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CHAPTER:15- DRUGS

SYLLABUS:

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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Drug: a drug as any substance taken into the body that modifies or affects chemical
reactions in the body.
Medicinal drugs:
Substances used in medicine to help our bodies fight illness or disease.
Antibiotics:
Antibiotics are substances which kill bacteria, but do not harm other living cells.
Most of the antibiotics we use made from bacteria or fungi that live in the soil.
The first antibiotic discovered was penicillin which is made by the mould fungus
Penicillium, growing on decaying fruit.
Other examples for antibiotics include streptomycin made by the filamentous
bacteria Actinomycetes.
Antibiotics kill bacteria in many ways:
Some of the antibiotics damage their cell walls and so prevent the bacteria from
reproducing;
Cause them to burst open;
Some interfere with protein synthesis and thus arrest bacterial growth.
Antibiotics do not damage human cells because:
o Animal cells donot have cell walls and
o The cell structures involved in protein production are different from bacteria.
Use antibiotics only when they are really needed. This is because:
some bacteria are resistant to antibiotics which reduces the effectiveness
ofantibiotics.
Development of resistant bacteria:
if a course of antibiotics is not completed, some of the bacteria it is being used to
destroy will not be killed, but will have been exposed to the drug.
Some of these survivors may be drug-resistant mutants.
When they reproduce, all their offspring will have the drug resistance, so the
antibiotic will become less effective.
To kill the bacteria, a new antibiotic must be developed.
One type of bacteria that has developed resistance to a number of widely used
antibiotics is called MSRA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). These bacteria
are called as superbugs because they are so difficult to treat. These bacteria are found
living harmlessly on the skin, nose and throat causing mild infections.
It becomes dangerous if there is a break in the skin, allowing it to infect internal organs
and causing blood poisoning.

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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Activity: 1
Streptomyces, a soil bacterium, is a major source of antibiotics that are produced by
pharmaceutical companies. An antibiotic sensitivity test can be carried out to help
doctors
decide which antibiotic should be used to treat a specific disease, such as
gonorrhoea.
Gonorrhoea bacteria isolated from a person are grown on an agar medium. A ring
with
eight different antibiotics (1 to 8) is placed on the agar medium and left for 24 hours
at
35 C.
Fig. 1.2 shows the growth of bacteria on the agar medium after 24 hours.

(a) (i) Suggest why there is a clear area around some of the antibiotics.
- antibiotics diffuse through the agar ;
- (some) kill / stop reproduction of, bacteria
- not all antibiotics being effective
[max 2]
(ii) Explain why antibiotics 1 and 5 would not be chosen to treat the gonorrhoea
infection.
- bacteria grew around the discs ;
- bacteria are resistant to antibiotics 1 and 5 ;
[max
2]
(iii) People who take antibiotics should always be told to complete the treatment
rather than
stop taking the antibiotics when they feel better.
Suggest why people are given this advice.
-kill all the bacteria ;
-some still present even after person feels better ;
-prevents bacteria becoming resistant ;

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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-prevents selection of resistant strain ;

[max

2]

Activity:2
When bacteria are spread onto agar in a Petri dish they form colonies. Each colony
forms
from one bacterium. Fig. 4.1 shows an investigation into antibiotic resistance in a
species of
bacterium that causes disease.

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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(a) Explain what is meant by the term antibiotic.


(a) substance produced by microorganisms ; which kills bacteria
(b) Explain why:
(i) only a few bacteria grew in dish B compared with dish A,
(b) (i) (most) were killed by the antibiotic
(ii) more bacteria grew in C than in B.
(ii) (only) antibiotic-resistant bacteria transferred from B / (only)resistant bacteria in
C
(c) Fig. 4.1 shows the effect of an antibiotic on a species of disease-causing
bacterium.
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WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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Suggest why antibiotics should not be used too often.


(c) resistant bacteria, survive; eventually, all become resistant ;antibiotic no longer
effective;
(d) Explain the possible effect of the X-rays on the bacteria.
(d) X-rays caused mutations ; change in DNA ;mutation causes antibiotic
resistance ;
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Antibiotics are not effective against viral diseases. This is because:


o Antibiotics kill bacteria by disrupting structures in bacteria such as cell walls and
membranes, or processes associated with protein synthesis and replication of
DNA.
o Viruses have totally different characteristics to bacteria:
-they are not cells
-have no cell wall,
-do not carry out their own metabolism so they are unharmed by antibiotics.
Misuse of drugs:
Alcohol:
People drink alcohol because it can make people:
-feel more relaxed
-release their inhibitions
-make it easier for them to enjoy themselves and to mix and interact with other
people.
Alcohol is quickly absorbed through the wall of the stomach and small intestine,
and carried all over the body, including brain in the blood. It is finally broken
down by the liver.
Misuse of alcohol:
Effects of excessive alcohol consumption:
Alcohol is a powerful depressant drug that slows down the nervous system.
effect on reaction times and self-control:
-small amounts of alcohol affects the brain by slowing down the transmission of
nerve impulses, which lengthens the reaction time (time you take to respond to a
stimulus).
-in some people, reaction time is doubled even when the alcohol in the blood is
below the legal limit laid down for car drivers.
-this can make a big difference to the time needed for a driver to apply the
brakes after seeing a hazard such as a child running into the road. It results in
accidents.

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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negative social implications:


-alcohol reduces inhibitions because it depresses that part of the brain which
causes shyness. This may be an advantage in breaking the ice at parties. But it
can also lead to irresponsible behaviour such as crime, vandalism, aggression,
violence in the home, etc.
Addiction: some people become dependent upon alcohol and are called
alcoholics. They develop a tolerance as more enzymes that metabolize alcohol
are made in the liver. They therefore need to take greater quantities of alcohol to
get the same effect. They feel tense and irritable and find it hard to cope with
daily problems without a drink.
Excessive alcohol consumption can cause liver damage: high doses of alcohol
can cause the liver cells to form too many fat droplets and results in growth of
fibres in the liver, leading to the disease called cirrhosis.

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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o
o
o

Excessive alcohol drinking damages the brain: alcohol in the body fluid draws
water out of the brain cells by osmosis which causes the cells to shrink and
irreversibly damaged. Alcohol inhibits the release of a hormone which stops the
kidneys from allowing too much water to leave the body in the urine. So a lot of
dilute urine is produced resulting in low levels of water in the blood.
Drinking large quantities of alcohol over many years can lead to stomach ulcers,
heart disease, kidney failure etc.
Misuse of heroin:
Heroin is a compound modified from morphine. Morphine is a compound
extracted from opium poppies and used as a pain killer in medicine.
Heroin is a powerful depressant drug. It means that it slows down many
functions of the brain. It reduces pain, and slows down breathing.
Heroin can be addictive. An addictive drug is one which causes a person to
become dependent on the drug. The person is unable to stop taking it and
without the drug, he/she will suffer severe psychological and physical symptoms.
The addicted person develops a tolerance to the drug, and it has to be taken in
greater quantities to feel intense happiness (euphoria).
Withdrawal symptoms: a heroin addict who stops taking the drug abruptly
experiences very unpleasant symptoms called withdrawal symptoms. These
include sleeplessness, muscle cramps, sweating, vomiting and nausea.
Social problems: an addicted person may lose any ability to be a part of normal
society. He/she may think only of how they will get their next dose. To earn
money to buy the drug, they turn to antisocial activities like crime, prostitution etc.
It results in losing job, family breakdown and homelessness.
Injecting heroin can cause spread of viral diseases: some people take heroin
by injecting it into their veins by sharing needles and syringes. This is dangerous
as the needles used for injection are not sterile, it results in the transmission of
pathogens such as AIDS virus and hepatitis virus from one person to another.

How heroin affects the brain (nervous system) and functions of synapse:
In the brain there are many different neurotransmitters that transfer nerve
impulses across synapse from one neurone to another. There are receptors on
the cell membrane of the second neurone, which have a shape into which the
neurotransmitter molecules precisely fit. One group of these neurotransmitters is
called endorphins which help to reduce sensations of pain, affect mood and
reduce sensations of hunger and thirst.
Heroin mimics the neurotransmitter substances in synapses in the brain, causing
the stimulation of receptor molecules.
When the neurotransmitter endorphine enters the brain, heroin is metabolized to
morphine.
These moleules fit into some of the endorphin receptors in the postsynaptic
membrane as their shapes are complementary to the receptor molecules. This
gives the person a short lived high, which means makes the person feel good.
Taking heroin can reduce the production of natural endorphins, and also affect
the brains production of other important neurotransmitters. The users often found
T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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that they have to keep taking more and more heroin to get the same effect and if
they stop using it, will suffer withdrawal symptoms.
Smoking and health:
Tobacco smoking has been linked with many diseases. It can cause chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and coronary heart disease.
Main components of tobacco smoke are:
-tar-causes lung cancer and many other kinds of cancer.
-nicotine, the drug in cigarette smoke which is addictive
-carbon monoxide-reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood.
-particulates-damage lung surfaces.
Dangers due to smoking exist for both smokers and non-smokers. The possible
damage is just as real for non-smokers who are in a smokers environment. They
breathe in smoke from burning cigarettes, and from smoke exhaled by smokers. This is
called passive smoking.
Effects of tobacco smoke on the gas exchange system
Nicotine:
It is the drug present in cigarette smoke.
It is a stimulant which affects the brain and makes the person feel more alert.
It is an addictive drug so that smokers often find it very difficult to stop smoking.
It is absorbed very fast through the alveoli to enter the blood stream.
Dangerous effects of nicotine:
o It interacts with nerve cells at synapses.
o Causes coronary heart disease:
-smoking damages the circulatory system by:
- making the heart beats faster and narrows the blood vessels. This can
increase blood pressure leading to hypertension.
-as the blood passes through the lungs, it absorbs many substances from the
cigarette smoke. Some of them make the walls of the arteries get thicker and
harder. The walls cannot stretch and recoil easily as the blood surges through
them.
-smoking also increases the stickiness of blood platelets that promote blood
clotting inside the blood vessels, including the coronary arteries that supply the
wall of the heart with oxygenated blood.
-it increases the risk of coronary heart disease.

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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Tar:

It is the black sticky material that collects in the lungs as smoke cools.

Dangerous effects of tar:


Tar in the cigarette smoke causes lung cancer.
-some of the chemicals contained in tar are carcinogenic, which means can
cause cancer.
-these chemicals promote changes (mutations) in the DNA of cells lining the
respiratory passages and the lungs, causing them to divide uncontrollably.
-the cells divide over and over again, forming a lump of cells known as a tumour.
-If the tumour is malignant, this is cancer.
-Cells may break away from the first tumour and spread to other parts of the
body, where new tumours will grow.
Evidence for the link between smoking and lung cancer
Although all forms of air pollution are likely to increase the chances of lung
cancer, many scientific studies show that the vast increase in lung cancer is
almost entirely due to cigarette smoking.

There are at least 17 substances in tobacco smoke known to cause cancer in


experimental animals, and it is now thought that 90% of lung cancer is caused by
smoking. Table below shows the relationship between smoking and the risk of
developing lung cancer:
Number of cigarettes per day
1-14
15-24
25+

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

Increased risk of lung cancer


x8
x13
x25

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Correlations and causes:


A correlation between two variables does not prove that one of the variables
causes the other.
The graphs below show that there is a correlation between the number of
cigarettes smoked per year and the number of deaths from lung cancer:

Use the above graph to describe how:


1. The number of cigarettes smoked per year by males changed between 1911 and
2001.
-increased from about 1300 per year to 4400
-per year between 1911 and 1946;
-dropped to 1500 per year by 2001;

2. The number of deaths from lung cancer per year in males changed between
1911 and 2001.
-rose from almost 0 in 1911 to about 27 per thousand in 1971;
-then fell to about 17 per thousand by 2011

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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3. Discuss the extent to which the graph for males provides evidence that smoking
cigarettes causes lung cancer.
-curve for deaths from lung cancer follows similar pattern to curve for number of
cigarettes smoked;
-with a 25 year time lag;
-idea that cancer takes time to develop;
-reference to a correlation between number of cigarettes smoked and lung
cancer deaths;
-idea that correlation does not prove cause and effect;

4. If the graph for females is also considered, does this strengthen or weaken this
evidence? Explain your answer.
-similar pattern seen in females as in males;
-suggests that the correlation is not just coincidence;
-although the time lag is shorter (about 20 years);
-but still does not prove cause and effect;

The fact that a higher risk of dying from cancer is correlated with heavy smoking
does not actually prove that smoking is the cause of lung cancer. The alternative
explanation is that people who become heavy smokers are, in some way,
exposed to other potential causes of lung cancer, e.g. they live in areas of high
air pollution or they have an inherited tendency to cancer of the lungs. These
alternatives are not very convincing particularly when there is such an extensive
list of ailments associated with smoking.
This is not to say that smoking is the only cause of lung cancer or that everyone
who smokes will develop lung cancer. There are likely to be complex interactions
between life-styles, environments and genetic backgrounds which could lead to
lung cancer. Smoking may be only a part of these interactions.

Carbon monoxide:
It is a poisonous gas present in the cigarette smoke, which affects the blood.
It diffuses from the lungs into the blood, and combines permanently with
haemoglobin inside the red blood cells.
It reduces the volume of oxygen that the blood can carry.
The body cells are therefore deprived of oxygen.
It also deliver less oxygen to the heart muscles, by the blood flowing through the
coronary arteries.
If a woman smokes during pregnancy there may not be enough oxygen in the
blood for the fetus to develop properly. Due to this the baby may have a smaller
birth weight and is some times premature.
Cigarette smoking causes COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease):
COPD covers a number of lung diseases which include chronic bronchitis and
emphysema. A person suffering from COPD will experience difficulties with breathing,
mainly because of narrowing of the airways, bronchi and bronchioles. Symptoms of
COPD include breathlessness when active, frequent chest infections and a persistent
cough with phlegm (sticky mucus).

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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Chronic bronchitis:
Tobacco smoke irritates the lining of the airways.
It causes the goblet cellsto produce more mucus in response, but cilia on the
ciliated cells lining the air passages stop beating.
Thus dust, dirt and bacteria that sticks to the mucus trickles down to the lungs
and collect in the lungs and bronchi.The bronchi become blocked as there is less
space for air to flow.
The mucus provides a good place for bacteria to breed and this can cause
chronic infections in the lungs and bronchi.
Large amounts of phlegm (a mixture of mucus, bacteria and WBCs) are
produced. This condition is chronic bronchitis.
The person finds it difficult to move air into and out of their lungs as the bronchi
are partly blocked by mucus.

Emphysema:
Emphysema is a breakdown of the alveoli.
Smoke particles, bacteria and tar reach the alveoli.
In order to get rid of these invading particles from the alveoli, phagocytes reach
the alveoli by breaking down the elastin fibres in their walls, which make the wall
to stretch and recoil.
Damage of elastin fibres weakens the walls of the alveoli which results in
breaking down of the delicate walls of the alveoli.

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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Alveolus with broken elastin fibres

healthy alveolus

The irritant substances in the smoke cause a smokers cough and the coughing
bursts some of the weakened alveoli.
Breaking of the alveoli reduces the surface area of the lungs for gas exchange.
This condition is emphysema.
The person finds it difficult to get enough oxygen in to the blood or remove
carbon dioxide efficiently which makes the person breathlessness and
exhausted.

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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Use of hormones to improve sporting performance


In the last 30 years, some athletes and sports persons have made of drugs to
boost their performance. Some of these drugs are synthetic forms of hormones.
These hormones belong to a class of chemicals called steroids.
Steroid hormones include the reproductive hormones testosterone, oestrogen
and progesterone.
Many steroid hormones stimulate anabolic reactions in the body cells. Anabolic
reactions are those which build up large molecules from small ones. Steroid
hormones that stimulate anabolic reactions in the body cells are called anabolic
steroids.

Testosterone:
It is made in the testes of males and is responsible for promoting male primary
and secondary sexual characteristics.
Sport persons use testosterone supplements, known as doping. This hormone:
-make more proteins from amino acids in muscles, so that muscles become
larger and stronger.
-the practice therefore has the potential to enhance a sportsmans performance.
Anabolic steroids:
These are synthetic derivatives of testosterone.
They affect protein metabolism, increasing muscle development and reducing
body fat.
Athletes have taken these steroids to increase their muscle size and strength.
These hormones can help athletes to train harder and for longer periods of time.
They also increase aggression, which could give someone an edge in
competition.
Long term effects of taking anabolic steroids:
The use of anabolic steroids in sport is banned because apart from giving someone
an unfair advantage, taking these steroids carries a serious health risk.
These substances:
decrease the ability of the immune system to destroy pathogens.
damage the liver
causes sterility
masculinization in women
kidney malfunction
In most sports there is a testing regime that checks for the presence of anabolic steroids
in a persons blood or urine. The tests can be done at any time, not just when a person
is competing. This is because these drugs can have effects that last long after the time
when the drugs are still present in the body.

T.M. ABDUL MAJEED

WESGREEN INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL

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