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This experiment is carried out to examine in depth on the validity of Bernoullis theorem when
applied to the steady flow of water in tapered duct and to measure the flow rates and both static
and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent or divergent tube of known geometry for a range of
steady flow rates. The relation among the pressure, velocity and elevation in a moving fluid
(liquid or gas), the compressibility and viscosity (internal friction) of which are negligible and
the flow of which is steady or laminar is indicated in Bernoullis theorem. The F1-15 Bernoullis
Apparatus Test Equipment is used in this, in order to demonstrate the Bernoullis theorem. The
reading shown by manometer h* is the sum of the pressure and velocity heads and the reading in
manometer hi measured the pressure head only. The time to collect 3L water in the tank was
measured. Lastly, the flow rate and total velocity was calculated by using both Bernoulli and
Continuity equation and the difference in velocity for both equations was also calculated from
the data of the results. Based on the results taken, it has been analyzed that the velocity of the
fluid is increased when it is flowing from a wider to a narrower tube as the pressure is lower at
constrictions and the pressure increased as the cross-sectional area increases.

In fluid dynamics, Bernoullis principle states that for an in viscid flow, an increase in the speed
of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid potential
energy. Bernoullis principle is named after the Dutch-Swiss mathematician, Daniel Bernoulli
who published his principle in his book, Hydrodynamics, in 1738. Bernoullis principle can be
applied to various types of fluid flow, resulting in what is loosely denoted as Bernoulli equation.
Bernoullis principle can be derived from the principle of conservation of energy. This states

that, in a steady flow, the sum of all forms of mechanical energy in a fluid along a streamline is
the same at all points on the streamline. This requires that the sum of kinetic energy and potential
energy remain constant. Thus, an increase in the speed of fluid occurs proportionately with an
increase in both its dynamic pressure and kinetic energy, and a decrease in its static pressure and
potential energy.
Fluid particles are subject only to pressure and their own weight. If a fluid is flowing
horizontally and along a section of a streamline where the speed increases, it can only be because
the fluid on that section has moved from a region of higher pressure to a region of lower
pressure. And if its speed decreases, it can only be because it has moved from a region of lower
pressure to a region of higher pressure. Consequently, within a fluid moving horizontally, the
highest speed occurs when the pressure is lowest and the lowest speed occur when the pressure is
Bernoullis equation holds that for fluids in an ideal state, pressure and density are inversely
related, in other words, a slow-moving fluid exerts more pressure than a fast-moving fluid. Since
fluid in this context applies equally to liquid and gases. The principle has many as many
applications with regard to airflow as to the flow of liquids. One of the everyday examples of

Bernoullis principle can be found on the airplane, which stays aloft due to pressure differences
on the surface of its wing.
The objectives of this Bernoullis Theorem experiment is verify experimentally the validity of
the Bernoulli equation for fluid flow in a tapered duct and to measure flow rates, static and total

pressure heads in a rigid convergent or divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady
flow rates.

Bernoullis principle involves these laws which are the conservation of mass, energy and
momentum and, it each application, these laws can be simplified in an attempt to describe
quantitatively the behavior of fluid. For a horizontal device, the continuity equation shows that
for an incompressible fluid, the reduction in diameter will cause an increase in the fluid flow
speed which shows that there must be a decrease in the pressure in the reduced diameter region.
Thus, this phenomenon is known as venturi effect. Bernoulli equation is derived under the
following assumptions:
1. fluid is incompressible ( density r is constant );
2. flow is steady:
3. flow is frictionless (t = 0);

4. along a streamline;
Then, it is expressed with the following equation:
Where (in SI units):
p= fluid static pressure at the cross section in N/m.
r= density of the flowing fluid in kg/m
g= acceleration due to gravity in m/s
(its value is 9.81 m/s)

= 9810 mm/s
v= mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section in m/s
z= elevation head of the center of the cross section with respect to a datum
h* = total (stagnation) head in m
The terms on the left-hand-side of the above equation represent the pressure head (h), velocity
head (hv), and elevation head (z), respectively. The sum of these terms is known as the total
head(h*). According to the Bernoullis theorem of fluid flow through a pipe, the total head h*at
any cross section is constant (based on the assumptions given above). In a real flow due to
friction and other imperfections, as well as measurement uncertainties, the results will deviate
from the theoretical ones.
In this experimental setup, the centerline of all the cross sections on the same horizontal plane
(which we may choose as the datum, z=0), and thus, all the z values are zeros so that the above
equation reduces to:

(This is the total head at a cross section).

For our experiment, we denote the pressure head as h I and the total head as h *, where i
represents the cross section we are referring to.

Bernoullis Theorem demonstration unit:

Water tank
Discharge valve

The purpose of this experiment is to verify the validity of Bernoullis equation for fluid
flow upon the converging and diverging flow passage at the tube. Bernoulli's law indicates that,
if an in viscid fluid is flowing along a pipe of varying cross section, then the pressure is lower at
constrictions with respect to its velocity which is higher, and pressure will become higher at
large cross-sectional area and the fluid stagnates.
Overall, from the tables provided previously, it can be seen that by using Bernoullis
equation, the highest velocity, Vib is achieved at cross section D. This is because the tube has
small diameter second only to C, which is equivalent to 20mm, providing its large cross
sectional area, thus resulting low pressure and high velocity. However, by using continuity

equation, the highest velocity, Vic is achieved at cross section C which has the smallest diameter
of 16mm. Therefore, we had calculated the difference between Vib and Vic for each section
to further investigate the significance of these two equations (i.e. Bernoulli equation and
Continuity equation) and how they are related to each other.
According to Bernoullis, as the speed of the liquid increased, the pressure is lower.
Taking example from Table 1.3, this statement can be proved. Constant flow rate of 25.714
L/min equivalent to m/s has the lowest speed which was calculated at the cross section A. The
velocity, Vib at A is recorded 1.112 m/s and hi was recorded at 0.215 m. This is because the
difference between height (level) of liquid, (h hi) with respect to tube A is high resulting the
highest pressure in the system. Hence, the velocity at A is lower. Next, is where the fastest
velocity in the tube, at cross section D with velocity of 2.054 m/s and hi at 0.035 m, this time
with the lowest pressure in the system. Thus, the Bernoullis statement was proven.
For continuity, it is based on a condition that is, what goes in equal to what goes out (Q
in= Q out. Plus that the fluid is considered as incompressible. For this case, water can be
considered as incompressible. Looking at the calculation using continuity equation, in all flow
rates, the highest velocity is also achieved at cross section C, due to its largest cross-sectional
area. It obeys the theory where the cross sectional area is larger, the pressure is lower. Hence,
when the pressure is lower, the velocity is increased. In this experiment, this situation happened
accordingly to cross-section C at all readings. The condition is vice versa at low velocity. If it
was gas, continuity cannot be applied as it can be compressed, changing its density, thus
resulting in Q in Q out
However, while demonstrating the significance of both Bernoulli equation and Continuity
equation, there is though one abnormally results which can be seen at each table, at cross section
C. The difference of velocity (Bernoullis minus Continuity) is negative. Basically, this condition
cannot happen as explained earlier, continuity equation was derived on one basic condition, what
goes in equal to what goes out. But in Bernoullis, the kinetic energy of the fluid was also
calculated. So actually, the Bernoullis should have a bigger velocity. The reason for this may
happen is because; there is a bubble formation in the venturi tube. This may be cause by low
flow rate in of the water, but high flow out of the tube. When this happen (the air inside tube),
the reading of hi will not be accurate.

From the experiment conducted, there are different cross-sections for each tube A, B, C, D, E
and F. These differences resulted in varieties of value obtained for stagnation head h* and
pressure head hi. By using Bernoulli equation to calculate the velocity, it can be said that the
velocity of fluid increase as the fluid is flowing from a wider to narrower tube and the velocity
decrease in the opposite direction. This also indicates that the pressure of fluid decreases as the
velocity increases. The Bernoullis principle is proven where the highest velocity Vib,

2.054 m/s is achieved at cross section D because of the small tube diameter. As for the larger
diameter tube at A, the velocity is the lowest which is 1.112 m/s. The first inclination might be to
say that, where the velocity is the greatest, the pressure is higher. A big force could be feel on the
hand in the flow where its going the fastest. However, the force does not come from the
pressure there from the hand taking away the momentum from the liquid.
The continuity equation is also used in this experiment to relate the pressure in pipes to their
changes in diameter. The equation of continuity shows that liquid flows at constant mass rate and
can also relates speed to pressure. There are few readings which go against the continuity
equation. These circumstances occurred due to errors when the experiment was conducted. In
order to prevent error, proper precautions must be taken before the experiment starts.
The Bernoulli equation forms the basis for solving a wide variety of fluid flow problems such as
jets issuing from an orifice, flows associated with pumps and also turbines. Bernoullis equation
is also useful in demonstration of aerodynamic properties such as drag and lift. From the result
obtained, we can conclude that the Bernoulli equation is valid for flow as it obeys the equation.
As the area decreases at a section, velocity increase and the pressure decrease.

1. Holzner, S. (n.d.). Use Bernoullis Equation to Calculate Pressure Difference between
Two Points. Retrieved from
2. Fitzpatrick, R. 2012. Bernoullis Theorem. Retrieved from
3. Anonymous. (n.d.). Bernoullis Theorem Lab. Retrieved from

1. The eyes of the observer may not be parallel to the scale and will cause parallax error. To
prevent this from happen during the experiment, the eyes of the observer must be
perpendicular to the reading scale.
2. The factors such as temperature, pressure and other things especially for the air bubble
inside the tubes should be stabilized first before conducting the experiment for the
accurate results.
3. The reading of the venture meter level should be taken more than three times in order to
get an accurate value.

1. Holzner, S. (n.d.). Use Bernoullis Equation to Calculate Pressure Difference between Two
Points. Retrieved from 2. Fitzpatrick, R. 2012. Bernoullis Theorem. Retrieved from 3. Anonymous. (n.d.). Bernoullis Theorem
Lab. Retrieved from APPENDICES 5