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NAME:

KULLIYAH:SCIENCE

TERM PAPER TITLE: The consequences of sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality and bad sleep hygiene towards student academic
performance
IN-TEXT CITATION FOR INTRODUCTION:
NO
REFERENCE DETAIL
1

Hershner, S. D., & Chervin, R. D. (2014).


Causes and consequences of
sleepiness among college students.
Nature and Science of Sleep, 6, 73
84.
http://doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S62907

ORIGINAL EXCERPT
(from article)
Colloquially for students, acute sleep deprivation is
termed pulling an all-nighter, meaning that a
person stays up for 24 hours or longer.

APA TECHNIQUE
(CIRCLE)
SHORT QUOTE

USED EXCERPT
(for term paper)
They tend to pull an all-nighter, which means
. . . a person stays up for 24 hours or longer
(Hershner & Chervin, 2014, p. 74).

Islam also emphasizes the importance of getting


enough sleep. One Hadith by the Prophet (pbuh) in
Sahih Al-Bukhari (SB) says, If anyone of you feels
drowsy while praying he should go to bed (sleep)
till his slumber is over (SB 210)

PARAPHRASE

Bahammam (2011) expressed that Islam stresses


the importance of having sufficient sleep in the
following hadith: If anyone of you feels
drowsy while praying, he should go to bed
(sleep) till his slumber is over. [Sahih Bukhari]

The consequences of sleep deprivation and daytime


sleepiness are especially problematic to college
students and can result in lower grade point
averages, increased risk of academic failure,
compromised learning, impaired mood, and
increased risk of motor vehicle accidents.

SHORT QUOTE

According to Hershner and Chervin (2014),


The consequences of sleep deprivation and
daytime sleepiness . . . can result in lower grade
point averages, increased risk of academic
failure, compromised learning, impaired mood
and increased risk of motor vehicle accidents
(p. 73).

Page: 74
2

Bahammam, A. S. (2011). Sleep


from an Islamic perspective.
Annals of Thoracic Medicine,
6(4), 18792.
http://doi.org/10.4103/18171737.84771
Page: 2

Hershner, S. D., & Chervin, R. D. (2014).


Causes and consequences of
sleepiness among college students.
Nature and Science of Sleep, 6, 73
84.
http://doi.org/10.2147/NSS.S62907
Page: 73

LE 4000 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-APA TECHNIQUE

MAIN IDEA 1:
NO
REFERENCE DETAIL
1

Suen, L. K. P., Tam, W. W. S., &


Hon, K. L. (2010).
Association of sleep
hygiene-related factors and
sleep quality among
university students in Hong
Kong. Hong Kong Medical
Journal, 16(3), 180185.
http://doi.org/20519753

ORIGINAL EXCERPT
(from article)
Inadequate duration as well as poor quality of sleep
negatively affect their concentration, leading to
tardiness or even absence from classes.

APA TECHNIQUE
(CIRCLE)

They define partial sleep deprivation as getting less


than 5 hours of sleep in a night, short-term total
sleep deprivation as a period of no sleep lasting less
than or equal to 45 hours, and long-term total sleep
deprivation as a period of no sleep lasting longer
than 45 hours. Partial sleep deprivation is linked
with decreased cognitive functioning, while longterm sleep deprivation is associated with mood
disorders (Pilcher & Huffcutt, 1996).

PARAPHRASE

Partial sleep deprivation is defined as attaining 5


hours sleep and below at night, while short-term
total sleep deprivation is defined as not getting
any sleep for 45 hours or below and long-term
total sleep deprivation is defined as not getting
any sleep more than 45 hours. Regression of
cognitive function is related to partial sleep
deprivation, while mood disorder is related to
long-term sleep deprivation (Pilcher & Huffcutt,
1996 as cited in Lowry, Dean, & Manders,
2010).

We hypothesized that those students who rarely


deprive themselves of sleep would have higher
GPAs.

PARAPHRASE

In their research, Lowry et al. (2010)


hypothesized that students who are rarely having
a sleep deprivation would have higher GPAs.
The hypothesis is true as it is supported by their
results, which they found out that the amount of
sleep and academic performance are correlated.
They claimed that the GPA is negatively affected
as the number of nights in an average week that
the student gets partial sleep deprivation

PARAPHRASE

USED EXCERPT
(for term paper)
Suen, Tam and Hon (2010) reported that
concentration can be negatively affected by
insufficient sleep time and poor sleep quality
which could result in tardiness or escape from
classes.

Page: 180
2

Lowry, M., Dean, K., & Manders,


K. (2010). The Link Between
Sleep Quantity and
Academic Performance for
the College Student.
Undergraduate Journal of
Psychology, 3(Spring 2010),
1619.
Page: 17

Lowry, M., Dean, K., & Manders,


K. (2010). The Link Between
Sleep Quantity and
Academic Performance for
the College Student.
Undergraduate Journal of
Psychology, 3(Spring 2010),
1619.

Our results partially support our hypotheses. Quality


of sleep, as assessed by the Groninger Sleep Quality
Questionnaire, did not show a significant
relationship with academic performance.

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Page: 18

State, O., West, S., Williams, T.


M., & Aderanti, R. A. (2014).
Sleep As a Determinant of
Academic Performance of
University Students in.
European Scientific, 10(13),
657664.

However, quantity of sleep was significantly related.


The average amount of sleep a student receives per
night does seem to be tied to the student's GPA.
Also, an increased number of nights in an average
week that the student obtains less than five hours of
sleep (our measure of sleep deprivation) seems to be
negatively related to GP
Reduction of night time sleep due to reduced or
altered sleep schedules has been associated with
excessive sleepiness and impaired school
performance (Carskadon, Harvey , Dement, 1981;
Randazzo, Muehlbach, Schweitzer, Walsh, 1998;
Gibson, Powles, Thabane , et al., 2006)

increases.

PARAPHRASE

Excessive drowsiness and decline in academic


performance are associated with the decreased
amount of sleep at night due to lessen or change
in sleep schedules (Carskadon, Harvey, Dement,
1981; Randazzo, Muehlbach, Schweitzer, Walsh,
1998; Gibson, Powles, Thabane, 2006 as cited in
State, West, Williams & Aderanti, 2014)

PARAPHRASE

It is also proven in Physiological studies that


sufficient sleep could be substantial for the
merging of memory which could have a
significant relation to the success in school
during adolescence (Carskadon, Acebo & Jenni,
2004; Stickgold, 2005 as cited in State et al.,
2014). The risk of failing one or more years at
school for those who have poor sleep is twice the
normal ones. Thus, sleep loss and excessive
sleepiness caused by decreased amount of sleep,
bad sleep quality or variable sleep pattern is
associated with the impairment of academic
performance (Curcio, Ferrara, De Gennaro, 2006
; Drake, Nickel, Burduvali, Roth, Jefferson &
Pietro, 2003 as cited in State et al., 2014).

PARAPHRASE

The authors also suggested that It is possible


that poor academic performance may also lead to
poor sleeping attitude, thus, making it a bi-

Page: 658
5

State, O., West, S., Williams, T.


M., & Aderanti, R. A. (2014).
Sleep As a Determinant of
Academic Performance of
University Students in.
European Scientific, 10(13),
657664.

Physiological studies have also shown that adequate


sleep may be important for the consolidation of
memory which could have important implications
for school success in adolescence (Carskadon,
Acebo & Jenni, 2004; Stickgold, 2005). In poor
sleepers, the risk of failing one or more years at
school is double that of normal controls (Kahn, Van
de Merckt , Rebuffat , et al., 1989).

Page: 658

Thus, there is increasing evidence that sleep loss


and resulting excessive sleepiness due to reduced
time in bed, poor sleep quality, or variable sleep
schedules is associated with impaired academic
performance (Curcio , Ferrara , De Gennaro, 2006 ;
Drake, Nickel ,Burduvali, Roth , Jefferson & Pietro,
2003)
It is also possible that poor academic performance
may also lead to poor sleeping attitude, thus,
making it a bi-directional relationship. This is

State, O., West, S., Williams, T.


M., & Aderanti, R. A. (2014).
Sleep As a Determinant of

LE 4000 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-APA TECHNIQUE

Academic Performance of
University Students in.
European Scientific, 10(13),
657664.
Page: 658

State, O., West, S., Williams, T.


M., & Aderanti, R. A. (2014).
Sleep As a Determinant of
Academic Performance of
University Students in.
European Scientific, 10(13),
657664.

supported by Perez-Chada, Perez-Lloret, Videla,


Cardinali, Bergna, Fernndez-Acquier, Larrateguy,
Zabert & Drake ( 2007) who stated that the
association between sleep and academic
performance can potentially be bi- directional as
poor academic performance may adversely affect
sleep through concomitant stress or other
mechanisms.

directional relationship (State et al., 2014, p.


658). Perez-Chada, Perez-Lloret, Videla,
Cardinali, Bergna, Fernandez-Acquier,
Larrateguy, Zabert and Drake (2007) as cited in
State et al. (2014), suggested that the relationship
between sleep and academic performance can
possibly be bi-directional since concomitant
stress or other mechanism due to bad academic
result could adversely affect sleep.
Killgore, Balkin and Wesensten (2006) and
Crowley, Acebo and Carskadon (2007) as cited
in State et al. (2014) expressed that sleep
deprivation leads to lower metabolism of the
prefrontal cortex of the cerebrum, where most
decisions, judgements, reduction of executive
function and reaction time are controlled.

According to Killgore, Balkin and Wesensten,


( 2006) and Crowley, Acebo and Carskadon (2007),
sleep deprivation also results in reduced metabolism
of the prefrontal cortex of the cerebrum, the area of
the brain responsible for most decisions and
judgments, and significantly reduces executive
function and reaction time.

PARAPHRASE

In one study, Heuer, Spijkers, Kiesswater and


Schmidtke (1998) found that as the amount of sleep
a person gets per night decreases, the persons
ability to learn implicitly also decreases.

PARAPHRASE

It is found in the research by Heuer, Spijkers,


Kiesswater and Schimidtke (1998) as cited in
State et al. (2014) that the relationship between
the ability to learn implicitly and the amount of
sleep is directly proportional as the persons
ability to learn implicitly reduces as the period of
sleep a person attains every night reduces.

Implicit learning is usually related to difficult or


complex tasks learned more passively than actively
(Heuer and Klein, 2003).

PARAPHRASE

Heuer and Klein (2003) as cited in State et al.


(2014) described that implicit learning is
associated with hard or complex tasks learned
more passively than actively.

Page: 658
8

State, O., West, S., Williams, T.


M., & Aderanti, R. A. (2014).
Sleep As a Determinant of
Academic Performance of
University Students in.
European Scientific, 10(13),
657664.
Page: 658

State, O., West, S., Williams, T.


M., & Aderanti, R. A. (2014).
Sleep As a Determinant of
Academic Performance of
University Students in.
European Scientific, 10(13),

LE 4000 RESOURCE MANAGEMENT-APA TECHNIQUE

657664.
Page: 658