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"etc."' ''The Classics for the Millioti.RB.''''Resting without Rusting." "Zoo Notes." " For Conversation with the " "" Notes" Scietice Sixty-fiveYears' Deaf ^^' Reminiscences.." "^ 'M Bird's-eye View of English Literature" Pocket EficvclopcEdia"*' The Flots of Old English Plays. F. Key . LIM.S.ki/^ kc2"u^^^^'^^/z^"^ ^t^d^^M:^ NEW EDITION TrowelChisel" Brush A CONCISE ARCHITECTURE MANUAL OF SCULPTURE ANCIENT AND " PAINTING MODERN BY HENRY GREY.etc.I..Z..''A to the Waverley Novels. ' Author of An Epitome of the Bible.Inst.F. FOURTH THOUSAND LONDON SWAN SONNENSCHEIN " 1899 CO. F.S.

\^Tke resei'ved.'] Rights of Reprodtiction Translation and are .

and recollections and Art the and in in Treasures Museums Foreign other Abroad. and of the to of have age. from wondrous for convenient more ordinary Guide-Book interested travelled have who study age power and impressions . those as in the Masters the matter who. to Fine of the works comprehensive summary gifted with inanimate offered to of been imparting to ideas.N3I Q7-5 PREFACE HE followingpages from chiefly. spent principalCathedrals notable been notes eighteen annual compiled have Picture Galleries. which not . and and of visitin and Churches Home making acquaintance with English and in holidays. the at buildings. as a the Great an so. They or are doing purpose reference than all who are Arts.

the trowel. of far appeal language sculptor's fascinate and ever. . eloquently more imagination chisel. brush. than intellect architect's the by . and." H. many to whether created the truth the the " A the and or poet's thing of the senses. painter's establish that axiom. " beauty is a joy for in but. G.Preface X only charm the eyes instances.

CONTENTS PAGE ARCHITECTURE 13 SCULPTURE 39 PAINTING 51 INDEX 83 .

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for similar overspread differences several habitations of the Fortified dead. race. like of most their other powers. and talent earliest and. B . the substituted prevailed among was buildings civilization as Remarkably earth innate of weather. the materials and huts the for cities aboriginal savages ideas living beings either were the to developed advanced. or the far were which those has.TROWEL CHISEL BRUSH " ARCHITECTURE HE primeval than rudely designed instinct time. nations the the after style of their the human and of the the for then wood which tents and more were houses whom Deluge. the architectural Their founded. have form and of in the countries. led present to construct their as shelters The progeny. from of many mankind of dwellings habits 13 and creeds climate of the of the people. temples wandering of construction by rearing appear face to of the in the variations buildings being explained by the available. orders more plant divinely im- a Creation the lower against gradually. worship tombs for and are stone were still the tribes.

the on Tigris.and several merits should architects.in ancient or workmanship. greatest the lavish the most Brush Chisel and Trowel as is described having been by en- . erected for information much as from expenditurehave the writings. Babylonian.Many of customs of citieswhich than have had lain buried details have a longer than the collective for them the of and the excavated been a statue has been its only and Syrian Architecture (2000-500 B.14 In all ages religious purposes.and ancient the Ninus. Assyria archaeologists Egypt. public succinct outline of the rise and a those upon use details interesting generallythroughout in for bestowed in Greece. attempted and descriptions of are specialand Persian. or works have 2000 after years the b. Elaborate employment those a and manners brought to lightby also been buildingwould genius of names symbolical other from historical as edifices. It historians capitalof banks to have or been of the the founded of upwards subsequently became magnificent city. bygone days have the labours and to relating and inscriptions records. Assyrian.C. Assyrian empire a possibl nearlyas enduringpersonalreputation. and nical tech- in most picture. or ruins the forgottenfor centuries.the be given whose the as ably consider- obviouslyoccupy Nineveh.to cases whose attributed. world. and best t he skill. Asia Minor. as a of ture of architec- progress purposely omitted.is supposed soon earned Deluge. explored and chronologicalorder. involve gathered the past has been subjoinedabstract nothingmore completion of almost and .c. who In the medieval and been and sculptures.).

have splendour. traces geth to- of At about cement. and have ago. several . British the Euphrates. carvings of rude some of and Persepolis.are the of back other them. however. bridge tunnel founded were brass. through gates of 800 successive three wonders site of the cities in sculptures Assyrian history. was tower or from antiquities Museum.Architecture Assyrian.and to brick about by Sir Henry Layard forty site the well its of the as temple remains years and .C.dating B. Persia. which and out. fifteen hundred Syrian Architecture. which archaeologists. on of the world. and of 900 Babylon. for which the was B.C.and and ancient set are hewn lead with men been of one The remains. the ex- commenced were years with The towers. embracing of palace. continued. periods be to later. in bitumen capital line the been stones and the tiles. and IS drive abreast. probably entered unearthed. variety of small only other in seen became of Belus. as or numerous and inscriptions.. and have ornaments a probably city walls. other revealed of other vicinity. circled chariots three Persian.fragments animals. 600 a of river. cavations of sufficient width walls by Babylonian. some centuries of the seven the a former under brick-work glazed built made objects and The its of foundations the bound iron.

and Persian assigned to those in explored.D. palaces wood. pyramids.representin in discovered Lebanon. also and processions the found. some extensive of Traces . Persian. and monasteries. ruins.D. to of the the period mental earlymonu- relics in India . brick. Architecture with of the progress Some of House designed by in Asia after the invasion Hindoo his and were (323 B. c). Babylonian. the ornamental of Solomon's Great with of and city. have as Byzantine. with a flightsof steps bas-reliefs Persia. Brush excavated tombs the of ruins magnificent palace. approached by massive marble contifiued.l6 CJiisel and Trowel Assyrian. constructed however None have of parts elaborate of Persians. Phoenician which been Minor. and of Medes and obelisks. also descriptionsof Tyre.how- styles. but the detached (600 B. and Syrian Architecture. stone.. correspond little is known of the exist the Assyrian and earlyGreek Greek carvings.Very of the Roman Sassanian 230-640 A.-I450 A. any temple. and been columns. and remains and other Asia pavements curious very sculptures. pillarswith rock-hewn as inscriptions.but from Assyria. the are dome-roofed well as temples generally attributed Buddhists. tombs.C. are those dynasty between the Archaeologists differ to tects archi- buildings.). whose founder died the and to about . which have and been be resemble some of of the art of Alexander the ever.

traces of .).350 B.supportedby and those are marble. continued. in above- temples the and design. with Jains. cities. in the general beauty Hindostan.Architecture Hindoo Architecture.and several 17 in Ellora. containingcolossal figures of with consist They roofs. spacious apartments.. paintings the with of beams. there back historydates Chinese earliest of their are. Chinese and Japanese Architecture Although nearly 4000 assigned (350 B.C. Mohammedan for celebrated are of Buddhists. 700 their slender columns Java. and and Siam. All Saracenic domes and gateways. extensive most Poonah. at The b. Pagodas ancient date The pyramidal form of sect a artistic huge pagoda chiefly gateways over crowned of pillar symbolical sculpturesand towers mental orna- carved animals men. ground buildingsare serpents. to the years. period buildings is however.d. any . ings buildthe are tombs and Jaunpore at Agra.and between 27) the of with ficent magni- twelfth and fifteenth centuries.c. these built were style (see page white carved exquisitely gilded and mosques Ghasni. Salsette. palacesat Allahabad. erected of about domes. exist in Thibet. Lucknow. wooden the on and walls.-1884 A. Ceylon. 540 Behar. The grandest Delhi.C. Elephanta. The a. and also the and other of temples Burmah. minarets. however.D.

more bridges coloured. and men. one-storeyed moveable ornament. miles. materials but one only adopted is of earth is of palaces and Buddhist buildings. The Brush of earth and terraces sacrifices which Architecture.i8 Chisel Trowel Chinese and Japanese altars and been continued. of designs. and as ings carv- flowers. made numerous. the ago stones. porticos and roofs. brilliantly style. makes of all in the and innovation than prohibitedas which constructed storey high. storeys and birds. The other highly decorated.any same tent-like monuments the houses various The extensive. is very tombs fanciful well as ornamented Pekin at of stucco. feet high ancient The temples of with contain great wall.and wooden frames and destitute are cemeteries monuments. are the and stone. sides. nific insig columns. known architecture that twenty faced with bricks and Nothing of from years circuit of a mound a 2000 impious. and offered supposed are centuries many existingtemples contain Pagodas.with courts. but the elaborately carved . have to and rude by on previously small are surrounded and stone present plain are cedar wood. idols huge several are triumphal arches of palace with galleries. the bridgesof of being 1500 of consist houses The The Japan.

page apparently America rock-hewn Cyclopean in those as palaces. structed con- distance. considerable with excavated obelisks. capitalof Upper the most marble. other also antiquity. and and receptacles them the and granite of high. Pelasgic 21). and Architecture Three Egypt. during The . the ruins are of in era failed in pyramids near cover dis- been those to America. hieroglyphics. their dates and Egyptian have buildings hitherto other excavations exist in PERU. are ruins sphinxes of the from annual a for extensive being washed overflow of the with Egypt.-640A. faced huge two royal sepulchres B.C. of South have In Monuments.stil exist.of which wonderful to have at least of upwards supposed are Greece pillars of great and other gists archaeolo- determining of as of 400 feet and oldest blocks They are transportedfrom At Thebes.C. years Lower Memphis. ornamented of Mexico pyramids with and ancient of Central parts and halls similar very (see and tumuli. in the built been in Gizeh the to be monuments 2000 but the history. (2000 B.D. world. temples dead.and chieflyof Umestone. parts Asia.Architecture American Architecture In and several 19 cities of the remains (Dates uncertain). to preserve away Nile.closelyresembling and as tumuli.).

still vaulted Egyptians centre.and to Embankment. Ombo.surrounded columns reeds. Paris . the beams in and porticos generally gilding.D.and the along by Napoleon from Thames and ware Dendera An B. at 323 parts and B. colossal massive of is that perfect temple most of Bmsh proportions.and very Ruins same bolica sym- imposing height. Greek from different up remains of with high. and traces of were flat roofs.dating A.erected been temples exist. and monuments.C.the houses area from obelisk examples several The domes. being and the buildings. Nile. buildings other scattered are the with colours containingpottery glass ornaments. in are at Luxor. and solid. Heliopolis. and on miles.Chisel and Trowel 20 Egyptian Architecture. storeys in to the On pyramids of in the many L recently set Ethiopia.. has 1500 the and removed one those " extensive. and the lotus with covered flov^er door-ways like shaped and of are ceilingsenriched the a of the distance the Upper of smaller had an open generally two There Roman to 300 Egypt.. and Edfou. of . Nubia. of carvings The stone-work and by bundle a leaves sculptures.C. banks of style. continued. was there sepulchra of Cairo from of 500 most Luxor Nile Kom Karnak.

at and vases. Dr. supposed treasury variety of A Atreus. which At those are " art Egypt. Pelasgiansand built by who migrated from the founded of temples ruins of the bare ' Tiryns. Quite palace and a pottery.Architecture Grecian ruins in Greece oldest The Architecture of (1300-146B.). a heading.and was ruins other architects and Asia adopted throughout and several knowledge of from derived two the earliest period From their ing lay- paintings of productions Greek that in Pelasgic in Gradually.including the portion of the foundations other about has arciiasologist.with fortifications and Mycenae supposed to stones. projectingbase. large been have Cyclopeans.C. and the " Corinthian Colonies. which Hellenic the the the were States easilydistinguis able The very Doric had simple capita only five times . however. more wall with discovered parts of Greece. the and Gateway^ B. a Lion celebrated the been have to have excavated domed a been have to Schliemann. and they the less ornate orders three by their no or are columns.C. is said by Perseus. German was Asia Mycenas. 1300 city. been and found. initiated a sisting style. succeeded also has recently he King of ornaments also been relics have a vault. all the indicate gracefuland of Ionic.con- Doric. of unhewn 21 Tiryns.

its capital convex curved was Brush as Athens.Chisel and Trowel 22 Grecian Architecture. row other monotony and the ceilings sculpture.with a foliagedrooping of portions with lines the columns the friezes filledwith admitted was walls. its circum- human were or supportingpiers.and concave still was square of instead figuresplaced the columns by this order in caryatides its and ornamented.and other The buildings harmonised distinctive being more deep capitalof a outwards. Paestum. a and ference. as Corinthian column slender. a double and edifices and the embellished doorways with walls and well and as the of principa various colours marble The and Theseus the stone. higher than rested on its diameter. Parthenon Acropolis (erectedunder the relieve Olympia. Light windows the or the through no by features. panelled. Corinth. height averaged eight times The lONiC The moulding. that The of paintings. Delos. all the the rectilinear. the these The surmounted base rings. supported decorated were in wide were porticowas parts sequentl con- needed were of the white the roof. ^gina. or with coes fres- temples at at Samos. contmued.and tinted with were above spaces of columns.to Agrigentum. magnificent ings mould- the gold. but and and lofty. on the direction of .

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and the were they site Compo- modification a combination Corinthian.and a depraved conceptionof beauty and effect.C. of and Excepting Roman been origin. No Architecture but (1300-400 B. altar an exist of any traces discovered.). Etruscan Architecture which were designed buildings were Grecian or models. as (700 B. Asiatic an of their monuments well temples. with florid at sequen sub- exaggeration. as bridges protected by tumuli ornaments. A. and columns The the adopted by by Egyptians nations.vases. All Romans of any boast all of which their walls their the sewers. and their famous from Etruscan first with of their also have been cities erected were probably B. with massive of ancient of the pedestals. 400 extensive of system unable to originalarchitecture. but appreciativefidelity. Etruscan specimens numerous urns.Chisel and Trowel 24 Grecian round courts. Brush with arranged. Eastern introduced and arch employed were never the the and a other but . and were rooms in the statue or sepulchral various and reveal and aqueducts found. -300 the centre. which and other the orders of " the Ionic best one the and resting on remains the Greeks Tuscan the Doric.).D.C. They revived the dome. continued. Ruins most 600 between have sculptures.C. open Architecture. Rome are .

icas the Baths.basilicas During were Titus. Constantine. dead and were which of tombs those are ed convert- medan Moham- been and erected found of those mosaic some in Herculaneum public highways. 30 aqueducts. tesselated best of Rome. any the Imperial to B. ranging of Basil- of Arches of than structures the Justice. at afterwards were mosques. Many older this period temples. other Roman pavement still in afford under these.D.C. the 25 Capitol. 300 amphitheatres. palaces. corresponded with houses in Greece.and varied architecture the domination.the triumphal columns Very of Courts or and of the and monuments chieflyalong many in them. the Coliseum. tesselated and in almost erected are A. mosaic examples those Christian specimens as preservation. tombs. the the work. civilized world of than of the basilicas into Roman with mural or the Pompeii. and excellent more buildings cityof every well as bridges. curious . Septimus the Severus few and and traces exist of those from Public of Antoninus.the temples of Peace Jupiter Stator. and relics have Most highly decorated cities of Their their general plan were specimens excavated to or statues paintings.Architecture Roman Architecture. and Trajan rule.gateways. churches The Many of work. continued.

that of St. are of smaller parts Russia the every at and Moscow.galleriessupported by arched and columns. ample perfect existingex- most is the Church of St.for sculpturedfiguresand and The foliage. at pavements. to both the embraced transferred degener- architecture when. Some of . 328 year of the seat with and Christianity. Sophia reign of Constantinople(erectedin the Justinian). varied of elaborate substitution the with in brilliant work panelling marble gilding. with domes. externallywith rainbow. Constantine was Brush restin dome a piers..at present Turkish mosque.D. mosaic and tracery colours.includingSt.). Roman Here and Pagan art.26 ' Chisel and Trowel Classical Byzantine Architecture (325-1450A. tesselated of into converted Later at in Byzantine. into ated domes a had combination of arches in the invented the in a ating annihil- object of Church tive Its distinc- Asia. this style.and Byzantium.D. work. a were styl new ed subsequently adopt- and Europe features by octagonal or square interior surmounted on pire Em- the architects of the Greek by A. glass mosaic specimens of Mark's a in churches dimensions. several remarkable hue and Armenia imitations from are most Basil in exist Asia. of the several a fusio pro- Many and other churches the being tinted Venice.

The examples best The Maggiore Sta. the and pavements. Romanesque was (400-1300A.Architecture Byzantine the Russian Architecture. fifth to semi-circular in Roman in Europe and features and windows Asia fourteenth the remarkable Its most century. this style are continued.) was by a the where development they established creed. Saracenic or Arabian Architecture (700-1500A. Pisa at Bethlehem at at St. ported supwith cupolas.a central and were salem Jeruin this style. columns. the Arabs and Moors of the Its horse-shoe by very conspicuousdomes Byzantine in the countries the Mahommedan seventh chief or the and are peculiarities crescent delicate and fifteenth arch. vaulted roofs. are aisles. in very designed to the worship by belfries and towers adaptation an basilica Architecture 27 doorways. cathedrals churches ornamental or Ravenna. St.D.a long with nave an apse choir. Minor.and fagade with western St. an a bell-tower. at and at Turin. Miniato Palatina the Porta tach de- steeple. are of requirements both prevailed.between centuries. Worms. taste. heightened columns. Paul's and Apollinariat Florence.) and the Western from the the good of Christian Catholic Church. and Turks the destroyed by Rome.D. marble and chancel mosaic panellings.elegant .

were dados wooden tent and roofs.however. reez.especiallythe Taj An Egypt.and ingenious combination an and shawls Arabian the from copied been coloured brilliantly of various by of pavements and . the by the fourth . Ages Central barbarians rule Mahal in the at architecture ensued the from Europe during Agra. Mecca at in in . Seville. Erzeroom. at are Cordova.). and Lombard for beautiful specimens Spain. Brush Chisel and and towers and and ceilings. Mohammedan there. continued. and mosques Constantinople. richly panelled minarets. invasion the and the northern change Middle of in Tab- magnificent.and and In profusionof a carved either stucco. the have to patterns and designs vitreous a of consisted geometrical figures (said of terna in- both employed was in moulded or externally. glaze. at in the Alhambra Toledo. Damascus Arabia.28 Trowel Saracenic or Arabian Architecture. at Granada. protected marvels were fittings of hangings) - gilded.D.at Ispahan. and the doors the the and other of joinery. This foliage.exquisitely In at Tiles hues. the used of Moorish skill exist walls. Syria. and Persia. and . palaces in India. and The the are erected most mosques during entire Architecture of (700-1300 A. tombs the handsomest Jerusalem Cairo at in . Turkey. vaulted ornament.

general eighth century. the classical has the Italy. another positions . the existingexamples style. a introduced new and very to in several churches the eleventh combination of the tries coun- in this century the an style. of adopted by was designation of Gothic are of the Christian mandy.Architecture Lombard Architecture. During rate the prevailed peculiarities and in different cities. circular brick jected pro- campanile being richly-sculptured porches Local a External and in various choir added. but plainer.).which new Charlemagne. and smaller. to pointed and deeply or towers were buttresses surmounted arcades toge al- not ably consider- semi-circular the The exterior walls the was a from Germany. and 29 succeedingcenturies earliest The era. round and the elabo- Romanesque Byzantine orders originatedin of which are feature earlydate.stillexist. eastern pointed spireswere doorways. Nor- principalfeatures arches. modified.with the strain of the bear applied been principleswere abandoned. and transepts and galleriesand baptistrywas windows of detached.heavy interlacing c .and y. by apse of Norman Architecture (1050-1150A. and which to Lombard in and date from ancient heavier and The vaulted roofs. were intersection The dome. were - were the end. continued.D.

\\epure at Fla^n- or produce to musical the services of the Church impressionon Gothic sufficiently designate introduced also cumbed suc- detail Pure to Florid changes. dows glasswin- to enhance stylein \. zig-zag ornaments. the twelfth the colour- mural ways. are slender vaulted roof. Amiens. As towers.terms the however. and at Rouen. principal were lantern Very few the ex- . Stained a of cathedrals the florid the church their finest France are Paris. columns. and .D. carved cular semi-cir- of two aisles. door- ing spaciouscloisters. continued. projectingor fly buttresses. ing. sculptured ornament.1 500 A. ofthedecoratedihosesLt Troyes.tall pinnacles. of fantastic excess Decorated.Ouen Rouen at amples ex- the and Coutances. western Caen Architecture Brush from pointed arch. and lofty in and Dating Gothic towers fagade. an style degenerated from then which boyant. rising from the churches at Several in this Sicilyare w^hich was (II 50.).became of style. and throughout a pulpitsand wooden elaboratel enriched screens. gested by the intersection Its Europe.and and imposing light.Chartres.with supporting columns sug- characteristics other graceful naves probably order Gothic the century.Chisel and Trowel 30 Norman Architecture. of the Brieux.Rheims Soissons and cathedral ofSt. an rendering of The senses. cation the distinctive indi- arches.and to the to classic taste.

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club-houses inartistic combination orders was continental in several public buildings.600 A. same were palace the blocks of which gradually superseded order The terms revival of Gothic that other of all the sixteenth style which Architecture 1 dicate the and many is attempted in the Both Renaissance and cities. and Architecture Celtic classic examples. English France the at town-halls are notable in (700-1200 A.). continued.with others Stonehenge and at to Druidical be the temples. branches. and Brush St.and supposed and the ruins in the British heaps them.D. attributed the to in many Ger- Seville and of unhewn stones huge circles. and of ornaments taining con- .). are magnificent examples. at Isles consist or in used Heidelburg.in Cento the Pitti Palace adopted OR and Angelo. The style afterwards in London for CiNQUE these fifteenth and (1400. else- remains The earliest caves framework clay. of the Britons consisting of rude In Spain in Phoenicians.Trowel 32 Chisel which Italian Architecture. designed by at at Florence. Peter's Michel and Bramante Rome. filled in with were a where.D. pottery various and of Tumuli sepulchral monuments.in Saragossa arranged mounds in- to classic taste a at ancient of habitations centuries the Europe generally. most restingon an structure. and Versailles.

of his which much in almost centuries.were nearly two of Romans.Architecture English Architecture. the of during by their centuries. of stone. built were others superseded by basilicas. : " to the stitut sub- period during restoration of place. angular doorways. semi-circular arches. to architect felt bound. however.with for dwelt and trees imitation in and churches were civili un- continuallyat with constructed these as Saxons. heavy columns. changes.and and this cathedrals.diminutive windows. demolish work as style the the of additions any originalstructure the following are style the or took since several omitting conquest. The v ariations principal effected thus transitions apparently possibleof as to ceeding suc- every in order predecessors. of massive in reeds. parts the Vestigesonly remain buildings erected numerous its occupation by the the successors. Norman century introduced was vaulted the of Norman intermediate . and medieval Constant adopted were minster West- English fifteen of the in are the by Edward earlyportionsof the Abbey. with war hovels first Christian The and wood. and In the eleventh crypts. ruthlesslydemolished were several in discovered the Roman walls. style. have also 3i been of Britain. architecture Confessor. who. Britons. continued.

ball-flower nices. richly-carved door- ornamental roofs. cen- the lavish geometric tracery.D. the and Queen ruins Eleanor's the Abbey. fourteenth tury. distinguishedby mouldings octagonal the a ornaments Abbey. during Gothic substitution elaborate leaved the of choir of afford double the best and use of is windows.D. lofty Westminster cathedrals (1300-1400 A. four- walls.sculpturedscreensi paintings.and English These narrow-pointed columns mouldings. from Norman the and deviations. and mural grotesque walls. of the magnificence of of this period. and stained in mounting sur- The and and the Lincoln. figures projecting from called gargoyles.Glasgow Cathedrals. examples prevailed during of use battlements or Salisbury at ings. Portions York. lancet-shapedwindows clustered the the and circular with intricate tered clus- mullions ways. Ely. continental orders. buttressed the Decorated and plant or dog-toothed parapets were for arched and tracery. glass. open- doorways. spires. Elgin and of Tintern of are amples ex- tecture the archi- . and columns. Crosses. Carlisle.) the or loftier roofs. cor- canopied niches.) Chisel and Brush indicates the thirteenth century. of this style.flying buttresses.Trowel 34 Early English (1200-1 300 A.

cen- tions transi- the many Gothic.which has of classicalor reproductions . and chancels. Abbey. and sculptured and towers small but churches buildings.Architecture English was Perpendicular 35 reaction a style in C1400 1550 A.which included also roofs. Ireland contains round numerous of the of most examples Continental some architecture ecclesiastical was a wanton churches. and very churches have been several of the consequences desecration a and mutilation attached styles.) the from the from last of substituted for turies. and architecture. of the Reformation of cathedrals and general neglect of ecclesiastical since consisted of deteriorated to the fifth and between centuries.).Cambridge.wooden screens.D. Westminster tracery of that King's exquisitespecimens are style. Henry's VII. pure preceding sixteenth fifteenth and and were the Straightlines arches the curves. highly-coloured Scotland Scottish and Ireland affords (500-1500A. of this timber open towers square 's chapel in doorways.D. with more pendent ceilings and and ornaments.and domed graveyards. supposed and thirteenth One ancient in various crosses English styles. less pointed. and College. erected There Celtic to are also Gothic highly-decorated cloistered monasteries.the were columns in the groined roofs heraldic and fan slender.the cornices thinner.

and picturesquevariation timber-work so in of this prevails. gardens. capable of {q.which every English Cheshire. spacious panelled walls staircases. prevail.1600 domestic elegantlyfitted apartments.and stillto be English styles. Shropshire. The spacious mansions with open erection in of provincial . : " of principalcharacteristics The or Elizabethan and straw ensued.D.For secular Norman fortifiedcastles.). described several The centuries palaces. to are be found In county. Wales examples a many almost is style.36 Chisel and Trowel medieval designs. pitched roofs. Bishopgate.manor and with thatched royal strongl ruins still remain defence.but containingspaciousand took the were nobility.with well as of the most as the may be ancestral Style (1550.date from and and . pertainingto those are after the the residences people dwelt in wooden houses As habits to A the place of the rude pretentious designs. gloomy strongholds and halls of and houses more erected . John's College. tall chimney-stacks.castellated mansions. St. Brush period richly muUioned were this oriel and bay windows. peaceful times more began conquest of the many buildings. of which rushes.Oxford. ceil- and Palace.high A. and Crosby Hall.and Hampton Court and entrances ings. were residences middle the of of the follows the classes upper sixteenth century.^^generationslater. therefore. and terraced as distinguished Tudor the and municipalbuildings existing collegiate generally.

prohibitingthe residence was chamber AND to of the country gentry in London. continued. Jacobean was villages of Charles This Italian importationof an died in Kensington. designed were Gothic buildings. Christopher the architect was rebuilt towers From Sir Cathedral. of Somerset front Styles regu- styleinto England by Inigo Jones. Victorian a II.both who House also combination Wren. Greenwich ings public build- metropolis. (1700-1884A.Hol- Whitehall.and year the successor. banqueting land Stairs.ost of Westminister monument.however. style.). His of St river the and of styles. a His in the Classic in 1723. who Hanoverian owing the reign of Elizabeth lation. the imitation poor and Rome.. and towns 37 the by monotony.). died Hospitals. produced to characterised was inartistic heaviness Anne and of Sir the throughout the 185 1.D. House. reign of Queen Dominions equallydestitute dull and of taste necessities. and He at after later works Chelsea many fire of the were Abbey. that to the modern The 1653.from Style (160O-I700 A.Architecture Tudor or Elizabethan Style. city churches the tasteless a secular Peter^s western introduced for ecclesiastical and of St Paul's London. architecture British the and other of the m.D. Great The hibit Ex- Joseph Paxton's . York at by him.

Embankment Joseph well " Thames the glass late completed the and and Barry's which Parliament. of and. Justice by of talent in suggest of study aid the of modern revive and colonies. among classic the at future Forth Imperial tural architec- the century. requirements ages. club- a persevering and the period. Tower Houses dream a since . re- the medieval flourish as more newly-erected and art stone. engineering the science. no Sir of provinces. designs the as the late These Institute. England the as generally. by purity progressive and the of ancient best by buildings that hope ideal and cently. in Courts and of several the of nineteenth the London with Emperor Royal proofs public and both Mr. in houses." Street. and Greeks of of taste.Chisel Trowel 38 Hanoverian AND Victorian Styles. models. and Brush Charles Sir then the compared have been to Bazalgette. concep- adapted of the . and mechanical distant grandeur of gether to- restorations. Russia iron of palace unique her old. continued. Bridges. tion. with all their to the present may. .

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40

of passing
representations
the human

mind,

powers

the

failed with

human

winged bulls, and

from

Buddhist

but

their

remarkable

relics in Egypt

some

statues

at

Sakkarab, formed
effect,and

Simbal

Memphis,

Abou

beauty

of

and

mentioned

the rudiments

earlyhistorians

the

by

of the art from

fifth century B.C., it appears
at

Sicyon and ^gina,

Chios, and

Asia

and

Minor.

the

by

(480 B.C.),schools

of

two

execution

The

most

were

attained which

famous

the

about

(490-430B.C.),

of

The

Athens,

sculptor

probablyacquired
cultivated

defeat

of

who

Samos,
ever
how-

founded

at

perfectionof

a

periodwere

produced

sculpturesand

portionsof
Elgin marbles

the

chiefl

Xerxes,

since been

never

well

equalled.

:

"

the

the statue

ivory and gold, as

finest

Greek

been

Jupiter sX Elis,and
in

size,but wanting in

nature, and

have

at

cities,
where, duringthe

artists during that

Phidias,

temples

sculpture were

to
a fidelity
centuries,

Gizeh,

Egyptians; and, until

Corinth, Athens, and other Grecian
next

The

at

Flellenic colonists in

After

are

of materials

in the

most

have

to

sculpture

Sphinx

mixture

a

of colossal

expression.

and

form

The

the

idols

the

their lions

with

artistic taste.

are

of

Assyrians

in Hindostan

considerable

intensifythe

The

bas-reliefs.

most

to

excelled

in

of considerable

skill.

monasteries

evince

existence

the

prove

mechanical

temples and

elaborate,and

Brush

primeval ages,

form,

and

very

events

in the

even

conceptionand

of

and

Chisel

Trowel

as

Olympian
oi Minerva

carvingsin
which

are

of the

some

the Parthenon^

among

in the British Museum,

the

Sculpture
Calamis

worked

in

(490-430)

and

famous

Myron

(480-420),

was

of
a

an

Alcamenes

(450-400),

Rhegium,

of

proportion.

of

Athens,

marble

(450-400),

of

(400-360),

and
was

form

his

;

statue

Urania.

in

masterpiece
He

his
of

general beauty
was

colossal

a

also

was

an

without

of

Bacchus^

embosser

was

drapery, from

of

death

The

also

assisted

to

bronze,

works.

sculptor and

Achilles
representing
and

in

Faun

other

many

a

celebrated

pian
Satyr, The Thes-

A

his grandest works

Mausolus.

the

produced

livingmodel, A

a

Paros,
;

in

in

celebrated

most

Venus

and

men,

of Cnidus

Venus

tect

master

a

unsurpassed

was

and
Cupid,

(390-350),

his
;

figureof

Athens,

of

work

architect.

an

Phryne,

SCOPAS

noted

most

statuary, and

a

bronze

a

of

a

wood,

pupilof Phidias,excelled

a

statues

of

in

carver

a

his

;

figureoijuno.

Praxiteles

in bronze,

statuary

a

was

Argos,

and

bronze,

Quoit Thrower,

of

work

POLYCLETUS

was

engraver

The

and

for his horses.

sculptor in marble,

was

(480-420),

marble, ivory

Athens,

and

Pythagoras

41

an

two

were

conducted

Niobes

decorate

archigroups

to

Leuce^

Children; he
the

Tomb

of

Trowel

42

Lysippus

Chisel and

of

(350-320B.C.),

Sicyon,

Brush

bronze, and is said
of

EuPHRANOR

six hundred

one

of Alexander

of

Corinth,

(330-300),

statuary and

Chares

of

(330-290),

Rhodes,

the

colossal

formed
seven

Several other Greek

of

ward
up-

including

statues,

the Great.

earned

fame

both

as

a

painter.

a

a

executed

have

to

in

successful

most

was

pupilof Lysippus,designed
there

statue

brass, which

wonders

The

of

was

Sun,
of the

one

of the world.

sculptorsof

note

mentioned

are

by

but
few
of
works
been
their
have
writers,
contemporary
very
modern

identified among
the

When

second
and

discoveries.
became

Romans

carried
they
century B.C.,

from

afterwards

the

other

productionsof
magnificent
artists followed

earliest

The

supposed
capital

was

day)

with

Greece.

to

seek

away,

and

taste

first from

Hellenic

been

executed

embellished
chiefly

spoilsfrom

other

Fond, however,
few

contributed

as

by

the

livin

their

among

is at

artists; and
to
liberally

were

cost

of

the

the present
from

of art, they

although several
the

are

but
;

those
countries,including
the Romans

querors.
con-

at Rome

the Etruscans

(as Paris

Corinth,

all their
cities,

genius,and

employment

in the

Greece,

sculpturesand engraved works

have

produced very
emperors

to

of

masters

of

the

adorning the

was born in 1205. few very the inimitable most of these also remain specimens perfect talent and skill of the appea disto sculptorsof classic times. and died in . testify to The have been rapidly declined.from the busts own statues.and.Some by group of the for those thus executed were destroyed by Serpents. and until and Apollo^ Athenian the baths is attributed gods appropriated. named Dying Gladiator executed After death hardly any barbarians of remained in the fifthand carried city in to the and .and dismembered the invaded and Some of art work of the finest Roman Christian sixth centuries of the statue appreciating gaze.they some vanityby decapitating order to substitute their heroes and noble whose of of Diana^ Rome. Polydorus. however. that Rhodes. Athenodorus. with the monumental of exception remained practically when NicoLO little but evinced sculptors Pisano until the thirteenth century.Sculpture 43 with statuary of vari-coloured marbles publicbuildings debased very style. dormant (who the art effigies. The earlyefforts of Christian merit. and figuresthey the celebrated Vatican. in finest Greek the a their gratified time same the Belvidere works. the Empire un of a sculptorsat of Laocoon Agesander. preservedin natives three to his and by Cleomenes. art of Greek refinement.but during the pillageof twelfth thus century. including statue the the at in which met era their productionshad Constantinople. the Hadrian trace who destroyed every been of Capitol is supposed to the at Sons Titus.

some in at in fine . and second for the architect of the cupola was of the cathedral. 1 DELLA ROBBIA (1260-1 3 10) a his best has (1280-1345) FiLiPPO Brunelleschi (1375-1444) Lorenzo Ghiberti (1378-1455) (1386. executed and was magnificent second for the and Baptistry.and which Andrea father in Italy successors the cities of Italy principal the an His Brush for materials. Celebrated various executed marble the doors . gates several of great merit.D. gates.and many Chisel and himself.architect. stone. the skill. and statues towns groups many bas-reliefs his and bas-relief.and and other and bronze. 1273 Cross. best known statues DONATELLO sculpturesare left many hard Pisano medieval of sculptor.painter.466) 1 he Bandinelli (1487. at examples also was Florence Bartolomeo been have being a frieze of The Singers.). designed the of his inventor the rendered as poet Florence.5 59) 1 " works of a varnish in terra-cotta as gates for the first bronze the Baptistryof competed the cathedral at Florence.by his Depositionfrom for other works in the imperishablereputation as sculpture.Trowel 44 earned A. celebrated most Andrea Orcagna (1210LUCA 280). compositionsin for his statues in Italy.

a several groups and in marble.a poet. executed a fountain at bronze of statue Bologna. Bacchus. and works other the metals. several produced 6 54) to enter Bernini executed (1 598-1680) group other Staircase. of of was a also architect. produced Tatti Night. of Louis of St Peter's XIV. and the for works numerous bellishment bust colossal a at em- Rome. he the also was a celebrated a with Perseus the was Sansovino Giants' (1497-1578) bronze Giovanni da Bologna (1 524-1608) Alessandro (1 5 98 - Giovanni 1 sculptorof at St. Venice. D statues a . at (i500-1 571) his for and and Cellini fame great Moses. A SleepingCupid. painter. David.. principalarchitect and in beauty gold great Jacopo of statues Twilight.Sculpture Michel Angelo BuONARROTTi (1474-1 564) earned and . door of of Medusa. and bas-relief of Pope Leo Algardi of St Peter's bronze the Head candelabra numerous an many Rome. several in Paris. the figureson and he Mark's. Mercury. and statues. Day others Benvenuto 45 forbiddingAiiila Rome.

some the in sculptors notable Cleobis Napoleon /.and other very celebrated most in statues. The . produced Francois (1628-175).46 Trozvel Chisel and Antonio Canova Venetian. of Queen at Puget Nurnburg. a marble XJV. of Cretona Yard.^ and of Proserpine^ Rape a many there. Mtlo 1 playmg other countries of Tabernacle Pierre Girl a other I. (1805- bust of the a Dog^ of The and Europe Adam since the of Richard (1435-1507).. and executed Marseilles. Brush of Theseus executed Lorenzo Bartolini Biton^ 1 842) (1780- works. works.includinga Troyes. portrait of Napoleon^ s Tomb^ sculpture statues The other excelled also bas-relief of a Minotaur^ numerous Sardinian. of churches bas-reliefs of Girardon Louis have been of whose works " at are marka re- in stone. several in the (1622-1694). in Palace periodof the Renaissance Krafft and several fine statues. monumental antiquestylein the bronze group of other works. statues some and a and statue of statue of Versailles.revived a his statues (1757-1822). at of trian eques- Glasgow. Carlo with 1 867). Genoa.produced a Marochetti a and works the and Perseus^ Venus^ and classical subjects he .

.

effigies. rudely executed.. early British and cathedrals Paris. well-known most introduced of the by English figures by native and the twelfth century. however. GUSTAVE of Deloye at and (1838-1 899). living omitting . busts. Luther the Gardens. monumental foreignartists. executed of Rietschel (1804-1861). the produced the Monu- statues Detmold. a figur copper of statue a works. -1 several Bavarian. Luxemburg classical groups statue and church figures.and statues his . The examples conceived and of the the Normans and contain in " better St. best known names. .Trowel 48 Christian Rauch Chisel and (1777-1857^. Maindron of Veleda^ in (1 801 and 884). datingfrom are sculptors. and many other and Dresden. bas-relief several produced German./^"/ at bas-reliefs Joseph Ernest at Berlin of Hermann Charity. In modern Luxemburg. executed a Bandel and Worms. his quaintl Sepulchral ornaments Crusaders. at works Petersburg sculptureare were style. a Brush equestrian monument masterpieceis an the Frederick to Great^ at Berlin.and Hippolyte a Frenchman. and times the and for Vienna. Ernest Saxony. at (1808-1 876).

^ Sir Richard Westmacott (175 5.Sculpture Stone Nicholas (1615-1653). Caractactis Banks of 805). produced in plead- a fly^ Butter- and several other well-executed works. at repairin also . ing beforeClaudius^ Psyche with Nollekens (1737-1 823).in front of Royal Exchange. Thomas (1 73 5 Joseph - 1 of Exeter. studied Londoner. figures . and ([781. famous came for several executed skill in his ancient of fragments and Rome. modeller celebrated a and terra-cotta 49 a statuary and sculptor. John Flaxman (1755-1826) Iliad and classical works in illustrated the other executed also Michael of group and bas-relief. His son modern oi celebritie Achilles^in Hyde executed several mental monu- figures.1 836) produced of statues andthe giganticone Park.841) of Francis 1 the John ( Gibson 1 791. famous Chantery of naval heroes. produced and his for became Sir among classical them a groups tinted and Venus. he statues and monuments be- some classical works. a Lambeth.1 866) The Duke an colossal busts equestrianstatue of Wellington.he excelled in mural and Satan a Odyssey^ and monuments.

and groups. and Harding. Outram.A. and most since his careful the a poetical detail historical and of his work poet. (1826- 1 892). the Bates. sculptor in relief . work talent ideal and also was Lord Hampden^ of busts Americans Other for models. James celebrated he Harry of Greek A Eve^ statues several statues Woolner other considerable executed Sir Thomas produced Slave^ evinced John Brush American. . an 873).. A. remarkable Flaxman.R. and have as sculptors. (i 850-1 899).Trowel so Hiram Powers (1805- 1 Chisel Henry Foley (1818-1874) and great merit.

after attain- f. 500 paintingsand about 300 sculpture. Lydia paid painted the artist portraitis supposed he traded.PAINTING [EPRESENTATIONS of domestic events the Egypt. the most famous Greek .c.C. of names b.processions. which extinct ing dur- luxuryand decay.and life have first pictureis said to have The its walls old . which years the of about to wooden the period bear 700 weight been have the Greeks be which for B. popular than in elaborate King discovered to Egyptian King Amasis. considerable less the tombs of of very the been upwards cases traces Descriptionsonly was temples and believed are battles. the almost art.became succeedingcenturies followingare of on Egyptian mummies but historians record preserved.. presented to the Cyrene. and same of the of painters: " 5^ embroidery ing that. in gold . and of that of been have the The with of been a of earliest whom Greek excellence Assyriaand three thousand of ornamentation. battle scene.c.

painter.). Troy^ and The DiONYSiuS of (450 B.C. Ulyssesfeigning Insanity. Zeuxis (400 B.). painted The Sacrificeof Iphi- of Amphipohs.C. Parrhasius (400 B.) tinted the Visit Colophon. Heraclea.). his Heraclidce^and of ing. Pamphilus (350 B.C.Trowel 52 POLYGNOTUS. paint- of study best tures pic- Ulysseson .C.). and of of Croto?i.C.). painteda portraitof of Tiinon of Athens^ (460 B. was (400 B. of Athens. tures of The Demos for his Athenian or pic- Society. who founded which extending were the Raft. was the over The a ten and venti in- pupilof Eupompus. of master lightand shade.). portrait of Marathon^ of statue The The and Olyinpianfupiterhy Phidias. about Chisel and of Brush Thasos.C. Sicyon embraced design in excelled genia.). Apollodorus (400 B.C. The was celebrated Battle Sister Destruction of Ulyssesto a of Hades. celebrated was Theseus^ and TiMANTHES a School a years course . painted Helen of of the art elevated and Ephesus. generally. Pancenus painted (450 B. Sicyon.C.

of pictures Sea. a by Cicero is mentioned rapid painterof Thebes.C.). encaustic Protogenes of (300 B. Caria. as although privatehouses works of their pictorial were of her other most of their ated. from and Alexander was indefatigableworker. near Great. public buildingsand none but paintings. of Ionia. Thracian.).C. an for his risingfrom he 53 large sums pictures after his his death. best her of despoiled was by the Romans.).C.C. portrait painter. excelled livingmodel. Nicomachus.). decorprofusely fame.). was a painting. Athenion a (300 B. (330 B. and a Exploits of portraitof painted the Alexander The Mother of Aristotle. EuPHRANOR of (300 B.Painting Apelles (330 B. and famous was the NICOMACHUS also of the most Aristides of (320 B.and in for as his time. acquiredenduring . expression.C. produced lalysus some artist in celebrated of The a pictureof famous also he Rhodes.C. of brother a offered were a Vejtus wielding the Thunderbolt. was a painter noted and sculptor. Greece treasures. Thebes. Corinth.).

Florence.produced Crucifixionin a water colours.D. fifteenth and Rome. the the Bologna. and other stylesof the art are ally gener- associated. Milan. Pisa. great painting generaldispersionof Byzantineartists among a newly-founded Italian under cherished was subjects. painted which arranged are chronological sequence GuiDO 1 principalworks large Madoftna^ a stillexists there. mural fresco the painter of from living stiffness of . and Byzantine avoided artists. a Florentine. which with of medieval Luke. Giovanni CiMABUE (1240. gradual dismemberment The learningand mural largelyemployed in early Christian were fall down- the centuries at different modern Italian painting established were Siena. GiUNTA (1236). Their and names followingHst in (1221 A. Venice.). mosaic Constantinopleand at Brush and work art and illustrate Biblical caused the between of the architecture of St. was a scripturalfigures in models. civilisation in the thirteenth between ensued the revival of and the century. Parma.302). masters to Empire Eastern and of schools and republics .Chisel Trowel 54 During the dark which ages of the Western Empire. of of in the : " Siena. supposed patronage the thirteenth in connection cities.

.

his son clever also was chiaro- at distinguishe a painter.and . DOMENICO a Veneziano painters in (1435-1482). and the Rape of Helen. Dutch Crucifixion and mosaics. and introduced and in excelled famous the master a Florentine.Trowel S6 Fra FiLiPPO Chisel and Florentine. and Messina (1414-1493) Bigordi Ghirlandajo (1451-1494). Andrea del and (1432-1488). della bronze system. his Massacre painting. and also was Francesca Antonello was Florentine a Verrocchio Piero Venetian. learnt a per- painted scripturesubjects scripturesubjectsand DOMINICO of perspective a as first marble. chief work of the artist other portraits. spective. Brush scuro vigorous painter of a frescoes. a a artistic portrait fresco of . (1408-1490). and an as as was Innocents. painted a Florentine. a Pisa at series of frescoes considerable of merit.was a LiPPi church (1400-1469).acquiredfame The sculptor in portraits. some Florentine. Benozzo Gozzoli (1408-1478). perspectiveto a from Van produced of oil method new Eyck a a a designer in painter. reduced a da and of one oil.

the produced Battle other many genius . painted Mantegna (1431-1505).516). painted altar piecesand fresin the several cathedral churches fore-shortening. age. The at for his Last celebrated pictures ment refine- arabesque work. painted a picturesof considerable Venice. Leonardo da a Florentine. 57 and of Julius Ccesar^ Triumph classical other some Florentine. the instructor of Titian . painted altar-piecesat Venetian. 1 nine Padua. he at was Orvieto. of coes Cortona. and a master of . Bellini Giovanni (1426. he great Raffaello Milan. and church several merit. Raphael (1483-1520). was of his best one subjects. and Standard^ science art and of Urbino. of in proficient surpassing a Vatican.Painting Andrea of COSIMO The ROSELLI (1439. . LuCA SiGNORELLi (1439-1 521). excel- Cartoons other many a and Madonnas^ displaying exquisitegrace he .is Supper Vinci (1452-1519). also was several well as was also series of master and of a lence.1506). and in the works the greatest painter of any Transfiguration^of as of generally. OR Sanzio. a picturesrepresenting picturesis and Bacchus Ariadne.

and and fresco colourist eminent distance a Sardinian. a was CORREGGIO cupolas. painted some a colourist admirable an adopted in the Sistine Perugino Brush pupil of Vinci. and effect at (1 478-1 5 33). Enfombmeitt Supper^ (1488-1 530). of of Correggio. imitator the painter of brilliant Bow was . antico the Perugia. (1494. perfectedthe Barbarelli. was The LuiNi (1460-1533). a for celebrated oil. in excelled also art and chiaroscuro. chil- forms. Francesco and (1450-1 522). a art Last a in his shade light and of his . dren 1 and Francesco Mazzuoli Parmigiano (1503-1 540) . Antonio Allegri of Modena.Madonnas. etching from His Cupidfashioni7ig of his best works. masterpiece Finding of Moses. and the at city. frescoes of the celebrated for and or moderno - ior the Pitti palace. is native a and Venetian. PiETRO Vannucci of (1446-1524). Da works several in portraitsof for his women.534).58 Chisel and Trowel Francia of Bologna. frescoes. style. was and for works several an was Giorgione Bernardino Vatican. he in natural a and introduced Flanders one tints and succesful was . Andrea Vannucchi DEL was Sarto an Georgio chapel Florentine.

of Bergamo.1 574) of frescoes allegorical Bologna. the an author architect.Painting PORDENONE. painted Fontainebleau. became a PiOMBO DEL Venetian. a he in than also was an sculptor. a church celebrated (1 509. a 59 of frescoes History of the Cross.containingmore hundred painted VOLTERRA colourist. Francisco Primaticcio 5 70).564). as 1 for Rome.altar-piece portraits several other pictures. famous was of Tuscany. at frescoes.and pupil of Raphael. for his and established painter by a Sistine the and mythologicalpainter. his was portraits. reputation chapel. a his his Last Judgment figures. Sebastiano (1485-1547). painter and was and as Art. GlULio ROMANG (1492-1 546). and other painted several Madonnas with scripturesubjects great taste.but is of A Treatise .1 5 66) Palm A Vecchio (1510-1566). Angelo Michael celebrated and of BUONARROTTI (1474. ( 1 490.1 Vasari Giorgio (15 1 2. at of works a best known 071 Modern several other note. celebrated series The representing Rome. Giovanni OR Licinio (1484-1540). a architect and Dl noted Raisi?tgof Lazarus^ three Danieli a his was Venetian.

Veronese GiACOMO altar-piece at Venetian. his The are painter Peter most Money^ Martyr^ Martyrdom of St. (1510-1592). Santa The was a (1530-1588) colour. ciation Lawrence^ St.full of and portraits. frescoes and architect. and Pellegrino the Venetian. paintedceilings and Cagliari in portraits.and in was the also Escurial an his at Feast. in the rapid painter. Doge's and Palace Bologna.Chisel aiid Brush Trozvel 60 Vecellio Titian (1477-1 576).and The Annunhe j and Andrea a (1522-1582). Catherine. SCHIAVONE Paolo excelled also Last and bold Belshazzar^s are Supper. painted a Mark's.and his (1 5 1 2- 1 594). a TiBALDi (i527-1 598). a works principal a Paradise of at several sacred life and fine altar- great fame for his generaleffectiveness of style. the a of the Italian School. gorgeous attained pieces. of Elizabeth Visitation secular and Bassano St Croce. of other . last celebrated Venetian. painted several great merit places. Assumption^ The of master a effects . was his of subjects. was luminous tints and pure famous works Bacchus and The Tribute Ariadne^ St. largest Venice. Tintoretto painter Venetian. Florence.

of Beatrice merit. of Agnes. of Caracci (i555-1619) was shade. in styles. of in grace The Albani (1578-1660). church of The Andrea har- Crucifixionof Peter.6i Painting Amerighi Carravaggio (1569-1609).and The Vision in altar-pieces of St. (1590-1 622). of cal (1599-1 660). and at in the Louvre. painted other different his . produced several mythologiand cabinet Sacchi Aurora Cenci. brothers. Bologna at the art was produced pictures they and an church landscapes. and Francisco and masterpieces were Hours. acquiredfame landscape.and Seaso7is J he a was sentatio reprealso a painter. Rome. some of Rome. St. portrait a Bologna. and for his Communion The and Jerome^ in excelled of Martyrdom St. painted two Peter's. Sebastian Entombment were of lightand of master a Bologna.who eclectic principa his style. excelled mony and and St. the works Petronilla. Giovanni of GUERCINO Aurora. and breadth works a an The Lombardy. . of Bologna. St. St. classical several and DOMENICHINO Zampieri (1581-1641). of St. are three or during the established imitative school when period gradually declining. Romualdo. Bologna. The Rape of Helen. several GuiDO Reni (1575-1642). pictures.

of the a Crespi of Bologna. of at chief became but (1697. includingan Antonio Windsor School. Departure of Regulus for Carthage. Lecci. is of theus several Giordauo Luca (1632-1705).768). produced of Escurial. celebrated was execution. (1628- Cignani (1628-1719). at altar-pieceat an Naples. a for his Prome- celebrated the in Brush Pantheon landscapes. painter. the cathedral GUISEPPI Roman employed by Louis XIV.an of paintedceiHngs and and Carlo Maratti 1 7 13).Trowel 62 Rosa Salvator (i6i5-1673). nature. (1665. 1 of Bologna. Verrio Antonio (1639-1707). famous scenes skill being in Forli. Chisel and Naples..his (1775-1844). best and being The . his facili several produced originallya for his for unequalledin was Venice. Neapolitan. Hampton imitator an decorative exuberant Ecce Ho7no. and number large a fine frescoes in works. for Carlo staircases artist Court. painted several sacred Camuccini historical pictures. includingsome the and Rome.747). was Canaletto 1 was celebrated and masterly works. of at pictureof Daphne. and works ViCENZO and canal and of Rome. in his chiaroscuro. scene for his studies picturesof the from churches in his native city.

.

ings. a Battle wood some of en- good . (1488-1538). his pictures The Adoration.and Brussels. a famous portrait became Descent a a from the of note.executed paintingsand engravings. brated also Roger Vander of Weyde (1489-1529).and Brush produced a Memling of Baden. Arbela. Beham artistic more Louvain. picturesand famous as an and Van Leyden blacksmith and painter. Cross. celebrated was cele- portraits. produced celebrated Altdorfer Barthel was historical pictures. St.and a produced pupil and of painted was The also Diirer. a for his fudginent^ and of Eulenspiegel clown.64 Trowel Martin Schoen (1425-1485). paint- good some engravings. (1496-1 540). QUENTIN Matsvs (1466-1531). (1435-1495). of St. Albert Durer (1471-1528). Haes Chisel and of Ulm. Last engraving Bavarian. (1494-1533) Albrecht executed a a a of graver. of Numburg. Catherine^ and other scripture subjects.and other works Lucas many engraver. of large number is known Marriage of for The Ursula. originateda style.

of groups. Henry was Otho produced pictures. Hans Holbein (1497-1 5 54). also he painted scripturalsubjects.including Aldegreve (1556-1622). miniature painter. OR GOSSEART (1479-1562) Heinrich engraver. his best works the from a painters famous most the was at and Potsdam. Lucas Cranach (1472-1 5 53) another of engraver and Diirer's pupils. Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). Antwerp.and portraits. also and celebrated was of Rome at an as landscapepainter. painted (1550-1634). Louvre at Munich and but coarse .and the of The one of the FlemishDescent Elevation several in the in of the at galleries . Paris. of Antwerp. Westphalian. children the pupil and a of note painter a series a of England.and a Brill portraitand celebrated a historical some Jan Maubeuge was Diirer. Van entitled The VH. Paul of Veen a of of Death. of Leyden. at and Supper in Last a ture pic- church several Leyden cathedral.65 PaintiriQ Hauns Beham (1 500. The were Antwerp.1550). Dance several Antwerp. school Cross^ Cross. portraitpainter was and Saxony.was etcher. (1502-1 562). able an altar- several produced of Elector the to piecesand engravings. of Basle.

of Francis Sneyders (1 579-1657). Francis Halls (1 584-1666. historical pictures. and ruins. Teniers a also (1 5 82.painted numerous and portraits Dyck David of Brush and Hague he . Delft. was landscape painterof a pictureswere by his brother. Mindert Hobbema (1611-1667). Utrecht. . were Van Anthony (1599-1 641). painted effective pictures of landscapes.and stilllife. drawn (1610-1650). also and artistical very coloured.1 649). (The Elder) Jan etcher celebrated painted some of and portraits. noted painter of animals. Antwerp. of Mechlin. historical scenes.. a was figures in his the . merit the sons for his life-like famous was considerable of two Antwerp.Chisel Trowel 66 Michael of MiEREVELT was (1568-1 641). portrait Antwerp.forest scenes. flowers. for of a Stag animals. produced picturesof country life and Both his . was a famous portrai painter. of Amsterdam. Enkhuizen. painters. Huiit^ and also was an was celebrated his pictures A Bull at etcher.his masterpiecebeing of he scriptural subjects. Paul Potter (1625-1654).

and sea-pieces. well-finished EiCKOUT excelled cattle. brilliant colourist. Paul scenes. and (1639-1 672). hunting (1620-1 668). of Leyden. Gerard Douw (1613-1675). Anatomy greatest his best Lesson^ of works several the were church life-likeportrait numerous Amsterdam. Albert Cuyp. of Gerretz Rembrandt. (1606-1672). Adrian Vander Velde. painted landscapes. Amsterdam. and and pictures. and of detail. of was Leyden. Jacob Jordaens ( 594-1678).fishermen. for his mastery was noted scenes. was a powerful painterand but deficient in taste. .I 6y Painting celebrated painte Philip of Haarlem.cattle. for his classical tastefully designed painted windows. WouvERMAN of horses. and pictures. (1606-1 674). Van Abraham DiSPENBECK (1607-1675). of Dort. Flemish T/ie of the was painters. of Antwerp. Gerbaant a landscapes. battles. 1 was in landscapes good a figur painter. painted domestic famous of Antwerp. Vander (1621 -1675). and was noted was for portraits and several historical subjects.

Peter Philip Roos (1655-1703).and of as a shade. was famous as a painterof animals. for his portrait pictureswith figures. Gerard Terburgh (1608. painted portraits a beauties court historical of II.and Sir Isaac of Charles III... painterof historical domes- subjectsand landscapes. David scenes jects with Ostade Jan paintedcanal Leyden. was and nature.. painted uninterestingsubgreat delicacyof touch and brilliancy. subjects considerable celebrated Zwoll. of Lubeck. of master a expression unsurpassed in lightand and ranks tic was very high life. Haarlem. of Steen (1636-1689). .. Peter Breughel (1620-168 1 ).William George I.681). and some pictures. Haarlem.Queen Anne. was renown.6S Trowel Paul Vander Faes (Sir Peter Lely) (1617-1680). Sir which him of earned small and of Godfrey Kneller (1646-1723). of Frankfort. 1 Adrian Van (1610-1685). Newton. painted miniatures II.. Teniers (The Younger) (1610-1690). Chisel and Brush Westphalian. of Charles of the imitator of accurate an famous for his and comic landscapes with waterfalls. Ruysdaal Jacob (1635-1681).James II.

figuresin chiaro- (1787-1867). and other at works the of merit.69 Painting Anton Mengs (1741-1779). Dante. pictures. of Berlin. . Fuessli (1741-1825). Family. and scenes. Arolsen. famous Frederick of church Peter of also was the Fine on a and the writer Arts. works other church several produced Chur. into Jerusalem^ picturesand WiLHELM of Kaulbach Berlin (1804-1 874). SCHADOW The forty-seven large pictures named Milton Albrecht portraitsof English Royal several of the different members Kauffmann of merit. and pictures.painted church scenes from and portraits. Cornelius Nightmare paintedbattle considerable Von he GalleryJ lecturer (1786-1862). Lubeck. Zurich. a and Rome. Berlin. Dusseldorf. frescoes. Frederick of overbeck (I789-I869). was for his horses. at reputationas a earned of painter pictures. painted the frescoes Museum. Christ's produced and many other Entry church frescoes.and for church famous was colossal scuro.studied (1789-1862). painted of and Adam a German. Philip Veit (1793-1877). painted of Angelica Henri Bohemian. (1741-1807).

painted several of picturesand of (1538-1608). remark- very The PrecipitateBurial. (1830-1878) of Brussels. Pablo de Seville. being for his Saviours of Cordova. most artistic his works have perished. ^'ElDivino" surnamed Badajos. except altar-piecenear an of Escurial. Death of San pictures. artists since been of some pictures.Chisel and Trowel 70 Henri Wirtz. Juan de las Roelas (1560-1625).was picturesof Cespedes church his Valencia. includingThe Dog Corner^ and The Brush but. Luis Morales (1525-1586). (1446-1 500}.in . best works of noted merit church he . also a in the cathedral and Magdalens.painted Isidore^ and other the best Italian The church style. frescoes. ViNCENTE JUANES (i523-1 579). painted altar-pieces. Luis Vargas DE (1502-1 568). displayedmuch skill . architect.produced able principalSpanish fifteenth century have Antonio del RiNCON the His in the close of the " Guadalaxara.an there. of Seville.and was an author. produced several considerable sculptor.

.

was French school. The The several Woman land- . many works Lawrence. and Christ. approached French the Dead of Charity. dating from seventeenth Simon century. Rome Raphael. The and two series Sacraments. Seven Death Works taken in capes. Normandy.1 874). Adultery. Martyrdom of The Italian imitators . The and names French painters. ceilings EUSTACHE Le Sueur called nearer (1617-1655). and The Marriage. Chisel and of Fortuny (1839. of the principalworks of the eminent most of the commencement " the founder Paris.Trowel 72 Claudio Coello (1632-1693). are Vouet (i582-1641).painted a Seven best acquired great of Erasmus. other pictureswhich at Siesta. of A Portia. the Madrid. other is The Poussin Nicholas (1592. 1 of to the by his Sebastian Bourdon (1616-1671). Beach The Barcelona. Montpelier. and Mariano Brush and several picture church frescoes at Madrid. painted the high-altarat Escurial.665). and of the modern rapid a worker at and altar-pieces. fame in of Gerinanicus. of style than of his one Martyrdom of St. painted high fetched have prices.

sea- . excelled Watteau (1684-1 721). and paintedland- at life and of full sea-ports. some Jean mythological Troyes. Parisian.painted church cupolas. of Avignon.assisted in decoratingthe British MONNOYER Antoine a was Versailles and eminence.and was views celebrated of French for his ports. and privatemansions.and at ceilingsand Apotheosisof Hercules. historical picturesat St. of Perpignan. painted several and in the decorations numerous of Battles of The a pleasing in colour. was famous for his in style p ictures. painted of Louis XIV. Claude Vernet (1714-1789).. Hyacinthe Rigaud (1659-1743). Alexander series a the pictures for several striking the Moses Great ^ Rock. and Baptiste of Museum (1635-1699). containinga hundred and forty-twofigures. painted of Louis XIV. Valenciennes. the Versailles. Charles Le Brun (1619-1690).but unreal. and several other portrait celebrities of Europe. and palace at Peter Mignard (1610-1695). many he in flowers. of Lemoine (1688-1 737). of Versailles.. Cloud. pieces. and scapes 73 beauty. piquant pseudo-pastoral and Francois of portrait-painter Lille. Paris.Painting Claude Lorraine (1600-1 682) educated was Rome.

and ancient Parisian. Genevieve . and (1758-1836).was an designer of and Entry of other many pictures. Louis Jacques Bonne (1748-1 82 5). painted The Paris. Guerin (1774-1 833).painted battle a being pictures. also an and spirited painter note. of the at IV. classical Parisian. Parisian. as La ^neas^ Ajidromache^ and Parisian. a for his celebrated educated a was historical and Paul the the of Rape of St.gained a or best Parisian.paintedallegorical art historical critic. several classical picturesoi Dido and others. he was .his Sabines^Napoleon crossing David Pierre famous Burgundian. Francois Gerard (1770-1837). a barony Parisian. was a domestic Greuz Brush Chisel and Trowel and scenes life-likepictures.as some architectural well other Ferdinand a Delacroix and modern (1799-1 863). cupola made was Bordeaux. dogs and horses. Gros Antoine (1771-1835). Rome. painted battle (1789. some and Alps^ and baron. subjects. he also Charles pictures. painted The a for genre Mere. Henry Delaroche (1797-1856).74 Jean Baptiste (1726-1805). 1 for his classical portraits.863). Vernet many tures. and battle-painter. Horace Vernet a a into minia- scenes.

. birth gave even eminence Majesty. The artistssince that Isaac in also was a microscopic purchased ^2iS of his another paintersof no by picture her eminence teen in the six- the Continent on all executed the followingare Rixie of portraits the priorto Elizabeth.were scrip ^34. George Jamieson (1586-1644).painted cartoons Gustave Jean classical many scientiouslyexecuted. (1781-1867). Great pictures. other of members britie cele- Queen of the family. dyke. Paul produced of Montauban.1 6 1 9). Tudor of and Jonson and James ^ and other I. very church of Strassburg. (1815-1891) Britain con- illustrator. of the miniatures of names celebrated most period: Oliver (i556-1617) " painted Mary Queen of of also Ben of HiLLlARD Elizabeth^ and (1 547. and Her century of and subjects. book (1832-1883). Queen Elizabeth^ executed several of named the Scotch Van- of Charles I. j portraits the Scottish nobility..000. Ingres Dor:^ tural and attained Meissonier great sold for La to until after the decline of the art . secular his work.PaintiriQ and historical. Dominique Jean 75 kingsand queens. Aberdeen. by foreigners. Scots painted miniatures Nicholas Exeter.

also his Paul's. and (1713-1782) was was also an an became classical The for Rake's an engraver a series of Progress. portraits painted (i599-1685) principalofficers. Robert Walker of Cromwell. some art portraitpainter and a but better Wilson and portrait painter. pictures.and famous landscape .and and portraits some altar-pieces. portraits. Samuel Cooper (1609-1 672) painted Charles of miniatures II. his excelled painter. and of their many courtiers.and father as miniature a historical several produced pictures.. copyist celebrated a was Brush of Italian paintings. celebrated afterwards and as critic. author. Sir painted James Thornhill (1676-1 734) the of cupola dining hall at several ceilings. Cromwell. and Charles I. a historical some produced also pictures. JONATHON Richardson (1665-1745) William Hogarth (1697-1 764) was eminence.Chisel and Trowel 76 William Dobson (1610-1646) Henry Stone (1611-1653) Peter (i601 Oliver -1 660) was and portrait painter.entitled Richard known acquiredgreat reputationas he of etcher for his a painter. the St Greenwich and Hospital.

by many was employed members by of the .1 784) Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1 788) Sir Joshua Reynolds (1723-1 792) George Romney (1734-1 802). was a nence. Morland (1764-1 804) Barry James (1744-1 806). and good landscapes.Painting Allan Ramsay (171 3. George others. aristocracy. Cork. painted portraits of many of his contemporaries. an of Joshua. produced several merit. portraitpainter pictures. also executed pictures of unequal merit. for his and and was for of Opie (1761-1807) great allegoric author. was also famous Blue Boy. a superiorstyle to a celebrated a III. especially Duchess he and and landscape painter. historical some works of allegorica Arts. and painted a series of was emi- fancy pictures. picturesfor John of some also was of the most of Devo?tshire. paintedportraits celebrities of his time. and royality. a portrait painter. produced rival of Sir most A portraits. John Hoppner (1759-1810). and famous some for very pictures of animals.in some George 77 a the Societyof and portrait painter.

George Stubbs (1724-1826) Sir Thomas excelled as famous women and (1766-1 834) Sir William Beechey (1753-1837) pictures. painted landscapes with and fidelity. and his Sir a Raeburn (1756-1823). Chisel and Brush American. was celebrated has executed Castle. American. of Stothard the for Lawrence Thomas for portrait painter. cele- his of correctness painterof like- horses and other was children .especiall portrait in portraits at Windsor John a a was series of Constable church classical animals. Henry Death Jersey.and most of the nota- . painted The an Earl and of Chatham^ Benjamin West at son of works. including The Pier Death left as a pictures of bilitiesof his time. book a several painter. freshness great portraitpainter. noted was (1738-1820).Trowel yS John Copley (1 737-1815). (1769-1830) (1755-1834) his Death nesses. he the Waterloo and illustrator. was Scotch brated of Major portraits.his his Wolfe. an of the historical other pictures. the gallery produced successful paintings.

.

and famous scene painter.and for famous was his hfe studies. high won historical with architectural an produced painterof note. landscapesin for his famous colours.8o Trowel Copley Fielding Chisel and (1787-1855) water David was Cox (1793-1 859) Charles Leslie (1794-1 859) landscape painter in celebrated a was Brush colours. produced battle sea-pieces. rank as painter of a rural in water-colours.and produced Pilgrims pictures. cleverlyillustrated the writings of poets and of humorists a . Clarkson (1793-1 867). Sir Charles studied Eastlake in (1793-1 865) merit on in sight of Rome^ he . also originallya Stanfield several and other picturesof published several works painting. scenes . scenery was his portraits. on subjectswith great paintedmiscellaneous William water- skill. he hand-book also was MuLREADY delicacyand (1786-1863) author the painting. i Sir John Gordon (1790-1 864) William Hunt (1790-1 864) David Roberts (1796-1 864) successful was and with The Provost best subjects being one of of Peterhead. and hundred upwards of three Italy. landscapes.

and of animals celebrated and a popular out-door country' landscape painter. the House John executed painter. painterof landscape a picturesof natural full of scenery. (1802-1873) for Sir George was animal English the lions bronze Trafalgar Square. the originato Pre-Raphaelite style.Painting Thomas Cheswick (1811-1869) Daniel Maclise (1811-1870) was produced painted historical and Edwin painters. fine several works two Sir large number a and repute. . (1833-1893) Sir John MiLLAIS (1829-1896). and and ViCAT in fame Randolph frescoes of Parliament. of Royal Academy elected in 1878.and illustrator. for his celebrated life and Harvey of designed he executed of Parliament. Lord Leighton (1830-1 896). Cole was a a of corridors early life portrai a as his scapes land- scripturesubjects. Houses greatest Landseer pictures romantic and for the the was pictures. of he portraits . book was in the subsequentlyfor painter. an eminent President painterand sculptor. shortly after becoming he President died of the Royal Academy. Scottish sion. expres- (1805-1876) Edward Ward (1816-1879) was historical an of the some Linnell (1792-1882) earned Caldecott sketcher (1846-1888) life. a of very talented the and artist.

and fondness apparent. Brush Chisel and Trowel ^2 as and pictures.and as are is sadly of imagination. P.A. technical classes and in who for their which and w^orld. Keeper of the Royal Academy. seem the by qualified been publicationhas for notes by the arrangement afforded genius emulation in future ages. by industry and have a is and work. R. galleries. Britain Great of equal in their lack to in the efforts of higher aims. the the of those of intellectual entire civilised whose works delightfor so . Sir Edward painter a and BURNE-JONES of originalit considerable power. such of artists. g eneration rising veneration them execute extension. H. Calderon (1833-1898). (1833-1898). while paintersthe need of of the of contents our sound working public it is hoped.but of their the without Architects the referred art-treasures contributingto merit.1 for his historical celebrated 897). other illustrator of Shakespeare and an works.Sir Gilbert John 8 ( 1 1 7.however. originality more private and those and sculptors living museums our may attain in predecessors revival and The to of probability any present replace them by production designs. awaken^ will. secure for source a of spirit them. accorded. the scientio con- times . enjoyment retrospective The of these reflection that of many rapidlymoulderingaway. studyingthe for generally perseverance lence excel- classic to facilities to greater teaching.to the bygone shall now continual been many centuries.

INDEX 83 .

84 Index .

B. . German dZ Hilliard... F. . . Sir Gordon. M. Guido Reni. Greuz.. T.W. . 74 Herrera.. Gibson.Sir J. Do. Sculpture. Guido. G... . 79 Giordano. Architecture..T. de.... Do.B. 56 Gibbons. Gozzoli. 55 Hanoverian Gainsborough. . . Gothic Architecture. .. Painters. J. 53 Euphranor. European Sculpture.. Sir G. P.N. F. J. Halls. Guerin.. J. . .. F. 42. . 33 Girardon.L. ..D. 24 Giotto. . Gaddi... da Fabriano. Do. B. Gosseart. B.. Gentile 55 Haydon.. . 46 Giunta. Sculpture.. Gros.. W.. 47 Hobbema. G. J.. Giorgione. 49 Hogarth. . Guercino. Euporapus. Gilbert. 82 Holbein.85 Index PAGE Architecture. A. Painting. H. L. 44 Hindoo Ghirlandajo. Architecture.. T] Harvey. Ghiberti. Grecian Architecture. . Etruscan Etty. F. Gerard. ..

86 Index .

.

. Scott. VanEyck. .J. . .A. . T.. L. Roselli. . -47 . Schadow. . L.. J. .D. .64 . Tibaldi. P. Architecture. .. Sacchi. .80 .. F. Charles.. D.. . Teniers.. . .L. A. 47 Vernet. Ruysdaal. . Thornhill. 68 . Claude. .R...... . ... J... 60 . . Veneziano.. A. Vander Eickout. . .. J.. Van Leyden. de. . 68 . Sarto.. Schadow. F. ..65 Thomson. T. Vander Faes.78 Veit. Tudor . P. . P. N. Vander Weyde.71 . Van 47 .48 Vasari.. ..79 .. . D. . J. L. Vander Velde... P... Timanthes. . V.. . . Sansovino. del. . Van Ostade. R. '63 .66 . Spanish Painters. V. Architecture. 35 . Scottish Sneyders.C.. A. . . Spagnoletto. ... A. 58 .Index 88 PAGE Rosa. A. ^ . Stanfield. Turner. .. Stubbs. .. . Vander Goes. 16 Vernet. A.. H... . G... Stone. H. G. Stothard. M. . . Rev. M. .. . D..62 . 41 . Signorelli.. . -57 Saracenic Architecture. Rubens. 70 . C. Sanzio. Scopas. 27 .57 Terburgh.. . . ..62 . .P.76 Vargas. Steen. . 45 .. Thorwaldsen... Bruges. Schwanthaler... . J. Van Dispenbeck. Van Dyck. J. A. SyrianArchitecture. . S. Stone.. R. Schoen.. .. Van Veen. . .78 Velasquez.D. O. Tintoretto. H.. Vernet. -57 . G. Sir J.. . TaccQ.. . B. G. Schiavone. Stuerbout. P. ... Titian. .69 .

A.. 37 Wilson... C... 1Z Printed by Cowan "5r" Co. B. Vouet.P. . del. . Ward.. L. Cornelius. E. R.D... A.. Verrocchio... 52 Architecture Victorian Vinci. T. . 72 Wren. . H. Walker. Verrio. A. Sir R. 70 59 Woolner. R. 69 Wouverman. P. 76 Zampieri. di.. Volterra. 56 Wilkie. 60 West. S..^ 79 50 .. P. 76 57 Wirtz. 49 Limited^ Perth. 61 81 Zeuxis. Watteau. 67 37 .. Sir . 62 Westmacott. Sir D. da.89 Index PAGE PAGE Veronese. C. Von D.

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he in manner and writings." correct. " : THE of the author 350 pages compass down authors. for reference.and " OF of Latin of idea he authors. tell the his task well and has executed The art epitomisingvoluminous of it is possessed by Mr. to QuintiHan. I PRESS. and " Dundee useful gift. EIGHTEENTH OPINIONS " Within works of Greek was happy a classical lore." " . BEING AN EPITOME IN OF THE ENGLISH THE PRINCIPAL WORKS GREEK OF AND LATIN AUTHORS BY HENRY GREY. in the able conveys which he remembrance "The is there book. which.from Mr. Grey thus deals with the Plautus to to Menander. Henry Grey explains a vast to the are an of the an is a eminent author style and scholar.ranging from Homer with the works and It the THOUSAND.THE CLASSICS FOR THE MILLION. story of judiciously Times. by the sens Invery of matter of condensed amount classical of former epitomes in estimate his works his information prove a service- Advertiser. f Athenceum.but rare degree.will studies.

its purpose being to attract an epitome extracts the reader of the from good to the great originals. " is references those to use and schools. whole . convenient and with abundance and "The the Press not can of one given. which actual translation gives from an epitome. but has no time to go to the wishes to have some book is reallya bird's-eyeview of the The fountain head. and.'^ Scotsman. of the Classics set forth as a guide for youth and as for age. London. are ' conscientiousness.which making with authors of whose general idea. in the blind fashion of sort some works they fail often too to edition new Greek and ' is the title of acquireany of which has afford such Latin authors exceptionall publishedin an just been a glimpse of better campaigns of the works will stimulate as readers is not is it " The our fragmentary acquaintance There acquainted with them."Guardian. only be Herald. and Cassar. the chief works where of the will just suit the busy man who literarygiants of antiquity. objectbeing to of the ancient industriouslycompiled not as a clue to only serve but will current literature." LiverpoolCourier." The useful its a to become in who. with and principalGreek This translations. idea of them." New " in common Literary World. the Ethics and Politics of Aristotle of Homer and Plato's Dialogues.the pleadings of and Demosthenes Cicero. and in much skill is shown field of classical literature. an will Classics for the Million book.an like this. the great works Virgil. and care " frequentallusions " much Continued " tional good reading.opinions of 92 "The is done work It contains of 'Classics for the Million' also be of epitome.and. " " A work possible. alike for educaordinarypurposes. the old master-piecesof which a faithful summary and if they are become to ever really popular York accomplished by such books as this. it should be popular. entertainment Xenophon " " furnishes praiseworthy volume Latin authors.are and admirable ledge outlined in the most a general knowmanner.

a wonderfull and is of the w ork idea of the conveyed. thought very range the interest revive fitted commend the volume to as of cordially " This modern readers in the ancient classics. rival. original adequate many quotationsare exceedinglybeautiful. dealt the the in age The which each best of the No7i}h British Mail.and. "Very " no The little " Nation. and matters the superficial reader to set are obscure are " of Continued " Bevieio. in serviceable than three hundred a gives pages. being well executed popular work it is of great utility. shows. moreover. in which manner which forth the usually are in clear and different subjects with much and scholarlyerudition. Grey's analysisof each author is necessarilybrief. skill in rare " Press. in every find a hearty welcome home. indeed. classical literature. Seldom. " As a " epitome siippHesa manifest want." Church " or of twenty times more universitypass-man than ever Times." " Glasgow Herald." more " for educational Whether it has " well done. and." flowing easy Grey exhibits Mr. The reader may trace the and and we of ancient whole conception. although Mr. useful and trustworthythroughout.opinionsof the Press the choice exhibit characteristics the writers hved." should book " Whitehall " of 93 portions which those epitome is well done. without condensing rigidly landinghimself in stiffness or obscurityof diction.has more into smaller information condensed been space." Notes and Queries. yet in an style." several " condensation and This simplelanguage. notion of its scope purposes a remarkable and piece character. The salient features of the different authors are presented in a remarkably Aberdeen Free and short space." about it. G . and ordinary public school-boy the knows or for ordinary reading compression. quiteenough to supply a general is book epitome of York New Oxford Chronicle.

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