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COSMETICS INDUSTRY

By: Jemuel G. Madayag


INTRODUCTION TO COSMETICS
Cosmetics, generally known as makeup, are substances used to enhance the appearance
of the human body. They are generally mixtures of chemical compounds, some being derived from
natural sources (such as coconut oil) and many being synthetics.
The word cosmetics derives from the Greek word meaning technique of dress and
ornament, from a Greek word meaning skilled in ordering or arranging, and that from another
Greek word meaning amongst others order and ornament.
The history of cosmetics spans at least 6000 years and is present in almost every society on
Earth. Some argue that cosmetic body art was the earliest form of ritual in human culture, dating
over 100,000 years ago from the African Middle Stone Age. The evidence for this comes in the form
of utilized red mineral pigments (red ochre) including crayons associated with the emergence of
Homo sapiens in Africa.
Types of Makeup Products
Over the last 100 years, cosmetic products received their renaissance that was fuelled with
rapid inventions and fast fashion changes. With thousands upon thousands of products on the
market, cosmetic and makeup can be divided in several distinct types. Here they are:
Powders
Gels
Suspensions
Sticks
Ointments/ Pastes
Lotions
Capsules/tablets/cakes
Primers, foundations and concealers
Also, makeup products can be distinguished by their area of application:
Lips - Lipsticks, lip gloss, lip liner, lip plumper, lip balm, lip conditioner, lip primer, lip boosters.
Eyes Mascara, mascara primer, eye shadows, eye primers, eyelash glue, eyelash curler
Eyebrows - eyebrow pencils, creams, waxes, gels and powders
Nails Nail polish, nail gloss
Face face powders, foundations, primers, concealers, blush powder, bronzer, setting spray,
contour powder/cream

LIPSTICK PRODUCTION
Lipstick is a cosmetic product containing pigments, oils, waxes, and emollients that apply
color, texture, and protection to the lips.
Many colors and types of lipstick exist. As with most other types of makeup, lipstick is
typically, but not exclusively, worn by women. The use of lipstick dates back to medieval times.
How lipsticks are made?
For the last four thousand years, chemist and inventors tried to improve lipstick formula with
many new ingredients and recipes. No matter how much time has passed, and fashion moods
changed the way we use lipstick, its basic formula always remained the same. In its most basic
form lipstick is the mix of oils, waxes and pigments which form a mass that can easily be applied to
our lips. Creating a viable formula is not an easy job, and for a good lipsticks a lot of time and

sometimes hundreds variations of recipe is needed to make it perfect. Some of the few important
properties of lipsticks are its color, opacity, fragrance, and dryness.
Before making lipstick, ingredients must be chosen. The most basic ingredients of every
lipstick are waxes, oils, and pigments, but many other substances can be introduced into the mix
that will enhance certain parts of the final product and add it some specific new features such as
fragrance, longevity and gloss. Some of the most common secondary ingredients are preservatives
(to ensure longer shelf life), alcohol (solvent for other substances), fragrance (oils and waxes can
sometimes have their own smell and taste, which needs to be eliminated), and others.
The most common lipstick manufacturing procedure is done in five stages.
1. Pigment milling, in which you chose desired pigment, or the combination of pigment and
then carefully mix them. Then, pigment is joined with oils and put through three-roll mill
which grind ever particle usually to the size of 20 microns. Common ratio of oil and pigment
is 2 to 1 particles.

To make lipstick, the


are first melted
oils and solvents are
the desired color

various raw ingredients


separately, and then the
ground together with
pigments.

2. Combination of pigment phase into base wax is done with simple mixing of those
liquids in a steam-jacketed kettle that is equipped with one propeller agitator. After
successful mixing, resulting liquid is again put through three-roll mill and usually grinded
down to particle sizes of 20 microns.
3. Molding is done at specific temperatures to eliminate certain unwanted products of fast
cooling (sometimes called cold marks). Lipsticks liquid that is heated to around 80 C is
poured into vertical split molds that are kept at temperature of around 35 C. To prevent
formation of air bubbles in the molds, manufacturers often use slightly tilted molds or use
vacuuming to forcefully extract any air.
4. Resulting lipstick is cooled down, extracted from the molds and prepared
for flaming (passing of the sticks near one or several open flame torches that will meltsmall
layer of gloss around lipsticks). This procedure will ensure better visual appearance of the
lipstick, and protection from outside air and influences (lipsticks can become rancid after
prolonged exposure to air, moisture and heat).
5. Packaging and labeling is done with the requirements of the manufacturers of brand
owner.

After
the

pigment mass is prepared, it is mixed with the hot wax. The mixture is agitated to free it of
any air bubbles. Next, the mixture is poured into tubing molds, cooled, and separated from
the molds. After final touch-up and visual inspection, the lipstick is ready for packaging.

EYE SHADOW PRODUCTION


Eye shadow is a cosmetic that is applied on the eyelids and under the eyebrows. It is
commonly used to make the wearer's eyes stand out or look more attractive.
Eye shadow can add depth and dimension to one's eyes, complement the eye color, or
simply draw attention to the eyes. Eye shadow comes in many different colors and textures. It is
usually made from a powder and mica, but can also be found in liquid, pencil, or mousse form.
Civilizations across the world use eye shadow - predominantly on females, but also
occasionally on males. In Western society, it is seen as a feminine cosmetic, even when used by
men.
In Gothic fashion, black or similarly dark-colored eye shadow and other types of eye makeup
are popular amongst both genders.
How eye shadows are made?
A large proportion of the global turnover of the cosmetics market is generated by eye makeup products, the most commonly used of which are eye-shadows.
There are different types of eye-shadow, which can be manufactured according to different
technologies: compact eye-shadows, prepared by a process that comprises grinding of powders
(fillers and pigments) together with appropriate binder compounds, sieving of the powders to obtain
a uniform particle size, and subsequent compacting under pressure to form a cake, known as the
"compact", which is placed in a metal container; moulded eye-shadows, obtained by a process that

comprises melting of waxes and oils in boilers, followed by the addition of a dispersion of suitably
calendered pigments to the molten block; the block is then solidified into solid cakes which are
finally re-melted and poured into the metal container, where they are left to solidify to obtain a cake
known as the "moulding"; "mousse" eye-shadows, prepared by mixing oils (mainly silicone oils),
gelling agents and elastomers in boilers with pigments and viscosity-controlling agents, to obtain an
aerated product with a soft, semisolid consistency which is inserted into the container under
pressure to form a "mousse".
Common ingredients in eye shadows consist of talc, mica, sericite, magnesium stearate,
colorants, and preservatives. Fillers in eye shadows are primarily talc. The liquid binders are
typically a silicone and the dry binders are typically magnesium stearate. In order to make an eye
shadow, there has to be a balance between the fillers, dry binders and liquid binders. Once the
ideal combination is found the shadow are pressed using 700-900psi.

MASCARA PRODUCTION

Mascara is a cosmetic product commonly used to enhance the eyes. It may darken, thicken,
lengthen, and/or define the eyelashes. Normally in one of three forms liquid, cake, or cream the
modern mascara product has various formulas; however, most contain the same basic components
of pigments, oils, waxes and preservatives.
How mascaras are made?
There are many different formulas for mascara. All contain pigments. Carbon black is the
black pigment in most mascara recipes, and iron oxides provide brown colors. Other colors such as
ultramarine blue are used in some formulas. One common type of mascara consists of an emulsion
of oils, waxes, and water. In formulas for this type of mascara, beeswax is often used, as is
carnauba wax and paraffin. Oils may be mineral oil, lanolin, linseed oil, castor oil, oil of turpentine,
eucalyptus oil, and even sesame oil. Some formulas contain alcohol. Stearic acid is a common
ingredient of lotion-based formulas, as are stiffeners such as ceresin and gums such as gum
tragacanth and methyl cellulose. Some mascaras include fine rayon fibers, which make the product
more viscous.

There are two main types of mascara currently


manufactured. One type is called anhydrous, meaning it
contains no water. The second type is made with a lotion base,
and it is manufactured by the emulsion method.
Mascara can be made in two different ways. In
the anhydrous method, all the ingredients are mixed,
heated, and agitated. With the emulsion method, water
and thickeners are combined, while the waxes and
emulsifiers are mixed and heated separately. Pigments
are added before both mixtures are combined in a highspeed agitator called a homogenizer. The result of either
method is a semi-solid substance that is ready to be

packaged.
Anhydrous method

Mascara can be made in two different ways. In the


anhydrous method, all the ingredients are mixed,
heated, and agitated. With the emulsion method,
water and thickeners are combined, while the waxes
and emulsifiers are mixed and heated separately.
Pigments are added before both mixtures are
combined in a high-speed agitator called a
homogenizer. The result of either method is a semisolid substance that is ready to be packaged.

In this method, ingredients

are

mixed in tanks or kettles, which make a small batch of 10-30 gal (38-114 1). The ingredients
are first carefully measured and weighed. Then a worker empties them into the mixing tank.
Heat is applied to melt the waxes, and the mixture is agitated, usually by means of a
propeller blade. The agitation continues until the mixture reaches a semi-solid state.
Emulsion method

In this method, water and thickeners are combined to make a lotion or cream base. Waxes
and emulsifiers are heated and melted separately, and pigments are added. Then the waxes
and lotion base are combined in a very high speed mixer or homogenizer. Unlike the tank or
kettle above, the homogenizer is enclosed and mixes the ingredients at very high speed
without incorporating any air or causing evaporation. The oils and waxes are broken down
into very small beads by the rapid action of the homogenizer and held in suspension in the
water. The homogenizer may hold as little as 5 gal (19 1), or as much as 100 gal (380 1).
The high-speed mixing action continues until the mixture reaches room temperature.

The following step is common to both types of mascara.

Filling

3 After the mascara solution has cooled or reached the proper state, workers transfer it to a
tote bin. Next, they roll the tote bin to the filling area and empty the solution into a hopper
on a filling machine. The filling machine pumps a measured amount (typically about 0.175
oz [5 g]) of the solution into glass or plastic mascara bottles. The bottles are usually capped
by hand. Samples are removed for inspection, and the rest are readied for distribution.

MAKEUP is not a tool meant to make an ugly thing beautiful.


It is meant only to MAGNIFY THE BEAUTY that already exists.