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PID Control

69

Derivative Action

The purpose of the derivative action is to improve the closed-loop

stability. The instability mechanism can be described intuitively as

follows. Because of the process dynamics, it will take some time before

a change in the control variable is noticeable in the process output.

Thus, the control system will be late in correcting for an error. The

action of a controller with proportional and derivative action may be

interpreted as if the control is made proportional to the predicted

process output, where the prediction is made by extrapolating the

error by the tangent to the error curve (see Figure 3.10 ). The basic

structure of a PD controller is

de(t)

u(t) = K e(t) + Td

dt

A Taylor series expansion of e(t + Td ) gives

de(t)

dt

The control signal is thus proportional to an estimate of the control

error at time Td ahead, where the estimate is obtained by linear

extrapolation.

The properties of derivative action are illustrated in Figure 3.11,

which shows a simulation of a system with PID control. Controller

gain and integration time are kept constant, K = 3 and Ti = 2, and

derivative time Td is changed. For Td = 0 we have pure PI control. The

closed-loop system is oscillatory with the chosen parameters. Initially

damping increases with increasing derivative time, but decreases

again when derivative time becomes too large.

e(t + Td ) e(t) + Td

Summary

The PID controller has three terms. The proportional term P corresponds to proportional control. The integral term I gives a control

1.5

e(t)

e(t + Td )

0.5

0

e(t) + Td dedt(t)

Figure 3.10 Interpretation of derivative action as predictive control, where the prediction is obtained by linear extrapolation.

Chapter 3

70

PID Control

Td = 0.1

Td = 0.7

1

0

Td = 4.5

0

Td = 0.7 Td = 4.5

10

15

20

10

15

20

Td = 0.1

2

2

integral and derivative control. The process transfer function is

G (s) = (s + 1)3 , the controller gain is K = 3, and the integral

time is Ti = 2. The upper diagram shows setpoint ysp = 1 and

process output y for different values of derivative time Td . The lower

diagram shows control signal u for different derivative times.

action that is proportional to the time integral of the error. This ensures that the steady state error becomes zero. The derivative term D

is proportional to the time derivative of the control error. This term

allows prediction of the future error. There are many variations of the

basic PID algorithm that will substantially improve its performance

and operability. They are discussed in the next section.

3.4

The PID algorithm was given by Equation (3.9) in the previous section. This textbook algorithm is seldom used in practice because

much better performance is obtained by the modified algorithm discussed in this section.

Alternative Representations

The PID algorithm given by (Equation 3.9) can be represented by the

transfer function

1

(3.14)

G ( s) = K 1 +

+ sTd

sTi

A slightly different version is most common in commercial controllers.

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