Strategic Directions for Transport Development in China

XIA Hong Comprehensive Planning Department Ministry of Transport, P.R.China
The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Directors or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the source, originality, accuracy, completeness or reliability of any statement, information, data, finding, interpretation, advice, opinion, or view presented, nor does it make any representation concerning the same.

1. Current Status of Transport in China 2. Main Challenges 3. Strategic Directions


1. Current Status

1.1 Rapid development
Transport infrastructure network
450 400 Highway (10,000KM) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1980 1982 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 Road Rai l way I nl and W er way at


123 000 km

14 12

Railway: 86 000km

10 8 6 4

Road: 3 830 000 km

2 0

Railway, Inner River(10,000KM)

Inland Waterway:

1. Current Status

1.1 Rapid development
Motor vehicle

6467 7000 10 000 vehi cl es 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1985 C vi l vehi cl es i 321 28 2008 Pr i vat e vehi cl es

600 500 China Japan France Canada US

Vehicles Per 1000 Persons


400 300 200 100 0 1940








Civil vehicles and private vehicles in China in 2008



1. Current Status

1.1 Rapid development
Investment of Public Transport
Investment of Public Transport ( 100,000RMB) 公共交通投资额/ 亿元
1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008

1037. 2 852. 4 604 476. 7 293. 8 281. 9 328. 5

103. 1

155. 7

194. 9

1. Current Status

1.2. Laws and regulations
1.2.1 National legislation
——1989,ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION LAW OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA by NPC standing committee ——2004,China Medium-and-long Term Energy Conservation Plan by NDRC ——2007,Energy Conservation Law of the People’s Republic of China by NPC standing committee ——2007,China National Climate Change Program by the State Council ——2007,National Environment and Health Action Plan (2007-2015)

In 2004, the transport sector was set as one of the three areas for energy saving in order to achieve the national strategy of building an energy-saving and environmental friendly society,

1. Current Status
Energy saving and emission reduction regulations
——1998, Regulations on the Administration of Construction Project Environmental Protection —— 2001, Regulations on the Water and Soil Conservation of Transport Construction Project ——2003,Regulations on the Administration of Environmental Protection of Transport Construction Project Environmental impact assessment system: 98% highway and waterway construction projects and all the planning Greening and soil conservation of all newly built expressways ——2008,The Implementation of Energy Conservation Law in the Highway and Waterway Sectors ——2008,Opinions on Promoting the Development of the Modern Transport Sector ——2008,Outline of Medium-and-long Term Energy Saving Plan of Highways and Waterways

1. Current Status 1. Current Status

1.2. 2 Relevant specifications

Limits and Measurement Methods of Fuel Consumption for. Commercial Vehicle for Passenger Transport; Limits and Measurement Methods of Fuel Consumption for. Commercial Vehicle for Freight Transport; Limits and Measurement Methods of Pollutants for Light Vehicles (China Ⅲ and Ⅳ) ; Effiuent standard for pollutants from ship; Specification for Energy Conservation Design of Port and Waterway Engineering ; Specification for Environmental Protection Design of Port Engineering ……

1. Current Status 1. Current Status

1.2.3 Urban Public Transport Strategy

China Government put public transport priority as the strategic focus of urban and transport development
— In 2005,The Guideline of Giving Priority to Urban Public Transport by the State Council; — In 2006, Comments on the Economic Policy of Urban Public Transport Priority by the former MOC, NDRC, MOF, and MHRSS; — In 2007 and 2008,Public transport week (108 cities) and car free day (110 cities), with theme on green transport and health


1. Current Status 1. Current Status

Public Transport---Beijing

During the 29th Olympic Games, Beijing public transport: 20 million person times per day, travel percentage 45%, with 10% increase.
During:odd-even number traveling, flexible working time, reducing large public compaigns and conferences After: one day free per week, 30% government vehicles stop Long-term: parking fees raise, park-and-ride Air quality much improved Vehicle use restriction: before and after


1. Current Status 1. Current Status NMT and Park-and-Ride

The “Eleventh-Five” Year Plan of Beijing: 26 park-and-ride sites, with only RMB 2 Yuan parking fees per day

Bicycle Park-and-ride in Beijing Metro line 5


2. Challenges
2.1. Social development puts higher demands on transport

Rapid Economic Development Turnover Volume of Passenger and Freight Rapid Urbanization and Motorization


2. Challenges

Mega-city congestion

Vehicles Ownership in Beijing
From 1949-1997 1998-2003 2004-2007 2008-2009 2300 1 Mil. 2 Mil. 3 Mil. To 1 Mil. 2 Mil. 3 Mil. 4 Mil. Years 48 6 4 2


2. Challenges
2.2. Transport structure improvement

--Passenger-oriented service
Convenience, Comfort, Seamless Connection and Affordable Price

Reliable,Fast, Efficient, at an Affordable Price

Proportion of the total cost of logistics to GDP China USA Japan 18.3% 9.5% 8.7%

2. Challenges
2.3. Energy saving and environmental friendly transport industry


variable land


fuel economy in China is 10-20% lower than that of developed countries


2. Challenges
2.4. Harmony between transport & environment

-Air Pollution -Traffic Noise -Ecological Damage -Oil Pollution in Ocean -Greenhouse Gas


3. Strategic Directions

3.1 Strategic Objectives
The overall objective : Basically form a “High-efficient,safety-green,good service” transport system to adapt the needs of economic and social development.


3. Strategic Directions

3.1 Strategic Objectives
1. Transportation infrastructures are more perfect . 2. Transportation service quality improve significantly. 3. Transportation safety and emergency response ability improve significantly. 4. Efficiency of resource use, energy- saving, environmental protection are significantly increased.


3. Strategic Directions

3.1 Strategic Objectives
Transportation infrastructures are more perfect
☆ Strengthen the road network construction ☆ Improve urban public transport infrastructure and service capacity ☆ Improve the overall level of rural roads and service capacity ☆ Optimize the layout of the transport hub


3. Strategic Directions

3.1 Strategic Objectives
Improve Transportation service quality
☆ Highway passenger/cargo average annual growth rate increased by 6% /7%, port cargo average annual growth rate increased by 6% ☆ Trunk road congestion is not more than 0.5 and the average speed is up to 70 km/h ☆ Urban public transportation network density is not less than 3km/km2, bus station 300 meters coverage is not less than 70%.


3. Strategic Directions

3.1 Strategic Objectives
Transportation safety and emergency response ability improve significantly.
Life salvage rate of Water is more than 93%, major accident rate drop 10% ships per 10000 . Monitoring and emergency support forces coverage the national trunk highways and major ports basically Urban public transport safety plan is more perfect and has a low accident rate.


3. Strategic Directions

3.1 Strategic Objectives
Efficiency of resource use, energy- saving, environmental protection are significantly increased.
Transportation energy efficiency increased significantly Bus priority implementation of the strategy to achieve significant results , rate of bus-sharing enhance ,the new buses in large and medium cities reach Euro III standards , new energy bus rate is more than 5%.

3. Strategic Directions

3.2 Action Plan
Continue to accelerate construction of transportation infrastructure
• Promoting the national network and rural road construction and the general upgrading of National Highway • Establish International transport corridor • Promoting the Bus Rapid Transport and separated bus lane

Highway: 4.5 Million Km (Expressway: 0.1 Million Km; Rural road: 3.9 Million Km)


3. Strategic Directions

3.2 Action Plan
Continue to accelerate construction of transportation infrastructure
• Strongly support to build the integrated transport hub • Guiding the freight station to develop to the logistics park.

Pilot Project of Integrated hub (under construction): Shanghai, Nanjing, Wuhan, Changsha, Chongqing, Chengdu

National integrated hub Planning: 179 cities


3. Strategic Directions

3.2 Action Plan
Overall increase transport efficiency and service levels

Transport equipment -- guide the operation vehicles and ships to
develop along the direction of standards, professional and clean.

Transportation Organization --promote multimodal transport ,
improve the transportation professional, organizational and network level .

Transport market --Strengthening the transport market
environment , improve market access, exit and regulatory system .

Logistics --Market-oriented , enterprise principal, promote the
development of modern logistics.

3. Strategic Directions

3.2 Action Plan
Strengthen the management of urban passenger transport

BUS——“Public Transport Regulation”, Improving the subsidy of
public transport operation, Optimization of structure of a vehicle, enhance the level of transport equipment.

Service Management —Development of urban public transport
service standards and codes, establish urban public transport services quality evaluation system, establish the foundation of national public transport development, Strengthen the supervision of urban public safety operations . and management ,strengthen market supervision ,maintain the taxi market order. 26

Taxi —Improve the market access system ,standardized operation

3. Strategic Directions

3.2 Action Plan
Promote the region, urban and rural transport coordinated development

Region coordinated development :Accelerate the building of
inter-regional road corridors and inland water transport infrastructure , eliminate the inter-provincial barriers in the transportation market to promote regional transport market integration.

Urban and rural development :Promote the integration of
urban and rural transportation. Develop and improve the Coordination-Share mechanisms , economic policy , standard specification system .


3. Strategic Directions

3.2 Action Plan
Enhance emergency support and safety capacity

—Speed up the traffic safety regulation and assistance capacity building , establish a modern road safety regulation and public service information system —Construction of the Ministry, provincial, city and county four levels of traffic emergency response system, perfect the four traffic emergency command platform , establish emergency information management system


3. Strategic Directions

3.2 Action Plan
Develop green transport Environmental protection —promote the ecological construction of roads and green ports, propel transportation throughout environmental protection. Resource utilization — improve highway construction sites and portline usage,promotion of new materials, new technology ,promote the transport circular economy . Energy-saving emission reduction —Vigorously develop energysaving environmentally-friendly transport equipment , give priority to the development of public transport , guide the rational use of private cars.

3. Strategic Directions

3.2 Action Plan
Good grasp of scientific and technological progress and information technology

Scientific and technological progress —Focuses on
innovation capacity-building in science and technology,significant and critical technology R & D and the promotion of scientific and technological achievements.

Information technology — Mainly centered on raising the
operating quality, service people travel, etc,strengthen the construction of the transport industry information. Promoting the intelligent transport system to providing real-time public transport information service.


The huge achievements during the 11th five year plan It is a heavy task for the transport sector to achieve the sustainability in terms of economy, society, environment and institution during 2011-2015. Urban transport management is a new responsibility for MOT, the pilot studies of integrated measures will be implemented in the typical cities for promoting public transport development including real-time information service, reasonable car use policy, priority of public transport planning and land use, efficient service evaluation. Chinese Government has made active efforts and achieved a lot in these aspects. We are confident that the set objectives can be realized through our practical efforts. We also wish to jointly efforts to combating climate change by learning foreign advanced experience and carrying out international exchange and 31 cooperation.

Thank you for your attention


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