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Dimayuga, Evytte M.

ChE-3301
Narrative Report
PULP AND PAPER INDUSTRIES
SULFITE PULPING
The production of acid sulfite pulp proceeds similarly to kraft pulping, except
that different chemicals are used in the cooking liquor. In place of the caustic
solution used to dissolve the lignin in the wood, sulfurous acid is employed. To
buffer the cooking solution, a bisulfite of sodium, magnesium, calcium, or
ammonium is used.
The quantity of pulp made by this process steadily diminishes despite its high
quality, because of the water problem which it causes.
The usual sulfite process consists of digestion of the wood in an aqueous
solution containing calcium bisulfite and an excess of sulfur dioxide. Sodium and
ammonia have also been substituted for calcium as pulping base in a limited
way.
Sulfite pulp is a high grade type of pulp and serve as the manufacture of
some of the finest papers including bond. It is used either alone or with some rag
pulp to make writing paper and a high grade book paper. It furnishes dissolving
pulps for plastics, synthetic fibers and other products in which wood per se is
unrecognizable.
Types of Sulfite Pulping
Calcium-based
-The earliest process used calcium, obtained as inexpensive calcium
carbonate and there was little incentive to recover the inorganic materials
Ammonia-based
-Ammonia-based processes do not allow recovery of the pulping chemicals since
ammonia or ammonium salts are oxidized to nitrogen and nitrogen oxides when
burned.
Magnesium-based
-The recovery process used in magnesium-based sulfite pulping the "Magnefite"
process is well developed.

-The concentrated brown liquor is burned in a recovery boiler,


producing magnesium oxide and sulfur dioxide, both of which are recovered from
the flue gases.
-Magnesium oxide is recovered in a wet scrubber to give a slurry of magnesium
hydroxide. This magnesium hydroxide slurry is then used in another scrubber to
absorb sulfur dioxide from the flue gases producing a magnesium bisulfite
solution that is clarified, filtered and used as the pulping liquor.
Sodium-based
-Sodium-based processes use a recovery system similar to that used in the kraft
recovery process, except that there is no "lime cycle".
Simplified process flow diagram for sulfite pulping

Neutral Sulfite Semichemical (NSSC) Pulping


In this method, wood chips are cooked in a neutral solution of sodium sulfite
and sodium carbonate. Sulfite ions react with the lignin in wood, and the sodium
bicarbonate acts as a buffer to maintain a neutral solution.
The major difference between all semichemical techniques and those of kraft
and acid sulfite processes is that only a portion of the lignin is removed during

the cook, after which the pulp is further reduced by mechanical disintegration.
Uses substantially less chemicals in pulping than the full chemical process
This method achieves yields as high as 60 to 80 percent, as opposed to 50 to
55 percent for other chemical processes.
Thermomechanical Pulp
Thermomechanical pulp is pulp produced by processing wood chips using heat
(thus thermo-" and a mechanical refining movement (thus "-mechanical").
It takes advantage of the fact that elevated temperatures soften the lignin and
make mechanical pulping less difficult.
It is a two stage process where the logs are first stripped of their bark and
converted into small chips. These chips have a moisture content of around 2530
percent and a mechanical force is applied to the wood chips in a crushing or
grinding action which generates heat and water vapour and softens
the lignin thus separating the individual fibres. The pulp is then screened and
cleaned, any clumps of fibre are reprocessed.
This process gives a high yield of fibre from the timber (around 95 percent)
and as the lignin has not been removed, the fibres are hard and rigid.
Secondary Fiber Pulping
Paper recycling processes can use either chemical or mechanical pulp. By
mixing with water and applying mechanical action the hydrogen bonds in the
paper can be broken and fibres separated again. Most recycled paper contains a
proportion of virgin fibre in the interests of quality. Generally deinked pulp is of
the same quality or lower than the collected paper it was made from.
Recycled pulp is also called deinked pulp (DIP). DIP is recycled paper which
has been processed by chemicals, thus removing printing inks and other
unwanted elements and freed the paper fibres
DIP is used as raw material in papermaking. Many newsprint, toilet
paper and facial tissue grades commonly contain 100 percent deinked pulp and
in many other grades, such as lightweight coated for offset and printing and
writing papers for office and home use, DIP makes up a substantial proportion of
the furnish.
Rag Pulping
The oldest material used for making paper, and the material still used for the
finest grades, is cotton in the form of rags or cotton linters.

The cotton pulping process involves cooking the finely-chopped cotton


fibers with various chemicals and water. During this process, the pulp slurry is
subjected to several cleaning stages prior to being formed into finished products
or half-stock sheets destined for further processing by end users.

Classification of Papers
Paper may be classified into seven categories:

Printing papers of wide variety.

Wrapping papers for the protection of goods and merchandise. This includes wax and kraft
papers.

Writing paper suitable for stationery requirements. This includes ledger, bank, and bond
paper.

Blotting papers containing little or no size.

Drawing papers usually with rough surfaces used by artists and designers, including
cartridge paper.

Handmade papers including most decorative papers, Ingres papers, Japanese paper and
tissues, all characterized by lack of grain direction.

Specialty papers including cigarette paper, toilet tissue, and other industrial papers.

STRUCTURAL BOARDS
Fiberboards
-rigid and semirigid sheets formed by the wet or dry felting of fibers
-the fiber used is usually from soft or hard woods, cull timber and mill residues
Particleboards

-uses sawdust, shavings and wood flakes of special shapes to combine good
physical properties with attractive appearance
-Used for subflooring, core stock for veneered furniture, decorative paneling and
are replacing plywood and lumber for some structural applications
Paper-based laminates
-multiple sheets of resin-treated paper bonded together under high pressure and
heat; under these conditions they become rigid and have no characteristic of
paper
-termed as resin-filled or resin impregnated
-they possess several characteristics, such as stability and strength which make
them useful in the building industries