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IMPEDANCE TUBES

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

ZGR PALAZ ONUR AKAYDIN

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction
Principle of Operation
Measurement Chain
Signal Processing in Impedance Tube Measurements
Market research
An application : Acoustic measurements of a rifle silencer

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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USE OF ACOUSTC MATERALS


Used for absorbing airborne sound in noise control
applications
Automotive, Aircraft, Machinery, Building and Appliance Industries
o As single layers of acoustic material
o As multilayer systems (poroelastic, acoustic, and elastic materials)

Examples:

Automotive interior headliners


Aircraft engine nacelle liners
To enhance the transmission loss in aircraft fuselage or automotive
dashboard applications.

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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ACOUSTIC PROPERTES OF MATERIALS

According to the end use, materials can be characterised by:


Sound absorbing properties;
Sound absorption coefficient
Reflection coefficient
Acoustic impedance

Sound barrier properties;


Sound transmission loss

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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DETERMINING THE SOUND ABSORBING PROPERTIES


1.

In-situ testing

2.

Free-field methods

3.

Reverberation room methods


Using a reverberation room
Using a small reverberation room adapted to the requirements
of automotive acoustics (alpha cabin)

4.

Plane-wave tube methods


Transfer Function method;
*also known as two-microphone method

The standing wave ratio method;


*mostly superseded by the two-microphone method.

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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DETERMINING THE SOUND BARRIER PROPERTIES


1.

In-situ testing

2.

Two-room method

3.

Plane-wave tube methods:

(a reverberation room/anechoic chamber suite)

Transfer matrix method using a four-microphone plane


wave tube

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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TRAVELLING AND STANDING WAVE


A travelling wave, propagates in a behaviour which is determined by its

wavelength and frequency

A standing wave, also known as a stationary wave, is a wave that

remains in a constant position.

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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STANDING WAVE
This phenomenon occurs due to two propagating travelling waves in
opposite direction

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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ABSORPTION MEASUREMENT

Reflection Coefficient
r

: Complex ratio of the amplitude of the reflected wave


to that of the incident wave in the reference plane for
a plane wave at normal incidence

Absorption Coefficient
: Ratio of sound power entering the surface of the
test object (without return) to the incident sound
power for a plane wave at normal incidence

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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CORRESPONDING ISO AND ASTM STANDARTS

ISO 10534 1
ISO 10534 2

Absorption Coefficient and Impedance (Standing Wave Ratio)


Absorption Coefficient and Impedance (Transfer Function)

ASTM E1050
ASTM E2611

Absorption and Impedance (Transfer Function)


Normal Incidence Transmission Loss (Transfer Matrix)

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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TRANSFER FUNCTION METHOD

H12

S12

H12 e j H r jH i
S11

r r e jr rr jri

1 r

H12 H I 2 jk0 x1
e
H R H12

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

STANDING WAVE RATIO METHOD

s pmax
r

pmin

s 1
s 1

1 r

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DFFERENCES IN ABSORPTION MEASUREMENT


USING STANDING WAVE RATIO

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

USING TRANSFER FUNCTION

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TRANSMISSION LOSS MEASUREMENT

Surface Impedance
Z :

Ratio of the complex sound pressure p(0), to the


normal component of the complex sound
particle velocity v(0), at an individual frequency
in the reference plane.

Transmission Loss
TL : The accumulated decrease in acoustic intensity as an
acoustic pressure wave propagates outwards from a
source.

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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Tranmission loss measurement is based on determining the Transfer


Matrix that includes the information of acoustic pressure and particle velocity
on both sides of the specimen

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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TRANSMISSION LOSS CALCULATION

pa
T11 T12 pa


a x 0 T21 T22 ua x d

T11 (T12

pb
T11 T12 pb


b x 0 T21 T22 ub x d

2e jkd
c) cT21 T22

1
TLn 20 log10
t

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

(Transmission Coefficient)

(Normal Incident Transmission Loss)

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SEVERAL PROPERTIES AND ADVANTAGES OF


IMPEDANCE TUBE MEASUREMENT
Strongly dependent on geometrical properties of the system
Useful frequency range depends on the tube diameter and microphone spacing
Easy-to-handle, cheaper and faster when compared to traditional methods (e.g.
reverberation room method)
Measurement can be achieved with small amounts of test materials

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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MEASUREMENT CHAIN

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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MEASUREMENT CHAIN

Digital signal
generation

Computer and
The Software

Digital-to-Analog
Analyzer
Conversation

Power Amplifier

Sound Source

Analog-to-digital
Conversation

Input Filter

Data Logging and


Signal Processing

Anti-aliasing etc.

Pre-Amplifier

Speaker

Transducers

Microphones

Impedance Tube with Testing Specimen

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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SYSTEM COMPONENTS

The measurement chain includes;

Tubes
Microphones
Sound source
Amplifiers
Analyzer
Data acquisition and signal processing software
Computer

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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MEASUREMENT STEPS
The input signal to be generated can be in forms of;

A periodic signal with certain frequency


Band-limited white noise
Random noise with uniform spectral density over interested range
Impact

For a single tone input signal, only a frequency component (FRA) can be investigated
For other multi-tone signals, spectrum analysis (FRF) can be determined

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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MEASUREMENT STEPS
Amplification should provide following features;
A flat spectrum in the interested frequency range
High levels of signal-to-noise ratio
***The best performing amplifiers are the ones having vacuum tubes.

The sound source, speaker, should be capable of;


Providing the input signal spectrum in its bandwidth
Including properties of low impedance, high QMS and low QTS, long stroke
of the voice coil inside

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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MEASUREMENT STEPS
The main structure, impedance tubes must have;
Certain values of geometric dimensions
Stainless material, enough wall thickness for insulation, specially treated
internal structure
No internal cracks, faults or holes (except for relief openings)

Microphone properties;

Each microphone must be identical with each other


Proper bandwidth,
Very flat frequency response
Providing geometric demands

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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MEASUREMENT STEPS
The analyzer, main hardware component in measurement;

Have high-bit A/D converter,


Anti-aliasing filter
Have enough sampling rate to satisfy the interested frequency range
Have signal generation option
Should supply power to transducers(e.g. IEPE type sensors)
Channels must work simultaneously with same sampling properties (no
multiplexing)

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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MEASUREMENT STEPS
The signal processing software,a critical part of the process,

Must have the capability of making frequency analysis


Should be communicating with the analyzer ,as fast as possible
Should have easy-to-use interface for most users
Must include signal processing options like windowing, averaging, filtering ...
Must have Export and Import options
Have the capability of generating signals including random, pseudo-random,
periodic signals etc.

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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SIGNAL PROCESSING IN IMPEDANCE TUBE MEASUREMENTS

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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SIGNAL PROCESSING
In measurement following analog signal processes are done;
Analog filtering (anti-aliasing...)
Amplification (power amplifiers and conditioning amplifiers)
DAC and ADC convertion

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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SIGNAL PROCESSING
Most of the signal processing is done digitally;
Filtering (if necessary !)
Averaging (Linear, Exponential, etc.)
Windowing

Spectrum Analysis
Cross Spectrum
Autospectrum

Other (Transfer function calibration,


calculations of acoustic properties etc.)

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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MARKET RESEARCH

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

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OVERVIEW ON MARKET
Company
Brel & Kjr
BIAS Engineering

01dB-Metravib

BSWA

LMS

Tube

Analyzer
Hardware

Software

Transmission
Loss

Frequency
Range

4206, 4206A,
4206T

PULSE

7758

Yes

50Hz - 6.4kHz

XN-1105

NI 4431

LabVIEW

Yes

300Hz - 9kHz

SCS9020B

PRO-117

dBAlphaTest

Optional

50Hz - 6.4kHz

SW230, SW260
SW433, SW463

MC3022
MC 3044

No

Yes

125Hz 6.3kHz

No

Pimento

Testprocedure

No

DS-2000

DS-0257

No

50Hz - 6.4kHz

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

SCS 902A

Yes

Soundbook

AFD 1001

No

SCS

SR-4100A
SR-4100B
SP-2001,
SP2002
SCS 9020

Sinus

AFD 1000

Ono Sokki
SCIEN

DATA ACQUISITION AND SIGNAL PROCESSING

100Hz 6.3kHz
50Hz - 6.4kHz
100Hz 4
kHz

ZGR PALAZ ONUR AKAYDIN