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Mathematics Learning Performance and Mathematics

Learning Difficulties in China

1a. Statistical tool used in the study:

A multi-stage stratification sampling is constructed by taking a series of
simple random samples in stages. This type of sampling is often more
practical than simple random sampling for studies requiring "on location"
analysis, such as door-to-door surveys. In a multistage random sample, a
large area, such as a country, is first divided into smaller regions (such as
states), and a random sample of these regions is collected. In the second
stage, a random sample of smaller areas (such as counties) is taken from
within each of the regions chosen in the first stage.
1b. What it measures in the study?
The researcher used multi-stage stratification sampling to identify the total
number of samples to be used in the study. In this study, mathematics
performance data were obtained from 10, 959 students enrolled in Grade 1
to Grade 6.

2a. Statistical tool used in the study:

Cronbach's alpha is a measure of internal consistency, that is, how closely
related a set of items are as a group. It is considered to be a measure of
scale reliability. A "high" value for alpha does not imply that the measure is
unidimensional. If, in addition to measuring internal consistency, you wish to
provide evidence that the scale in question is unidimensional, additional
analyses can be performed. Technically speaking, Cronbach's alpha is not a
statistical test - it is a coefficient of reliability (or consistency).
2b. What it measures in the study?
The researcher used Cronbach's alpha to test the consistency and reliability
of the Mathematics performance test, covering the mathematics curriculum
from Grades 1 to 6. Thus, the researcher found out that the reliability of the
scales was reported to be high.

3a. Statistical tool used in the study:

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a statistical technique that is used to

reduce data to a smaller set of summary variables and to explore the
underlining theoretical structure of the phenomena. It is used to identify the
structure of the relationship between the variable and the
respondent. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a tool that is used to
confirm or reject the measurement theory. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)
and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) are similar techniques, but in
exploratory factor analysis (EFA), data is simply explored and provides
information about the numbers of factors required to represent the data.
3b. What it measures in the study?
The researcher used EFA and CFA to identify the relationship between the
following SES variables; father and mothers educational level. In an
exploratory factor analysis (EFA) the results suggest a two-factor structure in
the SES variable. But, weak factor loadings were observed for both father
and mothers educational level; moreover these SES items loaded on both
factors. They were therefore excluded from the further analysis. In a second
step, a confirmatory factor analysis was carried out building on the twofactor solution.

4a. Statistical tool used in the study:

Kendall's Tau assesses statistical associations based on the ranks of the
data. Ranking data is carried out on the variables that are separately put in
order and are numbered. Correlation analysis measures the strength of the
relationship between two variables. Correlation analyses can be used to test
for associations in hypothesis testing. The null hypothesis is that there is no
association between the variables under study. Thus, the purpose is to
investigate the possible association in the underlying variables. It would be
incorrect to write the null hypothesis as having no rank correlation between
the variables.
4b. What it measures in the study?
The researcher used Kendalls tau to correlate between mathematics
performance and parents occupational level and familys wealth underscore
the decision to include these variables in relation to the SES index. The
researcher found a strong correlation between other variables in the study.
Significance of this research in the Philippine setting.

With this research we can also identify some factors that affect the academic
performance of our students especially in Mathematics. These factors are
predictors on how we can improve our teaching strategies for us to become
effective and efficient teachers to our students. Through this, we can design
an appropriate curriculum to those who are facing hardships with their
studies due to some factors identified as significant. In the long run, this is
very beneficial to all of the educators, like us, to address the needs of our
students in Education and other matters.