Doctrine and Covenants Week 27: D&C 129–131

1) Doctrinal development during the Nauvoo period. a) During Joseph‘s ministry in Nauvoo (1839–1844), he received only two canonized ―thus saith the Lord‖ revelations: Sections 124 and 132. b) During this same period, however, more of public sermons and private teaching were recorded by those who heard him than at any previous time.1 i) Many of these entries were in personal diaries, or recorded in Joseph‘s official diary by a scribe.2 ii) Some of these entries were included in the 1876 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants by Orson Pratt, acting under direction of Brigham Young. Sections 129, 130, and 131 are three examples of this. 2) D&C 129. Keys for detecting true and false angelic messengers. a) As I‘ll demonstrate in a moment, this section is directly connected to the instructions in the temple endowment. b) Several scriptures revealed previous to this time mention or teach about the discerning of spirits: i) D&C 46:23. The discerning of spirits is a spiritual gift. ii) D&C 50:31–34. If we receive a spiritual manifestation that we cannot understand, we are to ask the Father in the name of Jesus if it is of God; if it isn‘t, we are to proclaim against it with a loud voice. iii) 2 Corinthians 11:14; 2 Nephi 9:9; D&C 128:20. Satan can transform himself and appear as an angel of light.3 c) The information in section 129 had been understood by the Prophet Joseph since at least June 1839, when he first taught it to members of the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve before the left on their missions to Great Britain.4
1 The best publication of Joseph Smith‘s saying during the Nauvoo period is Andrew F. Ehat and Lyndon W. Cook, comps., The Words of Joseph Smith: The Contemporary Accounts of the Nauvoo Discourses of the Prophet Joseph (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center, 1980). This work is superior to much of the material in volumes 4–6 of History of the Church, which was compiled from the same sources used by Ehat and Cook, but was heavily edited and does not reflect what Joseph actually said in every instance. (Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith is, itself, an extract from History of the Church, and suffers from the same textual problems.) 2 Joseph Smith kept a daily journal (with some periods of inactivity) from November 1832 until his death in June 1844. A handful of entries made in 1832–35 were in Joseph‘s own hand, but, other than these exceptions, his journal was kept by scribes and secretaries. Willard Richards was appointed as Joseph‘s scribe in December 1841, and as Joseph‘s private secretary in December 1842. Joseph‘s December 1841–December 1842 journal was kept primarily by Richards, with additional entries by William Clayton, Eliza R. Snow, and Erastus Derby; journal entries for December 1842–June 1844 were written solely by Richards. Willard Richards himself was not with Joseph every day during this time, and sometimes relied on the accounts of other individuals to complete the record. 3 See also: ―The devil may appear as an angel of light. Ask God to reveal it; if it be of the devil, he will flee from you: if of God, He will manifest Himself, or make it manifest.‖ Joseph Smith, before 8 August 1839. HC 3:392 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/3/27.html#392); TPJS 162; WJS 12. 4 Wilford Woodruff recorded in his diary Joseph‘s instruction on 27 June 1839: ―Among the vast number of the Keys of the Kingdom of God Joseph presented the following one to the Twelve for there [their] benefit in there [their] experience & travels in the flesh which is as follows. In order to detect the devel [devil] when he transforms himself nigh unto an angel of light. When an angel of God appears unto man face to face in personage & reaches out his hand unto the man & he takes hold of the

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Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 2

i) After that, Joseph taught publicly many times on the subject of discerning true and false spirits. (1) [SLIDE 2] On 1 May 1842 he preached in an outdoor sermon ―on the keys of the kingdom‖:
The keys are certain signs and words by which false spirits and personages may be detected from true, which cannot be revealed to the Elders till the Temple is completed…. There are signs in heaven, earth and hell; the Elders must know them all, to be endowed with power, to finish their work and prevent imposition. The devil knows many signs, but does not know the sign of the Son of Man, or Jesus. No one can truly say he knows God until he has handled something and this can only be in the holiest of holies.5

(2) Three days after this sermon (4 May 1842), Joseph gave the first endowments to nine of his closest associates.6 This endowment included keys by which false revelations or manifestations could be detected. (a) Heber C. Kimball, who was in this first group to be endowed, wrote a letter a few weeks later to Parley P. Pratt, who was serving a mission in England. Kimball informed Pratt that Joseph had taught them some precious things that could not be written about, and that Parley would have to come to Nauvoo to receive the instruction for himself.7 (b) Parley returned to Nauvoo on 7 February 1843. Although he had to wait ten months to receive his endowment,8 two days after his arrival Joseph partially satisfied his curiosity by disclosing to him the information now canonized in D&C 129.9

angels hand & feels a substance the Same as one man would in shaking hands with another he may then know that it is an angel of God, & he should place all Confidence in him Such personages or angels are Saints with there [their] resurrected Bodies, but if a personage appears unto man & offers him his hand & the man takes hold of it & he feels nothing or does not sens[e] any substance he may know it is the devel [devil], for when a Saint whose body is not resurrected appears unto man in the flesh he will not offer him his hand for this is against the law given him & in keeping in mind these things we may detec[t] the devil that he decieved us not.‖ (WJS 6; [bracketed items] added.) Willard Richards recorded a version of this instruction in his ―Pocket Companion‖ sometime before 8 August 1839 (WJS 12). William Clayton copied an extract of it his private book in December 1840 (WJS 44). An anonymous pamphlet published in Nauvoo in 1841 entitled Revelations also contained a version of it. 5 Joseph Smith, sermon in the grove at Nauvoo, 1 May 1842. HC 4:608 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/4/36.html#608); WJS 119–20. Two days prior to this public sermon, Joseph had told the sisters of the Nauvoo Female Relief Society that ―t he keys of the kingdom are about to be given to them, that they may be able to detect every thing false— as well as to the Elders.‖ Nauvoo Relief Society Minute Book, 28 April 1842, 38 (http://josephsmithpapers.org/paperSummary/nauvoo-relief-societyminute-book?p=35). 6 See notes to lesson 26, pages 8–9 (https://sites.google.com/site/hwsarc/home/dc/week26). 7 This according to the footnote on WJS 21. 8 Parley Pratt received his endowment on 2 December 1843. 9 Willard Richards‘ entry in Joseph Smith‘s journal on that day begins ―Thursday Feb 9. 1843 was at the ‗Masonic Hall‘‖, where, in the morning, Joseph conducted some business, had conversations with various people, read correspondence, and worked on the official history of the Church. Afterward, ―Parley Pratt & othe[r]s came in & Joseph explai[ne]d‖ the keys of detecting true and false spirits. Joseph Smith, journal, 9 February 1843, pp. 172–74 (http://josephsmithpapers.org/paperSummary/journal-december-1842-june-1844-book-1-21-december-1842-10-march1843?p=180). The text in the History of the Church 5:267 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/5/15.html#267) that became the source of D&C 129 was based on an entry in the Nauvoo journal of William Clayton, who recorded Joseph‘s teachings on that day. For a comparison of Clayton‘s diary with the History of the Church, see James B. Allen, No Toil nor Labor Fear: The Story of William Clayton (Provo, Utah: BYU Press, 2002), 388–89 (http://files.lib.byu.edu/mormonmigration/articles/ClaytonEditedComplete2.pdf). © 2013, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

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d) 129:1–3. Kinds of angels. i) The English word angel is derived from the Greek word angelos (αγγελος), which means ―messenger.‖10 (1) Joseph here specifically refers to ―angels‖ as ―resurrected personages.‖ He was clearly speaking from a perspective after Christ, because Christ was the first person to be resurrected, and so any angels who came before the Lord could not have been resurrected personages. (2) The important point of these verses is that God might send as his messengers either resurrected, physical beings (like Moroni, when he appeared to Joseph Smith in 1823), or the spirits of men who lived on this earth but have not yet been resurrected.11 (3) Joseph later taught that there is a ―distinction between the spirits of the just, and angels. Spirits can only be revealed in flaming fire, or glory. Angels have advanced farther—their light and glory being tabernacled, and hence appear in bodily shape.‖12 ii) 130:5b. Joseph further taught that ―angels who minister on this earth…belong [to] or have belonged to it.‖ (1) This is an important distinction between Latter-day Saints and other Christians: Most Christians believe that God, man, and angels are all different species— unique creations that are wholly unlike one another.13 (a) Joseph corrected this error here by teaching that God, angels, and men are all of the same kind of being, and that angels are glorified men or spirits of men. (2) He also taught on another occasion that ―an angel of God never has wings.‖14 (3) Do we believe in ―guardian angels?‖

The Hebrew word mal'ak (‫ )מלאך‬has the same meaning. Both in Hebrew and Greek the word can mean a human or divine messenger, so the authors of the scriptures frequently clarify their intent by referring to ―the angel of the LORD‖ (e.g., Genesis 22:11; Exodus 3:2; Judges 6:12; Isaiah 37:36; Matthew 1:20; Acts 12:7) or ―the angel of God‖ (e.g., Genesis 21:17; Exodus 14:19; John 1:51). There are some passages in the Bible in which it remains disputed whether the reference is to a heavenly being or a human one (e.g., the three men who appear to Abraham in Genesis 18, and the two angels who warn Lot to flee Sodom in Genesis 19). 11 There may be a third type not mentioned by Joseph: Spirits who have yet to be born. This would almost certainly apply to early angelic appearances to Adam (e.g., Moses 5:6–8, 58). 12 Joseph Smith, 9 October 1843. HC 6:51 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/6/3.html#51); TPJS 325; WJS 253. Joseph had made a distinction between ―angels‖ and ―the spirits of just men made perfect‖ at least as early as the summer of 1839 (WJS 14). 13 Many Christians regard angels as asexual and not belonging to either gender, based on the traditional interpretation of Matthew 22:30. 14 Joseph Smith, before 8 August 1839. HC 3:392 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/3/27.html#392); TPJS 162; WJS 12.
10

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Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 4

(a) [SLIDE 3] The Encyclopedia of Mormonism:
Latter-day Saints believe that every person born into the world is accorded protecting care and direction by God, provided in part by the Light of Christ (D&C 84:44–48; Moroni 7:12–19). Those who have the gift of the Holy Ghost may be warned, guarded, or shielded through the spirit of revelation (D&C 8:2–4). The term “guardian angel” may best be viewed as a figure of speech that has to do with God's protecting care and direction or, in special instances, with an angel dispatched to earth in fulfillment of God's purposes.15

(b) [SLIDE 4] Church Patriarch Hyrum G. Smith taught:
I have been asked many times concerning a promise that is frequently given in [patriarchal] blessings to the effect that the person would be guided by the influence and promptings of his guardian angel. These people have said: “Brother Smith, who is our guardian angel?” The spirits of our departed loved ones, as well as other spirits, may be appointed to act as our guardian angels, but they are special and come by appointment, while the Holy Spirit yields a constant influence over our lives for our guidance and protection.16

e) 129:4–9. Keys for detecting true and false angelic messengers. i) The same test is to be applied in all cases to messengers claiming to be from God, whether they are resurrected angels or disembodied spirits. There are three possible outcomes: (1) 129:5. An angel from God who is a resurrected being will shake the offered hand, and you will feel the substance of it, and know that he is from God. (2) 129:6–7. The spirit of a just man made perfect will not take the offered hand, neither will he avoid your touch; he will stand his ground and deliver his message, and you will know he is also from God. (3) 129:8. A devil or false spirit will attempt to masquerade as a resurrected being and shake hands with you, but you will not feel any substance, and know that he is a false spirit. (a) Joseph also taught that a false spirit may ―shrink back from you‖ when you offer your hand.17 3) D&C 130. Instructions on various subjects. a) This section contains a series of instructions given by Joseph Smith on 2 April 1843 at the home of his sister, Sophronia Smith McCleary, in Ramus, Illinois (about 20 miles east of Nauvoo).18
Encyclopedia of Mormonism (New York, New York: Macmillan, 1992), s.v. ―Angels: Guardian Angels,‖ 1:42 (http://eom.byu.edu/index.php/Angels#Angels:_Guardian_Angels). 16 Hyrum G. Smith, General Conference, October 1928 (http://archive.org/stream/conferencereport1928sa#page/n81 ). Joseph Smith taught that he had a guardian angel (HC 6:461 [http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/6/23.html#461]; TPJS 368). Other general authorities who have mentioned the reality of guardian angels include Elder Robert D. Hales (General Conference, October 2000); Elder Dallin H. Oaks (General Conference, October 1992); President David O. McKay (General Conference, October 1968 and October 1919). 17 Joseph Smith, December 1840, recorded by William Clayton. WJS 44. 18 The text of D&C 130 is based on a first-hand account written by William Clayton and a second-hand account written in Joseph Smith‘s journal by Willard Richards. See ―Appendix: Sources of D&C 130,‖ beginning on page 11, for a complete text of Clayton and Richards‘ records, as well as a comparison of both accounts to the canonized text of D&C 130.
15

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Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 5

b) 130:1, 3, 22–23. God the Father and Jesus Christ have physical bodies; the Holy Ghost is a spirit. i) This teaching came rather late in the Prophet‘s ministry. [SLIDE 5] The first recorded instance that he taught it was at the organization of a school of instruction on 5 January 1841:
That which is without body or parts is nothing. There is no other God in heaven but that God who has flesh and bones. John 5:26, “As the father hath life in himself, even so hath he given the son to have life in himself.” God the father took life unto himself precisely as Jesus did…. We came to this earth that we might have a body and present it pure before God in the Celestial Kingdom. The great principle of happiness consists in having a body. The Devil has no body, and herein is his punishment. He is pleased when he can obtain the tabernacle of man and when cast out by the Savior he asked to go into the herd of swine showing that he would prefer a swines body to having none. All beings who have bodies have power over those who have not. The devil has no power over us only as we permit him; the moment we revolt at anything which comes from God the Devil takes power.19

(1) It‘s easy to assume today that this concept should have been obvious to the Saints, given the revelations received before this time. But despite the fact that we commonly read a corporeal God into Joseph‘s earlier revelations and visions, he did not formally teach before the Nauvoo period. (a) [SLIDE 6] The Lectures on Faith, canonized with the Doctrine and Covenants in 1835, teach that
The Father [is] a personage of spirit, glory, and power: possessing all perfection and fullness: The Son, who was in the bosom of the Father, [is] a personage of tabernacle, made, or fashioned like unto man, or being in the form and likeness of man….20

(b) Apostle Lorenzo Snow later claimed that he received special revelation in 1839 in England that ―As man now is, our God once was; As God now is, so man may be, and thus unfolds our destiny.‖ (i) Brigham Young told Lorenzo not to teach the concept of a once-mortal God until he heard the Prophet Joseph teach it.21 (c) So while it‘s common for Latter-day Saints today to infer that Joseph learned in the 1820 First Vision that God the Father had a physical body, this is far from certain, and very likely not correct. ii) [SLIDE 7] This teaching became the core of Joseph‘s 7 April 1844 discourse at the funeral of Elder King Follett, where he taught:

Joseph Smith, 5 January 1841, recorded by William Clayton. WJS 60. Lectures on Faith 5:2 (http://josephsmithpapers.org/paperSummary/doctrine-and-covenants-1835?p=61). Much effort has been expended by Latter-day Saints to try and explain this passage in light of the Prophet‘s later teachings; see, for example, Bruce R. McConkie, A New Witness for the Articles of Faith (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book, 1985), 72–73. The plain reading of the verse, however, stubbornly defies harmonization. 21 In Lorenzo Snow‘s mind this apparently didn‘t require God to be embodied: In 1841 he wrote a letter written to a ―Respected Sister,‖ in which said that the Father and the Son were spirits. WJS 84 (citing Lorenzo Snow Letters, Call number Ms/f/562/item 12, pp. 40-45, Church Archives).
19 20

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Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 6

God Himself who sits enthroned in yonder heavens is a Man like unto one of yourselves—that is the great secret! If the veil were rent today and the great God that holds this world in its sphere and the planets in their orbit and who upholds all things by His power—if you were to see Him today you would see Him in all the person, image, fashion, and very form of a man, like yourselves. …. The first principle of truth and of the Gospel is to know for a certainty the character of God, and that we may converse with Him the same as one man with another, and that He once was a man like one of us and that God Himself, the Father of us all, once dwelled on an earth the same as Jesus Christ himself did in the flesh and like us.22

iii) 130:3. Because the Father and the Son are corporeal, they cannot ―dwell in a man‘s heart.‖ (1) In this instruction, given 2 April 1843, Joseph corrected a sermon given previously by Apostle Orson Hyde.23 (a) Hyde had interpreted the Savior‘s teaching in John 14:23 to mean that the Father and the Son could ―come unto [us], and make [their] abode‖ with us by dwelling in our hearts. (2) Since two physical objects cannot occupy the same space, it is necessary for one member of the Godhead to be a spirit—the Holy Spirit—in order to ―dwell in us‖ (cf. D&C 8:2).24 iv) These teachings of Joseph Smith correct three misconceptions held by various factions of Christianity, replacing them with the truth that: (1) That the Father has an immortal, glorified, physical body. (2) That the Son has retained his glorified, resurrected body, which is in the likeness of his Father‘s. (3) That the Holy Spirit is an actual, individual personage, and not just some undefined power or force. v) 131:7–8. And yet all spirit is matter. (1) For thousands of years—back at least as far as Plato in the West and the Buddha in the East—religious teachers have divided the universe into two parts: the visible, material world; and the invisible, spiritual world. (a) Some have even taught that the spiritual world is superior to the physical, and that anything that is physical is impure or unclean.25

22 Joseph Smith, 7 April 1844. This discourse was recorded by Willard Richards, Wilford Woodruff, Thomas Bullock, William Clayton, and Samuel W. Richards. The quote above is from Stan Larson, ―The King Follett Discourse: A Newly Amalgamated Text,‖ BYU Studies 18/2 (Winter 1978), 200–01 (https://byustudies.byu.edu/showtitle.aspx?title=5321); cf. HC 6:305 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/6/15.html#305). 23 In his sermon, Elder Hyde taught: ―When [the Savior] shall appear, we shall be like Him, &c. He will appear on a white horse as a warrior, and maybe we shall have some of the same spirit. Our God is a warrior. (John 14:23.) It is our privilege to have the Father and Son dwelling in our hearts, &c.‖ After this sermon, Joseph and Elder Hyde had lunch with Joseph‘s sister Sophronia. Joseph told Hyde that he was going to offer some corrections to his sermon this morning, and Hyde replied, ―They shall be thankfully received.‖ HC 5:323. 24 The textual sources for D&C 130 indicate that the personage of the Holy Ghost cannot dwell in our hearts. (See page 21.)

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Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 7

(2) Joseph Smith was one of the first religious leaders to deny this gap between spirit and matter. [SLIDE 8] About a year before Section 130 was given he wrote:
The body is supposed to be organized matter, and the spirit by many is thought to be immaterial, without substance. With this latter statement we should beg leave to differ—and state that spirit is a substance; that it is material, but that it is more pure, elastic, and refined matter than the body;—that it existed before the body, can exist in the body, and will exist separate from the body, when the body will be mouldering in the dust; and will in the resurrection be again united with it.26

c) 130:2. Sociality in the eternities. i) Sociality is the way in which human beings relate to each other. Joseph revealed that the same social relationships we experience here in mortality will continue in eternity, except they will be ―coupled with eternal glory.‖ (1) Friendship and family relationships are the highest and greatest expressions of sociality. Life in the resurrection will much like righteous living here, and will be a glorified extension of the best of human life as we know it. (2) [SLIDE 9] Orson Pratt taught:
A Saint, who is one in deed and in truth, does not look for an immaterial heaven, but he expects a heaven with lands, houses, cities, vegetation, rivers, and animals; with thrones, temples, palaces, kings, princes, priests, and angels; with food, raiment, musical instruments, &c.; all of which are material. Indeed, the Saints’ heaven is a redeemed, glorified, celestial, material creation, inhabited by glorified material beings, male and female, organized into families, embracing all the relationships of husbands and wives, parents and children, where sorrow, crying, pain, and death will be known no more.27

d) 130:6–11. The nature of the celestial kingdom. i) This is Joseph‘s most detailed revelation on the details of life in the celestial kingdom. ii) In the New Testament book of Revelation, John saw the throne of God, and wrote that it was in ―sea of glass like unto crystal,‖ and that the glass was ―mingled with fire‖ (Revelation 4:6; 15:2). iii) Like other descriptions of heavenly visions, Joseph was using inadequate human language to describe something incredible.28 (1) His wording here seems to indicate that the celestial world is translucent and clear (signifying purity), but also bright (signifying glory). (2) In the sermons he gave at Nauvoo just prior to his death, he referred to dwelling with God as ―everlasting burnings.‖29
25

http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Republic/Book_VII), the early Gnostic Christians, and 5th-century Christian and

In the West, this idea was advanced by Plato (―The Allegory of the Cave,‖ in The Republic, Book VII;

Neoplatonic philosopher Augustine of Hippo (De Animae Quantitate 13.22; De Genesi contra Manicheos II.11). 26 Joseph Smith, ―‗Try the Spirits,‘‖ Times and Seasons 3/11 (1 April 1842), 745 (http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/NCMP1820-1846/id/9823). 27 Orson Pratt, ―Past and Future Existence,‖ The Latter-Day Saints’ Millennial Star 28/46 (17 November 1866), 722 (http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/MStar/id/12069). 28 Compare this with Joseph‘s use of the words fire and light to describe the pillar that descended upon him at the First Vision. Notes to lesson 2, pages 7–8 (https://sites.google.com/site/hwsarc/home/dc/week02). © 2013, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

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(3) [SLIDE 10] Brigham Young:
This world, so benighted at present, and so lightly esteemed by infidels…when it becomes celestialized, it will be like the sun, and be prepared for the habitation of the Saints, and be brought back into the presence of the Father and the Son. It will not then be an opaque body as it now is, but it will be like the stars of the firmament, full of light and glory: it will be a body of light.30

iv) According to Joseph, the earth itself ―will be a Urim and Thummim to the inhabitants who dwell thereon,‖ revealing ―all things pertaining to an inferior kingdom, or all kingdoms of a lower order‖ to those who dwell on it. (1) What are ―kingdoms of a lower order‖? (a) It‘s tempting to think of them as the terrestrial and telestial kingdoms, but, if that‘s true, then what are the ―higher order of kingdoms‖ in 130:10? What could be higher than the celestial kingdom?
The solution may be that “kingdoms of a lower order” refers to all stages of progression or glory less than or prior to resurrection in the celestial kingdom and that “higher kingdoms” refers to degrees of glory and progression beyond or after exaltation into a celestial realm. From the perspective of resurrection in the celestial kingdom, as we look down in degree of glory or backwards in time, all things pertaining to eternities past will be revealed to us through the glorified earth on which we live. It is possible that this is how God’s infinite knowledge of our present estate and its conditions are perceived by him, since he already inhabits such a Urim and Thummim world.31

(b) [SLIDE 11] Joseph Smith taught:
[Jesus Christ said:] “When I get my kingdom, I will give it to the Father and it will add to and exalt his glory. He will take a higher exaltation and I will take his place and am also exalted, so that He obtains kingdom rolling upon kingdom.” So that Jesus treads in His tracks as He had gone before and then inherits what God did before. God is glorified in the salvation and exaltation of His creatures.32

v) 130:10. Then each person who inherits the celestial kingdom will receive a white stone, which is a personal Urim and Thummim ―whereby things pertaining to a higher order of kingdoms will be made known.‖

29 Sermons given 7 April 1844 and 12 May 1844. WJS 341, 343, 345, 355, 369; also Larson, ― Amalgamated Text,‖ 201, 208. This follows the description in Isaiah 33:14b–15, ―Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? who among us shall dwell with everlasting burnings? He that walketh righteously, and speaketh uprightly….‖ It is somewhat ironic, then, that ―everlasting burnings‖ has become a description of the classic Christian view of hell, not heaven. 30 Brigham Young, 5 June 1859. Journal of Discourses 7:163 (http://en.fairmormon.org/Journal_of_Discourses/7/26#163). 31 Stephen E. Robinson and H. Dean Garrett, A Commentary on the Doctrine and Covenants (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book, 2005), 4:226. 32 Joseph Smith, 7 April 1844 (King Follett Discourse). Larson, ―Amalgamated Text,‖ 201; cf. HC 6:306 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/6/15.html#306).

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Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 9

In the ancient world, gemstones engraved with secret names were considered talismans of personal power. The apostle Peter was thought of as a celestial gatekeeper in early Christianity because he held all the keys of the kingdom and, therefore, had the power to open or shut its gates. Similarly, the white stone engraved with the correct word or name symbolizes one’s personal, private key that not only reveals things pertaining to a higher order of kingdoms but is also the key or “key word” that allows one to pass the gatekeeper at the portal and enter into the celestial kingdom.33

e) 130:14–17. Joseph‘s speculation on the time of the Second Coming.34 i) D&C 49:7 states emphatically that ―the hour and the day no man knoweth, neither the angels in heaven, nor shall they know until he comes.‖35 (1) In spite of this clear statement—or perhaps before it was given36—Joseph at some point prayed ―earnestly‖ to know when the second coming would take place, and received an enigmatic reply. ii) Earlier in his career he seemed more certain about the interpretation of the Lord‘s response. [SLIDE 12] In the minutes of a February 1835 meeting he was quoted:
God had not designed all this [the trials and sufferings of Zion’s Camp] for nothing, but He had it in remembrance yet; and it was the will of God that those who went to Zion, with a determination to lay down their lives, if necessary, should be ordained to the ministry,37 and go forth to prune the vineyard for the last time, or the coming of the Lord, which was nigh—even fifty-six years should wind up the scene.38

(1) Fifty-six years from 1835 would be early 1891, just after Joseph‘s 85th birthday. iii) 130:16–17. However, by 1843 (when the instruction in D&C 130 was revealed), Joseph was less certain about the meaning of this revelation. iv) [SLIDE 13] On one thing Joseph was clear: He believed the Second Coming would not be before 1890:
I prophesy in the name of the Lord God, and let it be written—the Son of Man will not come in the clouds of heaven till I am eighty-five years old.39 …. I also prophesy, in the name of the Lord, that Christ will not come in forty years; and if God ever spoke by my mouth, He will not come in that length of time. Brethren, when you go home, write this down, that it may be remembered.

33 34 35

Robinson and Garrett, 4:227. For a defense against criticisms of Joseph‘s statements on this subject, see

http://en.fairmormon.org/Joseph_Smith/Alleged_false_prophecies/Second_Coming_to_be_in_1890
36

Italics added. Cf. Matthew 24:36; Mark 13:32; D&C 39:21. We can be fairly certain that he had asked and received this answer before February 1835, as the following quote indicates. 37 This reference is to the Quorum of the Twelve, who were selected and ordained in this meeting following Joseph‘s remarks. 38 Minutes of the meetings at which the Twelve Apostles were chosen, ordained and instructed, 14 February 1835. HC 2:182 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/2/14.html#182); italics added. 39 Joseph Smith, in General Conference, 6 April 1843. HC 5:336 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/5/18.html#336); WJS 179–80. See footnote 56 for the full quote and source. © 2013, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 10

Jesus Christ never did reveal to any man the precise time that He would come. Go and read the Scriptures, and you cannot find anything that specifies the exact hour He would come; and all that say so are false teachers.40

4) 130:18–19. Intelligence rises with us in the resurrection. a) When we covered D&C 88 and 93, we identified intelligence as not just knowledge about things, but rather light and truth (93:36), the result of using our agency to act for ourselves in the face of temptation (93:30; 29:39).41 i) Intelligence increases as we forsake evil and come to the Lord, calling on his name, obeying his voice, and keeping his commandments (93:1–2, 28, 37). ii) Intelligence is lost through disobedience, hardening of hearts, and clinging to false traditions (93:39). b) So ―the advantage in the world to come‖ (130:19) isn‘t in one person knowing how to repair a lawnmower, or do actuarial accounting, or set up wireless Internet at your house, but an advantage in ―diligence and obedience‖ (130:19). i) That person will progress faster and farther than the one who is less diligent and less obedient to God. ii) These two individuals will come to their full inheritance at different times and rates of speed. iii) [SLIDE 14] Joseph Smith:
We consider that God has created man with a mind capable of instruction, and a faculty which may be enlarged in proportion to the heed and diligence given to the light communicated from heaven to the intellect; and that the nearer man approaches perfection, the clearer are his views, and the greater his enjoyments, till he has overcome the evils of his life and lost every desire for sin; and like the ancients, arrives at that point of faith where he is wrapped in the power and glory of his Maker, and is caught up to dwell with Him. But we consider that this is a station to which no man ever arrived in a moment: he must have been instructed in the government and laws of that kingdom by proper degrees, until his mind is capable in some measure of comprehending the propriety, justice, equality, and consistency of the same.42

c) Understood this way, 130:18–19 then flows directly (and more clearly) into 130:20– 21. i) Blessings come from obedience to eternal law. ii) ―All kingdoms have a law given…and unto every law there are certain bounds also and conditions‖ (88:36–39). ―He who is not able to abide the law of a celestial kingdom cannot abide a celestial glory‖ (88:21–24). 5) Next week: a) D&C 132, OD—1 (or: Everything you always wanted to know about plural marriage, but were afraid to ask.)
40 Joseph Smith, sermon at Nauvoo, 10 April 1844. HC 6:254 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/6/11.html#254); TPJS 341; WJS 332. 41 See notes to lesson 20, pages 6–8 (https://sites.google.com/site/hwsarc/home/dc/week20). 42 Joseph Smith, letter ―from the Elders of the Church to their brethren abroad ,‖ 22 January 1834. HC 2:8 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/2/2.html#8); TPJS 51.

© 2013, Mike Parker

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For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 11

Appendix: Sources of D&C 130
William Clayton’s journal The primary source for D&C 130 is the Nauvoo journal of William Clayton.43 Clayton was present on 2 April 1843 when Joseph Smith gave the instructions in this section, and wrote them in his journal. The following is Clayton‘s original text, side-by-side with the canonized text included in the 1876 Doctrine and Covenants by Orson Pratt.      Significant differences between the two texts are noted in red italics. Words in <angle brackets> are insertions made by Clayton above the text or in the margin. Words struck out were written and crossed out by Clayton. Words in [brackets] are editorial insertions for clarity or understanding. The paragraph symbol (¶) indicates the beginning of a new paragraph in Clayton‘s journal entry.
D&C 130

William Clayton Journal, 2 April 1843 ¶Sunday 2—Heard E[lde]r Orson Hyde preach <on I Epistle of John I chap— I, 2. 3 verses> on in the A. M. dined at sister [Sophronia Smith] McCleary‘s Pres. Josephs sister. P. M. Joseph preached on Revelations chap. 5. he called on me to open the meeting. He also preachd on the same subject in the evening. During the day President Joseph made the following remarks on doctrine. ―I was once praying very earnestly to know to the time of the comeing of the son of man when I heard a voice repeat the following ‗Joseph my son, if thou livest untill thou art 85 years old thou shalt see the face of the son of man, therefore let this suffice and trouble me no more on this matter.‘ I was left thus without being able to decide wether this coming referred to the beginning of the Millenium, or to some previous appearing, or wether I should die and thus see his face. I believe the coming of the son of man will not be any sooner than that time‖ In correct<ing> two points in E[lde]r [Orson] Hydes discourse he observed as follows, ―The meaning of that passage where it reads ‗when he shall appear we shall be like him for we shall see him as he is‘ is this, when the saviour appears we shall see that he is a man like unto ourselves, and that same sociality which exists amongst us here will exist among us then44 only it will be coupled with eternal glory which we do not enjoy now.

14I

was once praying very earnestly to know the time of the coming of the Son of Man, when I heard a voice repeat the following: 15Joseph, my son, if thou livest until thou art eighty-five years old, thou shalt see the face of the Son of Man; therefore let this suffice, and trouble me no more on this matter. 16I was left thus, without being able to decide whether this coming referred to the beginning of the millennium or to some previous appearing, or whether I should die and thus see his face. 17I believe the coming of the Son of Man will not be any sooner than that time.

1When

the Savior shall appear we shall see him as he is. We shall see that he is a man like ourselves. 2And that same sociality which exists among us here will exist among us there, only it will be coupled with eternal glory, which glory we do not now enjoy.

43 William Clayton (1814–79) was baptized by Heber C. Kimball on 21 October 1837 Lancashire, England, during the first mission of the Twelve to Great Britain. He served as second counselor in British mission presidency from 1838 until he immigrated to Nauvoo in 1840. He served as recorder and scribe to Joseph Smith from 1842 until the Prophet‘s death in 1844. He was the clerk of first company of pioneers to Utah (April–August 1847), and wrote an important handbook of instructions for immigrants who crossed the plains (Latter-day Saint Emigrants’ Guide, 1848). 44 The handwriting is unclear; it could also read ―there‖ (the reading used in D&C 130:2).

© 2013, Mike Parker

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For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 12

William Clayton Journal, 2 April 1843 Also The appearing of the father and the son in John c 14 v 23 is a personal appearing, and the idea that they will dwell in a mans heart is a sectarian doctrine and is false‖ ¶In answer to a question which I proposed to him as follows, ‗Is not the reckoning of Gods time, Angels time, prophets time & mans time according to the planet on which they reside he answered Yes ―But there is no Angel ministers to this earth only what either does belong or has belonged to this earth And the Angels do not reside on a planet like our earth but they dwell with God and the planet where he dwells is like crystal, and like a sea of glass before the throne. This is the great Urim & Thummim whereon all things are manifest both things past, present & future and are continually before the Lord. The Urim & Thummim is a small representation of this globe. The earth when it is purified will be made like unto crystal and will be a Urim & Thummim whereby all things pertaining to an inferior kingdom, or all kingdoms of a lower order will be manifest to those who dwell on it. And this earth will be with Christ Then the white stone mentioned in Rev. c 2 v 17 is the Urim & Thummim whereby all things pertaining to an higher order of kingdoms even all kingdoms will be made known and the a white stone is given to each of those who come into this the celestial kingdom, whereon is a new name written which no man knoweth save he that receiveth it. The new name is the key word. ¶Whatever principal of intelligence we obtain in this life will rise with us in the resurrection: and if a person gains more knowledge in this life through his diligence & obedience than another, he will have so much the advantage in the world to come. There is law irrevocably decreed in heaven before the foundations of this world upon which all blessings are predicated; and when we obtain any blessing from God, it is by obedience to that law upon which it is predicated. ¶The Holy Ghost is a personage, and a person cannot have the personage of the H. G. in his heart. A man may receive the gifts of the H. G, and the H. G. may descend upon a man but not to tarry with him.[ ‖]

D&C 130 14:23—The appearing of the Father and the Son, in that verse, is a personal appearance; and the idea that the Father and the Son dwell in a man‘s heart is an old sectarian notion, and is false. 4In answer to the question —Is not the reckoning of God‘s time, angel‘s time, prophet‘s time, and man‘s time, according to the planet on which they reside?
3John 5I

answer, Yes. But there are no angels who minister to this earth but those who do belong or have belonged to it. 6The angels do not reside on a planet like this earth; 7But they reside in the presence of God, on a globe like a sea of glass and fire, where all things for their glory are manifest, past, present, and future, and are continually before the Lord. 8The place where God resides is a great Urim and Thummim.
9This

earth, in its sanctified and immortal state, will be made like unto crystal and will be a Urim and Thummim to the inhabitants who dwell thereon, whereby all things pertaining to an inferior kingdom, or all kingdoms of a lower order, will be manifest to those who dwell on it; and this earth will be Christ ‘s. 10Then the white stone mentioned in Revelation 2:17, will become a Urim and Thummim to each individual who receives one, whereby things pertaining to a higher order of kingdoms will be made known; 11And a white stone is given to each of those who come into the celestial kingdom, whereon is a new name written, which no man knoweth save he that receiveth it. The new name is the key word. 18Whatever principle of intelligence we attain unto in this life, it will rise with us in the resurrection. 19And if a person gains more knowledge and intelligence in this life through his diligence and obedience than another, he will have so much the advantage in the world to come. 20There is a law, irrevocably decreed in heaven before the foundations of this world, upon which all blessings are predicated— 21And when we obtain any blessing from God, it is by obedience to that law upon which it is predicated. 22The Father has a body of flesh and bones as tangible as man‘s; the Son also; but the Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones, but is a personage of Spirit. Were it not so, the Holy Ghost could not dwell in us. 23A man may receive the Holy Ghost, and it may descend upon him and not tarry with him.

© 2013, Mike Parker

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For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 13

William Clayton Journal, 2 April 1843 ¶He also related the following dream. ―I dreamed that a silver-headed old man came to see me and said he was invaded by a gang of robbers, who were plundering his neighbors and threatening destruction to all his subjects. He had heard that I always sought to defend the oppressed, and he had come to see if the General would call out his Legion45 and protect him, and he had come to hear with his own ears what answer I would give him. I answered, if you will make out the papers and shew that you are not the aggressor I will call out the [Nauvoo] Legion and defend you while I have a man to stand by me. The old man then turned to go away. When he got a little distance he turned suddenly round and said I must call out the Legion and go and he would have the papers ready when I arrived, and says he I have any amount of men which you can have under your command.[‖] ¶E[lde]r [Orson] Hyde gave the this interpretation ―The old man represents the government of these United States who will be invaded by a foreign foe, probably England. The U. S. government will call on you to defend probably all this Western Territory, and will offer you any amount of men you many need for that purpose.[‖]46 ¶Once when Prest Joseph was praying earnestly to know concerning the wars which are to preceed the coming of the son of man, he heard a voice proclaim that the first outbreak of general bloodshed would commence at South Carolina— see Revelation ¶The sealing of the 144ooo was the number of priests who should be anointed to administer in the daily sacrifice &c. ¶During prest Joseph‘s remarks he said there was a nice distinction between the vision which John saw as spoken of in Revelations & the vision which Daniel saw.48 the former relating only to things as they actually existed in heaven— the latter being a figure representing things on the earth. God never made use of the figure of a beast to represent the kingdom of heaven— when they were made use of it was to represent an apostate church. ¶We slept at B[enjamin]. F. Johnsons.

D&C 130

12I

prophesy, in the name of the Lord God, that the commencement of the difficulties which will cause much bloodshed previous to the coming of the Son of Man will be in South Carolina. 13It may probably arise through the slave question. This a voice declared to me, while I was praying earnestly on the subject, December 25th, 1832.47

45 This refers to Joseph Smith, who was Lieutenant General of the Nauvoo Legion. See notes to lesson 26, page 1 (https://sites.google.com/site/hwsarc/home/dc/week26). 46 It‘s important to point out that this is Orson Hyde’s interpretation of Joseph‘s dream, not Joseph‘s interpretation. 47 The text in 130:12–13 is based on Willard Richards‘ entry in Joseph Smith‘s journal (see below). 48 See Revelation 4–5; Daniel 7–8.

© 2013, Mike Parker

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Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 14

Willard Richards’ entry in Joseph Smith’s journal Willard Richards was Joseph Smith‘s private secretary.49 He did not accompany Joseph on his four-day trip to Ramus, Illinois, from 1 to 4 April 1843, which means was not present to hear Joseph‘s instruction on 2 April. His entry in Joseph‘s journal for that date is probably reconstructed from William Clayton‘s journal account, possibly with additional input from Joseph and/or Orson Hyde. The important point here is that this diary entry is second-hand, meaning that Richards relied on a primary source and the recollections of others who were there. The following is Richards‘ original text,50 side-by-side with the canonized text included in the 1876 Doctrine and Covenants by Orson Pratt. The formatting is the same as used above with William Clayton‘s journal.
Joseph Smith Journal (Willard Richards), 2 April 1843 ¶Sunday April 2. 1843 Missouri St. Louis Republican Ma[r]ch 24 says. at Point Petre. [Pointe-à-Pitre] W. I. [West Indies] islands 2000 . . . ran together in the public square. the earth opend and swallowed them up the whole mass.51 ¶Wind N.E. snow fell several inches but melted more or less.— ¶D[imick] Huntington returnd from chicago.— ¶after breakfast called on Sister Sophronia [Smith McCleary]— ¶10 A. M.— to meeting. Elder [Orson] Hyde Preached I epistle John I. chap ist 3 verses— when he shall appear we shall be like. him &c. he will appear on a white horse.— as a warrior, & may be we shall have some of the same spirit.— our god is a warrior.— John. 14.23— it is our privilege to have the father & son dwelling in our hearts. &c ¶Cloudy. earth ½ covered with snow ¶Elder Hyde remarked that he read in one of the newspapers— conceng [concerning] the passage of an act in one of the eastern states for to prohibit the citizens fr[o]m killing crows. bec[a]use they eat up all the filth & carrion from of[f] the earth.— thusly tending to preserve the hea[l]th of the people. but offer them a peice of clean fresh meat & a crow will not touch it for he has no appitite for it. he had often thought that there was a very great resemblance between the pri[e]sts of the day & these crows. for they were continually picking up all the dirt & filth & meanness of the mormons.— feasting on it if it was a precious morsel. but offer them any good and salutary <from> among— the mormns they have no appitite & will turn away from it
49 50

D&C 130

See background in footnote 2. Photos of this journal entry, along with a transcript, as available at the Joseph Smith Papers Project web site

(http://josephsmithpapers.org/paperSummary/journal-december-1842-june-1844-book-2-10-march-1843-14-july1843?p=43). 51 This is a reference to a news article in the Daily Missouri Republican newspaper regarding a magnitude 8.5 earthquake that struck the island of Guadalupe in the West Indies. Between 4,000 and 6,000 people are believed to have perished in the earthquake and the fire that resulted from it. See Becky Oskin, ―Historic Caribbean Earthquake Was Felt in NYC,‖ ScientificAmerican.com, 2012 (http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=historic-caribbean-earthquake). © 2013, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 15

Joseph Smith Journal (Willard Richards), 2 April 1843 ¶I think for the same reason the Legislature lets the crows live we ought to let the priests live gather up & eat up all the filth & rubbish from the mormon people that they may be healthy. ¶dined at Sophronia‘s soon as he we arrived.— Elder Hyde I am going to offer some corrections to you. Elder H. repli[e]d— they shall be thankfully recieved.— When he shall appear we shall see him as he is. we shall see that he is a man like ourselves.— And that same sociality. which exists amogt [amongst] us here. will exist amo[n]g us there only it will be coupled with eternl glory which glory we do not now enjoy. ¶14 John 23.— the appearing of the father and of the Son in that verse is a personal. appearance.— to say that the father and the Son dwells in a mans heart is an old Sectarian notion. and is not correct. ¶There is are no angels who administer to this earth but who belong to or have belongd to this earth. The angels do not reside on a planet like this earth. but they reside in the presence of God— but on a Globe like a sea of glass. & fire. “sea of glass before the throne.— &c.” where all things are manif[e]st past present & to come,— ¶The place where God resides is a great Urim And Thumim. ¶This earth in its sanctifid & immortal state. will be a Urim & Thummim for all things below it in the scale of creation. but not above it.—

D&C 130

1When

the Savior shall appear we shall see him as he is. We shall see that he is a man like ourselves. 2And that same sociality which exists among us here will exist among us there, only it will be coupled with eternal glory, which glory we do not now enjoy.
3John

14:23-The appearing of the Father and the Son, in that verse, is a personal appearance; and the idea that the Father and the Son dwell in a man‘s heart is an old sectarian notion, and is false.52 5But there are no angels who minister to this earth but those who do belong or have belonged to it. 6The angels do not reside on a planet like this earth;
7But

they reside in the presence of God, on a globe like a sea of glass and fire, where all things for their glory are manifest, past, present, and future, and are continually before the Lord. 8The place where God resides is a great Urim and Thummim. 9This earth, in its sanctified and immortal state, will be made like unto crystal and will be a Urim and Thummim to the inhabitants who dwell thereon, whereby all things pertaining to an inferior kingdom, or all kingdoms of a lower order, will be manifest to those who dwell on it; and this earth will be Christ’s.53

¶related the Dream. written on page 3d Book <B> 54 ¶Interpretati[o]n By O. Hyde— old man.— Govermnt of these Unitd States, who will be invaded by a foriegn foe. probably England. U. S. Goverment will call on Gen Smith to defend probably all this western territory and offer him any am[ou]nt of men he shall desire & put them under his command. ¶I prophecy in the Name of the Lord God that the commenceme[n]t of bloodshed as preparat[o]ry to the coming of the son of man. will commenc[e] in South Carolina.— (it probably may arise through the slave trade.)— this the a voice declard to me. while I was praying earne[s]tly on the subje[c]t 25 December 1832.— ¶I earnestly desird to know concern[in]g the coming of the Son of Man & prayed. when— a voice said to me,

12I

prophesy, in the name of the Lord God, that the commencement of the difficulties which will cause much bloodshed previous to the coming of the Son of Man will be in South Carolina.
13It

may probably arise through the slave question. This a voice declared to me, while I was praying earnestly on the subject, December 25th, 1832. 14I was once praying very earnestly to know the time of the coming of the Son of Man, when I heard a voice repeat the following:

D&C 130:4 is not in Willard Richards‘ account, but is found in William Clayton‘s. The text in 130:9 is based on William Clayton‘s journal entry (see above). 54 Willard Richards had previously written Joseph‘s dream in the journal entry for 11 March 1843
52 53

(http://josephsmithpapers.org/paperSummary/journal-december-1842-june-1844-book-2-10-march-1843-14-july1843?p=11), and didn‘t feel the need to write it again here. © 2013, Mike Parker http://bit.ly/ldsarc For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 16

Joseph Smith Journal (Willard Richards), 2 April 1843 Joseph, my, son, if thou livest until thou art 85 years old thou shalt see the facce of the son of man. therefore let this suffice & trouble me no more on this matter.— ¶1. P. M. attended meeting. ¶Joseph read 5.th chapter of Johns revelation, referring particularly to the 6[th] verse. shewing from that. the a[c]tual existenc[e] of beasts in heaven probable those were beasts which had lived on another planet. than our‘s— ¶God never made use of the figure of a beast to represent the kingdom of heaven.— Beasts. 7 eyes Pr[i]esthood.— ¶this is the fi[r]st time I have ever taken a text in Revelati[o]n.— and if the young elders would let such things alone it would be far better.— then corrected Elder Hyde as in private.— ¶supped at Bro [Benjamin] Johnson‘s.— expected to sta[r]t for Carthage, but bad weather prevntd [prevented] called another meeti[n]g. by bell.— read Rev[elation]— between Meeti[n]gs with Elder Hyde & expou[n]ding.— during this time several came in & expressd fear that I had come in contact with55 the old scripture ¶Meeting 7. eve resumd the subjct of the beast.— shewed very plainly that Johns vision was very different from Daniels Prophecy— one refering to things ex[is]ting in heaven. the other a figure of things on the which are on the earth.— ¶whatever principle of inteligence we attain unto in this life. it will rise with us in the revalatin [revelation], and if a person gains more knowledge and intelignce. through his obedience & diligence. than another he will have so much the advantage in the world to come— ¶There is a law irrevocably decreed in heaven. before the foundation of the world upon which all blessings are predicated and when we obtain a blessing it is by obedi[e]nce to the law upon which that blessing is predicated. ¶again revertd to Elders Hyde mistake. &c the Father has a body of flesh & bones as tangible as mans the Son also, but the Holy Ghost is a personage of spirit.— and a person cannot have the personage <of the H G.> in his heart he may recive the gift of the holy Ghost. it may descend upon him but not to tarry with him.— ¶What is the meaning of the scriptures. he that is faithful over a few thi[n]gs shall be made ruler over many? & he that is faithful over many shall be made ruler over many more?

D&C 130
15Joseph,

my son, if thou livest until thou art eighty-five years old, thou shalt see the face of the Son of Man; therefore let this suffice, and trouble me no more on this matter.

18Whatever

principle of intelligence we attain unto in this life, it will rise with us in the resurrection. 19And if a person gains more knowledge and intelligence in this life through his diligence and obedience than another, he will have so much the advantage in the world to come. 20There is a law, irrevocably decreed in heaven before the foundations of this world, upon which all blessings are predicated— 21And when we obtain any blessing from God, it is by obedience to that law upon which it is predicated.
22The

Father has a body of flesh and bones as tangible as man‘s; the Son also; but the Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones, but is a personage of Spirit. Were it not so, the Holy Ghost could not dwell in us.
23A

man may receive the Holy Ghost, and it may descend upon him and not tarry with him.

55 In Joseph Smith‘s time, to ―come in contact with‖ meant to contradict. According to Richards‘ journal entry, several people came to Joseph between afternoon and evening meetings and expressed their concern that Joseph‘s teachings in the afternoon contradicted what was taught in the Bible (―the old scripture‖), specifically the Book of Revelation.

© 2013, Mike Parker

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For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 17

Joseph Smith Journal (Willard Richards), 2 April 1843 ¶What is the mea[n]ing of the Parable of the 10 talents? Also conversation with Nicodemus. except a man be born of water & of the spi[ri]t.— ¶I shall not tell you?— ¶Closed by flagellating the audience for their fears.— & calld upon Elder Hyde to get up. & fulfil his covenant to preach ¾ of an hour.— otherwise I will give you a good whipping.— ¶Elder Hyde arose & said Brothe[r]s & Sisters I feel as though all had been Said that can be said. I can say nothing but bless you.— ¶To B. F. Johnsons—— one the 144000 seald are the pri[e]sts who are appointed to administer in the daily sacrifice.—

D&C 130

Comparing the sources for D&C 130 Section 130 is a combination of William Clayton and Williard Richards‘ two separate accounts of the Prophet‘s teachings on 2 April 1843. Here are Clayton and Richards‘ accounts, side-by-side with the canonized text and arranged in the order of Section 130.    Canonized text drawn mostly or solely from Clayton is in green. Canonized text drawn mostly or solely from Richards is in blue. Important text that is unique to a particular account or the canonized text is in red.
Joseph Smith Journal (Willard Richards) When he shall appear we shall see him as he is. we shall see that he is a man like ourselves.— D&C 130
1When

William Clayton Journal ―The meaning of that passage where it reads ‗when he shall appear we shall be like him for we shall see him as he is‘ is this, when the saviour appears we shall see that he is a man like unto ourselves, and that same sociality which exists amongst us here will exist among us then only it will be coupled with eternal glory which we do not enjoy now. Also The appearing of the father and the son in John c 14 v 23 is a personal appearing, and the idea that they will dwell in a mans heart is a sectarian doctrine and is false‖

Notes Verse 1 follows Richards‘ text. (It appears that Richards condensed Clayton‘s account of Joseph‘s response to Orson Hyde‘s preaching.) Verse 2 follows Richards‘ text. Clayton has then instead of there (although his handwriting is not clear and may actually read then). Verse 3 is a synthesis: The phrasing is Richards‘; use of false is Clayton‘s.

the Savior shall appear we shall see him as he is. We shall see that he is a man like ourselves.

And that same sociality. which exists amogt [amongst] us here. will exist amo[n]g us there only it will be coupled with eternl glory which glory we do not now enjoy. 14 John 23.— the appearing of the father and of the Son in that verse is a personal. appearance.— to say that the father and the Son dwells in a mans heart is an old Sectarian notion. and is not correct.

2And

that same sociality which exists among us here will exist among us there, only it will be coupled with eternal glory, which glory we do not now enjoy. 3John 14:23—The appearing of the Father and the Son, in that verse, is a personal appearance; and the idea that the Father and the Son dwell in a man‘s heart is an old sectarian notion, and is false.

© 2013, Mike Parker

http://bit.ly/ldsarc

For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 18

William Clayton Journal In answer to a question which I proposed to him as follows, ‗Is not the reckoning of Gods time, Angels time, prophets time & mans time according to the planet on which they reside he answered Yes ―But there is no Angel ministers to this earth only what either does belong or has belonged to this earth And the Angels do not reside on a planet like our earth

Joseph Smith Journal (Willard Richards)

D&C 130
4In

Notes Verse 4 is from completely from Clayton; it is not in Richards‘ account.

answer to the question—Is not the reckoning of God‘s time, angel‘s time, prophet‘s time, and man‘s time, according to the planet on which they reside? There is are no angels who administer to this earth but who belong to or have belongd to this earth.
5I

answer, Yes. But there are no angels who minister to this earth but those who do belong or have belonged to it.
6The

The angels do not reside on a planet like this earth.

angels do not reside on a planet like this earth;

but they dwell with God and the planet where he dwells is like crystal, and like a sea of glass before the throne. This is the great Urim & Thummim whereon all things are manifest both things past, present & future and are continually before the Lord.

but they reside in the presence of God— but on a Globe like a sea of glass. & fire. ―sea of glass before the throne.— &c.‖ where all things are manif[e]st past present & to come,—

7But

they reside in the presence of God, on a globe like a sea of glass and fire, where all things for their glory are manifest, past, present, and future, and are continually before the Lord.
8The

Verse 5 is a synthesis: The phrasing is Richards‘, but Clayton is the source of I answer, Yes and minister (Richards uses administer). Verse 6 is nearly identical in both accounts, but Richards‘ this earth was preferred to Clayton‘s our earth. Verse 7 is a synthesis: The first half is Richards‘; the second half is Clayton‘s. The canonized phrase for their glory is not found in either account; it‘s probably an emendation by later scribes. Verse 8 is from completely from Richards; it is not in Clayton‘s account. Verse 9 is a synthesis: The opening is Richards‘; the remaining majority is Clayton‘s. The canonized phrase the inhabitants who dwell thereon is not found in either account (scribal emendation). The canonized possessive Christ’s is slightly different than Clayton‘s with Christ.

The place where God resides is a great Urim And Thumim. The earth when it is purified will be made like unto crystal and will be a Urim & Thummim whereby all things pertaining to an inferior kingdom, or all kingdoms of a lower order will be manifest to those who dwell on it. And this earth will be with Christ This earth in its sanctifid & immortal state. will be a Urim & Thummim for all things below it in the scale of creation. but not above it.—

place where God resides is a great Urim and Thummim.
9This

earth, in its sanctified and immortal state, will be made like unto crystal and will be a Urim and Thummim to the inhabitants who dwell thereon, whereby all things pertaining to an inferior kingdom, or all kingdoms of a lower order, will be manifest to those who dwell on it; and this earth will be Christ‘s.

© 2013, Mike Parker

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For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 19

William Clayton Journal Then the white stone mentioned in Rev. c 2 v 17 is the Urim & Thummim whereby all things pertaining to an higher order of kingdoms even all kingdoms will be made known and the a white stone is given to each of those who come into this the celestial kingdom, whereon is a new name written which no man knoweth save he that receiveth it. The new name is the key word. Once when Prest Joseph was praying earnestly to know concerning the wars which are to preceed the coming of the son of man, he heard a voice proclaim that the first outbreak of general bloodshed would commence at South Carolina— see Revelation

Joseph Smith Journal (Willard Richards)

D&C 130
10Then

Notes Verses 10–11 are completely from Clayton; they are not in Richards‘ account. Two canonized phrases are not found in Clayton‘s account (scribal emendation). Clayton‘s possibly significant phrase even all kingdoms was not included in the canonized text.

I prophecy in the Name of the Lord God that the commenceme[n]t of bloodshed as preparat[o]ry to the coming of the son of man. will commenc[e] in South Carolina.— (it probably may arise through the slave trade.)— this the a voice declard to me. while I was praying earne[s]tly on the subje[c]t 25 December 1832.— I earnestly desird to know concern[in]g the coming of the Son of Man & prayed. when— a voice said to me, Joseph, my, son, if thou livest until thou art 85 years old thou shalt see the facce of the son of man. therefore let this suffice & trouble me no more on this matter.—

―I was once praying very earnestly to know to the time of the comeing of the son of man when I heard a voice repeat the following ‗Joseph my son, if thou livest untill thou art 85 years old thou shalt see the face of the son of man, therefore let this suffice and trouble me no more on this matter.‘

the white stone mentioned in Revelation 2:17, will become a Urim and Thummim to each individual who receives one, whereby things pertaining to a higher order of kingdoms will be made known; 11And a white stone is given to each of those who come into the celestial kingdom, whereon is a new name written, which no man knoweth save he that receiveth it. The new name is the key word. 12I prophesy, in the name of the Lord God, that the commencement of the difficulties which will cause much bloodshed previous to the coming of the Son of Man will be in South Carolina. 13It may probably arise through the slave question. This a voice declared to me, while I was praying earnestly on the subject, December 25th, 1832. 14I was once praying very earnestly to know the time of the coming of the Son of Man, when I heard a voice repeat the following: 15Joseph, my son, if thou livest until thou art eighty-five years old, thou shalt see the face of the Son of Man; therefore let this suffice, and trouble me no more on this matter.

Verses 12–13 are based on Richards; Clayton‘s version is shorter and in third person. There has been a moderate amount of scribal emendation of Richards‘ text.

Verse 14 is based on Clayton; Richards‘ version is shorter.

Verse 15 is identical in both versions.

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Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 20

William Clayton Journal I was left thus without being able to decide wether this coming referred to the beginning of the Millenium, or to some previous appearing, or wether I should die and thus see his face. I believe the coming of the son of man will not be any sooner than that time‖ Whatever principal of intelligence we obtain in this life will rise with us in the resurrection: and if a person gains more knowledge in this life through his diligence & obedience than another, he will have so much the advantage in the world to come. There is law irrevocably decreed in heaven before the foundations of this world upon which all blessings are predicated; and when we obtain any blessing from God, it is by obedience to that law upon which it is predicated.

Joseph Smith Journal (Willard Richards)

D&C 130
16I

Notes Verses 16–17 are completely from Clayton; they are not in Richards‘ account.56

whatever principle of inteligence we attain unto in this life. it will rise with us in the revalatin [revelation], and if a person gains more knowledge and intelignce. through his obedience & diligence. than another he will have so much the advantage in the world to come— There is a law irrevocably decreed in heaven. before the foundation of the world upon which all blessings are predicated and when we obtain a blessing it is by obedi[e]nce to the law upon which that blessing is predicated.

was left thus, without being able to decide whether this coming referred to the beginning of the millennium or to some previous appearing, or whether I should die and thus see his face. 17I believe the coming of the Son of Man will not be any sooner than that time. 18Whatever principle of intelligence we attain unto in this life, it will rise with us in the resurrection. 19And if a person gains more knowledge and intelligence in this life through his diligence and obedience than another, he will have so much the advantage in the world to come.
20There

is a law, irrevocably decreed in heaven before the foundations of this world, upon which all blessings are predicated— 21And when we obtain any blessing from God, it is by obedience to that law upon which it is predicated.

Verse 18 primarily follows Richards, but prefers Clayton‘s resurrection at the end. Verse 19 is a synthesis: The two accounts are nearly identical, and the canonized text draws unique phrases from both of them (in this life from Clayton; and intelligence from Richards). Verse 20 is nearly identical in both versions. The canonized text prefers Clayton‘s plural foundations. Verse 21 is nearly identical in both versions, but the canonized text prefers Clayton.

56 On 6 April 1843, four days after Joseph‘s visit to Ramus, he gave a sermon at General Conference in Nauvoo wherein he made a statement similar to the one found in D&C 130:14–17: ―If I had not actually got into this work, & been called of God, I would back out . . . but I cannot back out,— I have no doubt of the truth. were I going to prophecy. I would procpesy [prophesy] the end will not come in 1844. or 5— or 6. or 40 years more there are those of the rising generation who shall not taste death till christ come. <I was once praying earnestly upon this sub ject. and a voice said unto me.> My son, if thou livest till thou art 85 years of age, thou shalt see the face of the son of man. . . . <I was left to draw my own conclusions concerni[n]g this &,> I took the liberty to conclude that if I did live till that time Jesus <he> would make his appearance.— <but I do not say whether he will make his appeara[n]ce, or I shall go where he is.—>158 I prophecy in the name of the Lord God.— & let it be written. <that the> Son of Man will not come in the heavns till I am 85. years old 48 years hence or about 1890.—‖ Joseph Smith, journal, 6 April 1843, pp. 72–73 (http://josephsmithpapers.org/paperSummary/journal-december-1842june-1844-book-2-10-march-1843-14-july-1843?p=80). Cf. WJS 179–80; HC 5:336 (http://byustudies.byu.edu/hc/5/18.html#336); TPJS 286.

© 2013, Mike Parker

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For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 21

William Clayton Journal The Holy Ghost is a personage, and a person cannot have the personage of the H. G. in his heart.

Joseph Smith Journal (Willard Richards) the Father has a body of flesh & bones as tangible as mans the Son also, but the Holy Ghost is a personage of spirit.— and a person cannot have the personage <of the H G.> in his heart

D&C 130
22The

Notes Verse 22 is based on Richards, but with a substantial amount of emendation: The canonized text omits the teaching (found in both Clayton and Richards‘ accounts) that a person cannot have the personage of the H[oly] G[host] in his heart. This seems to be a significant doctrinal idea, but it was omitted at some point.57 The canonized text‘s claim that the Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones is not found in either account; this emendation is a conclusion based on the existing text. The concluding sentence of the verse is not in either account. Verse 23‘s phrasing is closer to Richards‘ text. Both Clayton and Richards report that Joseph taught a man may receive the gift of the Holy Ghost, but the canonized text reduces that to receive the Holy Ghost. The canonized text changes Clayton and Richards‘ but not to tarry to and not tarry.

Father has a body of flesh and bones as tangible as man‘s; the Son also; but the Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones, but is a personage of Spirit. Were it not so, the Holy Ghost could not dwell in us.

A man may receive the gifts of the H. G, and the H. G. may descend upon a man but not to tarry with him.[‖]

he may recive the gift of the holy Ghost. it may descend upon him but not to tarry with him.—

23A

man may receive the Holy Ghost, and it may descend upon him and not tarry with him.

Historical chain of the text of D&C 130 This following is the likely the textual chain from source to canonized text: 1. William Clayton was at the 2 April 1843 meeting in Ramus, Illinois, and took notes of Joseph Smith‘s teachings in his personal journal.

57 Volume D-1 of the Manuscript History of the Church, covering 1 August 1842–1 July 1843, is not yet available on the Joseph Smith Paper Project web site (as of 30 May 2013). Access to this volume will reveal if the phrase a person cannot have the personage of the H[oly] G[host] in his heart was omitted by the MHC‘s scribes in the early 1850s, as appears likely.

© 2013, Mike Parker

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For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

Hurricane Utah Adult Religion Class

Doctrine and Covenants Sections 129–131

Week 27, Page 22

2. Willard Richards completed the 2 April 1843 entry in Joseph Smith‘s journal sometime after Joseph returned to Nauvoo on 4 April 1843.58 Richards‘ entry was probably based on Clayton‘s journal, possibly with input from others who were at the meeting in Ramus. 3. Leo Hawkins, a scribe working on the Manuscript History of the Church project, synthesized the Clayton (1) and Richards (2) accounts sometime between April and November, 1854.59 (This is almost certainly when the material unique to D&C 130 was introduced into the text.) 4. The Manuscript History entry for 2 April 1843 (3) was published in the Deseret News by editor Albert Carrington on 9 July 1856.60 5. The Deseret News article (4) was reprinted in the Millennial Star in England by editor Asa Calkin on 13 November 1858.61 6. Orson Pratt extracted a portion of the 2 April 1843 history published in the Millennial Star (5) for inclusion in the 1876 edition of the Doctrine and Covenants.62 7. Minor editing of the text was done for B.H. Roberts‘ 1909 first edition of the History of the Church,63 and the 1921 and 1981 editions of the Doctrine and Covenants.64

58 At the top of page 37 of Joseph Smith‘s journal, just before the transcript of the instructions canonized in Section 130, Willard Richards wrote ―Tuesday April 4[th] 1843‖ in blue ink, and then lined it out in brown ink (http://josephsmithpapers.org/paperSummary/journal-december-1842-june-1844-book-2-10-march-1843-14-july1843?p=45). It‘s possible that Richards began working on completing the journal entry for Joseph‘s 1–4 April trip on the evening of the 4th, when Joseph returned to Nauvoo, and mistakenly wrote in that day‘s date as he transcribed. If so, then his journal entry for this section was written only two days after the events it describes. 59 According to the table in Annotated History of Joseph Smith, volume 1, chapter 1, footnote 1, Hawkins worked on the portion of the history comprising 1 March 1843–8 August 1844 beginning on 18 April 1854 (http://www.boap.org/LDS/History/HTMLHistory/v1c1history.html#N_1_). Robert J. Woodford indicates that the material later canonized as D&C 130 was completed by Hawkins ―prior to November, 1854‖ (Woodford, ―The Historical Development of the Doctrine and Covenants,‖ Ph.D. dissertation, Brigham Young University, April 1974, 3:1711). 60 ―History of Joseph Smith,‖ The Deseret News 6/18 (9 July 1856), 137 (http://udn.lib.utah.edu/cdm/ref/collection/deseretnews1/id/4578). 61 ―History of Joseph Smith,‖ The Latter-Day Saints’ Millennial Star 20/46 (13 November 1858), 727–28 (http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/MStar/id/21561). 62 Doctrine and Covenants, 1876 ed., Section CXXX, pp. 420–22 (http://books.google.com/books?id=dzJOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA420). 63 History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, B. H. Roberts, ed. (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret News Press, 1909 [1st ed.]), 5:323–25 (http://archive.org/stream/historyofchurcho05robe#page/323). 64 Doctrine and Covenants, 1921 ed., Section 130, pp. 237–38 (http://archive.org/stream/doctrineandcove01saingoog#page/n252).

© 2013, Mike Parker

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For personal use only. Not a Church publication.

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