2Flt dirPh3Flt 4 step over current element One element for each step faultState START U3P TRIP Harmonic Restraint Element harmRestrBlock enableDir Mode Selection enableStep1-4 DirectionalMode1-4 en05000740-2-en. Non-directional. 3 and 4.

The selected current values are fed to OC4PTOC. the DFT or RMS values are compared to the set operation current value of the function (I1>. The 2nd harmonic current is taken from the pre-processing of the phase currents and the relation is compared to a set restrain current level. If DFT option is selected then only the RMS value of the fundamental frequency components of each phase current is derived. A harmonic restrain of the function can be chosen. StartPhSel. This means that the lowest set step will initiate the activation. STL2 and STL3 are. outputs START. To enable directional measurement at close in faults.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - A common setting for all steps. which simplifies testing. STx. The function can be directional. without delay. STL1. A set 2nd harmonic current in relation to the fundamental current is used.U L 3 EQUATION1450 V1 EN I dirL 2 L 3 = I L 2 . I3> or I4>). Service value for individually measured phase currents are also available on the local HMI for OC4PTOC function. I2>. It is possible to select either discrete Fourier filter (DFT) or true RMS filter (RMS).I L 2 (Equation 109) EQUATION1449 V1 EN U refL 2 L 3 = U L 2 . activated. Using a parameter setting MeasType within the general settings for the four step phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output function OC4PTOC. the polarization voltage is a combination of the apparent voltage (85%) and a memory voltage (15%). 2 out of 3 or 3 out of 3. The direction of the fault current is given as current angle in relation to the voltage angle. STL2 and STL3 are common for all steps. If RMS option is selected then the true RMS values is used. is used to specify the number of phase currents to be high to enable operation. The following combinations are used. for each phase current. Influence of DC current component and higher harmonic current components are almost completely suppressed. If a phase current is larger than the set operation current. It shall be noted that the selection of measured value (DFT or RMS) do not influence the operation of directional part of OC4PTOC. commissioning and in service operational checking of the function. Output signals STL1. Phase-phase short circuit: U refL1L 2 = U L1 . In a comparator. The sampled analogue phase currents are processed in a pre-processing function block. The START signal is common for all three phases and all steps. The settings can be chosen: 1 out of 3. The true RMS value in addition to the fundamental frequency component includes the contribution from the current DC component as well as from higher current harmonic. causing low measured voltage.I L 3 (Equation 110) Table continues on next page 448 Technical Manual . The fault current and fault voltage for the directional function is dependent of the fault type. it is possible to select the type of the measurement used for all overcurrent stages.U L 2 I dirL1L 2 = I L1 .

based on the same positive sequence voltage. The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is restored. the U1L1M memory voltage. If the fault was detected in the reverse direction.I L1 (Equation 111) EQUATION1451 V1 EN Phase-earth short circuit: U refL1 = U L1 I dirL1 = I L1 (Equation 112) EQUATION1452 V1 EN U refL 2 = U L 2 I dirL 2 = I L 2 (Equation 113) EQUATION1453 V1 EN U refL 3 = U L 3 I dirL 3 = I L 3 EQUATION1454 V1 EN (Equation 114) The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive-sequence voltage exceeds 4% of the set base voltage UBase. For close-in three-phase faults.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - U refL 3 L1 = U L 3 . the condition seals in. the following occurs: • If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current (between 10 and 30% of the set terminal rated current IBase). So the directional element can use it for all unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults. If the current decreases below the minimum operating value. the memory resets until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value. After 100 ms. the trip endures. the measuring element in the reverse direction remains in operation. The directional setting is given as a characteristic angle AngleRCA for the function and an angle window AngleROA.U L1 I dirL 3 L1 = I L 3 . • • • If the fault has caused tripping. 449 Technical Manual . ensures correct directional discrimination.

2. The time characteristic for each step can be chosen as definite time delay or inverse time characteristic. The parameters AngleROA gives the angle sector from AngleRCA for directional borders. The binary input BLKSTx (x=1. The possibilities for inverse time characteristics are described in section "Inverse characteristics". 450 Technical Manual . All four steps in OC4PTOC can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK. If no blockings are given the start signals will start the timers of the step. A wide range of standardized inverse time characteristics is available.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Reverse Uref RCA ROA ROA Forward Idir en05000745. 3 or 4) blocks the operation of respective step. It is also possible to create a tailor made time characteristic. A minimum current for directional phase start current signal can be set: IminOpPhSel.vsd IEC05000745 V1 EN Figure 229: Directional characteristic of the phase overcurrent protection The default value of AngleRCA is –65°.

2. There is also a possibility to activate a preset change (IxMult x= 1. The start signals from the function can be blocked from the binary input BLKST.vsd IEC12000008 V1 EN Figure 230: Simplified logic diagram for OC4PTOC Different types of reset time can be selected as described in section "Inverse characteristics". If the ratio of the 2nd harmonic component in relation to the fundamental frequency component in the residual current exceeds the preset level defined by parameter 2ndHarmStab setting. for example due to changed network switching state. any of the four overcurrent stages can be selectively blocked by parameter HarmRestrainx setting. The trip signals from the function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTR. 3 or 4) of the set operation current via a binary input (enable multiplier). The function can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - |IOP| Ix> Characteristx=DefTime a AND OR a>b tx TRx b STx AND txmin BLKSTx AND BLOCK Inverse Characteristx=Inverse DirModex=Off OR STAGEx_DIR_Int DirModex=Non-directional DirModex=Forward DirModex=Reverse FORWARD_Int REVERSE_Int AND OR AND IEC12000008-1-en. 2.8 Second harmonic blocking element A harmonic restrain of the Four step overcurrent protection function OC4PTOC can be chosen. When 2nd harmonic restraint feature is active. 8. 451 Technical Manual . In some applications the operation value needs to be changed. the OC4PTOC function output signal 2NDHARMD will be set to logical value one.vsd IEC12000008-1-en.

see table 1038.0 % or ± 40 ms whichever is greater Inverse characteristics.0) degrees ± 2.000-60.0% of Ir Independent time delay at 0 to 2 x Iset (0.0 degrees Relay operating angle (ROA) (40.vsd IEC13000014 V1 EN Figure 231: 8. table 1039 and table 1040 Operate time.000) s ± 0. start non-directional at 0 to 2 x Iset Min. table 1039 and table 1040 16 curve types See table 1038. = 15 ms Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset - Impulse margin time 15 ms typically - Max. = 30 ms Max.9 Second harmonic blocking Technical data Table 223: OC4PTOC technical data Function Setting range Accuracy Operate current (5-2500)% of lBase ± 1.0% of Ir at I ≤ Ir ±1.0 degrees 2nd harmonic blocking (5–100)% of fundamental ± 2.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - BLOCK a 0. operating current (1-10000)% of lBase ± 1.000) s ± 2.07*IBase a IOP a>b b Extract second harmonic current component Extract fundamental current component a>b b a 2NDHARMD AND a>b b 2ndH_BLOCK_Int 2ndHarmStab X IEC13000014-1-en.2 % or ± 35 ms whichever is greater Minimum operate time (0. = 15 ms Reset time.0% of Ir at I ≤ Ir ± 1.2.000-60. start non-directional at 2 to 0 x Iset Min.0–65.0% of I at I > Ir Reset ratio > 95% at (50–2500)% of lBase - Min.0) degrees ± 2. = 30 ms 452 Technical Manual .0% of I at I > Ir Relay characteristic angle (RCA) (40.0–89.

3. EFPIOC can be configured to measure the residual current from the three-phase current inputs or the current from a separate current input.vsd IEC06000269 V2 EN Figure 232: 8.1 Identification Function description IEC 61850 identification Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection IEC 60617 identification EFPIOC ANSI/IEEE C37.3.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8.2 device number 50N IN>> IEF V1 EN 8.3 Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC 8.2 Functionality The Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC has a low transient overreach and short tripping times to allow use for instantaneous earth-fault protection.4 EFPIOC function block Signals Table 224: Name EFPIOC Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Three phase currents BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKAR BOOLEAN 0 Block input for auto reclose ENMULT BOOLEAN 0 Enable current multiplier 453 Technical Manual . 8.3.3 Function block EFPIOC I3P* BLOCK BLKAR MULTEN TRIP IEC06000269-2-en.3. with the reach limited to less than typical eighty percent of the transformer impedance at minimum source impedance.

Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 225: EFPIOC Output signals Name Type TRIP 8. If the residual current is larger than the set operation current a signal from the comparator is set to true. This signal will.6 EFPIOC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) 0. 454 Technical Manual .2500 %IB 1 200 Operate residual current level in % of IBase Table 227: Name StValMult Table 228: Name GlobalBaseSel 8.5 Table 226: Name Description BOOLEAN Trip signal Settings EFPIOC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IN>> 5 .5 .3. In a comparator the RMS value is compared to the set operation current value of the function (IN>>). activate the output signal TRIP. This current value is fed to the Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection (EFPIOC).0 Description Multiplier for operate current level EFPIOC Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .3.3.1 Default 1. From the fundamental frequency components of the residual current.12 Unit Step - 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 229: Name IN 8. without delay.5. as well as from the sample values the equivalent RMS value is derived.0 Step - 0.7 Unit EFPIOC Monitored data Type REAL Values (Range) - Unit A Description Residual current Operation principle The sampled analog residual currents are pre-processed in a discrete Fourier filter (DFT) block.

2 device number 51N/67N alt TEF-REVA V1 EN 455 Technical Manual .8 Technical data Table 230: EFPIOC technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Operate current (5-2500)% of lBase ± 1. 8.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - There is also a possibility to activate a preset change of the set operation current via a binary input (enable multiplier MULTEN).1 Identification Function description Four step residual overcurrent protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification EF4PTOC IN 4 4 ANSI/IEEE C37. = 35 ms - Critical impulse time 2 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Iset - Dynamic overreach < 5% at t = 100 ms - 8. = 15 ms Max. = 5 ms Max. = 25 ms - Reset time at 2 to 0 x Iset Min.0% of Ir at I ≤ Ir ± 1. = 25 ms - Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset - Operate time at 0 to 10 x Iset Min. = 15 ms - Reset time at 10 to 0 x Iset Min. = 25 ms Max. In some applications the operation value needs to be changed.3. The trip signals from the function can be blocked from the binary input BLKAR.0% of I at I > Ir Reset ratio > 95% at (50–2500)% of lBase - Operate time at 0 to 2 x Iset Min.4 Four step residual overcurrent protection. for example due to transformer inrush currents. EFPIOC function can be blocked from the binary input BLOCK. that can be activated during single pole trip and autoreclosing sequences. (Zero sequence or negative sequence directionality) EF4PTOC 8. = 15 ms Max.4.

Second harmonic blocking can be set individually for each step. UPol and IPol can be independently selected to be either zero sequence or negative sequence.vsd IEC06000424 V3 EN Figure 233: 8. Residual current can be calculated by summing the three phase currents or taking the input from neutral CT 8.4.2 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Functionality The four step residual overcurrent protection EF4PTOC has an inverse or definite time delay independent for each step.3 Function block EF4PTOC I3P* U3P* I3PPOL* I3PDIR* BLOCK BLKTR BLKST1 BLKST2 BLKST3 BLKST4 ENMULT1 ENMULT2 ENMULT3 ENMULT4 CBPOS CLOSECB OPENCB TRIP TRIN1 TRIN2 TRIN3 TRIN4 TRSOTF START STIN1 STIN2 STIN3 STIN4 STSOTF STFW STRV 2NDHARMD IEC06000424-2-en.Section 8 Current protection 8. All IEC and ANSI time-delayed characteristics are available together with an optional user defined characteristic.4.4 EF4PTOC function block Signals Table 231: Name EF4PTOC Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group connection for operate current U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group connection for polarizing voltage I3PPOL GROUP SIGNAL - Group connection for polarizing current Table continues on next page 456 Technical Manual .4. EF4PTOC can be set directional or non-directional independently for each of the steps. IDir.

the current multiplier is in use for step4 CBPOS BOOLEAN 0 Breaker position CLOSECB BOOLEAN 0 Breaker close command OPENCB BOOLEAN 0 Breaker open command Table 232: Name 8. the current multiplier is in use for step3 ENMULT4 BOOLEAN 0 When activated. the current multiplier is in use for step1 ENMULT2 BOOLEAN 0 When activated.5 Type I3PDIR EF4PTOC Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN General trip signal TRIN1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 1 TRIN2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 2 TRIN3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 3 TRIN4 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 4 TRSOTF BOOLEAN Trip signal from earth fault switch onto fault function START BOOLEAN General start signal STIN1 BOOLEAN Start signal step 1 STIN2 BOOLEAN Start signal step 2 STIN3 BOOLEAN Start signal step 3 STIN4 BOOLEAN Start signal step 4 STSOTF BOOLEAN Start signal from earth fault switch onto fault function STFW BOOLEAN Start signal forward direction STRV BOOLEAN Start signal reverse direction 2NDHARMD BOOLEAN 2nd harmonic block signal Settings 457 Technical Manual .4.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Default Description GROUP SIGNAL - Group connection for directional current BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 General block BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip BLKST1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 1 (Start and trip) BLKST2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 2 (Start and trip) BLKST3 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 3 (Start and trip) BLKST4 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 4 (Start and trip) ENMULT1 BOOLEAN 0 When activated. the current multiplier is in use for step2 ENMULT3 BOOLEAN 0 When activated.

000 s 0.000 s 0.50 . Non-dir.000 .000 s 0.100 %IB 1 10 Residual current level in % of IBase for Direction release 2ndHarmStab 5 .100 % 1 20 Operate level of 2nd harmonic curr in % of fundamental curr BlkParTransf Off On - - Off Enable blocking at energizing of parallel transformers UseStartValue IN1> IN2> IN3> IN4> - - IN4> Current level blk at parallel transf (step1.60. used for current polarisation IN>Dir 1 .00 Real part of source impedance used for current polarisation XNPol 0.100 %IB 1 5 Minimum current level for polarization in % of IBase RNPol 0.Section 8 Current protection Table 233: Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - EF4PTOC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On EnDir Disable Enable - - Enable Enabling the Directional calculation AngleRCA -180 .1000.100 %UB 1 1 Minimum voltage level for polarization in % of UBase IPolMin 2 .00 Ohm 0. Forward.001 0.000 .00 Imaginary part of source imp.001 0.300 Time delay for under time DirMode1 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 1 (Off.001 1.00 Ohm 0.000 Switch-onto-fault active time ActUnderTime CB position CB command - - CB position Select signal to activate under time (CB Pos / CB Command) tUnderTime 0. 2.01 5.180 Deg 1 65 Relay Characteristic Angle (RCA) polMethod Voltage Current Dual - - Voltage Type of polarization UPolMin 1 . Reverse) Table continues on next page 458 Technical Manual .000 .200 Time delay for SOTF t4U 0.60.60. 3 or 4) SOTF Off SOTF UnderTime SOTF&UnderTime - - Off SOTF operation mode (Off/SOTF/ Undertime/SOTF&Undertime) ActivationSOTF Open Closed CloseCommand - - Open Select signal to activate SOTF: CBOpen/ -Closed/ -Close cmd StepForSOTF Step 2 Step 3 - - Step 2 Select start from step 2 or 3 to start SOTF HarmBlkSOTF Off On - - Off Enable harmonic restrain function in SOTF tSOTF 0.01 40.3000.50 .

IEC Def. inv. ANSI Very inv.000 Minimum operate time for inverse time characteristic step 1 IN1Mult 1.0 - 0. inv. Forward. IEC Very inv. inv.E. inv.00 Minimum operate residual current for step 1 in % of IBase t1Min 0.T. IEC Ext.000 s 0. inv.10000. ANSI Mod. inv. IEC inv.T. ANSI Def. IEC S.00 - 0.10. IEC Norm.999.2500 %IB 1 100 Residual current operate level for step 1 in % of IBase t1 0. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.001 0.00 . L. IEC L.T. IEC inv. ANSI Def. inv. inv. inv. inv.T. IEC Norm. ANSI Mod. inv.T. ANSI Norm. is selected k1 0.1 2. inv. IEC L.V.000 Time delay of step 1 when definite time char. inv. inv. Time Time delay characteristic for step 1 IN1> 1 .05 .0 . inv. inv.000 . L. IEC S. inv.60.000 s 0.05 Time multiplier for the step 1 selected time characteristic IMin1 1. inv. inv. Time L. L. Reverse) Characterist2 ANSI Ext. Time Time delay characteristic for step 2 IN2> 1 .01 0.V.E.T.000 . Time L.T. IEC Very inv.0 Multiplier for the residual current setting value for step 1 HarmBlock1 Off On - - On Enable block of step 1 from harmonic restrain DirMode2 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 2 (Off.00 %IB 1. IEC Def.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Characterist1 ANSI Ext.00 100.T. L. ANSI Very inv.001 0. ANSI Norm.2500 %IB 1 50 Residual current operate level for step 2 in % of IBase Table continues on next page 459 Technical Manual . inv. IEC Ext.T.60. Non-dir.T. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.

Non-dir. ANSI Mod.60.000 s 0. IEC Norm.000 .10. inv.1 2. Non-dir.T. inv.001 0.10. inv.800 Time delay of step 3 when definite time char.60. L. inv.00 33 Minimum operate residual current for step 3 in % of IBase t3Min 0.T.10000.T. inv.00 .05 .0 - 0.0 . Forward.000 s Step 0.400 Description Time delay of step 2 when definite time char. ANSI Norm.000 Minimum operate time for inverse time characteristic step 3 IN3Mult 1.05 Time multiplier for the step 2 selected time characteristic IMin2 1.001 0.T. is selected k3 0.999.0 Multiplier for the residual current setting value for step 2 HarmBlock2 Off On - - On Enable block of step 2 from harmonic restrain DirMode3 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 3 (Off.000 . L. inv. Time L.1 2.001 0. IEC L.01 0.10000.00 - 0. IEC Very inv. inv.T. IEC Ext.999.E. ANSI Def.60.000 . IEC S.0 .V.00 %IB 1. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def. Reverse) Table continues on next page 460 Technical Manual .000 s 0.00 %IB 1.001 Default 0.01 0.05 .60.000 .05 Time multiplier for the step 3 selected time characteristic IMin3 1.2500 %IB 1 33 Residual current operate level for step 3 in % of IBase t3 0. IEC inv.0 - 0.0 Multiplier for the residual current setting value for step 3 HarmBlock3 Off On - - On Enable block of step 3 from harmonic restrain DirMode4 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 4 (Off. is selected k2 0. inv. ANSI Very inv. inv.000 Minimum operate time for inverse time characteristic step 2 IN2Mult 1.00 50 Minimum operate residual current for step 2 in % of IBase t2Min 0.000 s 0. IEC Def. Forward. inv. Reverse) Characterist3 ANSI Ext.Section 8 Current protection Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Values (Range) Unit t2 0.00 . Time Time delay characteristic for step 3 IN3> 1 .00 - 0.

001 13.V.00 - 0. is selected k4 0.00 - 0. inv.T.001 1.3. inv.001 0.001 0.01 0. IEC L.1 2. ANSI Mod.00 . inv.005 .500 Param PR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 1 tTRCrv1 0.005 .0 Multiplier for the residual current setting value for step 4 HarmBlock4 Off On - - On Enable block of step 4 from harmonic restrain Table 234: Name EF4PTOC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step1 (Instantaneous / IEC / ANSI) tReset1 0.05 . inv. Time Time delay characteristic for step 4 IN4> 1 .999. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def. ANSI Very inv.500 Param TR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 1 Table continues on next page 461 Technical Manual .000 - 0.020 Reset time delay for step 1 tPCrv1 0. IEC Norm.0 .1 1.60.05 Time multiplier for the step 4 selected time characteristic IMin4 1. L.10. ANSI Norm.0 - 0.00 17 Minimum operate residual current for step 4 in % of IBase t4Min 0.0 - 0. IEC Def.3.000 .000 - 0.001 1.200. L. inv. inv.10.T. ANSI Def.T.200 Time delay of step 4 when definite time char. IEC inv.000 s 0.00 %IB 1. inv.T. inv. inv.2500 %IB 1 17 Residual current operate level for step 4 in % of IBase t4 0. inv.00 Param B for customized inverse trip time curve for step 1 tCCrv1 0.0 Param C for customized inverse trip time curve for step 1 tPRCrv1 0. Time L.000 Minimum operate time for inverse time characteristic step 4 IN4Mult 1.000 - 0.000 .60.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Characterist4 ANSI Ext.20.E.100.000 Param P for customized inverse trip time curve for step 1 tACrv1 0.001 0.60.00 .000 s 0.1 .000 - 0. IEC Ext.T. IEC S.500 Param A for customized inverse trip time curve for step 1 tBCrv1 0.005 . IEC Very inv.10000.01 0.001 13.000 .000 s 0.005 .

000 Param P for customized inverse trip time curve for step 2 tACrv2 0.001 1.005 .001 13.00 - 0.100.01 0.000 - 0.200.005 .000 - 0.001 13.60.000 - 0.0 - 0.001 0.3.000 - 0.00 Param B for customized inverse trip time curve for step 2 tCCrv2 0.0 - 0.500 Param TR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 2 tCRCrv2 0.0 - 0.1 .001 13.005 .000 .005 .10.1 .00 .0 Param C for customized inverse trip time curve for step 3 tPRCrv3 0.000 Param P for customized inverse trip time curve for step 3 tACrv3 0.1 1.00 .000 - 0.020 Reset time delay for step 3 tPCrv3 0.005 .001 13.01 0.020 Reset time delay for step 2 tPCrv2 0.Section 8 Current protection Name Values (Range) 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Unit Step Default Description tCRCrv1 0.3.60.60.001 0.000 - 0.3.000 - 0.000 .1 .005 .20.20.100.001 13.005 .000 Param P for customized inverse trip time curve for step 4 tACrv4 0.3.10.001 1.10.0 - 0.1 .000 .0 Param CR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 1 ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step2 (Instantaneous / IEC / ANSI) tReset2 0.10.0 Param CR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 2 ResetTypeCrv3 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step3 (Instantaneous / IEC / ANSI) tReset3 0.3.1 .000 s 0.005 .1 1.0 - 0.500 Param PR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 2 tTRCrv2 0.500 Param TR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 3 tCRCrv3 0.020 Reset time delay for step 4 tPCrv4 0.00 - 0.00 Param B for customized inverse trip time curve for step 4 Table continues on next page 462 Technical Manual .000 - 0.0 Param CR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 3 ResetTypeCrv4 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step4 (Instantaneous / IEC / ANSI) tReset4 0.000 s 0.005 .1 1.000 - 0.000 - 0.500 Param A for customized inverse trip time curve for step 4 tBCrv4 0.001 0.500 Param PR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 3 tTRCrv3 0.10.20.200.001 0.1 1.200.00 Param B for customized inverse trip time curve for step 3 tCCrv3 0.001 1.001 0.01 0.0 Param C for customized inverse trip time curve for step 2 tPRCrv2 0.005 .500 Param A for customized inverse trip time curve for step 2 tBCrv2 0.1 1.000 s 0.00 - 0.500 Param A for customized inverse trip time curve for step 3 tBCrv3 0.00 .

Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description tCCrv4 0.10.10.005 .0 - 0.6 Monitored data Table 236: Name 8.005 .1 1.0 - 0.0 Param C for customized inverse trip time curve for step 4 tPRCrv4 0.001 13.500 Param TR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 4 tCRCrv4 0.1 .1 1.100.0 Param CR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 4 Table 235: Name EF4PTOC Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description GlobalBaseSel 1 .4.001 0.000 - 0.12 - 1 1 Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups SeqTypeIDir Zero seq Neg seq - - Zero seq Choice of measurand for directional current SeqTypeIPol Zero seq Neg seq - - Zero seq Choice of measurand for polarizing current SeqTypeUPol Zero seq Neg seq - - Zero seq Choice of measurand for polarizing voltage 8.1 .000 - 0.3.4.7 EF4PTOC Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description IOp REAL - A Operating current level UPol REAL - kV Polarizing voltage level IPol REAL - A Polarizing current level UPOLIANG REAL - deg Polarizing angle between voltage and current IPOLIANG REAL - deg Polarizing current angle Operation principle This function has the following three “Analog Inputs” on its function block in the configuration tool: 463 Technical Manual .500 Param PR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 4 tTRCrv4 0.

directly measured (when a dedicated CT input of the IED is connected in PCM600 to the fourth analog input of the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC function input I3P). This current is normally taken from the grounding of a power transformer. one single current instrument transformer located between two parts of a protected object (that is. Supply the zero-sequence magnitude measuring functionality. calculated from three-phase current input within the IED (when the fourth analog input into the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC function Analog Input I3P is not connected to a dedicated CT input of the IED in PCM600). input used for “Voltage Polarizing Quantity”. The residual current can be: 1.7. Supply either zero or negative sequence current to the directional functionality. one single core balance. current transformer located between two star points of double star shunt capacitor bank). U3P. 4. input used for “Operating Quantity”. This dedicated IED CT input can be for example. Provide polarizing current to the directional functionality. I3P. input used for “Current Polarizing Quantity”. Iop = 3I0 = IL1 + IL2 + IL3 EQUATION1874 V2 EN (Equation 115) where: IL1. IL2 and IL3 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase currents. 2. 3. In such case the pre-processing block will calculate 3I0 from the first three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula (will take I2 from SMAI AI3P connected to I3PDIR input which was connected to I3P input also): If zero sequence current is selected. current instrument transformer (cable CT). one single current instrument transformer located between power system star point and earth (that is. 8.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 1.4. 464 Technical Manual . parallel connection of current instrument transformers in all three phases (Holm-Green connection).1 Operating quantity within the function The function always uses Residual Current (3I0) for its operating quantity. These inputs are connected from the corresponding pre-processing function blocks in the Configuration Tool within PCM600. input used for “Directional detection”. connected to: • • • • 2. current transformer located in the star point of a star connected transformer winding). Supply either zero or negative sequence voltage to the directional functionality I3PPOL. I3PDIR.

This current can be: 1. In such case the pre-processing block will calculate 3I0 from the first three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula: IPol = 3I0 = IL1 + IL2 + IL3 EQUATION2018 V2 EN (Equation 117) where: IL1. • 2. IL2 and IL3 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase currents. IN2>. Current polarizing When current polarizing is selected the function will use an external residual current (3I0) as polarizing quantity IPol. This signal will. activate the output signal STINx (x=step 1-4) for this step and a common START signal. current polarizing or dual polarizing. without delay. The phasor magnitude is used within the EF4PTOC protection to compare it with the set operation current value of the four steps (IN1>. The residual current is pre-processed by a discrete fourier filter. IN3> or IN4>). This dedicated IED CT input is then typically connected to one single current transformer located between power system star point and earth (current transformer located in the star point of a star connected transformer winding). Thus the phasor of the fundamental frequency component of the residual current is derived.2 Internal polarizing A polarizing quantity is used within the protection in order to determine the direction to the earth fault (Forward/Reverse). This phasor is then multiplied with pre-set equivalent zero-sequence source Impedance in order to calculate equivalent polarizing voltage UIPol in accordance with the following formula: 465 Technical Manual . Thus the phasor of the fundamental frequency component of the polarizing current is derived. calculated from three phase current input within the IED (when the fourth analog input into the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC function analog input I3PPOL is NOT connected to a dedicated CT input of the IED in PCM600). directly measured (when a dedicated CT input of the IED is connected in PCM600 to the fourth analog input of the pre-processing block connected to EF4PTOC function input I3PPOL).4. 8. For some special line protection applications this dedicated IED CT input can be connected to parallel connection of current transformers in all three phases (Holm-Green connection). If the residual current is larger than the set operation current and the step is used in nondirectional mode a signal from the comparator for this step is set to true.7. The function can be set to use voltage polarizing.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The residual current is pre-processed by a discrete Fourier filter.

4. In order to enable current polarizing the magnitude of polarizing current shall be bigger than a minimum level defined by setting parameter IPolMin.7.7. 8.4 Distance protection directional function. together with the phasor of the operating current. When this setting is selected it is then possible via function binary input BLKSTx to provide external directional control (that is. The user can select either zero sequence components or negative sequence components for detecting directionality with the parameter SeqTypeIPol. Then the phasor of the total polarizing voltage UTotPol will be used. together with the phasor of the operating current. In some cases zero sequence quantities might detect directionality wrong. to determine the direction of the earth fault (Forward/Reverse). Negative sequence polarized General current and voltage multi purpose protection function. Base current (IBase) shall be entered as rated phase current of the protected object in 466 Technical Manual . in order to determine the direction to the earth fault (Forward/Reverse). 8. 8. 2. Negative sequence quantities will be used in such scenario.3 External polarizing for earth-fault function The individual steps within the protection can be set as non-directional.4.5 Base quantities within the protection The base quantities are entered as global settings for all functions in the IED.7. Dual polarizing When dual polarizing is selected the function will use the vectorial sum of the voltage based and current based polarizing in accordance with the following formula: UTotPol=UUPol + UIPol=UPol + Z 0s × IPol = UPol + ( RNPol + jXNPol ) × Ipol IECEQUATION2408 V1 EN (Equation 119) UPol and IPol can be either zero sequence component or negative sequence component depending upon the user selection. Directional detection for earth fault function Zero sequence components will be used for detecting directionality for earth fault function. torque control) by for example using one of the following functions if available in the IED: 1.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - UIPol = Z 0s × IPol = (RNPol + j × XNPol) × IPol EQUATION1877 V2 EN (Equation 118) which will be then used.4. I3PDIR input always connected to the same source as I3P input.

Four residual overcurrent steps.7.7. Residual current start value.4. Each of the four residual overcurrent steps has the following built-in facilities: • • • • • • • Directional mode can be set to Off/Non-directional/Forward/Reverse. 8. Switch on to fault feature with integrated Under-Time logic for detection of breaker problems during breaker opening or closing sequence. 8. 2.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - primary amperes. For the complete list of available reset curves please refer to section "".4. By this parameter setting the directional mode of the step is selected. Supervision by second harmonic blocking feature (On/Off). By this parameter setting it is possible to prevent operation of the step if the second harmonic content in the residual current exceeds the preset level. Directional supervision element for residual overcurrent steps with integrated directional comparison step for communication based earth-fault protection schemes (permissive or blocking).7 Four residual overcurrent steps Each overcurrent step uses operating quantity Iop (residual current) as measuring quantity. minimum operating time for inverse curves. Second harmonic blocking element with additional feature for sealed-in blocking during switching of parallel transformers. Most of the standard IEC and ANSI inverse characteristics are available. 467 Technical Manual . By this parameter setting it is possible to increase residual current pickup value when function binary input ENMULTx has logical value 1. Time delay related settings. By these parameter settings the properties like definite time delay. It shall be noted that the directional decision (Forward/Reverse) is not made within the residual overcurrent step itself. Type of operating characteristic (inverse or definite time). Each part is described separately in the following sections. By this parameter setting it is possible to select the reset characteristic of the step. The direction of the fault is determined in common “directional supervision element”. 4. For the complete list of available inverse curves please refer to section "Inverse characteristics". Base voltage (UBase) shall be entered as rated phase-to-phase voltage of the protected object in primary kV. 3. By this parameter setting it is possible to select inverse or definite time delay for the earth-fault protection.6 Internal earth-fault protection structure The protection is internally divided into the following parts: 1. reset time delay and parameters to define user programmable inverse curve are defined. Multiplier for scaling of the set residual current pickup value by external binary signal. Type of reset characteristic (Instantaneous / IEC Reset / ANSI Reset).

4.7. 2. Output signals for respective step. The protection has integrated directional feature. BLKTR EMULTX IMinx X Characteristx=DefTime T b F a>b a |IOP| a tx AND OR a>b AND TRINx t b INxMult X STINx AND T F INx> AND Inverse BLKSTx AND BLOCK Characteristx=Inverse txmin 2ndHarm_BLOCK_Int t OR HarmRestrainx=Off DirModex=Off OR STEPx_DIR_Int DirModex=Non-directional DirModex=Forward DirModex=Reverse FORWARD_Int REVERSE_Int AND OR AND IEC10000008-4-en.8 Directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison function It shall be noted that at least one of the four residual overcurrent steps shall be set as directional in order to enable execution of the directional supervision element and the integrated directional comparison function. UPol will be used as polarizing quantity. The polarizing method is determined by the parameter setting polMethod. When polMethod = Voltage.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Simplified logic diagram for one residual overcurrent step is shown in figure 234. 468 Technical Manual . in order to determine the direction of the earth fault. The polarizing quantity will be selected by the function in one of the following three ways: 1. where x = step 1. UPol + IPol · ZNPol will be used as polarizing quantity. as shown in figure 235. can be blocked from the binary input BLKSTx. The operating and polarizing quantity are then used inside the directional element. and STINx and TRINx. The trip signals from the function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTR. WhenpolMethod = Dual. 2. IPol will be used as polarizing quantity. When polMethod = Current. As the operating quantity current lop is always used. 8. 3 or 4 The protection can be completely blocked from the binary input BLOCK. 3.vsd IEC10000008 V4 EN Figure 234: Simplified logic diagram for residual overcurrent step x.

AngleRCA) is bigger than 60% of setting parameter I>Dir and directional supervision element detects fault in reverse direction.AngleRCA) is bigger than setting parameter I>Dir and directional supervision element detects fault in forward direction.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Operating area STRV 0. STFW=1 when operating quantity magnitude Iop x cos(φ .6 * IN>DIR Characteristic for reverse release of measuring steps -RCA -85 deg Characteristic for STRV 40% of IN>DIR RCA +85 deg RCA 65° Upol = -3U 0 -RCA +85 deg RCA -85 deg Characteristic for forward release of measuring steps IN>DIR STFW I op = 3I0 Operating area Characteristic for STFW IEC11000243-1-en. which defines the position of forward and reverse areas in the operating characteristic. STRV=1 when operating quantity magnitude Iop x cos(φ . 469 Technical Manual . Directional comparison step. 2. Relay characteristic angle AngleRCA. will set EF4PTOC function output binary signals: 1.ai IEC11000243 V1 EN Figure 235: Operating characteristic for earth-fault directional element using the zero sequence components Two relevant setting parameters for directional supervision element are: • • Directional element will be internally enabled to operate as soon as Iop is bigger than 40% of I>Dir and directional condition is fulfilled in set direction. built-in within directional supervision element.

If the ratio of the 2nd harmonic component in relation to the fundamental frequency component in the residual current exceeds the preset level (defined by parameter 2ndHarmStab) then 2NDHARMD function output signal is set to logical value one and harmonic restraining feature to the function block will be applicable.6 REVERSE_Int STRV AND X a a>b I>Dir b 0.vsd IEC07000067 V5 EN Figure 236: 8.9 Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison step Second harmonic blocking element A harmonic restrain of four step residual overcurrent protection function EF4PTOC can be chosen for each step by a parameter setting HarmRestrainx.7. Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison step is shown in figure 236: | IopDir | a a>b b 0.4 FORWARD_Int STFW AND X FWD polMethod=Voltage OR polMethod=Dual UPolMin UPol polMethod=Current OR IPol 0.0 T F STAGE1_DIR_Int STAGE2_DIR_Int STAGE3_DIR_Int STAGE4_DIR_Int OR AND BLOCK IEC07000067-5-en.0 RNPol XNPol T 0.4.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - These signals shall be used for communication based earth-fault teleprotection communication schemes (permissive or blocking). Blocking from 2nd harmonic element activates if all three criteria are satisfied: 470 Technical Manual .0 F IPolMin I3PDIR AND FORWARD_Int AND REVERSE_Int Directional Characteristic AngleRCA UTotPol T F Complex Number RVS X UIPol 0.

Simplified logic diagram for 2nd harmonic blocking feature is shown in figure 237. 2. Current fundamental frequency component > IMinOpHarmBlk Current second harmonic component > IMinOpHarmBlk Ratio of the 2nd harmoinc component in relation to the fundamental frequency component in the residual current exceeds the preset level defined parameter 2ndHarmStab setting If all the above three conditions are fulfilled then 2NDHARMD function output signal is set to logical value one and harmonic restraining feature to the function block is applicable. If one of the transformers is in operation. 2. After a short period this current is however small and the normal 2nd harmonic blocking resets. 471 Technical Manual . In addition to the basic functionality explained above the 2nd harmonic blocking can be set in such way to seal-in until residual current disappears. and the parallel transformer is switched in. Once Block for Parallel Transformers is activated the basic 2nd harmonic blocking signal is sealed-in until the residual current magnitude falls below a value defined by parameter setting UseStartValue (see condition 3 above). Therefore we have high 2nd harmonic current component initially. This 2nd harmonic sealin feature is activated when all of the following three conditions are simultaneously fulfilled: 1. The inrush current of the transformer in service before the parallel transformer energizing. 3. This feature might be required to stabilize EF4PTOC during switching of parallel transformers in the station. The residual fundamental current is however significant. is a little delayed compared to the first transformer. This feature has been called Block for Parallel Transformers. If the BlkParTransf function is activated the 2nd harmonic restrain signal is latched as long as the residual current measured by the relay is larger than a selected step current level by using setting UseStartValue. 3. Feature is enabled by entering setting parameter BlkParTransf = On. Basic 2nd harmonic restraint feature has been active for at least 70ms.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 1. the asymmetric inrush current of the switched in transformer will cause partial saturation of the transformer already in service. This is called transferred saturation. In case of parallel transformers there is a risk of sympathetic inrush current. The summation of the two currents thus gives a small 2nd harmonic current. The 2nd harmonic of the inrush currents of the two transformers is in phase opposition. By a parameter setting UseStartValue it is possible to select which one of the four start values that will be used (IN1> or IN2> or IN3> or IN4>). Residual current magnitude is higher than the set start value for one of the four residual overcurrent stages.

4.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - BLOCK a 0. The time during which SOTF and Under-Time logics will be active after activation is defined by the setting parameter t4U.07*IBase a Extract fundamental current component a>b b Extract second harmonic current component IOP a>b b a 2NDHARMD AND a>b b 2ndHarmStab X q-1 t=70ms t OR AND OR 2ndH_BLOCK_Int BlkParTransf=On |IOP| UseStartValue a a>b b IN1> IN2> IN3> IN4> q-1 = unit delay IEC13000015-2-en. When the circuit breaker is closing there is a risk to close it onto a permanent fault.10 Simplified logic diagram for 2nd harmonic blocking feature and Block for Parallel Transformers feature Switch on to fault feature Integrated in the four step residual overcurrent protection are Switch on to fault logic (SOTF) and Under-Time logic. The setting parameter ActivationSOTF can be set for activation of CB position open change.7.vsd IEC13000015 V2 EN Figure 237: 8. The SOTF logic can be activated either from change in circuit breaker position or from circuit breaker close command pulse. The setting parameter SOTF is set to activate either SOTF or Under-Time logic or both. selected by setting parameter StepForSOTF. CB position closed change or CB close command. The SOTF logic will enable fast fault clearance during such situations. In case of a 472 Technical Manual . for example during an autoreclosing sequence. The SOTF logic uses the start signal from step 2 or step 3 for its operation.

The Under-Time logic is activated either from change in circuit breaker position or from circuit breaker close and open command pulses.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - residual current start from step 2 or 3 (dependent on setting) the function will give a trip after a set delay tSOTF. SOTF Open t4U Closed ActivationSOTF Close command tSOTF AND STIN2 AND t StepForSOTF STIN3 OperationMode BLOCK OFF SOTF UNDERTIME TRIP UnderTime tUnderTime 2nd Harmonic HarmResSOFT AND SOTF or UnderTime t OR Open OR Close t4U Close command ActUnderTime AND STIN4 IEC06000643-3-en. but it is only active immediately after breaker switching. This logic is typically used to detect asymmetry of CB poles immediately after switching of the circuit breaker. The Under-Time logic can also be blocked by the 2nd harmonic restraint feature. This enables high sensitivity even if power transformer inrush currents can occur at breaker closing. Practically the Under-Time logic acts as circuit breaker pole-discordance protection.vsd IEC06000643 V3 EN Figure 238: Simplified logic diagram for SOTF and Under-Time features EF4PTOC Logic Diagram Simplified logic diagram for the complete EF4PTOC function is shown in figure 239: 473 Technical Manual . The Under-Time logic always uses the start signal from the step 4. The UnderTime logic can only be used in solidly or low impedance grounded systems. This delay is normally set to a short time (default 200 ms). In case of a start from step 4 this logic will give a trip after a set delay tUnderTime. This selection is done by setting parameter ActUnderTime. This delay is normally set to a relatively short time (default 300 ms). The UnderTime logic will normally be set to operate for a lower current level than the SOTF function.

5% of I at I > Ir Independent time delay for step 1.0% of Ir Minimum polarizing voltage (1–100)% of UBase ± 0.0 degrees Operate current for directional comparison (1–100)% of lBase For RCA ± 60 degrees: ± 2.2% or ± 35 ms whichever is greater Inverse characteristics. table 1039 and table 1040 16 curve types See table 1038.5% of Ur Table continues on next page 474 Technical Manual .8 Functional overview of EF4PTOC Technical data Table 237: EF4PTOC technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Operate current (1-2500)% of lBase ± 1.vsd IEC06000376 V2 EN Figure 239: 8.000-60. and 4 at 0 to 2 x Iset (0.0% of Ir at I ≤ Ir ± 1.0% of I at I > Ir Reset ratio > 95% at (10-2500)% of lBase - Relay characteristic angle (-180 to 180) degrees ± 2.4. 2. table 1039 and table 1040 Second harmonic restrain operation (5–100)% of fundamental ± 2. see table 1038.5% of Ir at I ≤ Ir ± 2.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - signal to communication scheme Directional Check Element Direction Element INPol 3U0 4 step over current element One element for each step operatingCurrent earthFaultDirection 3I0 TRIP angleValid I3PDIR DirMode enableDir 3I0 Harmonic Restraint Element harmRestrBlock 1 start step 2.000) s ± 0. 3 and 4 Blocking at parallel transformers SwitchOnToFault DirMode Mode Selection enableDir TRIP CB pos or cmd enableStep1-4 DirectionalMode1-4 IEC06000376-2-en. 3.

2 device number NS4PTOC I2 46I2 4 4 alt IEC10000053 V1 EN 8.0% of Ir Real part of source Z used for current polarization (0.5. NS4PTOC can be set directional or non-directional independently for each of the steps.50–3000.00) W/phase - Imaginary part of source Z used for current polarization (0.5 Four step directional negative phase sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC 8.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function Range or value Accuracy Minimum polarizing current (2-100)% of IBase ± 1.2 Functionality Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection (NS4PTOC) has an inverse or definite time delay independent for each step separately. 475 Technical Manual .1 Identification Function description Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37. All IEC and ANSI time delayed characteristics are available together with an optional user defined characteristic. start function at 0 to 2 x Iset Min = 15 ms Max = 30 ms - Reset time.00) W/phase - Operate time. start function at 2 to 0 x Iset Min = 15 ms Max = 30 ms - Critical impulse time 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset - Impulse margin time 15 ms typically - 8.5. The directional function is voltage polarized.50-1000.

Section 8 Current protection 8.3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block NS4PTOC I3P* I3PDIR* U3P* BLOCK BLKTR BLKST1 BLKST2 BLKST3 BLKST4 ENMULT1 ENMULT2 ENMULT3 ENMULT4 TRIP TR1 TR2 TR3 TR4 START ST1 ST2 ST3 ST4 STFW STRV IEC10000054-2-en.4 NS4PTOC function block Signals Table 238: Name NS4PTOC Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group connection for operate current I3PDIR GROUP SIGNAL - Group connection for directional current U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group connection for polarizing voltage BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 General block BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip BLKST1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 1 (Start and trip) BLKST2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 2 (Start and trip) BLKST3 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 3 (Start and trip) BLKST4 BOOLEAN 0 Block of step 4 (Start and trip) ENMULT1 BOOLEAN 0 When activated.5. the current multiplier is in use for step1 ENMULT2 BOOLEAN 0 When activated. the current multiplier is in use for step2 ENMULT3 BOOLEAN 0 When activated.vsd IEC10000054 V2 EN Figure 240: 8. the current multiplier is in use for step3 ENMULT4 BOOLEAN 0 When activated.5. the current multiplier is in use for step4 476 Technical Manual .

100 %UB 1 5 Minimum voltage level for polarization in % of UBase I2>Dir 1 .100 %IB 1 10 Residual current level in % of IBase for Direction release DirMode1 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 1 (off.180 Deg 1 65 Relay characteristic angle (RCA) UPolMin 1 .5 Table 240: Name Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN General trip signal TR1 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 1 TR2 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 2 TR3 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 3 TR4 BOOLEAN Trip signal from step 4 START BOOLEAN General start signal ST1 BOOLEAN Start signal step 1 ST2 BOOLEAN Start signal step 2 ST3 BOOLEAN Start signal step 3 ST4 BOOLEAN Start signal step 4 STFW BOOLEAN Forward directional start signal STRV BOOLEAN Reverse directional start signal Settings NS4PTOC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On EnDir Disable Enable - - Enable Enabling the Directional calculation AngleRCA -180 . forward. nodir. reverse) Table continues on next page 477 Technical Manual .5.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 239: NS4PTOC Output signals Name 8.

L.T. IEC Norm.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 1 DirMode2 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 2 (off. inv.001 0. inv.999. IEC inv.001 0.10000. inv.2500 %IB 1 50 Negative sequence current op level for step 2 in % of IBase t2 0. inv.60.E.05 .000 s 0.1 2.05 Time multiplier for the step 1 selected time characteristic IMin1 1.000 Time delay of step 1 when definite time char. ANSI Def.00 - 0. IEC L.000 . ANSI Mod.T. inv. IEC Very inv. inv. L.0 - 0.10. is selected Table continues on next page 478 Technical Manual . inv.00 100. ANSI Def.000 s 0.T.0 . IEC Def. is selected k1 0. ANSI Very inv. ANSI Norm. ANSI Very inv. inv.T. forward. nodir.001 0.T. L. IEC inv. inv.E.000 Minimum operate time for inverse time characteristic step 1 I1Mult 1. inv.000 s 0.T. inv. IEC S. IEC S.400 Time delay of step 2 when definite time char.T.000 .T.2500 %IB 1 100 Negative sequence current op level for step 1 in % of IBase t1 0.00 Minimum current for step 1 t1Min 0.60. inv. inv. IEC Norm.T. IEC Ext. Time Time delay characteristic for step 1 I2-1> 1 . Time L.60. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.Section 8 Current protection Name Values (Range) 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Unit Step Default Description Characterist1 ANSI Ext. IEC Def. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def. reverse) Characterist2 ANSI Ext. IEC Ext.000 . Time Time delay characteristic for step 2 I2-2> 1 .V.01 0. ANSI Norm. Time L. IEC L.00 . inv.T. inv. L. IEC Very inv. inv.00 %IB 1. ANSI Mod. inv. inv. inv.V. inv.

inv.0 - 0.10000. is selected k3 0.0 .1 2.001 0. forward. IEC Very inv. IEC L. Time Time delay characteristic for step 3 I2-3> 1 . ANSI Very inv.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 2 DirMode3 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 3 (off.01 0.T. inv.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Step Default k2 Values (Range) 0. inv. ANSI Norm.05 .V.00 %IB 1.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 3 DirMode4 Off Non-directional Forward Reverse - - Non-directional Directional mode of step 4 (off. reverse) Table continues on next page 479 Technical Manual .01 0.10000. nodir. IEC S.999.000 s 0.00 33 Minimum current for step 3 t3Min 0.000 Minimum operate time for inverse time characteristic step 3 I3Mult 1. inv.10.60.00 - 0. reverse) Characterist3 ANSI Ext. L.000 s 0. inv.00 . Time L.999. inv.T. inv. inv.0 . inv.2500 %IB 1 33 Negative sequence current op level for step 3 in % of IBase t3 0.60.05 . inv.05 Description Time multiplier for the step 2 selected time characteristic IMin2 1.001 0. IEC Def. ANSI Mod.10. nodir.001 0.05 Time multiplier for the step 3 selected time characteristic IMin3 1.000 Minimum operate time for inverse time characteristic step 2 I2Mult 1. IEC Norm.00 %IB 1.0 - 0.00 Unit - 0. IEC Ext.00 50 Minimum current for step 2 t2Min 0. ANSI Def. L.000 .000 . Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def.00 .000 .000 s 0. forward.60.T.1 2.E.800 Time delay of step 3 when definite time char.T. IEC inv.T.

999.0 Param CR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 1 Table continues on next page 480 Technical Manual .500 Param A for customized inverse trip time curve for step 1 tBCrv1 0.E.005 .200 Time delay of step 4 when definite time char. inv.T.60. ANSI Very inv.0 Param C for customized inverse trip time curve for step 1 tPRCrv1 0. inv. ANSI Mod.T.60.2500 %IB 1 17 Negative sequence current op level for step 4 in % of IBase t4 0.000 - 0.000 s 0.00 17 Minimum current for step 4 t4Min 0. Time L.00 - 0. Time Time delay characteristic for step 4 I2-4> 1 .001 13.001 0.000 s 0. IEC L.01 0.1 1.3. IEC S.000 - 0.0 - 0. inv.500 Param TR for customized inverse reset time curve for step tCRCrv1 0.T.000 . IEC Def.000 . ANSI Norm.Section 8 Current protection Name Values (Range) 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Unit Step Default Description Characterist4 ANSI Ext.10000. L.001 1.00 %IB 1. IEC inv. L.01 0.0 . inv.20.05 Time multiplier for the step 4 selected time characteristic IMin4 1. ANSI Def.00 .T.10.0 - 0.10.000 s 0.001 13. is selected k4 0. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - ANSI Def. IEC Ext. inv.005 .001 0.000 - 0.T. inv.10.0 Multiplier for scaling the current setting value for step 4 Table 241: Name NS4PTOC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description ResetTypeCrv1 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step1 (Instantaneous / IEC / ANSI) tReset1 0.001 1.3.000 Minimum operate time for inverse time characteristic step 4 I4Mult 1.005 .V.005 . IEC Norm.200.1 1.1 .00 Param B for customized inverse trip time curve for step 1 tCCrv1 0.1 .00 . IEC Very inv. inv. inv. inv.000 - 0.020 Reset time delay for step 1 tPCrv1 0.001 0.0 - 0.000 . inv.00 - 0.1 2.60.100.05 .000 Param P for customized inverse trip time curve for step 1 tACrv1 0.500 Param PR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 1 tTRCrv1 0.

005 .000 - 0.10.001 0.200.60.0 Param CR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 3 ResetTypeCrv4 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step4 (Instantaneous / IEC / ANSI) tReset4 0.001 13.500 Param A for customized inverse trip time curve for step 3 tBCrv3 0.01 0.000 - 0.0 Param C for customized inverse trip time curve for step 2 tPRCrv2 0.000 - 0.1 1.500 Param PR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 2 tTRCrv2 0.001 1.005 .0 - 0.1 .000 Param P for customized inverse trip time curve for step 3 tACrv3 0.00 Param B for customized inverse trip time curve for step 4 tCCrv4 0.20.000 - 0.00 .000 - 0.00 .1 1.0 Param C for customized inverse reset time curve for step 2 ResetTypeCrv3 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step3 (Instantaneous / IEC / ANSI) tReset3 0.0 - 0.005 .000 .10.0 - 0.3.000 .1 1.1 .100.500 Param A for customized inverse trip time curve for step 4 tBCrv4 0.000 - 0.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description ResetTypeCrv2 Instantaneous IEC Reset ANSI reset - - Instantaneous Reset curve type for step2 (Instantaneous / IEC / ANSI) tReset2 0.005 .1 1.3.1 .005 .500 Param A for customized inverse trip time curve for step 2 tBCrv2 0.00 - 0.00 Param B for customized inverse trip time curve for step 2 tCCrv2 0.000 - 0.001 0.000 Param P for customized inverse trip time curve for step 4 tACrv4 0.20.10.000 - 0.10.500 Param PR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 3 tTRCrv3 0.3.01 0.1 .1 1.020 Reset time delay for step 4 tPCrv4 0.000 s 0.0 Param C for customized inverse trip time curve for step 3 tPRCrv3 0.60.20.0 Param C for customized inverse trip time curve for step 4 Table continues on next page 481 Technical Manual .020 Reset time delay for step 2 tPCrv2 0.005 .60.000 s 0.000 Param P for customized inverse trip time curve for step 2 tACrv2 0.00 - 0.001 0.001 13.00 Param B for customized inverse trip time curve for step 3 tCCrv3 0.00 - 0.001 0.005 .0 - 0.000 - 0.005 .000 s 0.200.000 .1 .500 Param TR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 2 tCRCrv2 0.005 .001 13.001 1.001 13.3.100.0 - 0.500 Param TR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 3 tCRCrv3 0.00 .000 - 0.3.001 1.01 0.001 13.001 0.005 .10.200.020 Reset time delay for step 3 tPCrv3 0.

005 . 2.10.1 1.5. U3P.000 - 0. I3PDIR.500 Param PR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 4 tTRCrv4 0. input used for “Polarizing Quantity”.3. input used for “Operating Quantity”. 8.005 .100.0 - 0. The pre-processing block calculates I2 from the first three inputs into the preprocessing block by using the following formula: 482 Technical Manual .500 Param TR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 4 tCRCrv4 0. The negative sequence current is calculated from three-phase current input within the IED. input used for "Directional finding" These inputs are connected from the corresponding pre-processing function blocks in the Configuration Tool within PCM600.5.000 - 0.12 Step - 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 243: Name 8.5.1 Operating quantity within the function Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC function always uses negative sequence current (I2) for its operating quantity.0 Param CR for customized inverse reset time curve for step 4 Table 242: Name GlobalBaseSel 8.001 0. I3P.Section 8 Current protection Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description tPRCrv4 0.6 NS4PTOC Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .1 . 3.7.7 Unit NS4PTOC Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description IOp REAL - A Operating current level UPol REAL - kV Polarizing voltage level UPOLIANG REAL - deg Polarizing angle between voltage and current Operation principle Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC function has the following three “Analog Inputs” on its function block in the configuration tool: 1.001 13.

This phasor is used together with the phasor of the operating current.7. To use this all three phase-to-earth voltages must be connected to three IED VT inputs.4) for this step and a common START signal. that is. activates the output signal STx (x=1 . If the negative sequence current is larger than the set operation current and the step is used in non-directional mode a signal from the comparator for this step is set to true. that is. Four step negative sequence overcurrent protection NS4PTOC function uses the voltage polarizing method. a = 1∠120 deg a2 similarly gives a phase shift of 240 deg.2 Internal polarizing facility of the function A polarizing quantity is used within the protection to determine the direction to the fault (Forward/Reverse). This signal. a2 = 1∠240 deg The phasor magnitude is used within the NS4PTOC protection to compare it with the set operation current value of the four steps (I1>. NS4PTOC uses the negative sequence voltage -U2 as polarizing quantity U3P. I2>. in order to determine the direction to the fault (Forward/Reverse). UL2 and UL3 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase voltages. I3> or I4>).5. IL2 and IL3 are fundamental frequency phasors of three individual phase currents. without delay.To enable voltage polarizing 483 Technical Manual . 8. a is so called operator which gives a phase shift of 120 deg. The preprocessing block calculates -U2 from the first three inputs into the pre-processing block by using the following formula: UPol = -U 2 = - 1 × (UL1 + a 2 × UL 2 + a × UL3 ) 3 EQUATION2267 V2 EN where: UL1. This voltage is calculated from three phase voltage input within the IED.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - I2 = 1 3 ( × IL1 + a × IL 2 + a × IL 3 2 ) (Equation 120) EQUATION2266 V2 EN where: IL1.

Negative sequence current pickup value.5. Every of the four overcurrent stage has the following built-in facilities: • • • Operating mode (Off/ Non-directional /Forward / Reverse).Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - the magnitude of polarizing voltage must be bigger than a minimum level defined by setting UpolMin. 8. refer to Chapter "" 484 Technical Manual . Note that the directional decision (Forward/Reverse) is not made within the overcurrent stage itself. By this parameter setting it is possible to select Inverse or definite time delay for negative sequence overcurrent function.7.3 External polarizing for negative sequence function The individual steps within the protection can be set as non-directional. Most of the standard IEC and ANSI inverse characteristics are available.7. This ensures the required inversion of the polarizing voltage within the function.4 Distance protection directional function Negative sequence polarized general current and voltage multi purpose protection function Internal negative sequence protection structure The protection is internally divided into the following parts: • • Four negative sequence overcurrent steps Directional supervision element for negative sequence overcurrent steps with integrated directional comparison step for communication based negative sequence protection schemes (permissive or blocking) Each part is described separately in the following sections.7. Type of operating characteristic (Inverse or Definite Time).5 Four negative sequence overcurrent stages Each overcurrent stage uses Operating Quantity I2 (negative sequence current) as measuring quantity. 8.5. By this parameter setting the operating mode of the stage is selected. The direction of the fault is determined in common “Directional Supervision Element” described in the next paragraph. Note that –U2 is used to determine the location of the fault.5. When this setting is selected it is then possible via function binary input BLKSTx (where x indicates the relevant step within the protection) to provide external directional control (that is. torque control) by for example using one of the following functions if available in the IED: • • 8. For the complete list of available inverse curves.

8. The start signals from NS4PTOC for each stage can be blocked from the binary input BLKSTx.vsd IEC09000683 V2 EN Figure 241: Simplified logic diagram for negative sequence overcurrent stage x . reset time delay and parameters to define user programmable inverse curve are defined. 3 or 4 NS4PTOC can be completely blocked from the binary input BLOCK.5. By these parameter settings the properties like definite time delay. The trip signals from NS4PTOC can be blocked from the binary input BLKTR. minimum operating time for inverse curves.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - • • • Type of reset characteristic (Instantaneous / IEC Reset /ANSI reset). Multiplier for scaling of the set negative sequence current pickup value by external binary signal. refer to Chapter "" Time delay related settings. Simplified logic diagram for one negative sequence overcurrent stage is shown in the following figure: BLKTR Characteristx=DefTime |IOP| a ENMULTx IxMult AND OR a>b AND tx TRx b X STx AND T F Ix> txmin BLKSTx AND BLOCK Inverse Characteristx=Inverse OR DirModex=Off STAGEx_DIR_Int DirModex=Non-directional DirModex=Forward DirModex=Reverse FORWARD_Int REVERSE_Int AND OR AND IEC09000683-3-en.7. 2.6 Directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison function At least one of the four negative sequence overcurrent steps must be set as directional in order to enable execution of the directional 485 Technical Manual . For the complete list of available reset curves. By this parameter setting it is possible to increase negative sequence current pickup value when function binary input ENMULTx has logical value 1.By this parameter setting it is possible to select the reset characteristic of the stage. where x=1.

to determine the direction of the fault.vsd IEC10000031 V1 EN Figure 242: Operating characteristic for fault directional element Two relevant setting parameters for directional supervision element are: • • Directional element is internally enable to operate as soon as Iop is bigger than 40% of I>Dir and the directional condition is fulfilled in set direction. built-in within directional supervision element. as shown in figure 235. Directional comparison step. set NS4PTOC output binary signals: 486 Technical Manual . The operating and polarizing quantity are then used inside the directional element. Relay characteristic angle AngleRCA which defines the position of forward and reverse areas in the operating characteristic. Reverse Area Upol=-U2 AngleRCA Forward Area Iop = I2 IEC10000031-1-en.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - supervision element and the integrated directional comparison function.

STFW=1 when tip of I2 phasor (operating quantity magnitude) is in forward area. 2. (Operating quantity magnitude is bigger than 60% of setting I>Dir) These signals must be used for communication based fault teleprotection communication schemes (permissive or blocking). Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison step is shown in figure 236: |Iop| 0.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 1.6 a a> b b STRV AND X a a> b b I>Dir 0. see fig 235.vsd IEC07000067-4 V2 EN Figure 243: Simplified logic diagram for directional supervision element with integrated directional comparison step 487 Technical Manual . see fig 235 (Operating quantity magnitude is bigger than setting I>Dir) STRV=1 when tip of I2 phasor (operating quantity magnitude) is in the reverse area.4 REVERSE_Int FORWARD_Int STFW AND X UPolMin IPolMin Iop UPol RVS STAGE1_DIR_Int STAGE2_DIR_Int STAGE3_DIR_Int STAGE4_DIR_Int BLOCK AND FORWARD_Int AND REVERSE_Int D i r e c ti o n a l t C h a r a c e ri s ti c FWD AngleRCA OR AND IEC07000067-4.

00 . table 1039 and table 1040 Minimum operate current for steps 1 .4 (1.00)% of IBase ± 1.000) s ± 0.2% or ± 35 ms whichever is greater Inverse characteristics.Section 8 Current protection 8.0% of I at I > Ir Relay characteristic angle (-180 to 180) degrees ± 2.5% of I at I > Ir Minimum polarizing voltage (1–100)% of UBase ± 0.0 degrees Operate value.6 Range or value Accuracy Operate value. start function 15 ms typically - Transient overreach <10% at τ = 100 ms - Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection SDEPSDE 488 Technical Manual . negative sequence current.50–3000.50-1000. start function at 2 to 0 x Iset Min = 15 ms Max = 30 ms - Critical impulse time.0% of Ir at I £ Ir ± 1.5.000-60.0% of Ir Real part of negative sequence source impedance used for current polarization (0.0% of I at I > Ir Reset ratio > 95% at (10-2500)% of IBase - Independent time delay for step 1.8 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Technical data Table 244: NS4PTOC technical data Function 8. start function at 0 to 2 x Iset Min = 15 ms Max = 30 ms - Reset time.00) W/phase - Imaginary part of negative sequence source impedance used for current polarization (0. see table 1038. negative current for directional release (1–100)% of IBase For RCA ± 60 degrees: ± 2. step 1-4 (1-2500)% of lBase ± 1.10000.0% of Ir at I ≤ Ir ± 1.5% of Ur Minimum polarizing current (2-100)% of IBase ±1.5% of Ir at I ≤ Ir ± 2. 2. table 1039 and table 1040 16 curve types See table 1038. start function 10 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Iset - Impulse margin time. 3.00) W/phase - Operate time. and 4 at 0 to 2 x Iset (0.

1 Identification Function description Sensitive directional residual over current and power protection 8. where φ is the angle between the residual current and the residual voltage (-3U0). the function can be set to strict 3I0 level with a check of angle φ. The characteristic angle is chosen to -90º in such a network. In such networks. In an isolated network. the network is only coupled to earth via the capacitances between the phase conductors and earth. the phase-to-earth fault current is significantly smaller than the short circuit currents. As the amplitude of the residual current is independent of the fault location.6. with a parallel resistor. where φ is the angle between the residual current and the reference residual voltage. The protection uses the residual power component 3I0 · 3U0 · cos φ. the active residual current component (in phase with the residual voltage) should be used for the earth fault detection. In resistance earthed networks or in Petersen coil earthed. When should the sensitive directional residual overcurrent protection be used and when should the sensitive directional residual power protection be used? Consider the following: 489 Technical Manual . Directional residual current can be used to detect and give selective trip of phase-toearth faults in high impedance earthed networks.2 IEC 61850 identification SDEPSDE IEC 60617 identification - ANSI/IEEE C37. A backup neutral point voltage function is also available for non-directional residual overvoltage protection.2 device number 67N Functionality In networks with high impedance earthing. Another difficulty for earth fault protection is that the magnitude of the phase-to-earth fault current is almost independent of the fault location in the network. compensated with a characteristic angle. that is. the residual current always has -90º phase shift compared to the residual voltage ( 3U0). Alternatively. The protection uses the residual current component 3I0 · cos φ. the selectivity of the earth fault protection is achieved by time selectivity. compensated with a characteristic angle.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8. Directional residual power can also be used to detect and give selective trip of phaseto-earth faults in high impedance earthed networks. the characteristic angle is chosen to 0º.6. A normal non-directional residual current function can also be used with definite or inverse time delay.

better possibility to detect earth faults. else if connection is made to all inputs GRPxL1. For 3I0 to be calculated. with large capacitive earth fault currents. if the measuring CT ratio is not too high. In such networks.e.vsd IEC13000013 V1 EN Figure 244: Connection of SDEPSDE to analog preprocessing function block Overcurrent functionality uses true 3I0. In addition. 1 A or 5 A. the active fault current would be small and by using sensitive directional residual power protection. GRPxL2 and GRPxL3 the internally calculated sum of these inputs (3I0 and 3U0) will be used.25 % of IBase. in low impedance earthed networks. GRPxL2 and GRPxL3. This is applicable in large high impedance earthed networks. 490 Technical Manual . i. The setting possibilities of this function are down to 0. the operating quantity is elevated.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - • • Sensitive directional residual overcurrent protection gives possibility for better sensitivity. This sensitivity is in most cases sufficient in high impedance network applications. Phase currents IN Phaseground voltages UN IEC13000013-1-en. If a connection is made to GRPxN this signal is used. sum of GRPxL1. Directional and power functionality uses IN and UN. Therefore. connection is needed to all three phase inputs. the inverse time characteristic gives better time-selectivity in case of high zero-resistive fault currents. Sensitive directional residual power protection gives possibility to use inverse time characteristics.

4 SDEPSDE function block Signals Table 245: Name SDEPSDE Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for voltage BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Blocks all the outputs of the function BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks the trip outputs of the function BLKTRDIR BOOLEAN 0 Blocks the directional operate outputs of the function BLKNDN BOOLEAN 0 Blocks the Non directional current residual outputs BLKUN BOOLEAN 0 Blocks the Non directional voltage residual outputs Table 246: Name SDEPSDE Output signals Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN General trip of the function TRDIRIN BOOLEAN Trip of the directional residual over current function TRNDIN BOOLEAN Trip of non directional residual over current TRUN BOOLEAN Trip of non directional residual over voltage START BOOLEAN General start of the function STDIRIN BOOLEAN Start of the directional residual over current function STNDIN BOOLEAN Start of non directional residual over current STUN BOOLEAN Start of non directional residual over voltage STFW BOOLEAN Start of directional function for a fault in forward direction Table continues on next page 491 Technical Manual .6.3 Function block SDEPSDE I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLKTR BLKTRDIR BLKNDN BLKUN TRIP TRDIRIN TRNDIN TRUN START STDIRIN STNDIN STUN STFW STRV STDIR UNREL IEC07000032-2-en.6.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8.vsd IEC07000032 V2 EN Figure 245: 8.

in sec Table continues on next page 492 Technical Manual .60.00 Reference value of res power for inverse time count in % of SBase kSN 0.01 10.1 0.000 Time delay for non-directional residual over current.00 Set level for 3I03U0cosFi. in deg INCosPhi> 0.000 s 0.001 0.03 .01 0.2. directional res over current in % of IBase SN> 0.60.25 .400.00 Set level for 3I0cosFi.0 Relay characteristic angle compensation ROADir 0 .100 Definite time delay directional residual overcurrent.200.00 . in deg RCAComp -10.00 %IB 0.200.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name 8.25 .01 10.00 .000 .000 .200.10 Time multiplier setting for directional residual power mode OpINNonDir> Off On - - Off Operation of non-directional residual overcurrent protection INNonDir> 1. in sec SRef 0.0 Deg 0.00 Set level for non directional residual over current in % of IBase tINNonDir 0.10.00 - 0.01 10.25 .000 s 0.6.5 Table 247: Name Type Description STRV BOOLEAN Start of directional function for a fault in reverse direction STDIR INTEGER Direction of fault.00 %SB 0.00 %IB 0.01 5. A general signal common to all three mode of residual over current protection UNREL BOOLEAN Residual voltage release of operation of all directional modes Settings SDEPSDE Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OpMode 3I0Cosfi 3I03U0Cosfi 3I0 and fi - - 3I0Cosfi Selection of operation mode for protection DirMode Forward Reverse - - Forward Direction of operation forward or reverse RCADir -179 .01 1.001 1.00 %IB 0. starting inv time count in % of SBase INDir> 0.00 Set level for directional residual over current prot in % of IBase tDef 0.180 Deg 1 -90 Relay characteristic angle RCA.0 .00 %SB 0.200.90 Deg 1 90 Relay open angle ROA used as release in phase mode.

00 Setting B for customer programmable curve tCCrv 0.00 Set level for non-directional residual over voltage in % of UBase tUN 0.00 .200.T.60.001 1.005 . inv.01 3. inv. inv.T.001 0.000 s 0.00 - 0.T.00 %IB 0.001 0. Table continues on next page 493 Technical Manual .000 s 0. Operation curve selection for IDMT operation tMin 0. IEC inv. inv.00 Residual release current for all directional modes in % of IBase UNRel> 1.200.040 Minimum operate time for IEC IDMT curves.T. inv. IEC S. ANSI Mod.001 0. IEC L. ANSI Norm.00 .000 .200.000 .0 - 0.00 - 0. in sec tPCrv 0.000 Setting P for customer programmable curve tACrv 0.2.01 1.00 %UB 0. IEC Def.001 13.100 Time delay for non-directional residual over voltage.20.E. inv. L.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description TimeChar ANSI Ext. IEC Very inv. inv.0 Setting C for customer programmable curve ResetTypeCrv Immediate IEC Reset ANSI reset - - IEC Reset Reset mode when current drops off. L.60.000 s 0.040 Description Time delay used for reset of definite timers. IEC Ext.1 1.05 . in sec kIN 0. inv.300.000 - 0.01 20.00 IDMT time mult for non-dir res over current protection OpUN> Off On - - Off Operation of non-directional residual overvoltage protection UN> 1.005 . inv.V.10.01 1.60. inv.T. in sec INRel> 0.25 . Time L.3. Time Reserved Programmable RI type RD type - - IEC Norm.00 .00 %UB 0. inv.00 Residual release voltage for all direction modes in % of UBase Step Default Table 248: Name SDEPSDE Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit tReset 0.01 0. ANSI Def. IEC Norm. ANSI Very inv.000 - 0.1 .000 .500 Setting A for customer programmable curve tBCrv 0.

6.7.0 Setting CR for customer programmable curve Table 249: Name GlobalBaseSel Table 250: Name RotResU 8.1 1.6.500 Setting PR for customer programmable curve tTRCrv 0.12 Unit Step - 1 Default 1 Description Global base selection for function groups SDEPSDE Non group settings (advanced) Values (Range) 0 deg 180 deg Unit Step - - Default 180 deg Description Setting for rotating polarizing quantity if necessary Monitored data Table 251: SDEPSDE Monitored data Name Type Values (Range) Unit Description INCOSPHI REAL - A Magnitude of residual current along the polarizing quantity 3I0cos(Fi-RCA) IN REAL - A Measured magnitude of the residual current 3I0 UN REAL - kV Measured magnitude of the residual voltage 3U0 SN REAL - MVA Measured magnitude of residual power 3I03U0cos(Fi-RCA) ANG FI-RCA REAL - deg Angle between 3U0 and 3I0 minus RCA (Fi-RCA) 8.000 - 0.0 - 0.3.6. Group signals I3P and U3P containing phasors of residual current and voltage are taken from preprocessor blocks.1 Function inputs The function is using phasors of the residual current and voltage.1 .001 0.10.005 .6 SDEPSDE Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .000 - 0.005 .Section 8 Current protection Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description tPRCrv 0. The sensitive directional earth fault protection has the following sub-functions included: 494 Technical Manual .7 Operation principle 8.001 13.100.500 Setting TR for customer programmable curve tCRCrv 0.

Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Directional residual current protection measuring 3I0·cos φ φ is defined as the angle between the residual current 3I0 and the reference voltage (| φ=ang(3I0)-ang(Uref)|). RCADir is normally set equal to 0 in a high impedance earthed network with a neutral point resistor as the active current component is appearing out on the faulted feeder only. ROADir = 90 3I0 3I0 ⋅ cos ϕ ϕ = ang (3I0 ) − ang (Uref ) −3U0 IEC06000649_3_en. The reference voltage (Uref) is the polarizing quantity which is used for directionality and is defined as Uref = -3U0 e—jRCADir.vsd IEC06000649 V3 EN Figure 247: RCADir set to -90° 495 Technical Manual . RCADir = 0o. The function operates when 3I0·cos φ gets larger than the set value.ROADir = 90o 3I0 j = ang(3I0 ) .vsd IEC06000648 V4 EN Figure 246: RCADir set to 0° Uref RCADir = −90 .ang(3Uref ) -3U0 = Uref 3I0 × cosj IEC06000648-4-en. that is -3U0 inversely rotated by the set characteristic angle RCADir. RCADir is set equal to -90° in an isolated network as all currents are mainly capacitive.

Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTRDIR. It is also possible to tilt the characteristic to compensate for current transformer angle error with a setting RCAComp as shown in the Figure 249: 496 Technical Manual . When the function picks up. Figure 248 shows the restrictions made by the ROADir. The trip from this sub-function has definite time delay. Reverse direction is defined as 3I0·cos (φ + 180°) ≥ the set value.vsd IEC06000650 V2 EN Figure 248: Characteristic with ROADir restriction The function indicates forward/reverse direction to the fault. the residual current 3I0. binary output signals START and STDIRIN are activated. ROADir is Relay Operating Angle.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - For trip. ROADir is identifying a window around the reference direction in order to detect directionality. RCADir = 0o 3I0 Operate area j 3I0 × cos j -3U0 = Uref ROADir IEC06000650_2_en. Refer to the simplified logical diagram in Figure 251. INRel> and UNRel>. If the output signals START and STDIRIN remain active for the set delay tDef the binary output signals TRIP and TRDIRIN get activated. the operating quantity 3I0 cos φ. and the residual voltage 3U0 must be larger than the set levels : INCosPhi>.

When the function picks up. the residual power 3I0 · 3U0 · cos φ. the residual current 3I0 and the release voltage 3U0.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - RCADir = 0º Operate area -3U0 =Uref Instrument transformer angle error a RCAcomp Characteristic after angle compensation 3I0 (prim) 3I0 (to prot) en06000651. Refer to the simplified logical diagram in Figure 251. Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTRDIR. binary output signals START and STDIRIN are activated. Reverse direction is defined as 3I0 · 3U0·cos (φ + 180°) ³ the set value. The function shall indicate forward/reverse direction to the fault. 497 Technical Manual . If the output signals START and STDIRIN remain active for the set delay tDef or after the inverse time delay (setting kSN) the binary output signals TRIP and TRDIRIN get activated. INRel> and UNRel>). The function operates when 3I0 · 3U0 · cos φ gets larger than the set value SN>. shall be larger than the set levels (SN>.vsd IEC06000651 V2 EN Figure 249: Explanation of RCAComp Directional residual power protection measuring 3I0 · 3U0 · cos φ φ is defined as the angle between the residual current 3I0 and the reference voltage (Uref = -3U0 e-jRCA) compensated with the set characteristic angle RCADir (| φ=ang(3I0)—ang(Uref)|). For trip.

Refer to the simplified logical diagram in Figure 251. In addition. If the output signals START and STDIRIN remain active for the set delay tDef the binary output signals TRIP and TRDIRIN get activated. Residual current 3I0 shall be larger than both INRel> and INDir>.vsd IEC06000652 V3 EN Figure 250: Example of characteristic For trip. binary output signals START and STDIRIN are activated. Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKTRDIR. The inverse time delay is defined as: t inv = kSN × (3I0 × 3U 0 × cos j(reference)) 3I0 × 3U 0 × cos j(measured) (Equation 121) EQUATION1942 V2 EN Directional residual current protection measuring 3I0 and φ The function will operate if the residual current is larger than the set value and the angle |φ = ang(3I0)-ang(Uref)| is within the sector RCADir ± ROADir RCADir = 0º ROADir = 80º Operate area 3I0 -3U0 IEC06000652-3-en.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - This variant has the possibility of choice between definite time delay and inverse time delay. the angle φ shall be in the set area defined by ROADir and RCADir. Reverse direction is defined as φ is within the angle sector: RCADir + 180° ± ROADir 498 Technical Manual . When the function picks up. and residual voltage 3U0 shall be larger than the UNRel>. The function indicates forward/reverse direction to the fault.

A simplified logical diagram of the total function is shown in Figure 251. a fault in the reverse direction will give the start signal STRV. also when dedicated core balance CT for the sensitive earth fault protection will saturate. the residual voltage 3U0 shall be larger than the set level (UN>). This will give a better ability to detect cross-country faults with high residual current. with its own definite time delay tUN and set level UN>. Also if the directional function is set to operate for faults in the reverse direction. Directional functions For all the directional functions there are directional start signals STFW: fault in the forward direction. In addition. binary output signal STUN is activated. Residual overvoltage release and protection All the directional functions shall be released when the residual voltage gets higher than a set level UNRel>. 499 Technical Manual . there is also a separate non-directional residual over voltage protection. Non-directional earth fault current protection This function will measure the residual current without checking the phase angle. The non-directional function is using the calculated residual current. The function will be used to detect cross-country faults. and STRV: fault in the reverse direction. The inverse time delay shall be according to IEC 60255-3. Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKUN. When the function picks up. binary output signal STNDIN is activated. If the output signal STNDIN remains active for the set delay tINNonDir or after the inverse time delay the binary output signals TRIP and TRNDIN get activated. For trip. When the function picks up.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - This variant has definite time delay. Trip from this function can be blocked from the binary input BLKNDN. To assure selectivity the distance protection can block the non-directional earth fault current function via the input BLKNDN. If the output signal STUN is active for the set delay tUNNonDir. a fault in the forward direction will give the start signal STFW. Even if the directional function is set to operate for faults in the forward direction. the binary output signals TRIP and TRUN get activated. For trip. This variant has the possibility of choice between definite time delay and inverse time delay (TimeChar parameter). derived as sum of the phase currents. This function can serve as alternative or backup to distance protection with phase preference logic. the residual current 3I0 shall be larger than the set level (INNonDir>).

0% of I at I > Ir Table continues on next page 500 Technical Manual .00)% of lBase ± 1.0% of Ir at I £ Ir ± 1.8 Simplified logical diagram of the sensitive earth fault current protection Technical data Table 252: SDEPSDE technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Operate level for 3I0·cosj directional residual overcurrent (0.25-200.6.0% of Ir at £ Ir ± 1.vsd IEC06000653 V4 EN Figure 251: 8.0% of I at I > Ir Operate level for ·3I0·3U0 cosj directional residual power (0.0% of Sr at S £ Sr ± 1.25-200.Section 8 Current protection OpINNonDir> = On 1MRK 504 139-UEN - STNDIN & INNonDir> t TRNDIN TimeChar IN OpUN> = On STUN & UN> tUN t TRUN OpMode = 3I0Cosfi INRel> & UNRel> & tDef t INCosPhi> OpMode = 3I0 and fi & INDir> & tDef t OpMode = 3I03U0Cosfi & SN> ³ 1 STDIRIN ³ 1 TRDIRIN & t ³ 1 Direction Detection Logic RCADir RCAComp S N STFW & STRV & ROADir DirMode = Forward DirMode = Reverse IEC06000653.00)% of lBase ± 1.25-200.00)% of SBase ± 1.0% of S at S > Sr Operate level for 3I0 and j residual overcurrent (0.

2% or ± 80 ms whichever is greater Independent time delay for directional residual overcurrent at 0 to 2 x Iset (0.7 Range or value Accuracy Operate level for nondirectional overcurrent (1.00)% of UBase ± 0.5% of U at U > Ur Operate time for nondirectional residual overcurrent at 0 to 2 x Iset Min = 40 ms Reset time for non-directional residual overcurrent at 2 to 0 x Iset Min = 40 ms Operate time for directional residual overcurrent at 0 to 2 x Iset Min = 115 ms Reset time for directional residual overcurrent at 2 to 0 x Iset Min = 25 ms Independent time delay for non-directional residual overvoltage at 0.0 degrees Relay Open angle ROA (0 to 90) degrees ± 2.000) sec ±0.0% of Ir at I £ Ir ± 1.8 to 1.00)% of lBase ± 1. Celsius/Fahrenheit LCPTTR/LFPTTR 501 Technical Manual .Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function 8.00-200.5% of U at U > Ur Residual release current for all directional modes (0.0% of I at I > Ir Residual release voltage for all directional modes (1.00)% of UBase ± 0. table 1039 and table 1040 Relay characteristic angle RCA (-179 to 180) degrees ± 2.00-300.0% of I at I > Ir Operate level for nondirectional residual overvoltage (1.2% or ± 180 ms whichever is greater Inverse characteristics 16 curve types See table 1038.0% of Ir at I £ Ir ± 1. one time constant.00-400.000 – 60.2 x Uset (0.00)% of lBase ±1.000) sec ±0.000) sec ±0.0 degrees Max = 65 ms Max = 65 ms Max = 165 ms Max = 65 ms Thermal overload protection.000 – 60.000 – 60.25-200.5% of Ur at U £ Ur ± 0.5% of Ur at U £ Ur ± 0.2% or ± 80 ms whichever is greater Independent time delay for non-directional residual overcurrent at 0 to 2 x Iset (0.

2 device number Thermal overload protection.2 IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37. depending on whether the function used is LCPTTR (Celsius) or LFPTTR (Fahrenheit). 502 Technical Manual . Fahrenheit LFPTTR 26 Functionality The increasing utilization of the power system closer to the thermal limits has generated a need of a thermal overload protection for power lines. An alarm level gives early warning to allow operators to take action well before the line is tripped. The temperature is displayed in either Celsius or Fahrenheit.7. Celsius LCPTTR 26 Thermal overload protection. A thermal overload will often not be detected by other protection functions and the introduction of the thermal overload protection can allow the protected circuit to operate closer to the thermal limits. one time constant.7. and estimated time to reclose after operation are presented.1 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Identification Function description 8.Section 8 Current protection 8. The three-phase current measuring protection has an I2t characteristic with settable time constant and a thermal memory. one time constant. Estimated time to trip before operation.

3 Function block LCPTTR I3P* BLOCK BLKTR ENMULT AMBTEMP SENSFLT RESET TRIP START ALARM LOCKOUT IEC13000199-1-en.vsd IEC13000199 V1 EN LFPTTR I3P* BLOCK BLKTR ENMULT AMBTEMP SENSFLT RESET TRIP START ALARM LOCKOUT IEC13000301-1-en.7.4 LCPTTR/LFPTTR function bloc Signals Table 253: Name LCPTTR Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip ENMULT BOOLEAN 0 Current multiplyer used when THOL is for two or more lines AMBTEMP REAL 0 Ambient temperature from external temperature sensor SENSFLT BOOLEAN 0 Validity status of ambient temperature sensor RESET BOOLEAN 0 Reset of internal thermal load counter Table 254: LFPTTR Input signals Name Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip ENMULT BOOLEAN 0 Current multiplyer used when THOL is for two or more lines AMBTEMP REAL 0 Ambient temperature from external temperature sensor SENSFLT BOOLEAN 0 Validity status of ambient temperature sensor RESET BOOLEAN 0 Reset of internal thermal load counter 503 Technical Manual .Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8.vsd IEC13000301 V1 EN Figure 252: 8.7.

100 Deg C 1 20 Ambient temperature used when AmbiSens is set to Off.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 255: LCPTTR Output signals Name Type TRIP BOOLEAN Trip START BOOLEAN Start Signal ALARM BOOLEAN Alarm signal LOCKOUT BOOLEAN Lockout signal Table 256: LFPTTR Output signals Name 8.7.0.12 Unit - Step 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups 504 Technical Manual .300 Deg C 1 90 Temperature level for trip ReclTemp 0 .10 Operate pulse length.400 %IB 1 100 The load current (in % of IBase) leading to TRef temperature IMult 1-5 - 1 1 Current multiplier when function is used for two or more lines Tau 1 .01 0.5 Table 257: Name Description Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Trip START BOOLEAN Start Signal ALARM BOOLEAN Alarm signal LOCKOUT BOOLEAN Lockout signal Settings LCPTTR Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On TRef 0 .300 Deg C 1 50 Temperature raise above ambient temperature at startup Table 258: Name GlobalBaseSel LCPTTR Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 . Minimum one execution cycle AmbiSens Off On - - Off External temperature sensor available DefaultAmbTemp -50 .300 Deg C 1 75 Temperature for reset of lockout after trip tPulse 0.300 Deg C 1 90 End temperature rise above ambient of the line when loaded with IRef IRef 0 .30 s 0.1000 Min 1 45 Time constant of the line in minutes. AlarmTemp 0 .200 Deg C 1 80 Temperature level for start (alarm) TripTemp 0 . DefaultTemp -50 .05 .

DefaultTemp -50 .6 LFPTTR Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .01 0.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 259: Name LFPTTR Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On TRef 0 .7.10 Operate pulse length.600 Deg F 1 195 Temperature level for trip ReclTemp 0 .400 Deg F 1 175 Temperature level for start (alarm) TripTemp 0 .600 Deg F 1 100 Temperature raise above ambient temperature at startup Table 260: Name GlobalBaseSel 8. Minimum one execution cycle AmbiSens Off On - - Off External temperature sensor available DefaultAmbTemp -50 .600 Deg F 1 170 Temperature for reset of lockout after trip tPulse 0.30 s 0.600 Deg F 1 160 End temperature rise above ambient of the line when loaded with IRef IRef 0 .1000 Min 1 45 Time constant of the line in minutes.12 Unit Step - 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 261: Name LCPTTR Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description TTRIP INTEGER - - Estimated time to trip (in min) TENRECL REAL - - Estimated time to reset of lockout (in min) TEMP REAL - deg Calculated temperature of the device TEMPAMB REAL - deg Ambient temperature used in the calculations TERMLOAD REAL - - Temperature relative to operate temperature 505 Technical Manual . AlarmTemp 0 .250 Deg F 1 60 Ambient temperature used when AmbiSens is set to Off.05 .0.400 %IB 1 100 The load current (in % of IBase) leading to TRef temperature IMult 1-5 - 1 1 Current multiplier when function is used for two or more lines Tau 1 .

7 Type Values (Range) Unit Description TTRIP INTEGER - - Estimated time to trip (in min) TENRECL REAL - - Estimated time to reset of lockout (in min) TEMP REAL - Temperature Fahrenheit Calculated temperature of the device TEMPAMB REAL - Temperature Fahrenheit Ambient temperature used in the calculations TERMLOAD REAL - - Temperature relative to operate temperature Operation principle The sampled analog phase currents are pre-processed and for each phase current the RMS value is derived. a START output signal is activated. These phase current values are fed to the thermal overload protection.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 262: LFPTTR Monitored data Name 8. If this temperature is larger than the set operate temperature level. The temperature is displayed either in Celsius or Fahrenheit. TripTemp. From the largest of the three-phase currents a final temperature is calculated according to the expression: Q final æ I =ç ç I ref è 2 ö ÷÷ × Tref ø EQUATION1167 V1 EN (Equation 122) where: I is the largest phase current. Iref is a given reference current and Tref is steady state temperature rise corresponding to Iref The ambient temperature is added to the calculated final temperature. one time constant LCPTTR/LFPTTR function.7. depending on whether LCPTTR/LFPTTR function is selected. The actual temperature at the actual execution cycle is calculated as: 506 Technical Manual .

TEMP. After a trip. When the component temperature reaches the set trip level TripTemp the output signal TRIP is set. This calculation is only performed if the final temperature is calculated to be above the operation temperature: æQ . TTRIP.e t ÷ è ø EQUATION1168 V1 EN (Equation 123) where: Qn is the calculated present temperature. The ambient temperature can be taken from a separate sensor or can be given a constant value. caused by the thermal overload protection. Qn-1 is the calculated temperature at the previous time step.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Dt æ ö Qn = Qn -1 + ( Q final . The time to lockout release is calculated by the following cooling time calculation.Qlockout _ release ö tlockout _ release = -t × ln ç final ÷÷ ç Q Q final n è ø EQUATION1170 V1 EN (Equation 125) 507 Technical Manual . as shown above. The calculated component temperature is available as a real figure signal. there can be a lockout to reconnect the tripped circuit.Qoperate ö toperate = -t × ln ç final ç Q final . When the component temperature reaches the set alarm level AlarmTemp the output signal ALARM is set. Qfinal is the calculated final temperature with the actual current. The output lockout signal LOCKOUT is activated when the device temperature is above the set lockout release temperature setting ReclTemp. The thermal content of the function can be reset with input RESET.Q n-1 ) × ç1 . There is also a calculation of the present time to operate with the present current. æQ . Dt is the time step between calculation of the actual temperature and t is the set thermal time constant for the protected device (line or cable) The actual temperature of the protected component (line or cable) is calculated by adding the ambient temperature to the calculated temperature.Q n ÷÷ è ø EQUATION1169 V1 EN (Equation 124) The calculated time to trip is available as a real figure signal.

Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - In the above equation. The protection has a reset input: RESET. TENRECL. The calculated time to reset of lockout is available as a real figure signal. This is useful during testing when secondary injected current has given a calculated “false” temperature level. To activate this option the input ENMULT must be activated. By activating this input the calculated temperature is reset to its default initial value. 508 Technical Manual . This signal is enabled when the LOCKOUT output is activated. the final temperature is equal to the set or measured ambient temperature. This is often used where one bay connects several parallel cables. In some applications the measured current can involve a number of parallel lines. By setting the parameter IMult to the number of parallel lines (cables) the actual current on one line is used in the protection algorithm by dividing the measured current by the total number of cables.

Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - START Final Temp > Trip Temp TEMP Calculation of actual temperature AMBTEMP ALARM Actual Temp > Alarm Temp I3P ENMULT Calculation of final temperature TRIP Actual Temp > Trip Temp SENSFLT Lockout logic BLOCK LOCKOUT Actual Temp < Recl Temp Calculation of time to trip TTRIP BLKTR Calculation of time to reset of lockout TENRECL IEC09000637-2-en.vsd IEC09000637 V2 EN Figure 253: Functional overview of LCPTTR/LFPTTR 509 Technical Manual .

two time constants IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification TRPTTR ANSI/IEEE C37.0°C.Ip .Section 8 Current protection 8. As a consequence of this the risk of internal phase-to-phase or phase-to-earth faults will increase. (0-600)°F ±2. The insulation within the transformer will experience forced ageing.8 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Technical data Table 263: LCPTTR/LFPTTR technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Reference current (2-400)% of IBase ±1. (0-400)°F ±2.2 Functionality If a power transformer reaches very high temperatures the equipment might be damaged.Ip t = t ln ê ê 2 2 TTrip .0°C.8.8 Thermal overload protection.0% of Ir Reference temperature (0-300)°C. ±5.600)°F ±1.2 device number 49 SYMBOL-A V1 EN 8.0°F Reset level temperature (0-300)°C. 510 Technical Manual . two time constants TRPTTR 8. ±4.0°F Operate temperature (0-300)°C.0°F é 2 2 ê I .0°C. ±2. ±4.0°C.1 Identification Function description Thermal overload protection.T ref ë EQUATION13000039 V2 EN ù ú ú ú ú û (Equation 126) TTrip= set operate temperature TAmb = ambient temperature Tref = temperature rise above ambient at Iref Iref = reference load current I = actual measured current Ip = load current before overload occurs 8. ±4. (0 .0% or ±200 ms whichever is greater Alarm temperature (0-200)°C.TAmb 2 × I ref ê I . (0-600)°F ±2.0°F Operate time: Time constant t = (1–1000) minutes IEC 60255-8.8.7.

8. the protection initiates a trip of the protected transformer. The estimated time to trip before operation is presented. Changes Ib setting and time constant ENMULT BOOLEAN 0 Enable Multiplier for currentReference setting RESET BOOLEAN 0 Reset of function Table 265: TRPTTR Output signals Name Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Trip Signal START BOOLEAN Start signal ALARM1 BOOLEAN First level alarm signal ALARM2 BOOLEAN Second level alarm signal LOCKOUT BOOLEAN Lockout signal WARNING BOOLEAN Warning signal: Trip within set warning time 511 Technical Manual .3 Function block TRPTTR I3P* BLOCK COOLING ENMULT RESET TRIP START ALARM1 ALARM2 LOCKOUT WARNING IEC06000272_2_en.vsd IEC06000272 V2 EN Figure 254: 8. This estimation is made by using a thermal model of the transformer with two time constants. 8. If the temperature continues to increase to the trip value.4 TRPTTR function block Signals Table 264: Name TRPTTR Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Group signal for current input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function COOLING BOOLEAN 0 Cooling input Off / On.8. Two warning levels are available. This enables actions in the power system to be done before dangerous temperatures are reached. which is based on current measurement.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The thermal overload protection estimates the internal heat content of the transformer (temperature) continuously.

0 %IB 1.500.IBase2.0 Current Set.0 .250.0 %IB2 1.0 .30 s 0. in % of IBase2 for rescaling TC2 by TC2-ILOW Tau2Low 5 .0 %Itr 1.0 .0 60.0 %IB1 1.0 110.0 .0 50.0 .0 .01 0.0 First alarm level in % of heat content trip value Alarm2 50.250.99.250.0 %Itr 1.500.0 80.0 Lockout reset level in % of heat content trip value ThetaInit 0. in % of IBase1 for rescaling TC1 by TC1-IHIGH Tau1High 5 .0 .0.0 Time constant with cooling input in min. below which warning would be set (in min) tPulse 0.0 60.0 Steady state operate current level in % of IBasex Alarm1 50.2000 %tC2 1 100 Multiplier in % to TC2 when current is < ILOW-TC2 ITrip 50.0 Second alarm level in % of heat content trip value ResLo 10.250.10.95.00 - 0.0 %Itr 1. with IBase2 IHighTau1 30.0 100.8.0 Min 1.0 Current Set.0 %IBx 1.0 Base Current.0 60.250.Section 8 Current protection 8.0 Min 1.00 Multiplication Factor for reference current IBase1 30. with Cooling input ON in % of IBase Tau1 1. 512 Technical Manual .0 .0 90.0 %IB2 1.0 .0 Initial Heat content.500.01 1.10 Length of the pulse for trip signal (in sec).0 .0 Current Set.250.0 .0 %IB1 1.0 100.250.1000.0 . in % of IBase2 for rescaling TC2 by TC2-IHIGH Tau2High 5 .0 100.0 .2000 %tC2 1 100 Multiplier in % to TC2 when current is >IHIGH-TC2 ILowTau2 30.0 Reference current in % of IBase IRefMult 0.01 .0 Current Sett.99.0 Time constant without cooling input in min.1 30.0 %IB 1.01 .0 Min 0. in % of IBase1 for rescaling TC1 by TC1-ILOW Tau1Low 5 .0 100.0 Base current.0 .0 100.2000 %tC1 1 100 Multiplier in % to TC1 when current is < ILOW-TC1 IHighTau2 30.95.0 100.0 Time setting. in % of heat content trip value Warning 1.0 % 1. with IBase1 Tau2 1.0 %IB 1.0 .IBase1 without Cooling input in % of IBase IBase2 30.2000 %tC1 1 100 Multiplier in % to TC1 when current is > IHIGH-TC1 ILowTau1 30.5 Table 266: Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Settings TRPTTR Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On IRef 10.0 100.

12 Step - 1 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 268: TRPTTR Monitored data Name 8. From the largest of the three phase currents a relative final temperature (heat content) is calculated according to the expression: Q final æ I =ç ç I ref è ö ÷÷ ø 2 (Equation 127) EQUATION1171 V1 EN where: I is the largest phase current Iref is a given reference current 513 Technical Manual .6 TRPTTR Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit 1 .Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 267: Name GlobalBaseSel 8.8.7 Default Type Values (Range) Unit Description HEATCONT REAL - % Percentage of the heat content of the transformer I-MEASUR REAL - % Current measured by the function in % of the rated current TTRIP INTEGER - - Estimated time to trip (in min) TRESLO INTEGER - - Estimated time to reset of the function (in min) TTRIPCAL INTEGER 0=Not Active 1=Long Time 2=Active - Calculated time status to trip: not active/long time/ active TRESCAL INTEGER 0=Not Active 1=Long Time 2=Active - Calculated time status to reset: not active/long time/active Operation principle The sampled analog phase currents are pre-processed and for each phase current the true RMS value of each phase current is derived. These phase current values are fed to the protection function.8.

then the start output signal START will be activated.Q n ÷÷ è ø EQUATION1176 V1 EN (Equation 132) 514 Technical Manual . When the temperature of the object reaches the set trip level which corresponds to continuous current equal to ITrip the output signal TRIP is activated. This calculation is only performed if the final temperature is calculated to be above the operation temperature: æQ .( Q final .e t ÷ è ø (Equation 129) EQUATION1173 V1 EN If Q final < Qn (Equation 130) EQUATION1174 V1 EN Qn = Q final .Qoperate ö toperate = -t × ln ç final ç Q final .Q n -1 ) × e - Dt t (Equation 131) EQUATION1175 V1 EN where: Qn is the calculated present temperature Qn-1 is the calculated temperature at the previous time step Qfinal is the calculated final (steady state) temperature with the actual current Dt is the time step between calculation of the actual and final temperature t is the set thermal time constant Tau1 or Tau2 for the protected transformer The calculated transformer relative temperature can be monitored and it is exported from the function as a real figure HEATCONT.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - If this calculated relative temperature is larger than the relative temperature level corresponding to the set operate (trip) current. When the transformer temperature reaches any of the set alarm levels Alarm1 or Alarm2 the corresponding output signal ALARM1 or ALARM2 is activated. The actual temperature at the actual execution cycle is calculated as: If Q final > Q n (Equation 128) EQUATION1172 V1 EN Qn = Qn -1 + ( Q final Dt æ ö . There is also a calculation of the time to operation with the present current.Q n-1 ) × ç1 .

Q n è ø EQUATION1177 V1 EN (Equation 133) In the above equation. The calculated component temperature can be monitored as it is exported from the function as a real figure. The time to lockout release is calculated by the following cooling time calculation. the final temperature is calculated according to equation 127. When the current is so high that it has given a start signal START. set in minutes. 515 Technical Manual . In case of trip a pulse with a set duration tPulse is activated. æQ . After a trip there can be a lockout to inhibit reconnecting the tripped circuit. TRESLO.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The calculated time to trip can be monitored and it is exported from the function as an integer output TTRIP. the output WARNING is activated. the estimated time to trip is continuously calculated and given as analogue output TTRIP.Qlockout _ release ö tlockout _ release = -t × ln ç final ÷÷ ç Q final . If this calculated time get less than the setting time Warning. The output lockout signal LOCKOUT is activated when the temperature of the object is above the set lockout release temperature setting ResLo.

IBase S R Tau used LOCKOUT Actual Temp < Recl Temp Calculation of time to trip Calculation of time to reset of lockout TTRIP WARNING TRESCAL IEC05000833-2-en.Alarm2 Temp ALARM2 Current base used TRIP Actual Temp > TripTemp COOLING Management of setting parameters: Tau.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Final Temp > TripTemp RESET START HEATCONT Calculation of heat content I3P ENMULT Calculation of final temperature ALARM1 Actual Temp > Alarm1.vsd IEC05000833 V2 EN Figure 255: Functional overview of TRPTTR 516 Technical Manual .

9 Breaker failure protection 3-phase activation and output CCRBRF 8.9.8. Contact check criteria can be used where the fault current through the breaker is small. CCRBRF can be current-based.8 Technical data Table 269: TRPTTR technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Base current 1 and 2 (30–250)% of IBase ± 1. contact-based or an adaptive combination of these two conditions.0% of Ir Reset level temperature (10–95)% of heat content trip ± 2.9. Current check with extremely short reset time is used as check criterion to achieve high security against inadvertent operation.0% or ±200 ms whichever is greater Alarm level 1 and 2 (50–99)% of heat content operate value ± 2.2 device number 50BF 3I>BF SYMBOL-U V1 EN 8.I ref 2 ÷ è ø EQUATION1356 V2 EN (Equation 134) I = actual measured current Ip = load current before overload occurs Iref = reference load current 8.2 Functionality Breaker failure protection (CCRBRF) ensures a fast backup tripping of surrounding breakers in case the own breaker fails to open.1 Identification Function description Breaker failure protection.I p2 ö ÷ t = t × ln ç ç I 2 .0% of heat content trip Operate current (50–250)% of IBase ± 1.0% of Ir Operate time: Ip = load current before overload occurs Time constant τ = (1–500) minutes ±5. 517 Technical Manual .0% of heat content trip æ I 2 .Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8. 3-phase activation and output IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification CCRBRF ANSI/IEEE C37.

two phases or one phase plus the residual current start. Back-up trip instantaneously 518 Technical Manual . For the three-phase version of CCRBRF the current criteria can be set to operate only if two out of four for example.vsd IEC06000188 V2 EN Figure 256: 8.9.3 Function block CCRBRF I3P* BLOCK START STL1 STL2 STL3 CBCLDL1 CBCLDL2 CBCLDL3 CBFLT TRBU TRBU2 TRRET TRRETL1 TRRETL2 TRRETL3 CBALARM IEC06000188-2-en.or three-phase re-trip of the own breaker to avoid unnecessary tripping of surrounding breakers at an incorrect initiation due to mistakes during testing. 8. CCRBRF function can be programmed to give a single.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - CCRBRF can be single. This gives a higher security to the back-up trip command.9.4 CCRBRF function block Signals Table 270: Name CCRBRF Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Three phase group signal for current inputs BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function START BOOLEAN 0 Three phase start of breaker failure protection function STL1 BOOLEAN 0 Start signal of phase L1 STL2 BOOLEAN 0 Start signal of phase L2 STL3 BOOLEAN 0 Start signal of phase L3 CBCLDL1 BOOLEAN 0 Circuit breaker closed in phase L1 CBCLDL2 BOOLEAN 0 Circuit breaker closed in phase L2 CBCLDL3 BOOLEAN 0 Circuit breaker closed in phase L3 CBFLT BOOLEAN 0 CB faulty.or three-phase initiated to allow use with single phase tripping applications. unable to trip.

200 Trip pulse duration Table 273: Name CCRBRF Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description I>BlkCont 5 .000 .000 s 0.001 0.000 .Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 271: CCRBRF Output signals Name 8.000 s 0.000 s 0.150 Time delay of back-up trip at multi-phase start tPulse 0.200 %IB 1 10 Operate residual current level in % of IBase t1 0.000 s 0.000 Time delay of re-trip t2 0.030 Additional time delay to t2 for a second back-up trip tCBAlarm 0.000 .001 0.150 Time delay of back-up trip t2MPh 0.000 s 0.60.000 .60.000 s 0.000 .60.9.001 0.000 .5 Table 272: Name Type Description TRBU BOOLEAN Back-up trip by breaker failure protection function TRBU2 BOOLEAN Second back-up trip by breaker failure protection function TRRET BOOLEAN Retrip by breaker failure protection function TRRETL1 BOOLEAN Retrip by breaker failure protection function phase L1 TRRETL2 BOOLEAN Retrip by breaker failure protection function phase L2 TRRETL3 BOOLEAN Retrip by breaker failure protection function phase L3 CBALARM BOOLEAN Alarm for faulty circuit breaker Settings CCRBRF Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On FunctionMode Current Contact Current/Contact - - Current Detection for trip based on Current/ Contact/Current&Contact BuTripMode 2 out of 4 1 out of 3 1 out of 4 - - 1 out of 3 Back-up trip modes: 2 out of 4 or 1 out of 3 or 1 out of 4 RetripMode Retrip Off CB Pos Check No CBPos Check - - Retrip Off Oper mode of re-trip logic: OFF/CB Pos Check/No CB Pos Check IP> 5 .001 5.000 Time delay for alarm when faulty circuit breaker indicated 519 Technical Manual .60.001 0.60.60.200 %IB 1 20 I> in % of IBase block operation using Function Mode Contact t3 0.200 %IB 1 10 Operate phase current level in % of IBase IN> 2 .001 0.

With the current check the re-trip is only performed if the current through the circuit breaker is larger than the operate current level. The re-trip function can be phase selective if it is initiated from phase selective line protection. The start signal can be phase selective or general (for all three phases). fast resetting of the current measurement.6 1MRK 504 139-UEN - CCRBRF Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 . that is. the back-up trip pulse and the backup trip pulse 2 are settable. by detection of either low current through RMS evaluation and a special adapted current algorithm or by open contact indication.Section 8 Current protection Table 274: Name GlobalBaseSel 8. The start signal can be an internal or external protection trip signal.12 Step - 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 275: Name 8.7 Unit CCRBRF Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description IL1 REAL - A Measured current in phase L1 IL2 REAL - A Measured current in phase L2 IL3 REAL - A Measured current in phase L3 IN REAL - A Measured residual current Operation principle Breaker failure protection CCRBRF is initiated from protection trip command. For transmission lines single pole trip and autoreclosing is often used. The re-trip function can be done with or without current check. If the current and/or contact detection has not detected breaker opening before the back-up timer has run its time a back-up trip is initiated. The re-trip attempt can be made after a set time delay. either from protection functions within the IED or from external protection devices. If the opening of the breaker is successful this is detected by the function. the back-up trip pulse and the back- 520 Technical Manual .9. The special algorithm enables a very fast detection of successful breaker opening. This means that a second attempt to open the breaker is done. The re-trip pulse. This signal will start the back-up trip timer. Further the following possibilities are available: • The minimum length of the re-trip pulse.9. Phase selective start signals enable single pole re-trip function.

It is possible to have this option activated for small load currents only. In the current detection it is possible to use three different options: 1 out of 3 where it is sufficient to detect failure to open (high current) in one pole. It is possible to have different back-up time delays for single-phase faults and for multi-phase faults.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - • • • • • up trip pulse 2 will however sustain as long as there is an indication of closed breaker. 1 out of 4 where it is sufficient to detect failure to open (high current) in one pole or high residual current and 2 out of 4 where at least two current (phase current and/ or residual current) shall be high for breaker failure detection. CB position evaluation 521 Technical Manual . for example at low gas pressure.vsd IEC09000976 V1 EN Figure 257: Simplified logic scheme of the CCRBRF starting logic IP> a b FunctionMode 1 a>b Current OR AND OR Time out L1 OR Current and Contact IL1 AND Current High L1 CB Closed L1 AND OR BFP Started L1 a I>BlkCont CBCLDL1 Reset L1 Contact b a>b AND OR AND AND AND Contact Closed L1 IEC09000977-1-en. It is possible to have instantaneous back-up trip function if a signal is high if the circuit breaker is insufficient to clear faults. The current detection level for the residual current can be set different from the setting of phase current detection.vsd IEC09000977 V1 EN Figure 258: Simplified logic scheme of the CCRBRF. 30 ms START STL1 OR BFP Started L1 150 ms AND S R BLOCK SR Q t AND Time out L1 OR Reset L1 Retrip Time Out L1 BackupTrip L1 OR IEC09000976-1-en. The back-up trip can be made without current check.

Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - BFP Started L1 t1 RetripMode OR TRRET OR TRRETL1 OR OR AND CB Pos Check CB Closed L1 CBFLT TRRETL2 tPulse AND No CBPos Check 1 TRRETL3 From other phases Retrip Time Out L1 t AND IEC09000978-3-en. Current High L3 have logical value 1 when current in respective phase has magnitude larger than setting parameter IP>.vsd IEC09000979 V3 EN Figure 260: Simplified logic scheme of the back-up trip logic function Internal logical signals Current High L1. Current High L2. 522 Technical Manual .vsd IEC09000978 V3 EN Figure 259: Simplified logic scheme of the retrip logic function BFP Started L1 BFP Started L2 AND BFP Started L3 AND IN a IN> b BUTripMode 1 From other phases a>b Contact Closed L1 2 out of 4 1 out of 4 1 out of 3 Current High L2 Current High L3 OR OR Current High L1 CBFLT AND AND BFP Started L1 t2 t t2MPh AND OR From other phases BFP Started L2 AND OR AND Backup Trip L1 t OR tPulse From other Backup Trip L2 phases Backup Trip L3 OR 2 of 3 OR TRBU tPulse BFP Started L3 t3 S AND R SR Q t OR TRBU2 IEC09000979-3-en.

000) s ± 0.0% of I at I > Ir Reset ratio.0% of Ir at I £ Ir ± 1.9.2% or ± 20 ms whichever is greater Time delay for alarm for faulty circuit breaker (0.2% or ± 15 ms whichever is greater Time delay for backup trip at 0 to 2 x Iset (0.000-60.0% of Ir at I £ Ir ± 1.000-60.1 Identification Function description Pole discordance protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification CCPDSC ANSI/IEEE C37.0% of Ir at I £ Ir ± 1.000-60.10 Pole discordance protection CCPDSC 8.8 Technical data Table 276: CCRBRF technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Operate phase current (5-200)% of lBase ± 1.000-60.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8.000) s ± 0.000) s ± 0. residual current > 95% - Phase current level for blocking of contact function (5-200)% of lBase ±1.0% of I at I > Ir Reset ratio > 95% - Operate time for current detection 10 ms typically - Reset time for current detection 15 ms maximum - Time delay for re-trip at 0 to 2 x Iset (0.000-60.2% or ± 15 ms whichever is greater 8.10. phase current > 95% - Operate residual current (2-200)% of lBase ± 1.2 device number 52PD PD SYMBOL-S V1 EN 523 Technical Manual .0% of I at I > Ir Reset ratio.000) s ± 0.2% or ± 15 ms whichever is greater Time delay for backup trip at multi-phase start at 0 to 2 x Iset (0.2% or ± 20 ms whichever is greater Additional time delay for a second back-up trip at 0 to 2 x Iset (0.000) s ± 0.

2 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Functionality An open phase can cause negative and zero sequence currents which cause thermal stress on rotating machines and can cause unwanted operation of zero sequence or negative sequence current functions.3 Function block CCPDSC I3P* BLOCK BLKDBYAR CLOSECMD OPENCMD EXTPDIND POLE1OPN POLE1CL POLE2OPN POLE2CL POLE3OPN POLE3CL TRIP START IEC13000305-1-en.Section 8 Current protection 8. Normally the own breaker is tripped to correct such a situation.vsd IEC13000305 V1 EN Figure 261: 8.10. If the situation persists the surrounding breakers should be tripped to clear the unsymmetrical load situation. 8.4 CCPDSC function block Signals Table 277: Name CCPDSC Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Three phase currents BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKDBYAR BOOLEAN 0 Block of function at CB single phase auto reclosing cycle CLOSECMD BOOLEAN 0 Close order to CB OPENCMD BOOLEAN 0 Open order to CB EXTPDIND BOOLEAN 0 Pole discordance signal from CB logic POLE1OPN BOOLEAN 1 Pole one opened indication from CB POLE1CL BOOLEAN 0 Pole one closed indication from CB POLE2OPN BOOLEAN 1 Pole two opened indication from CB POLE2CL BOOLEAN 0 Pole two closed indication from CB POLE3OPN BOOLEAN 1 Pole three opened indication from CB POLE3CL BOOLEAN 0 Pole three closed indication from CB 524 Technical Manual .10. The Pole discordance protection function CCPDSC operates based on information from auxiliary contacts of the circuit breaker for the three phases with additional criteria from unsymmetrical phase currents when required.10.

100 % 1 80 Unsym magn of lowest phase current compared to the highest.60.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 278: CCPDSC Output signals Name 8.000 .5 Table 279: Name Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Trip signal to CB START BOOLEAN Trip condition TRUE.001 0. waiting for time delay Settings CCPDSC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On tTrip 0. - - Off Contact function selection CurrSel Off CB oper monitor Continuous monitor - - Off Current function selection CurrUnsymLevel 0 .10.300 Time delay between trip condition and trip signal ContSel Off PD signal from CB Pole pos aux cont. see figure 262. CurrRelLevel 0 .10.000 s 0.6 CCPDSC Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 . 525 Technical Manual .12 Step - 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 281: Name 8.100 %IB 1 10 Current magnitude for release of the function in % of IBase Table 280: Name GlobalBaseSel 8.10.7 Unit CCPDSC Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description IMin REAL - A Lowest phase current IMax REAL - A Highest phase current Operation principle The detection of pole discordance can be made in two different ways. If the contact based function is used an external logic can be made by connecting the auxiliary contacts of the circuit breaker so that a pole discordance is indicated.

B.B. The sampled analog phase currents are pre-processed in a discrete Fourier filter (DFT) block. poleOneClosed from C.vsd IEC05000287 V2 EN Figure 262: Pole discordance external detection logic This binary signal is connected to a binary input of the IED. The current based pole discordance function can be 526 Technical Manual . C. There is also a possibility to connect all phase selective auxiliary contacts (phase contact open and phase contact closed) to binary inputs of the IED. If the smallest phase current is lower than the setting CurrUnsymLevel times the largest phase current the settable trip timer (tTrip) is started. en05000288. This timer will give a trip signal after the set delay. see figure 263. poleThreeOpened from C.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - circuit breaker + Pole discordance signal from circuit breaker en05000287.vsd IEC05000288 V1 EN Figure 263: Pole discordance signals for internal logic In this case the logic is realized within the function.B. The appearance of this signal will start a timer that will give a trip signal after the set time delay.B. poleTwoOpened from C. Pole discordance can also be detected by means of phase selective current measurement. If the inputs are indicating pole discordance the trip timer is started. The TRIP signal is a pulse 150 ms long. + poleOneOpened from C. From the fundamental frequency components of each phase current the RMS value of each phase current is derived.B.B. poleTwoClosed from C. poleThreeClosed from C. The smallest and the largest phase current are derived. The tTrip timer gives a trip signal after the set delay.B.

The simplified block diagram of the current and contact based Pole discordance protection function CCPDSC is shown in figure 264. Through OR gate it can be connected to both binary inputs and internal function outputs. BLOCK OR BLKDBYAR PolPosAuxCont AND POLE1OPN POLE1CL POLE2OPN POLE2CL POLE3OPN POLE3CL Discordance detection AND t t 150 ms TRIP OR PD Signal from CB AND EXTPDIND CLOSECMD t+200 ms OR OPENCMD AND Unsymmetry current detection en05000747.vsd IEC05000747 V1 EN Figure 264: Simplified block diagram of pole discordance function CCPDSC contact and current based CCPDSC is blocked if: • • • The IED is in TEST mode and CCPDSC has been blocked from the local HMI The input signal BLOCK is high The input signal BLKDBYAR is high The BLOCK signal is a general purpose blocking signal of the pole discordance protection. If the autoreclosing function is an external device. The function also has a binary input that can be configured from the autoreclosing function.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - set to be active either continuously or only directly in connection to breaker open or close command. so that the pole discordance function can be blocked during sequences with a single pole open if single pole autoreclosing is used. It can be connected to a binary input in the IED in order to receive a block command from external devices or can be software connected to other internal functions in the IED itself in order to receive a block command from internal functions. The BLKDBYAR signal blocks the pole discordance operation when a single phase autoreclosing cycle is in progress. then BLKDBYAR has to be connected to a binary input in the IED and this 527 Technical Manual . It can be connected to the output signal 1PT1 on SMBRRECfunction block.

528 Technical Manual . The 200 ms limitation is for avoiding unwanted operation during unsymmetrical load conditions. Unsymmetrical current detection.7. These inputs can be connected to terminal binary inputs if the information are generated from the field (that is from auxiliary contacts of the close and open push buttons) or may be software connected to the outputs of other integrated functions (that is close command from a control function or a general trip from integrated protections). then the function input EXTPDIND is activated from the pole discordance signal derived from the circuit breaker auxiliary contacts (one NO contact for each phase connected in parallel. an unsymmetrical condition is detected and the internal signal INPS is turned high.10. Pole discordance signaling from circuit breaker If one or two poles of the circuit breaker have failed to open or to close the pole discordance status. 8. If these conditions are true. the highest phase current is greater than CurrRelLevel of IBase.2 Unsymmetrical current detection Unsymmetrical current indicated if: • • any phase current is lower than CurrUnsymLevel of the highest current in the three phases.1 Pole discordance signaling from the circuit breaker. after a settable time interval tTrip (0-60 s). The pole discordance protection is informed that a trip or close command has been given to the circuit breaker through the inputs CLOSECMD (for closing command information) and OPENCMD (for opening command information).7.10. and in series with one NC contact for each phase connected in parallel) and. then two different criteria can generate a trip signal TRIP: • • 8. a 150 ms trip pulse command TRIP is generated by the Polediscordance function. If the pole discordance protection is enabled.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - binary input is connected to a signalization “1phase autoreclosing in progress” from the external autoreclosing device. This detection is enabled to generate a trip after a set time delay tTrip if the detection occurs in the next 200 ms after the circuit breaker has received a command to open trip or close and if the unbalance persists.

The task of the low forward power protection is to protect the turbine and not to protect the generator itself. On the other hand. Sometimes.0% of Ir Independent time delay between trip condition and trip signal (0. implies no risk for the machine itself. the motoring condition may imply that the turbine is in a very dangerous state.11 Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP 8.2 device number 37 2 SYMBOL-LL V2 EN 8. where individual synchronous machines operate as motors.10. Figure 265 illustrates the low forward power and reverse power protection with underpower and overpower functions respectively. The underpower IED gives a higher margin and should provide better dependability.2% or ± 25 ms whichever is greater 8.11.8 Technical data Table 282: CCPDSC technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Operate current (0–100)% of IBase ± 1. One should set the overpower IED to trip if the power flow from the network to the generator is higher than 1% depending on the type of turbine. the synchronous generator becomes a synchronous motor and starts to take electric power from the rest of the power system.000-60. 529 Technical Manual . it may be desirable to disconnect it to ease the task for the rest of the power system.2 Functionality The task of a generator in a power plant is to convert mechanical energy available as a torque on a rotating shaft to electric energy.11. the risk for unwanted operation immediately after synchronization may be higher.000) s ± 0. One should set the underpower IED to trip if the active power from the generator is less than about 2%. This operating state.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8. Often. Then.1 Identification Function description Directional underpower protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification GUPPDUP P< ANSI/IEEE C37. If the generator under consideration is very large and if it consumes lots of electric power. the mechanical power from a prime mover may decrease so much that it does not cover bearing losses and ventilation losses.

3 Protection with underpower IED and overpower IED Function block GUPPDUP I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLOCK1 BLOCK2 TRIP TRIP1 TRIP2 START START1 START2 P PPERCENT Q QPERCENT IEC07000027-2-en.5% or even to 0.0.11.vsd IEC06000315 V2 EN Figure 265: 8.vsd IEC07000027 V2 EN Figure 266: 8.11.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - When IED with a metering class input CTs is used pickup can be set to more sensitive value (e.4 GUPPDUP function block Signals Table 283: Name GUPPDUP Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Current group connection U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Voltage group connection BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLOCK1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of stage 1 BLOCK2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of stage 2 530 Technical Manual . Underpower IED Overpower IED Q Operate Line Q Operate Line Margin Margin P Operating point without turbine torque P Operating point without turbine torque IEC06000315-2-en.2%).g.

11.6000.06 Drop-off delay for stage 2 Step Default Table 286: Name GUPPDUP Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Description k 0.0 %SB 0.00 s 0.01 1.01 0.5 Absolute hysteresis of stage 2 in % SBase IAmpComp5 -10.6000.0 .0 .0 %SB 0.180.10.000 Amplitude correction compensates current error at 5% of Ir Table continues on next page 531 Technical Manual .000 .06 Drop-off delay for stage 1 OpMode2 Off UnderPower - - UnderPower Operation mode for stage 2 Off / On Power2 0.00 Trip delay for stage 2 DropDelay2 0.0 Deg 0.0 .5 Absolute hysteresis of stage 1 in % SBase Hysteresis2 0.00 s 0.6000.01 .1 1.1 0.0 Stage 1 underpower setting in Angle1 direction in % of SBase Angle1 -180.1 0.5.0.000 Low pass filter coefficient for power measurement.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 284: GUPPDUP Output signals Name 8.01 0.001 0.0 %SB 0.00 s 0.01 1.01 .999 - 0.00 s 0.0 Deg 0.01 .0 .000 % 0.0 Characteristic angle for max power senistivity stage 2 TripDelay2 0.5 Table 285: Name Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Common trip signal TRIP1 BOOLEAN Trip of stage 1 TRIP2 BOOLEAN Trip of stage 2 START BOOLEAN Common start START1 BOOLEAN Start of stage 1 START2 BOOLEAN Start of stage 2 P REAL Active Power in MW PPERCENT REAL Active power in % of SBase Q REAL Reactive power in MVAr QPERCENT REAL Reactive power in % of SBase Settings GUPPDUP Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OpMode1 Off UnderPower - - UnderPower Operation mode for stage 1 Off / On Power1 0.001 0.00 Trip delay for stage 1 DropDelay1 0.1 1.0 Characteristic angle for max power senistivity stage 1 TripDelay1 0.0 Power setting for stage 2 in % of SBase Angle2 -180.2 .2 .01 .1 0.6000.500.500. P and Q Hysteresis1 0.000 .0 %SB 0.1 0.5.180.

532 Technical Manual .10. L2.11.000 . The function has two stages with individual settings.000 % 0.001 0.000 .11. L3 Arone Pos Seq L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 L1 L2 L3 - - Pos Seq Selection of measured current and voltage 8.001 0.000 .000 Amplitude correction compensates voltage error at 5% of Ur UAmpComp30 -10.000 Corr of error betw current and voltage angles at 100% of Ir Table 287: Name GUPPDUP Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description GlobalBaseSel 1 .001 0.000 % 0.Section 8 Current protection Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description IAmpComp30 -10.000 % 0.10.000 Corr of error betw current and voltage angles at 30% of Ir IAngComp100 -10.000 .10.7 GUPPDUP Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description P REAL - MW Active Power in MW PPERCENT REAL - % Active power in % of SBase Q REAL - MVAr Reactive power in MVAr QPERCENT REAL - % Reactive power in % of SBase Operation principle A simplified scheme showing the principle of the power protection function is shown in figure 267.10.12 - 1 1 Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Mode L1.000 Amplitude correction compensates current error at 100% of Ir UAmpComp5 -10.000 .000 Deg 0.001 0.000 .10.10.001 0.000 % 0.000 Amplitude correction compensates voltage error at 30% of Ur UAmpComp100 -10.000 .000 Deg 0.6 Monitored data Table 288: Name 8.000 Deg 0.000 Corr of error betw current and voltage angles at 5% of Ir IAngComp30 -10.000 .001 0.10.000 Amplitude correction compensates current error at 30% of Ir IAmpComp100 -10.001 0.001 0.10.000 % 0.000 Amplitude correction compensates voltage error at 100% of Ur IAngComp5 -10.

I L 2* ) EQUATION1700 V1 EN L2L3 (Equation 136) S = 3 × U PosSeq × I PosSeq * EQUATION1699 V1 EN L1L2 (Equation 135) (Equation 139) S = U L 3 L1 × ( I L 3* .I L1* ) EQUATION1702 V1 EN (Equation 140) Table continues on next page 533 Technical Manual .U L 2 L 3 × I L 3* EQUATION1698 V1 EN PosSeq (Equation 138) S = U L 2 L 3 × ( I L 2* . The apparent complex power is calculated according to chosen formula as shown in table 289. L2. L3 Formula used for complex power calculation S = U L1 × I L1* + U L 2 × I L 2* + U L 3 × I L 3* EQUATION1697 V1 EN Arone S = U L1L 2 × I L1* .I L 3* ) EQUATION1701 V1 EN L3L1 (Equation 137) S = U L1L 2 × ( I L1* .vsd IEC09000018 V2 EN Figure 267: Simplified logic diagram of the power protection function The function will use voltage and current phasors calculated in the pre-processing blocks. Table 289: Complex power calculation Set value: Mode L1.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Chosen current phasors Chosen voltage phasors P Complex power calculation Q Derivation of S(composant) in Char angle S(angle) S(angle) < Power1 t TRIP1 START1 S(angle) < Power2 t TRIP2 START2 P = POWRE Q = POWIM IEC09000018-2-en.

Hysteresis1(2): drop-power1(2) = Power1(2) + Hysteresis1(2) For small power1 values the hysteresis1 may not be too big. To avoid instability there is a settable hysteresis in the power function.7. The hysteresis should therefore be set to a smaller value. If the measured power drops under the drop-power1(2) value. In such cases. For directional overpower protection. The drop-power value of stage1 can be calculated with the Power1(2). The reset means that the start signal will drop out and that the timer of the stage will reset. the hysteresis1 greater than (0. normally down to 0. After a set time delay TripDelay1(2) a trip TRIP1(2) signal is activated if the start signal is still active. 8. This will make slower measurement response to the step changes in the 534 Technical Manual .02 p.1 Low pass filtering In order to minimize the influence of the noise signal on the measurement it is possible to introduce the recursive. low pass filtering of the measured values for S (P. For generator low forward power protection the power setting is very low. At trip from any of the two stages also a common signal TRIP will be activated. a start signal START1(2) is activated if the calculated power component is larger than the pick up value.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Set value: Mode L1 Formula used for complex power calculation S = 3 × U L1 × I L1* EQUATION1703 V1 EN L2 S = 3 × U L 2 × I L 2* EQUATION1704 V1 EN L3 (Equation 141) (Equation 142) S = 3 × U L 3 × I L 3* EQUATION1705 V1 EN (Equation 143) The active and reactive power is available from the function and can be used for monitoring and fault recording. the function will reset after a set time DropDelay1(2). At activation of any of the two stages a common signal START will be activated. Q).5 · Power1(2)) is corrected to the minimal value.u. The component of the complex power S = P + jQ in the direction Angle1(2) is calculated. because the droppower1(2) would be too small. of rated generator power. a start signal START1(2) is activated if the calculated power component is smaller than the pick up value. The absolute hysteresis of the stage1(2) is Hysteresis1(2) = abs (Power1(2) + droppower1(2)). For directional underpower protection. If this angle is 0° the active power component P is calculated.11. If this angle is 90° the reactive power component Q is calculated. The calculated power component is compared to the power pick up setting Power1(2).

With this value the new calculated value is immediately given out without any filtering (that is without any additional delay). This is achieved by amplitude and angle compensation at 5.92 in case of slow operating functions.7. Filtering is performed in accordance with the following recursive formula: S = k × SOld + (1 .2 Calibration of analog inputs Measured currents and voltages used in the Power function can be calibrated to get class 0. the filtering is enabled. A typical value for k=0.11. 30 and 100% of rated current and voltage.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - measured quantity.00. see example in figure 268. 535 Technical Manual .k ) × SCalculated (Equation 144) EQUATION1959 V1 EN Where S is a new measured value to be used for the protection function Sold is the measured value given from the function in previous execution cycle SCalculated is the new calculated value in the present execution cycle k TD is settable parameter by the end user which influence the filter properties Default value for parameter k is 0. When k is set to value bigger than 0. 8. The compensation below 5% and above 100% is constant and linear in between.5 measuring accuracy.

11.0% of Sr at S ≤ Sr ± 1.0)% of SBase ± 1.0–500. Analog outputs (Monitored data) from the function can be used for service values or in the disturbance report. or in percent of base power: QPERCENT. 8. or in percent of base power: PPERCENT.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IEC05000652 V2 EN Figure 268: Calibration curves The first current and voltage phase in the group signals will be used as reference and the amplitude and angle compensation will be used for related input signals.5 x Sr and k=0.0% of S at S > Sr where Characteristic angle for Step 1 and Step 2 (-180. The reactive power is provided as Mvar value: Q.0) degrees ± 2.0 degrees Independent time delay to operate for Step 1 and Step 2 at 2 to 0.0–180.01-6000. The active power is provided as MW value: P.00) s ± 0.2% or ± 40 ms whichever is greater 536 Technical Manual .000 (0.8 Technical data Table 290: GUPPDUP technical data Function Range or value Accuracy Power level for Step 1 and Step 2 (0.

This operating state.12 Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP 8. the synchronous generator becomes a synchronous motor and starts to take electric power from the rest of the power system. the motoring condition may imply that the turbine is in a very dangerous state. On the other hand. Then. 537 Technical Manual . The underpower IED gives a higher margin and should provide better dependability.1 Identification Function description Directional overpower protection IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification GOPPDOP P> ANSI/IEEE C37. where individual synchronous machines operate as motors.2 Functionality The task of a generator in a power plant is to convert mechanical energy available as a torque on a rotating shaft to electric energy.5% or even to 0.12.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8.g. it may be desirable to disconnect it to ease the task for the rest of the power system. When IED with a metering class input CTs is used pickup can be set to more sensitive value (e.12.2%). the mechanical power from a prime mover may decrease so much that it does not cover bearing losses and ventilation losses. the risk for unwanted operation immediately after synchronization may be higher. One should set the overpower IED to trip if the power flow from the network to the generator is higher than 1%. One should set the underpower IED to trip if the active power from the generator is less than about 2%. Sometimes.0. If the generator under consideration is very large and if it consumes lots of electric power.2 device number 32 2 DOCUMENT172362-IMG158942 V2 EN 8. Figure 269 illustrates the low forward power and reverse power protection with underpower and overpower functions respectively. implies no risk for the machine itself. Often. The task of the reverse power protection is to protect the turbine and not to protect the generator itself.

Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Underpower IED Overpower IED Q Operate Line Q Operate Line Margin Margin P Operating point without turbine torque P Operating point without turbine torque IEC06000315-2-en.12.3 Reverse power protection with underpower IED and overpower IED Function block GOPPDOP I3P* U3P* BLOCK BLOCK1 BLOCK2 TRIP TRIP1 TRIP2 START START1 START2 P PPERCENT Q QPERCENT IEC07000028-2-en.vsd IEC07000028 V2 EN Figure 270: 8.4 GOPPDOP function block Signals Table 291: Name GOPPDOP Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Current group connection U3P GROUP SIGNAL - Voltage group connection BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLOCK1 BOOLEAN 0 Block of stage 1 BLOCK2 BOOLEAN 0 Block of stage 2 538 Technical Manual .vsd IEC06000315 V2 EN Figure 269: 8.12.

01 1.00 Trip delay for stage 1 DropDelay1 0.500.0 Stage 2 overpower setting in Angle2 direction in % of SBase Angle2 -180.01 .0 Stage 1 overpower setting in Angle1 direction in % of SBase Angle1 -180.1 0.1 120.6000.180.06 Drop-off delay for stage 2 539 Technical Manual .180.0 Characteristic angle for max power senistivity stage 2 TripDelay2 0.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 292: GOPPDOP Output signals Name 8.06 Drop-off delay for stage 1 OpMode2 Off OverPower - - OverPower Operation mode for stage 2 Off / On Power2 0.0 .6000.0 .12.00 s 0.01 0.500.00 s 0.0 .6000.00 s 0.6000.0 Deg 0.01 0.01 .5 Table 293: Name Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Common trip signal TRIP1 BOOLEAN Trip of stage 1 TRIP2 BOOLEAN Trip of stage 2 START BOOLEAN Common start START1 BOOLEAN Start of stage 1 START2 BOOLEAN Start of stage 2 P REAL Active power P in MW PPERCENT REAL Active power P in % of SBase Q REAL Reactive power Q in MVAr QPERCENT REAL Reactive power Q in % of SBase Settings GOPPDOP Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On OpMode1 Off OverPower - - OverPower Operation mode for stage 1 Off / On Power1 0.0 Characteristic angle for max power senistivity stage 1 TripDelay1 0.00 Trip delay for stage 2 DropDelay2 0.0 %SB 0.1 120.1 0.0 .0 Deg 0.01 .00 s 0.01 .01 1.0 %SB 0.

000 Deg 0.000 .001 0.000 .10.12 - 1 1 Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Mode L1.000 Corr of error betw current and voltage angles at 30% of Ir IAngComp100 -10.10.5.1 0. P and Q Hysteresis1 0.000 .5.001 0.001 0.5 Absolute hysteresis of stage 1 in % of SBase Hysteresis2 0.10.000 Corr of error betw current and voltage angles at 5% of Ir IAngComp30 -10.000 % 0.000 Amplitude correction compensates voltage error at 100% of Ur IAngComp5 -10.000 % 0.000 .000 . L2.000 .000 Corr of error betw current and voltage angles at 100% of Ir Table 295: Name GOPPDOP Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description GlobalBaseSel 1 .000 Low pass filter coefficient for power measurement.001 0.000 Deg 0.999 - 0.0 %SB 0.10.000 Amplitude correction compensates voltage error at 30% of Ur UAmpComp100 -10.001 0.000 .001 0.000 % 0.Section 8 Current protection Table 294: Name 1MRK 504 139-UEN - GOPPDOP Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description k 0.001 0. L3 Arone Pos Seq L1L2 L2L3 L3L1 L1 L2 L3 - - Pos Seq Selection of measured current and voltage 540 Technical Manual .000 .0 %SB 0.000 Amplitude correction compensates current error at 5% of Ir IAmpComp30 -10.2 .000 .10.000 .5 Absolute hysteresis of stage 2 in % of SBase IAmpComp5 -10.10.000 % 0.000 Amplitude correction compensates voltage error at 5% of Ur UAmpComp30 -10.10.001 0.10.001 0.2 .001 0.000 % 0.10.000 Amplitude correction compensates current error at 30% of Ir IAmpComp100 -10.000 Amplitude correction compensates current error at 100% of Ir UAmpComp5 -10.000 % 0.000 Deg 0.1 0.0.

vsd IEC06000567 V2 EN Figure 271: Simplified logic diagram of the power protection function The function will use voltage and current phasors calculated in the pre-processing blocks.7 GOPPDOP Monitored data Type Values (Range) Unit Description P REAL - MW Active power P in MW PPERCENT REAL - % Active power P in % of SBase Q REAL - MVAr Reactive power Q in MVAr QPERCENT REAL - % Reactive power Q in % of SBase Operation principle A simplified scheme showing the principle of the power protection function is shown in figure 271. The function has two stages with individual settings. Chosen current phasors Chosen voltage phasors P Complex power calculation Q Derivation of S(composant) in Char angle S(angle) S(angle) > Power1 t TRIP1 START1 S(angle) > Power2 t TRIP2 START2 P = POWRE Q = POWIM IEC06000567-2-en.12.12. 541 Technical Manual .6 Monitored data Table 296: Name 8.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8. The apparent complex power is calculated according to chosen formula as shown in table 297.

L2. If this angle is 90° the reactive power component Q is calculated. normally down to 0.I L 2* ) EQUATION1700 V1 EN L2L3 (Equation 146) S = 3 × U PosSeq × I PosSeq * EQUATION1699 V1 EN L1L2 (Equation 145) (Equation 152) S = 3 × U L 3 × I L 3* EQUATION1705 V1 EN (Equation 153) The active and reactive power is available from the function and can be used for monitoring and fault recording. For generator reverse power protection the power setting is very low. The absolute hysteresis of the stage1(2) is Hysteresis1(2) = abs (Power1(2) – droppower1(2)). After a set time delay TripDelay1(2) a trip TRIP1(2) signal is activated if the start signal is still active. L3 Complex power calculation Formula used for complex power calculation S = U L1 × I L1* + U L 2 × I L 2* + U L 3 × I L 3* EQUATION1697 V1 EN Arone S = U L1L 2 × I L1* .I L1* ) EQUATION1702 V1 EN L1 (Equation 148) S = U L 2 L 3 × ( I L 2* . At trip from any of the two stages also a common signal TRIP will be activated.U L 2 L 3 × I L 3* EQUATION1698 V1 EN PosSeq (Equation 151) S = 3 × U L 2 × I L 2* EQUATION1704 V1 EN L3 (Equation 150) S = 3 × U L1 × I L1* EQUATION1703 V1 EN L2 (Equation 149) S = U L 3 L1 × ( I L 3* .Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 297: Set value: Mode L1.I L 3* ) EQUATION1701 V1 EN L3L1 (Equation 147) S = U L1L 2 × ( I L1* . The drop-power value of stage1 can be 542 Technical Manual . of rated generator power.02 p. A start signal START1(2) is activated if the calculated power component is larger than the pick up value. The hysteresis should therefore be set to a smaller value.u. If this angle is 0° the active power component P is calculated. The calculated power component is compared to the power pick up setting Power1(2). To avoid instability there is a settable hysteresis in the power function. The component of the complex power S = P + jQ in the direction Angle1(2) is calculated. At activation of any of the two stages a common signal START will be activated.

When k is set to value bigger than 0. If the measured power drops under the drop-power1(2) value the function will reset after a set time DropDelay1(2). without any additional delay).5 · Power1(2)) is corrected to the minimal value. A typical value for k = 0. Filtering is performed in accordance with the following recursive formula: S = k × SOld + (1 . because the droppower1(2) would be too small.7. the hysteresis1 greater than (0.k ) × SCalculated (Equation 154) EQUATION1959 V1 EN Where S is a new measured value to be used for the protection function Sold is the measured value given from the function in previous execution cycle SCalculated is the new calculated value in the present execution cycle k is settable parameter by the end user which influence the filter properties Default value for parameter k is 0. With this value the new calculated value is immediately given out without any filtering (that is. The reset means that the start signal will drop out ant that the timer of the stage will reset. 543 Technical Manual . 8. see example in figure 272. the filtering is enabled.1 Low pass filtering In order to minimize the influence of the noise signal on the measurement it is possible to introduce the recursive. Q).Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - calculated with the Power1(2). 8. The compensation below 5% and above 100% is constant and linear in between. Hysteresis1(2): drop-power1(2) = Power1(2) – Hysteresis1(2) For small power1 values the hysteresis1 may not be too big.12. This will make slower measurement response to the step changes in the measured quantity. 30 and 100% of rated current and voltage.5 measuring accuracy.12. low pass filtering of the measured values for S (P.00.2 Calibration of analog inputs Measured currents and voltages used in the Power function can be calibrated to get class 0.92 in case of slow operating functions. This is achieved by amplitude and angle compensation at 5. In such cases.7.

544 Technical Manual . or in percent of base power: QPERCENT. The active power is provided as MW value: P.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - IEC05000652 V2 EN Figure 272: Calibration curves The first current and voltage phase in the group signals will be used as reference and the amplitude and angle compensation will be used for related input signals. The reactive power is provided as Mvar value: Q. or in percent of base power: PPERCENT. Analog outputs from the function can be used for service values or in the disturbance report.

545 Technical Manual .0% of S at S > Sr Characteristic angle for Step 1 and Step 2 (-180.13.12. start at 0.0% of Sr at S ≤ Sr ± 1.1 Identification Function description Broken conductor check 8.00) s 8.13. Broken conductor check BRCPTOC function.5 to 2 x Sr and k=0.0 degree s Operate time. start at 2 to 0.0)% of SBase ± 1.5 to 2 x Sr and k=0.2 IEC 61850 identification BRCPTOC IEC 60617 identification - ± 0.01-6000.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8.2% or ± 40 ms whiche ver is greate r ANSI/IEEE C37.8 Technical data Table 298: GOPPDOP technical data Function Range or value Accurac y Power level for Step 1 and Step 2 (0.0–500.0–180.5 x Sr and k=0.0) degrees ± 2.2 device number 46 Functionality Conventional protection functions cannot detect the broken conductor condition.000 Min =10 ms Max = 25 ms Reset time. gives an alarm or trip at detecting broken conductors.000 Min = 35 ms Max = 55 ms Independent time delay to operate for Step 1 and Step 2 at 0.000 (0. consisting of continuous phase selective current unsymmetrical check on the line where the IED is connected.13 Broken conductor check BRCPTOC 8.

000 Operate time delay Table 302: Name tReset BRCPTOC Group settings (advanced) Values (Range) Unit 0.13.001 Default 0.3 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Function block BRCPTOC I3P* BLOCK BLKTR TRIP START IEC07000034-2-en.4 BRCPTOC function block Signals Table 299: BRCPTOC Input signals Name Type - Group signal for current input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block of function BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block of trip BRCPTOC Output signals Name Table 301: Name Description GROUP SIGNAL Table 300: 8.13.000 .010 .13.001 5.90 %IM 1 50 Highest and lowest phase currents difference in % of highest phase current IP> 5 .5 Default I3P Type Description TRIP BOOLEAN Operate signal of the protection logic START BOOLEAN Start signal of the protection logic Settings BRCPTOC Group settings (basic) Values (Range) Unit Step Default Description Operation Off On - - Off Operation Off / On Iub> 50 .Section 8 Current protection 8.100 %IB 1 20 Minimum phase current for operation of Iub> in % of IBase tOper 0.000 s Step 0.60.vsd IEC07000034 V2 EN Figure 273: 8.60.100 Description Time delay in reset 546 Technical Manual .000 s 0.

Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Table 303: Name GlobalBaseSel 8. The BLOCK input can be connected to a binary input of the IED in order to receive a block command from external devices. or can be software connected to other internal functions of the IED itself to receive a block command from internal functions. This might result in the first two conditions being satisfied. The currentmeasuring elements continuously measure the three-phase currents. The input signal BLOCK is high. The current asymmetry signal output START is set on if: • • • The difference in currents between the phase with the lowest current and the phase with the highest current is greater than set percentage Iub> of the highest phase current The highest phase current is greater than the minimum setting value IP>. 547 Technical Manual . The simplified logic diagram of the broken conductor check function is shown in figure 274 BRCPTOC is disabled (blocked) if: • • The IED is in TEST status and the function has been blocked from the local HMI test menu (BlockBRC=Yes). If a conductor breaks in one phase on one line.12 Step - 1 Default 1 Description Selection of one of the Global Base Value groups Monitored data Table 304: Name IUNBAL 8. the parallel line will experience an increase in current in the same phase.6 BRCPTOC Non group settings (basic) Values (Range) 1 .13.13. The lowest phase current is below 50% of the minimum setting value IP> The third condition is included to avoid problems in systems involving parallel lines.7 Unit BRCPTOC Monitored data Type REAL Values (Range) - Unit - Description Measured unbalance of phase currents Operation principle Broken conductor check (BRCPTOC) detects a broken conductor condition by detecting the asymmetry between currents in the three phases. If the unsymmetrical detection lasts for a period longer than the set time tOper the TRIP output is activated.

Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - The output trip signal TRIP is a three-phase trip.vsd IEC09000158 V3 EN Figure 274: 8.000) s ± 0.2% or ± 45 ms whichever is greater Independent reset time delay (0. TEST TEST-ACTIVE and Block BRCPTOC=Yes START or BLOCK Function Enable and Unsymmetrical Current Detection tOper t TRIP STI IL1<50%IP> IL2<50%IP> or IL3<50%IP> IEC09000158-3-en.14 Range or value Accuracy Minimum phase current for operation (5–100)% of IBase ± 1.0% of Ir Independent operate time delay (0.2% or ± 30 ms whichever is greater Start time at current change from Ir to 0 Min = 25 ms Max = 35 ms - Reset time at current change from 0 to Ir Min = 5 ms Max = 20 ms - Capacitor bank protection CBPGAPC 548 Technical Manual .000) s ± 0.010-60.13.000-60.0% of Ir Unbalance current operation (50–90)% of maximum current ± 1. It can be used to command a trip to the circuit breaker or for alarm purpose only.8 Simplified logic diagram for Broken conductor check BRCPTOC Technical data Table 305: BRCPTOC technical data Function 8.

Capacitor bank protection (CBPGAPC) function is specially designed to provide protection and supervision features for SCBs.14. They are as well used as integral parts of Static Var Compensators (SVC) or Harmonic Filters installations. 8.2 device number Capacitor bank protection CBPGAPC - - Functionality Shunt Capacitor Banks (SCB) are used in a power system to provide reactive power compensation and power factor correction.14.vsd IEC08000500 V2 EN Figure 275: 8.1 8.4 CBPGAPC function block Signals Table 306: Name CBPGAPC Input signals Type Default Description I3P GROUP SIGNAL - Three Phase Current Input BLOCK BOOLEAN 0 Block the complete function BLKTR BOOLEAN 0 Block all trip output signals Table continues on next page 549 Technical Manual .2 Identification Function description IEC 61850 identification IEC 60617 identification ANSI/IEEE C37.Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - 8.3 Function block CBPGAPC I3P* BLOCK BLKTR BLKOC BLKUC BLKUCCUT BLKQOL BLKHOL TRIP TROC TRUC TRQOL TRHOL START STOC STUC STQOL STHOL STOCL1 STOCL2 STOCL3 STUCL1 STUCL2 STUCL3 STQOLL1 STQOLL2 STQOLL3 STHDTL1 STHDTL2 STHDTL3 STHIDML1 STHIDML2 STHIDML3 RECNINH IEC14000046-1-en.14.14.

Section 8 Current protection 1MRK 504 139-UEN - Name Type Default Descrip