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Basic Characteristics of Electromagnetic Radiation.

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I. Traveling wave characteristics

E&M radiation consists of transverse waves

with alternating electric and magnetic fields,

and amplitudes given by:

r r

2

E = E o sin

( x ct )

wavelength, and c is the propagation speed.

The wavelength and frequency are related by the

Dispersion relation:

= c, in vacuo.

Electricity and Magnetism

Atmospheric transmission.

Diffraction:

Waves bend around obstacles.

secondary spherical waves. The new wavefront is the surface

tangent to all the secondary spherical waves.

From notes for MIT Physics 8.02, Electricity and Magnetism

Interference:

e.g., double-slit (Youngs) pattern of interfering waves.

The amplitudes of the overlapping waves add directly, but the brightness or intensity

depends on the square of the sum (where a 1-d. equation is used for simplicity).

I E 1 sin

( x1 ct ) + E 2 sin

(x 2 ct )

is often a convenient way to look at EM wave propagation. The rays are

straight normals to local wave fronts, with the following properties.

Reflection: Equal angles of incidence and reflection as measured from a normal to the

surface. This principle allows mirrors to focus light.

Refraction (dispersion): Generally light rays are bent as they pass through the

boundary between two media, or through a medium with a temperature or pressure

gradient. Dispersion results whern the bending (or index of refraction) depends on

wavelength.

Ray optics + Huygens wave principle help us better understand diffraction and

interference.

2 slits again x =

x = /2

x = 0

Intensity

Mirror reflection:

Width of central

diffraction peak:

/d,

where d is the

aperature size. This

gives,

x = 0

x =

= 5 x 10-7 rad =

0.1 arcsecond for a

1 m diameter

telescope.

Reverse diffraction pattern

In addition to its wave nature, electromagnetic radiation also seems to come

in discrete bundles of energy called photons. The energy of a photon

depends on the frequency of the radiation via Plancks law:

= h = hc/.

This relation connects the wave-particle dual characteristics of EM radiation.

The particle aspect is most relevant at high energies, or very low light levels,

i.e., where there are few photons.

Often explained by analogy to sound or water waves. See squeezed wave

diagram below.

Full special relativistic expression for wavelength of light from a moving source

is,

1/ 2

1+ v /c

=

.

o 1 v /c

o

so,

=

=

1 v /c.

o

o

o

Doppler

To describe the flow (and scattering) of radiation we need the definitions of

intensity and flux, which quantify the idea of a directed, density of radiation.

Monochromatic intensity - is the amount of energy in the frequency interval (,

+) flowing through a unit area, per unit time, into a cone of unit solid angle,

in a given direction.

r

I =

E

n

At

J

.

2

s m Hz ster

a hemisphere. Thus, flux is the energy in frequency range (, +) flowing

through a unit area per unit time, and into any direction (of the hemisphere).

__________________________________

Alternately, the flux received at a detector is the total incoming energy per

unit time, etc., from any angle (though often from a single point source).

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