This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Language describing ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people, or places. The subject of the sentence performs the action. In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas. It comes from the Latin meaning "against the man." A folk saying with a lesson A story, fictional or non fictional, in which characters, things, and events represent qualities or concepts. A work that functions on a symbolic level The repetition of initial consonant sounds, such as "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers." An indirect reference to something with which the reader is supposed to be familiar. An event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way. A literary device employed to serve as a basis for comparison. It is assumed that what applies to the parallel situation also applies to the original circumstance. In other words, it is the comparison between two different items. repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer's point more coherent. A story or brief episode told by the writer or a character to illustrate a point. Explanatory notes added to a text to explain, clarify, or prompt further thought; can also cite sources or give bibliographical data. The word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers. Two opposite or contrasting words, phrases, or clauses, or even ideas, with parallel structure. a terse saying embodying a general truth or astute observation, expresses a general truth or moral principle
Anaphora Anecdote Annotation Antecedent Antithesis
Aphorism Ex: "Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely" (Lord Acton). Apostrophe A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity. A word or group or words placed beside a noun or noun substitute to supplement its meaning. A single assertion or a series of assertions presented and defended by the writer
The purpose of this rhetorical mode is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader. Repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximity Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words. The parts are emphasized equally when the conjunction is omitted; in addition, the use of commas with no intervening conjunction speeds up the flow of the sentence. X, Y, Z as opposed to X, Y, and Z. the relationship an author has toward his or her subject, and/or his or her audience, revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization. Arguments that draw on recognized experts or persons with highly relevant experience. Support or evidence for a claim in an argument a situation in which all parts of the presentation are equal, whether in sentences or paragraphs or sections of a longer work. One in which two parallel elements are set off against each other like equal weights on a scale. a ludicrous descent from the exalted or lofty to the commonplace; anticlimax. Often called circular reasoning; occurs when the believability of the evidence depends on the believability of the claim. Harsh and discordant sounds in a line or passage in a literary word. Writer asserts that one thing results from another. To show how one thing produces or brings about another is often relevant in establishing a logical argument. those who carry out the action of the plot in literature. Major, minor, static, and dynamic are the types. Arrangement of repeated thoughts in the pattern of X Y Y X. It is often short and summarizes a main idea. Art or literature characterized by a realistic view of people and the world; sticks to traditional themes and structures. A grammatical unit that contains both a subject and a verb. a trite, stereotyped expression; a sentence or phrase, usually expressing a popular or common thought or idea, that has lost originality, ingenuity, and impact by long overuse characteristic of or appropriate to ordinary or familiar conversation rather than formal speech or writing; informal. Slang in writing, used often to create local color and to provide an informal tone.
Attitude/Tone Authority Backing Balance Balanced sentence Bathos Begging the Question Cacophony Causal Relationship
Character Chiasmus Classicism Clause Cliché
Comic Relief Complex sentence Compound sentence Compound-complex sentence Conceit Concrete Language Conflict Connotation Consonance Cumulative Declarative sentence Deconstruction Deduction Denotation Dependent clause
The inclusion of a humorous character or scene to contrast with the tragic elements of a work, thereby intensifying the next tragic event. Contains only one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Contains at least two independent clauses but no dependent clauses. Contains two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. the use of such metaphors as a literary characteristic, esp. in poetry. Language that describes specific, observable things, peoples or places, rather than ideas or qualities. a clash between opposing forces in a literary work, such as man vs. man; man vs. nature; man vs. God; man vs. self the interpretive level or a word based on its associated images rather than its literal meaning. Repetition of a consonant sound within two or more words in close proximity, especially at the end of words Sentence which begins with the main idea and then expands on that idea with a series of details or other particulars States an idea A critical approach that debunks single definitions of meaning based on the instability of language. It "is not a dismantling of a structure of a text, but a demonstration that it has already dismantled itself." The process of moving from a general rule to a specific example. the literal, explicit meaning of a word, without its connotations. an idea cannot stand alone in a sentence even though it has a subject and a verb The purpose of this rhetorical mode is to re- create, invent, or visually present a person, place, event, or action so that the reader can picture that being described. Sometimes an author engages all five senses. a variety of a language that is distinguished from other varieties of the same language by features of phonology, grammar, and vocabulary, and by its use by a group of speakers who are set off from others geographically or socially. the author's choice of words that creates tone, attitude, and style, as well as meaning A term used to describe fiction, nonfiction or poetry that teaches a specific lesson or moral or provides a model of correct behavior or thinking. the object that receives the direct action of the verb Facts or events are unknown to a character in a play or a piece of fiction but
Diction Didactic Direct Object Dramatic Irony
known to the reader, audience, or other characters in the work Either- or reasoning Ellipsis Epigram Epigraph Epitaph Equivocation Ethical Appeal Ethos Eulogy When the writer reduces an argument or issue to two polar opposites and ignores any alternatives. The deliberate omission of a word or phrase from prose done for effect by the author. Indicated by a series of three periods (…) A short poem with a clever twist at the end, or a concise and witty statement. A motto or quotation, as at the beginning of a literary composition, setting forth a theme. A brief poem or other writing in praise of a deceased person. When a writer uses the same term in two different senses in an argument. When a writer tries to persuade the audience to respect and believe him or her based on a presentation of image of self through the text. An appeal based on the character/reputation/ credibility of the speaker. A speech or writing in praise of a person or thing, esp. a set oration in honor of a deceased person. A more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable; used to obscure the reality of the situation. The pleasant, mellifluous presentation of sounds in a literary work. An individual instance taken to be representative of a general pattern The act of interpreting or discovering the meaning of a text. Usually involves close reading and special attention to figurative language. The purpose of this rhetorical mode is to explain and analyze information by presenting an idea, relevant evidence, and appropriate discussion. A metaphor developed at great length, occurring frequently in or throughout a work. Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid. A device used to produce figurative language. Many compare dissimilar things. Examples are apostrophe, hyperbole, irony, metaphor, metonymy, oxymoron, paradox, personification, simile, synecdoche, and understatement. The major category into which a literary work fits. The basic divisions of literature are prose, poetry, and drama. Writing characterized by gloom, mystery, fear and/or death. This term literally means "sermon," but more informally, it can include any serious talk, speech, or lecture involving moral or spiritual advice.
Euphemism Euphony Example Explication Exposition Extended Metaphor Figurative Language
Figure of Speech
Genre Gothic Homily
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement A common, often used expression that doesn't make sense if you take it literally. The sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstractions; uses terms related to the five senses; we refer to visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory. Issues a command. expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence the object that is the recipient of the action of the verb To draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented. Sentences incorporating interrogative pronouns. An emotionally violent, verbal denunciation or attack using strong, abusive language. The contrast between what is stated explicitly and what is really meant. The difference between what appears to be and what actually is true. The diction used by a group which practices a similar profession or activity. Placing things side by side for the purposes of comparison. A particular form of understatement, generated by denying the opposite of the statement which otherwise would be used. an appeal based on logic or reason A complex sentence in which the main clause comes first and the subordinate clause follows. A figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance a term from the Greek meaning "changed label" or "substitute name;” a figure of speech in which the name of one object is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. This term has two distinct technical meanings in English writing. The first meaning is grammatical and deals with verbal units and a speaker's attitude. The second meaning is literary, meaning the prevailing atmosphere or emotional aura of a work. A recurring subject, theme, idea, etc. The purpose of this type of rhetorical mode is to tell the story or narrate an event or series of events. This term describes the tools of the storyteller, such as ordering events to that they build to climatic movement or withholding information until a crucial or
Imagery Imperative sentence Independent clause Indirect Object Infer Interrogative sentence Invective Irony Jargon Juxtaposition Litotes Logos Loose sentence Metaphor
Motif Narration Narrative Device
appropriate moment when revealing in creates a desired effect. Objectivity Onomatopoeia Oratory Oxymoron Paradox Parallelism Parenthetical idea Parody Parody Passive voice Pathetic fallacy An author's stance that distances himself from personal involvement. a figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words. Simple examples include such words as buzz, hiss, and hum. The art of public speaking, esp. in a formal and eloquent manner. From the Greek for "pointedly foolish;” a figure of speech wherein the author groups apparently contradictory terms. A seemingly contradictory statement which is actually true, to some degree. refers to the grammatical or rhetorical framing of words, phrases, sentences, or paragraphs to give structural similarity. An idea that is set off from the rest of the sentence. A work that closely imitates the style or content of another with the specific aim of comic effect and/or ridicule. An exaggerated imitation of a serious work for humorous purposes. The subject of the sentence receives the action. The attribution of human emotions or characteristics to inanimate objects or to nature an appeal based on emotion; the quality or power in an actual life experience or in literature, music, speech, or other forms of expression, of evoking a feeling of pity or compassion. Observing strict adherence to formal rules or literal meaning at the expense of a wider view. A sentence that presents its central meaning in a main clause at the end. The independent clause is preceded by a phrase or clause that cannot stand alone. The effect is to add emphasis and structural variety. The fictional mask or narrator that tells a story. The attribution of a personal nature or character to inanimate objects In literature, the perspective from which a story is told. (1st, 2nd, 3rd limited, 3rd omniscient) Tells what the subject is or does follows a linking verb and describes the subject Follows a linking verb and defines or renames the subject The antecedent is the word the pronoun replaces One of the major divisions of genre that refers to fiction and nonfiction, including all its forms, because they are written in ordinary language and most
Periodic Sentence Persona Personification Point of View Predicate Predicate adjective Predicate noun Pronoun/ antecedent Prose
closely resemble everyday speech. Repetition Rhetoric Rhetorical Modes Rhetorical question Romanticism The duplication, either exact or approximate, or any element of language, such as sound, word, phrase, clause, sentence, or grammatical pattern. from the Greek for "orator;” describes the principle governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively. The flexible term describes the variety, the conventions, and the purposes of the major kinds of writing. A question not asked for information but for effect. Art or literature characterized by an idealistic, perhaps unrealistic view of people and the world, and an emphasis on nature. From the Greek meaning "to tear flesh;” involves bitter, caustic language that is meant to hurt or ridicule someone or something. It may use irony as a device. A work that targets human vices and follies or social institutions and convention for reform or ridicule; regardless of whether or not the work aims to reform humans or their society, best seen as a style of writing rather than a purpose for writing; often humorous, is thought provoking and insightful about the human condition. The branch of linguistics that studies that meaning of words, their historical and psychological development, their connotations, and their relation to one another. A group of words (including subject and verb) that expresses a complete thought. Using words such as "like" or "as" to make a direct comparison between two very different things. Contains one independent clause. a type of irony in which events turn out the opposite of what was expected. A narrative technique that places the reader in the mind and thought process of the narrator, no matter how random and spontaneous that may be. An evaluation of the sum of the choices an author makes in blending diction, syntax, figurative language, and other literary devices. Who or what the sentence is about The hidden or underlying meaning of something From the Greek for "reckoning together;” a deductive system of formal logic that presents two premises that inevitably lead to a sound conclusion. Anything that represents, stands for, something else. Usually concrete—such as an object, action, character, or scene—that represents something more abstract.
Sentence Simile Simple sentence Situational Irony Stream-ofconsciousness Style Subject Subtext Syllogism
Synecdoche Syntax/sentence variety Theme
a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part The grammatical structure of prose and poetry. The central idea or message of a work, the insight it offers into life. Usually unstated in fictional works, but in nonfiction may be directly stated, especially in expository or argumentative writing. The sentence or group of sentences that directly expresses the author's opinion, purpose, meaning, or proposition. Point of view presents the feelings and thoughts of only one character, presenting only the actions of all remaining characters Point of view in which an omniscient narrator, with a godlike knowledge, presents the thoughts and actions of any or all characters. Similar to mood, describes the author's attitude toward his or her material, the audience, or both. A word or phrase that links one idea to the next and carries the reader from sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph. A statement that is restrained in ironic contrast to what might have been said, the opposite of hyperbole. Words literally state the opposite of the writer's true meaning Language or dialect of a particular country, language or dialect of a regional clan or group, plain everyday speech. the relationship between a sentence's subject and verb (active and passive); the total "sound" of the writer's style. In modern usage, intellectually amusing language that surprises and delights. Usually uses terse language that makes a pointed statement.
Thesis Third Person Limited Omniscient Third Person Omniscient Tone Transition Understatement Verbal Irony Vernacular Voice Wit
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.