You are on page 1of 7

Model-Driven Engineering applied to Smart Grid

Automation using IEC 61850 and IEC 61499
Filip Andr´en, Thomas Strasser

Wolfgang Kastner

AIT Austrian Institute of Technology
Energy Department
Vienna, Austria
Email: {filip.andren, thomas.strasser}@ait.ac.at

Institute of Computer Aided Automation
Vienna University of Technology
Vienna, Austria
Email: k@auto.tuwien.ac.at

Abstract—In order to guarantee a sustainable electric energy
supply the power systems domain is currently in a transformation
phase. Renewable energy sources have to be installed on a large
scale causing a more complex operation of the power distribution
grids due its stochastic behavior. Advanced automation and
information technology approaches, concepts and algorithms are
being applied to operate such complex systems. Interoperability
and standardized interfaces are important topics which have
to be considered realizing a Smart Grid. A standard-compliant
formal approach for the modeling of power utility automation
and control applications is missing up to now. This paper
therefore introduces a novel approach using the well-known
model-driven engineering concept from computer science for
the development of Smart Grid automation applications. This
method focuses on the usage of the power utility interoperability
approach IEC 61850 and the distributed automation reference
model IEC 61499 as basis for the proposed modeling concept.
An overview of the engineering method, corresponding transformation rules as well as an explanatory example are provided.

I.

I NTRODUCTION

The power systems domain is currently on the verge of
a profound change. The large-scale integration of Distributed
Energy Resources (DER) from renewable sources challenges
the already tight hosting capacities in the power distribution
grids today [1], [2]. Automation and control systems using
advanced Information and Communication (ICT) concepts and
architectures are seen as key elements of the future Smart
Grids to enable a more efficient use of the already existing
infrastructure [3]. The future power distribution grids have
to support a higher amount of flexibility and adaptability
to varying demands. Because of its complexity, the future
system will not only be a matter of grid components and
related topology, but also the automation and control systems
as well as the corresponding application(s) have to be taken
into account making todays approaches smarter [4].
However, a comprehensive information model for Smart
Grid application development covering the physical grid, the
communication infrastructure as well as control and application issues is missing up to now. In addition, no corresponding
design method, development procedure nor necessary tool support system is able to integrate all these different views during
the design and validation phase of Smart Grid automation
applications today [5], [6].
The most promising solutions for the standardized information exchange in Smart Grids are based on the well known
th

18 Power Systems Computation Conference

domain standards Common Information Model (CIM) and
power utility automation (i.e., IEC 61850) introduced by the
International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), Technical
Committee TC 57 [3], [5]. The later one which is of interest
for the work presented in this paper was originally developed
for substation automation but has been enlarged over the last
years to cover also power utility equipment and DER services
[7]. Designed to address mainly interoperability issues and
standardized software interface, IEC 61850 does not cover the
implementation of automation and protection functions. They
have to be implemented using other approaches.
One very interesting concept from the automation sector
has also been introduced by the IEC, the IEC 61499 reference model. It describes an automation standard especially
developed for the design of distributed industrial process,
measurement and control systems using function blocks. Due
to it’s distributed nature it provides a very good basis to
serve as implementation concept for IEC 61850 functions.
There are already several publications available discussing the
integration and harmonization of IEC 61850 and IEC 61499
for the domain of Smart Grids [5], [8], [9], [10].
The main aim of this paper is to introduce and discuss a
model-driven design approach to integrate the IEC 61499 automation approach with the IEC 61850 power utility standard
to improve and partially automate the engineering process of
Smart Grid automation applications. The presented approach
continues an integration of the two standards where modeldriven development is used for model transformations [5].
The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II
gives a brief overview about currently ongoing activities related to power utility automation as well as important IEC standards. The model-driven engineering concept using IEC 61850
and IEC 61499 is introduced in Section III followed by the
discussion of model-transformation rules in Section IV. The
proposed engineering concept is covered in Section V and
explained on a selected use case in Section VI. Finally, the
paper is summarized and concluded in Section VII.
II.

P OWER U TILITY AUTOMATION AND S TANDARDS

A. Active Power Distribution Grids
Up until now the electric energy infrastructure was characterized by a centralized architecture. Electricity was generated
by large-scale power plants—denoted as bulk generation (e.g.,

Wroclaw, Poland – August 18-22, 2014

(ii) IEC 61970/61968 Common Information Model (CIM) for transmission and distribution systems.. M ODEL -D RIVEN E NGINEERING C ONCEPT Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) is a concept from computer science where the modeling of an application is put in focus [21].e.. 2014 . which is defined by a set of rules. switches. With the availability of powerful Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems (SCADA). measurement devices. A formalized and standard-compliant design and implementation process for Smart Grid automation systems is required. distribution system). Traditionally. End-Use Applications. Due to the large scale integration of DER components and the future penetration of electric vehicles as well as decentralized storage systems the operation of the aforementioned grids becomes more complex [1]. Once the model definition is accomplished it is transformed into other models or source code is generated. The LNs are contained in so-called Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED). In order to cover Smart Grid topics it has setup the “Strategic Group on Smart Grid (SG 3)”. Moreover. [4]. The main purpose of this interoperability standard is to define a common modeling approach for the data exchange in power systems. For configuration of IEDs the XML-based Substation Configuration Language (SCL) is defined using XML schema.g. as well as the “IEEE Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and Information Technology Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS). [4]. hydro power stations or wind turbines). inverters) as well as power system functions (e. The main idea is to increase consistency and to minimize errors. The implementation of the corresponding automation and protection functions is not part of IEC 61850. (iii) IEC 61850 power th 18 Power Systems Computation Conference utility automation. measurement. Poland – August 18-22.. Still the whole architecture has a hierarchical nature but it has to cope with fluctuating distributed generation causing a bidirectional power flow between the distribution grid and the consumers which now act also as electricity producers (denoted in the literature also as prosumers) [11]. smart meters) through a powerful communication network and corresponding automation infrastructure. IEC 61499 has been defined as a methodology for specifying open distributed industrial process. The current trend is also to increase the connectivity between all these components (e. To do this it defines several data models for modeling. transformers. transmission and distribution lines. protection. providing a kind of object-oriented modeling approach. hydro. [2]. As mentioned above power utility automation is covered by IEC 61850. For example. The main components—Logical Nodes (LN)—are used to model power system components (e. (iv) IEC 62351 security. In order to build a sustainable electric energy supply and the corresponding infrastructure to prevent a global warming during the next decades.. and (vi) IEC 61508 functional safety. Automation applications can be modeled in a hardware independent manner using Function Blocks (FB). devices.e. With the integration of such DERs the topology of the electric energy supply infrastructure changes denoted in the literature as Smart Grid [1]. the German DKE roadmap suggests the automation standards IEC 61131 [17] and IEC 61499 [18] for this task. Important Smart Grid ICT and Automation Standards An important issue related to Smart Grid automation is standardization to fulfill interoperability requirements. Such a system has a hierarchical structure and is characterized by a unidirectional power flow from the bulk generators to the customers [1]. B.g. for the design of Smart Grid control functions and applications as well as their implementation in complex automation solutions proper engineering processes and corresponding tools are missing up to now from an ICT point of view. Summarizing. voltage control). An interesting aspect of this distributed automation standard is its event-driven execution model. loads. Different concepts are defined for structuring complex automation problems [19]. [20]. [2]. (v) IEC 62056 meter data exchange. developed by IEC TC 57.. IEC 61131 was especially developed for centralized Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) whereas IEC 61499 provides a reference architecture for distributed automation and control systems. the automation degree in power distribution grids are quite low compared to the transmission system.nuclear. storage. the “DKE German standardization roadmap for Smart Grids” [15]. Renewable Energy Sources (RES) have to be integrated in todays power system on a large scale. One important outcome of this activity was the development of the “IEC Smart Grid Standardization Roadmap” [13] where the following main standards for the realization of Smart Grids are suggested: (i) IEC TR 62357 Seamless Integration Reference Architecture (SIA) using service-oriented concepts. resources and communication network). and Loads” [16]. other solutions have to be used. small photovoltaic systems. measurement and control systems and therefore providing a very good basis for the implementation of IEC 61850 functions. Such generators are usually installed in the medium and low-voltage distribution grids in a decentralized way (e. This can Wroclaw. corresponding remote control possibilities/devices as well as installation of automatic metering systems (i. Below such an approach is presented. substations. on-load tap change transformers. [4].. Followed by a series of step-down transformers to medium and low voltage levels the electric energy was distributed to the customers (i. [22].g. fossil-fuel power plants)—and transported over long distances by the transmission system to regions and cities. Besides the IEC Smart Grids activities several other initiatives can be observed. The most important once are the “US NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grids Interoperability Standards” [14].e.. In this context on international level the IEC is one of the most important players. configuration as well as high-level communication services for information exchange over Ethernet. [12]. Therefore. generators. One of the core components of MDE is the model transformation. III. the automation hardware can also be represented by IEC 61499 elements (i. advanced sensor and measurement equipment) a higher degree of automation may be expected also on the low-voltage level during the next years. All these measures allow a more intelligent monitoring and optimization of the Smart Grid [1]. Medium-voltage distribution grids.g. secondary substations and larger Distributed Generators (DG) can be controlled by distribution control centers but especially the operation of lowvoltage grids is still carried out manually today.

4 Process Interface Application 3 Process Interface Controlled Process Resource C Communication Interface MN CN1 CN2 POWERL INK_IO POWERL INK_IO OUT Resource Model IN POWERL INK_MN SUBL PUBL Process Interface Scheduling function Fig. To improve the readability any expressions related to IEC 61850 are emphasized as element850 . • Communication model: models the available access points850 and subnetworks850 . 1 and can be summarized as follows [18]: • Application Model FB5 M ODEL -T RANSFORMATION FB6 System model: a collection of devices499 and their connections with each other through network segments499 and links499 . transformer) as well as virtual functions (e. FB1 FB2 FB3 FB4 IV. such a configuration cannot be considered as complete. A model-transformation can be defined as an automatic generation of one or more target models from one or more source models. SCL is defined using XML schema. 2) since it act as a connector between the different models. th Models defined in IEC 61499 [18]. Thus it is possible to define transformation rules between objects in IEC 61850 to elements in IEC 61499. Communication Network Device 1 Device 2 Communication Interface Resource A Resource B Communication Interface Resource C Resource A Resource B System Model Resource C Application 1 Application 2 App. Thus any hardware independent parts of the IEC 61850 model should be mapped to the IEC 61499 application and hardware dependent parts should be mapped to IEC 61499 devices and resources.transformation is the transformation rule.. also called code generation. Nonetheless. 2014 . These formal definitions can be used as meta-models for IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 respectively. which describe how one or more constructs of the source meta-model can be transformed into one or more constructs of the target meta-model. however this paper only covers the transformation from IEC 61850 to IEC 61499. Some of these models are shown in Fig. [24]. In this paper hardware independence is defined as a model which can be generalized to multiple platforms. voltage level) • Product model: provides models of the IEDs850 and their LNs850 and data objects. Poland – August 18-22.. This approach is depicted in Fig. A set of transformation rules can be combined into a transformation definition describing how the source models are mapped to target models [25]. Both IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 contain domain specific names and expressions. The main goal of the present work is to introduce a model-driven approach to transform IEC 61850 models into IEC 61499 automation models.. Such tools can also check for possible errors. As described in [18]. A. 18 Power Systems Computation Conference Fig. Summarized. An MDE approach also provides better simulation and validation possibilities of the application [5]. the following three models with different objects are of importance: • Functional model: a logical model containing power conducting equipment (e. SCL object model as defined in IEC 61850-6 [26]. With an MDE approach between IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 not only the communication can be configured. but also the functionality of the LNs can be automatically configured.g. Mapping of Artifacts The main object in IEC 61850 is the LN 850 (LNode in Fig. [23] IEC 61499 can effectively be used in an MDE approach.g. The platform specific implementation is done once the application is mapped to the hardware specification (i. In order to do this the platform independent modeling approach of IEC 61499 is used. Applying the MDE approach to the IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 standards enables new engineering possibilities compared to standard power utility automation. IEC 61850 introduced SCL which makes it easier to configure IEDs. Wroclaw. IEC 61499 devices and resources).transformations some kind of tool support is needed. The heart of the model.. e.g. To automatically execute model.e. 1. IEC 61499-2 also provides a specification of its elements in form of Document Type Definitions (DTD). generated and deployed. For completeness the bi-directional transformation should be possible. a model-to-model transformation followed by code generation. The DTD specification are defined in XML format to allow exchange of models between software tools. since IEC 61850 does not specify how the functions of the LNs are implemented. and expressions related to IEC 61499 are emphasized as element499 in the rest of the paper. 2. 1.either be model-to-model transformations or model-to-text transformations. where the design of the IEC 61499 application is done in a platform independent way. Usually more than one transformation is needed. IEC 61499 also defines several models for different modeling objectives. IEC 61850-6 defines the Substation Configuration Language (SCL) for the configuration of IEC 61850 devices.

a subapplication499 and an adapter499 . which IEDs850 can connect with each other. Furthermore. • Resource model: a resource499 is considered as a functional unit and contains one ore more applications499 or parts of it.e. Thus the subapplication499 representing the LN 850 contains the product model of the LN 850 .e. A mapping between IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 artifacts is seen in Table I. adapters499 have the advantage that they can define a bi-directional connection499 .. This mapping is explained in more detail below. Connections499 between the subapplications499 correspond to the information exchange between the LNs850 . and the adapter499 models the data interface. Thus the product model defines a hierarchical description of the IEDs850 . 2 [26]. i. each data input/output of the adapter499 has the data type matching a Common Data Class850 (CDC) specified in IEC 61850. and so on ending with the data of the LN 850 . The servers850 are a special case since they need to be mapped to Service Interface Function Blocks499 . i. The subapplication499 is intended to include the functional model of the LN 850 .. The system model in IEC 61499 has a similar purpose. whereas any parts related to the hardware should be covered by the resource499 or the device499 . For instance link properties like delay or statistical package drops cannot be directly modeled. In the previous section the LN 850 was defined to be part of the application499 as it describes a hardware independent functionality..• Device model: models a hardware device which consists of one or more resources499 . Even if IEC 61499 provide some possibilities for network modeling it still lacks in detail.. Following this MDE approach of IEC 61499. Since the objects of the functional model is not directly related to power system objects (i. For such purposes other models are needed. A CDC850 is a complex structure made up of simple data types. Each IED850 can be seen as a hardware device containing software functions. 3. Each LN 850 can be seen as an interface description. 2) Product to Resource/Device Model: The product model covers the modeling of the IEDs850 used in the power system. -name = lC + i B. 3. including both data and event connections. 2 each object of the functional model contains LNs850 . 2 the LN 850 is part of both the functional model as well as the product model. Poland – August 18-22. however their interfaces are represented in form of LNs850 . The use of subapplications499 makes it possible to model Smart Grid applications in different hierarchies. defining where an IED850 is connected to a subnetwork850 [26]. each IED850 contains one or more servers850 . Thus the platform independence is maintained. This is described using subnetworks850 and access points850 . i. as described in Section III all hardware independent parts should be part of the application499 . which makes a mapping to adapters499 a suitable option [27]. Thus a logical mapping is made from subnetworks850 to network segments499 and from access points850 to links499 . hardware devices) they are mapped to the application499 . The same applies to the data850 and therefore it is also part of the application499 . The corresponding transformation rules are described below and are summarized in Fig. 1) Functional to Application Model: The functional model is intended to represent the functional structure of a substation850 . substation850 containing voltage levels850 containing LNs850 ) is realized in IEC 61499 using subapplications499 . Models of these software functions are IEC 61850 Substation -name = nSub LNode -inst = i IEC 61499 Application Substation2System System -name = nSub -name = nSub Subapplication LNode2Subapp TABLE I. Each IED850 contains one ore more LDevices850 which are mapped to resources499 . 2014 . Thus the function described by the LN 850 and its IED850 is related to a part of the substation850 [26]. As depicted in Fig. The hierarchical structure of the functional model (e.e. The IED850 is a hardware device which makes a mapping to the device499 natural. M APPING BETWEEN IEC 61850 AND IEC 61499 ARTIFACTS IEC 61850 Substation IED Logical Device LN Communication Abstract Communication Service Interface (ACSI) IEC 61499 System & Application Device Resource Subapplication & Adapter Network segments & Links SIFB (client/server and publisher/subscriber) not covered by IEC 61850. 3) Communication to System Model: The communication model of IEC 61850 defines logically possible connections between IEDs850 . FBs499 connected to each other. since it describes a collection of devices499 connected via links499 to network segments499 [18]. as presented in Fig. Wroclaw. th LogicalDevice2Resource NetworkSegment -name = nSubN -type = tSubN Resource -name = iLD Transformation rule Transformation definition between IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 18 Power Systems Computation Conference As described in Section IV-A1 each LN 850 of an IEC 61850 model is mapped to two different objects in the IEC 61499 model. This mapping is described in more detail below. containing one or more logical devices (LDevice850 ).e. the LN 850 is the lowest hierarchy level of the functional model. • Application model: consists of a FB network499 .e..g. When a LN 850 is mapped to an adapter499 . As shown in Fig. Logical Nodes to Subapplications/Adapters LNodeType -lnClass = lC IED -name = nIED Server LNodeType2Adapter AccessPoint -name = lC Device IED2Device -name = nAP Adapter -name = nIED Link AccessPoint2Link -commResource = iLD -segmentName = nSunN SubNetwork -name = nSubN SubNetwork2NetworkSegment -type = tSubN Logical Device -inst = iLD Fig. i.

E NGINEERING P ROCESS The mappings between IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 described in Section IV define how each object of IEC 61850 is mapped to a correspondent component in IEC 61499. This increases the number of possibilities in terms of reusability and reconfigurability. publishing of real-time substation events. e. step 4). The usage of adapters499 simplifies the overall structure of the application499 . with adapters499 used to define the interfaces. Principally a client/server model is used for the communication.. In IEC 61499 user defined structured data types499 can also be used to model a CDC850 . However. Once this is done each subapplication499 in the application499 can be mapped to its corresponding resource499 . two generic communication patterns are defined in the standard.e. Using this engineering approach the IEC 61850 interoperability model is transformed into an IEC 61499 compliant representation. depicted as step 3 in Fig. Thus communication is an important topic in such a setup. but it does not directly specify any communication link. Since the LNs850 do not define how their functionality is implemented a semantic mapping is required between each LN 850 and some functionality defined in IEC 61499 . ACSIs in IEC 61850 defined for polling purposes (e. This means a subapplication499 is created for each LN 850 . since a poll is instantiated by a request (REQ) from the client and answered with a response (CNF) from the server. A number of ACSIs can also be mapped to a publisher/subscriber model. GetDataValues. e. where the th 18 Power Systems Computation Conference After the application499 is specified it can be deployed. 4.e. MMXU class Data object Comon Explanation name data class Measured Values TotW MV Total Active Power TotVAr MV Total Reactive Power T M/O/C O O MMXU Adapter Confirmation from Server – EVENT Total Active Power – MV Total Reactive Power – MV Fig. For example all communication services related to polling can be mapped to a request (REQ). If report control blocks850 are defined for specific IEDs850 and LNs850 by the SCL file some connections499 may be automatically generated in the application499 . the resource499 generated from the LDevice850 containing the LN 850 . V. If nothing is defined in the SCL configuration. protection related events. representing bi-directional transactions with a client/server model and uni-directional transactions with a publisher/subscriber model [18]. Thus the adapter connections499 used in the application499 need to be exchanged into either a CLIENT or a SERVER FB499 representation as shown in step 6 of Fig. Since a CDC850 can consist of other structures the result may be a nested structured data type499 in IEC 61499 [27]. As stated above on of the main goals of IEC 61499 was the support for developing distributed control systems. IEC 61850 defines a number of Abstract Communication Service Interfaces (ACSI). This section provides some guidelines for the engineering process. The platform independent application499 does not explicitly contain any communication specification.arrays or other structures. C.g. Moreover. SetDataValues) are mapped to the client/server model of IEC 61499. From an application point-of-view this may however not always be the case. In particular it covers how IEC 61850 configurations (i. First of all the devices499 and resources499 are specified and generated from the IEDs850 and LDevices850 in the SCL configuration (i. It may be noted that step 5 and 6 are possible to be performed without the need of the IEC 61850 model..g. since IEC 61499 is a generic standard it does not provide specific communication means for this interaction. FLOAT32850 is mapped to REAL499 . and (iii) GOOSE messages. i.e. (ii) sampled-values. Wroclaw. Since the two models are generic it is also possible to map other communication protocols onto these patterns [29]. The content of these subapplications499 is a model of the behavior of the LN 850 . Fig. where the important steps are marked in the red circles. where the server sends a collection of data to a specific client when something changes. Furthermore. e. These are mainly (i) reports..g. The actual communication link is defined using SIFB or CLIENT/SERVER FBs499 . dedicated to different purposes. confirm (CNF) pattern in IEC 61499. The first step is to generate structured data types499 from each CDC850 . SIFBs are intended to provide an interface between the application499 and the actual communication service of the resource499 . i. IEC 61850 standard as well as IEC 61499 reference model both define simple data types. In step 2 an application499 can be generated from the defined LNs850 .. An overview of this engineering process is shown in Fig.. 5. SCL files) can be transformed into an IEC 61499 compliant model. 4 shows how the measurement LN 850 MMXU [28] is modeled as an adapter499 .e. see Section IV-C. This is possible due to the platform independence nature of the application499 . 5. thus a mapping between them are needed. Communication Patterns server publishes values to the client using real-time constraints. Such a logic can be expressed using a FB network499 or be defined in a single FB499 . the connections can always be added manually.. However. The actual specification of the communication configuration is done when the application499 is mapped to a specific resource499 [27]. adapters499 can be generated from the LNs850 .g.g. 5. 2014 . 5.. a client needs to connect to a server before it can use any of its services. In order to define the event interface499 of adapters499 the communication services defined by the IEC 61850 are studied since they define how the data of LNs850 are accessed. e. Generally. Poland – August 18-22.. CNF REQ EVENT – Request from Client TotW TotVAr Mapping of IEC 61850 LN MMXU into IEC 61499 adapter. some follow a typical polling pattern whereas other are intended for reporting.. this is not a main part of this work but will be a future research topic. The actual deployment of the application499 may differ from the definition in the IEC 61850 model. providing measurements from a process interface. This activity is denoted as step 5 in Fig. When they are available.

VI. No information is provided in the SCL file about connections between the LNs850 and therefore the connections499 between IHMI. first of all the rules defined in Section IV were implemented for the transformations between IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 artifacts.id. e. A SCL file is provided for a power utility application where two IEDs850 are used. 5. i. DRCC is used to control the desired active power output of the DER. 5. Listing 1 shows one of these rules. 5. Two main transformation processes were defined. The main idea is to generate IEC 61499 applications based on IEC 61850 descriptions.IEC 61850 SCADA : IED IEC 61499 44 System AP : AccessPoint AP : Ethernet IHMI : LN Application DER : IED DER : Device AP : AccessPoint IHMI IHMI 22 Server 33 55 >> MMXU DRCC DRCC MMXU >> LDevice LDevice : Resource DRCC >> MMXU : LN SCADA : Device LDevice : Resource MMXU MMXU MMXU1 MMXU1 >> DRCC TotW : MV : CDC f : FLOAT32 DRCC : LN 66 DRCC DRCC mag : AnalogueValue : DA >> MMXU DRCC1 DRCC1 MMXU >> Subapplication DRCC >> SERVER SERVER OutWSet. as described in steps 4 to 6 in Fig. For the use-case Eclipse was used. an inverter. The runtime environment need all FB499 types.s. steps 4 to 6 in Fig.ctlVal. which converts the adapter499 interface into normal data outputs. Engineering process for transformation of IEC 61850 models into IEC 61499 models. The DRCC subapplication499 consists of a socket FB499 . The generated application499 . data types499 and adapters499 to be compiled before the application499 can be deployed. For this use-case the open source environment 4DIAC was used. The meta-models for IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 were imported into Eclipse. comment <.strType ). 4DIAC consist of an engineering tool (IDE) and a runtime environment compliant to the IEC 61499 standard. The paper presents the required mappings between artifacts of IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 and Wroclaw. shown in Fig. using Eclipse Modeling Framework. Next the transformations rules were defined using ATL for Eclipse. M ODELING U SE -C ASE In order to give an idea of how the above defined transformation concept and rules can be implemented. Once the application499 has been generated it can be deployed to hardware devices. S UMMARY AND C ONCLUSIONS In order to improve the engineering process of Smart Grid automation applications this paper introduces as modeldriven engineering approach using IEC 61850 and IEC 61499.s. structuredType <. the power utility application can also be simulated and validated. 6 consist of the LNs850 defined in the SCL file. If needed. rule DAType2StructuredType { from s : iec61850!TDAType to t : iec61499!DataTypeType( name <.s. 5. The 4DIAC-IDE uses the same XML format for data types499 as defined in IEC 61499-2. Using this application499 .f DRCC >> >> DRCC 11 OutWSet : APC : CDC ctlVal : AnalogueValue : DA f : FLOAT32 Fig. This example is provided in the corresponding Fig.g. strType : iec61499!StructuredTypeType( varDeclaration <. 5. depicted in the middle of Fig. one DER acting as a server and a SCADA system as a client. Poland – August 18-22. Fig. The DER has two LNs850 : MMXU and DRCC for supervisory control.. The generated data types499 and adapters499 were imported into an IEC 61499 tool environment. VII. Using this SCL specification an application499 is generated which models the behavior of the application. 2014 .desc.bDA ) } Listing 1. it is also possible to deploy the application499 to real hardware. This can be achieved through a model-to-text transformation from the generated types to the appropriate source code (4DIAC runtime uses C++). MMXU and DRCC are defined manually.. Thus the generated data types499 and adapters499 could be directly imported without any further alterations. a modeling use-case is presented where an IEC 61850 configuration is transformed into an IEC 61499 model. The second main transformation process is to generate an application499 based on the LNs850 defined in the SCL file. 6 also depicts the generated DRCC adapter499 . and a conceptual interface to the process where the desired active power output is forwarded to the actual process.e. th ATL rule for transformation of data attribute to structured types 18 Power Systems Computation Conference The rule DAType2StructuredType defines how a TDAType850 is transformed into a DataTypeType499 .

Vyatkin. Wenger.” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications. IEC 61850 and IEC 61499. and (iv) increased reusability through platform independence. “IEC Smart Grid Standardization Roadmap. “A taxonomy of model transformation. pp. ACM. 7–23. (iii) better simulation and validation possibilities of the generated IEC 61499 application. “Smart grid technologies: Communication technologies and standards.” Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science. 18–37. T. Available: http://www. Frankfurt. Redwood City. 2013. J. 2001. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Std. L. J. 2013. vol. 2011. 5. “IEEE Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of Energy Technology and Information Technology Operation with the Electric Power System (EPS).. A. Strasser.0. and A. Strasser. “A reconfigurable communication gateway for distributed embedded control systems.iea. vol. Zoitl. “Future energy systems: Integrating renewable energy sources into the smart power grid through industrial electronics. Andr´en. IEC 61131-3: Programmable controllers .” in IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). and Cybernetics. 18–28. 2009. Poland – August 18-22. sustainable electricity industry. pp. Buccella. IEE Publishing. Jacobsen.com/science/article/pii/S1571066106001435 IEC 61850: Communication networks and systems for power utility automation. G. 1–8. pp. no. 529–539.Part 90-7: Object models for power converters in distributed energy resources (DER) systems. and H. 934–941. 2009. M. “Towards an increased reusability of distributed control applications modeled in IEC 61499. 2. Stifter. Valentini. Mellor. A. 4.Application [9] Adapter [10] Subapplication [11] [12] Fig. Schwarz. 3.. Tech.” in Power Systems Conference (PSC’09). 59. pp. 18 Power Systems Computation Conference [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] G. 2011. N. “Multiagent smart grid automation architecture based on IEC 61850/61499 intelligent logical nodes. Sauter. End-Use Applications. USA: Addison Wesley Longman Publishing Co. T. vol. C. and I. and A.S. vol. 2013. 58–68. The presented model-driven engineering approach enables the following new possibilities for the design and development of Smart Grid automation applications: (i) automatic generation and deployment of control applications based on IEC 61850 descriptions. W. H. Department of Commerce. Available: http://www. and G. Jan. Zoitl. M. improvements are always possible. 2010. and Loads. 2008. Zoitl and V. C. 6. Zhu.” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. Sahin. Hegny. Goebel. Lewis. S. Grijalva and M. 2011. 36. Tech.. 2011.org M. pp.. ISBN: 0 85296 796 9.” IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine. IEC 61499 application model represented in the 4DIAC-IDE tool. Wroclaw. IEC 61499: Function blocks. Higgins. Duan. D. no. CA. Cecati. 41. “The path of the smart grid. A. Ed. 2013. 7.” German Commission for Electrical. T. 2010. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work is funded by the Austrian Climate and Energy Fund with the support of the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) under the project “DG -EV-HIL” (No. 2004. “Adaptive middleware for real-time prescriptive analytics in large scale power systems. and J.-K. C. pp.-A. Hancke. 26. 2010.” IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine. no. “Modeling systems with distributed generators in IEC 61850. Andr´en. no. F. 1–126. Inc. Gungor. If they were provided in an exchangeable UML format it would increase the usability. no. pp. Future work will focus on the semantic mappings between LNs and their functionality expressed in IEC 61499. Uhl. Rooker. 1. V. V. “Towards a common modeling approach for smart grid automation. 1. 4. C. I. T. “Developing in OMG’s New Model-Driven Architecture. pp. Man.” in 2011 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT). Rep. no. pp. Tech. Rep. Nair. and T. “Prosumer-based smart grid architecture enables a flat. D. “Structuring of large scale distributed control programs with iec 61499 subapplications and a hierarchical plant structure model. A. vol. Tariq. Geneva.. 2012. T. vol. May 2012. Strasser. pp. IEC/TR 61850-90-7 .” in 39th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON). Rep.” International Energy Agency (IEA). and intelligent control. Dugan.” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery. (ii) increased consistency through automatic model transformations.U. Gorp. Ebenhofer. A. Apostolov. 3720–3726. S. USA. Strasser. S. R.” in IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). Mens and P. Tech. Electronic & Information Technologies of DIN and VDE. Doblander. 2011.” International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Ergut. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Std. Rusitschka. pp. A. vol. Melik-Merkumians. S. T. and X.sciencedirect. 4. no. F. 152. 47. pp. S. R EFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] th “Technology Roadmap Smart Grids. proceedings of the International Workshop on Graph and Model Transformation (GraMoT 2005) Graph and Model Transformation 2005. and K.. M. “Standard Function Blocks for Flexible IED in IEC 61850-Based Substation Automation. 8. V. Part C: Applications and Reviews. Modeling control systems using IEC 61499. C. LNs in IEC 61850 are currently specified as tables. pp. Vyatkin. 2012. N. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Std. 1101–1110. “Distribution system analysis and the future smart grid. Oct. no. MDA Distilled. Shi. and W. IEC 61499. 2011. Martel. 2343–2350. F. [Online]. 6.” IEEE Std 2030-2011. 827987). pp. NIST Publication 1108. Siegel. T. Hegny. Strasser.” in Proceedings of the Industrial Track of the 13th ACM/IFIP/USENIX International Middleware Conference. Arritt and R. 2351–2362. 2014 . “IEC 61499 architecture for distributed automation: The “glass half full” view.” in 38th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON). Sunder. “Towards a Semantic Driven Framework for Smart Grid Applications: Model-Driven Development using CIM. 1. “The German Standardisation Roadmap E-Energy/Smart Grid. Zoitl. 2010. 2006. Liserre. 5338–5344. 2010. [Online]. “Distributed power system automation with IEC 61850.” Management. R. SMB Smart Grid Strategic Group (SG3). 2012. vol. Vyatkin.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics. no. 5. Weise. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Std. Kendall.. vol. Switzerland. Rep. Kocak.” Informatik-Spektrum. 81–92. 2010. Germany. Farhangi. 2011. 1–6.” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics. 125 – 142. Zhabelova and V. “NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards. vol. Kastner. no. pp. 0.Communication networks and systems for power utility automation .Part 3: Programming languages. 2001. p. 1. Andr´en. and D. pp.. [13] it proposes an engineering approach for the transformations of IEC 61850 models into IEC 61499 models.” IEEE Transactions on Systems.” National Institute of Standards and Technology . 2012. Although both IEC 61850 and IEC 61499 in general are suited for MDE. M. F. Hung.