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Indonesian Government

Di Susun Oleh :
A 6


TAHUN 2015/2016

"Indonesian Government System"
In the world of state administration, has made a rule that would set up a wide range of
survival or the course of a country's government in improving the functioning of the country.
It can be obtained by making the system of government. Especially Indonesian government
system. Thus an independent state should have a rule or system of government that will
regulate the sustainability of a country's citizens in making prosperous members. From this
can explain what it is that the purpose of the system and what is the mean by the government.
The system has a meaning that is a whole consisting of several parts that have a functional
relationship. While the Government in the broad sense is the government / state institutions
are doing everything good government as the executive, the legislature and the
judiciary.Government System
can at grouped into a number below:
System of government Presidential system of government Indonesiaa system of
government in which the head of government held by the president and the government is not
accountable to parliament (legislative). Minister responsible to the president because the
president serves as head of state and head of government.Example Country: USA, Pakistan,
Argentina, the Philippines, Indonesia.The characteristics of the Presidential system of
government:1. Presidential Government is based on the principle of separation of powers.2.
The Executive does not have the power to blend with the Legislature.3. The Cabinet is
responsible to the president.4. executive elected by popular vote.
Parliamentary system of governmentis a system of government in which the
government (executive) is responsible to parliament. In this system of government, the
parliament has a great power and has the authority to conduct oversight of the executive.
Ministers and the prime minister is responsible to parliament.Example Country: United
Kingdom, the Netherlands, India, Australia, Malaysia.The characteristics and conditions of
the Parliamentary system of government:1. Parliamentary Government is based on the
principle of division of powers.2. There is a mutual responsibility between the legislative and
executive, and between the president and the cabinet.3. Executives appointed by the
government with legislative approval.
Mixed government systemthe system of government is taken the best things of the
presidential system of government and the system of Parliamentary government. Besides
having a president as head of state, the prime minister also has the head of
government.Example Country: France.The implementation period of the State Government
System in Indonesia* Year 1945 - 1949Any deviation from the provisions of the Constitution
of '45, among others:Changing the function of the central committee of the Indonesian
national presidential aide assigned to the legislative body and helps to define who is the

authority of the Assembly Guidelines.Change the presidential system into a parliamentary

cabinet cabinet proposal by BP - KNIP.* Year 1949 - 1950RIS is based on the constitution.
Government that applied when it was a parliamentary cabinet system pseudo (Quasy
Parlementary). Governance system adopted in the constitution of a parliamentary cabinet RIS
is not purely because of the pure parliamentary system, Parliament has a crucial position
against government power.
* Year 1950 - 1959Foundation is the Constitution constitutional successor RIS '50 '49.
Governance system adopted is a parliamentary cabinet with liberal democracy that is still
apparent. Characteristics:president and vice president can not be contested.Minister
responsible for government policy.President the right to dissolve parliament.Prime Minister
appointed by the President.
* Years 1959 - 1966 (Guided Democracy)The President has absolute power and
maketh a tool to eliminate the powers that prevent that fate is determined by the president of
the political party (10 recognized political parties). There is no freedom of speech.
* Year 1966 - 1998Soeharto New Order was born with a determination to make
corrections guided the era of the old order. But over time many deviations. Suharto's
resignation on May 21, '98.
* In 1998 - Present (Reform)Implementation of Pancasila democracy in the reform era
has provided the space for the political parties and the Parliament to oversee the government
critically and justified for a rally.Government System in accordance with the Constitution
before it was amended '45:
The highest authority is given to the people of the MPR. Parliament as a
legislator. The President as a government administrator.
DPA as a giver of advice to the government.
MA as the courts and the testing rules.
CPC financial auditors.Government System after amendment (1999 - 2002) MPR
no longer the highest institution
Composition of the Assembly consists of all members of the House of
Representatives plus the Council elected by the people.
The President and Vice President are elected directly by the people. The President
can not dissolve Parliament.
Legislative power is dominant.Indonesia SisPem Comparison with Other Countries
SisPemBased on the explanation of '45 Constitution, Indonesia adopts Presidensia.
But in practice many elements of Parliamentary Government System. So we can say
Indonesian Government System is a combination of Presidential and
Parliamentary.excess Indonesian Government System
The President and ministers during his tenure can not be dropped Parliament.
The government had time to run the program with no shadow cabinet crisis.
The President can not enforce and or dissolve Parliament.Indonesia Government
System Weakness
There is a tendency too strong authority and the concentration of power in the hands
of the President.
Often the change of officials for their rights perogatif president.
Supervision of the people against the government less influential.
The influence of people's political wisdom received less attention.Differences
Governance System Indonesia and Malaysia Government System

The Executive Boarda. The Executive Board is the Prime Minister of Malaysia as a
driver of state government.b. Executive Board President of Indonesia lies in having two
positions as head of state and head of government.
Legislaturea. In Malaysia, there are 2 Main Board of the agency regulations that the
State Council and the Council that make laws.b. In Indonesia, in the hands of Parliament
whose role is to make laws with the consent of the President.

The Indonesian Political System
The Republic of Indonesia came into being in 1945, after a long period of
Dutch colonial rule and Japanese wartime occupation.
Indonesia's founding fathers established a central form of government (or
unitary state), in order to unify the people of many ethnic, religious and cultural
backgrounds spread across thousands of islands.
Five years after independence, Indonesia followed a system of federal
government under the 'United Republic of Indonesia' for seven months (29
December 1949- 17 August 1950), however it then returned to the 'Unitary State
of the Republic of Indonesia', based on the 1945 constitution.
Indonesia's highest political institution is an elected People's Consultative
Assembly (MPR), which convenes every 5 years to approve the broad outlines of
state policy. The President of Indonesia - who occupies the position of head of
state and head of government - is responsible to the MPR.
Since the end of the New Order era (1966-1998), Indonesian governments
have faced pressure from the provincial regions for a less centralised system of
government. The concept of regional autonomy has now been offered as a way
of decentralising power.
The 1945 Constitution:
The Constitution in Indonesia is the "1945 Constitution". It regulates the
position and responsibilities of state officials, their authorities, tasks and relations
between state institutions (legislative, executive and judicial). The 1945
Constitution also regulates the rights and responsibilities of citizens.
The legislative institutions consist of the People's Consultative Assembly
(MPR), and a House of Representatives (DPR).
The executive contains the President, who carries out his/her tasks with
the assistance of a Vice President and Cabinet. Governments at provincial level
are headed by a governor, and at regency/municipal level headed by a regent or

The judicature consist of the Supreme Court, the highest judicial

institution, along with other lower legal bodies.
The 1945 Constitution is currently in the process of being amended. This
constitutional revision will encompass fundamental changes to the tasks and
relations between state institutions.
The People's Consultative Assembly:
The key function of the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), being the
highest state institution, is to promulgate the constitution, to appoint or dismiss
the president and vice president, and to decide the guidelines of state policy
The role of the MPR may change depending on the amendments made to
the 1945 Constitution, which are currently under way. There are 700 members of
the MPR, consisting of 500 members of the House of Representatives plus 200
non-elected members representing various popular groupings and the provinces.
They serve a five year term.
The House of Representatives:
The House of Representatives is the institution, which oversees the
direction of the government, and, along with the government, drafts regulations
and laws.
Its 500 members are elected through a general election, held once every
five years.
The President/Vice President:
The President of the Republic of Indonesia executes governmental
administration. According to the 1945 Constitution, a Vice-President assists the
President. In the Indonesian political system, the President is the Head of State at
the same time as being the Head of Government. In this latter capacity, the
President occupies a position that is equal to that of other high-level state
institutions (including the DPR and Supreme Court).
The President also carries out the mandate of the MPR, including executing
the guidelines of state policy, and appoints ministers and heads of nonministerial institutions with the level of a ministry (the Armed Forces, Police and
Attorney General) who assist in the execution of these tasks.
The 1945 Constitution (the version prior to amendments) states that the
President and Vice President are appointed by the MPR in accordance with
majority vote. The President and Vice President are appointed for a period of five
years, after which there must be a new election.
Supreme Court:
The Supreme Court is the judicial arm of the State and exists beside
legislative and the executive branches. It was not until 1968 that
restructuring of the Supreme Court was completed to meet the conditions set
in the 1945 Constitution, i.e. to be free from government intervention in
exercise of justice.


Other High Level Institutions:

Other high level institutions include the State Audit Board (BPK) and the
Supreme Advisory Council (DPA).
The principal function of the State Audit Board is to inspect the
government's finances. The findings of the State Audit Board are reported to the
People's Legislative Assembly - the body that approves the estimated State
Income and Expenditure.
The Supreme Advisory Council functions to provide advice for the
President upon request, on matters related to political, economic, socio-cultural
and military issues. It also might provide advice, suggestions or
recommendations on matters related to the interests of the state.
Members of the Supreme Advisory Council are nominated by the People's
Legislative Assembly and appointed by the President for a period of service of
five years. There are 45 members of the Supreme Advisory Council.
Regional Government:
There are 30 provinces and 354 regencies in Indonesia. A governor heads
a province, while the regency or municipal level of government is headed by a
regent or mayor.
Since the promulgation of Law Number 22/1999 on Regional Autonomy on
1 January 2001, the authority of the regency in managing the region has been
strengthened, and relations between the provincial government and the regency
government are more co-ordinated.
Relations between the legislative, executive and judicial bodies on the
provincial and regency/municipal levels take a similar pattern of that on the
national level. For example, the provincial House of Representatives (DPRD
Tingkat I) monitors government administration in the province. It also drafts
provincial regulations together with the governor. The judicature consists of high
courts and regional courts.

Artikel 2.
1. Mentioned whatever the state of being adheres to system of
government presidensial!
2. Explain what is meant by the system and government!
3. Explain what is meant by system of government presidensial
Artikel 1.
1. What the implementation of 22 undang-undang number / 1999 about
district autonomy on 1 january 2001