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A STUDY ON HANDLING OF CARGO THROUGH

CHENNAI PORT TRUST


A project report submitted to

UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS
In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


Submitted by
SRIDHAR. L, B.com(C.S),MBA,M.Com
(REG NO: MA 806??)

Under the guidance of


Mr. L. KARTHIGEYAN, MBA, M.Phil, PGDIBO, CPSCM.
Assistant Professor
Vael’s Institute of Business Administration

Department of Management Studies


VAEL’S INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
VEL’S COLLEGE OF SCIENCE
Velan Nagar, P.V. Vaithiyalingam Road, Pallavaram, Chennai-600117
Phone: (91-44)2266 2500/01/02/03 Fax: (91-44) 2266 2513
Email: .velscollege@gmail.com Web Site: www.velscollege.com
VEL’S COLLEGE OF SCIENCE
Approved by the Govt. of Tamil Nadu & Permanently Affiliated to the University of Madras

Velan Nagar, P.V. Vaithiyalingam Road, Pallavaram, Chennai-600117

Phone: (91-44)2266 2500/01/02/03 Fax: (91-44) 2266 2513

Email: .velscollege@gmail.com Web Site: www.velscollege.com

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project report entitled “A STUDY ON HANDLING
OF CARGO THROUGH CHENNAI PORT TRUST.” is a bonafide record of
work done by Mr. L. SRIDHAR of Vael’s Institute of Business Administration under Vel’s
college of Science submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the
degree, of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION of University of Madras, during
the fourth semester under our guidance.

Dr.K.GOVINDASAMY Mr. L. KARTHIGEYAN

(Principal) (Project guide)

Dr.P.GOVINDARAJAN

Director-MBA Academic Programme

Internal Examiner External Examiner


DECLARATION

L. SRIDHAR, (Reg. No: MA 806??) undersigned hereby declare that the project
work entitled “A STUDY ON HANDLING OF CARGO
THROUGH CHENNAI PORT TRUST.” submitted to
UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
award of the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION is the
record of bonafide research carried out by me under the guidance of MR. L.
KARTHIGEYAN, Vael’s Institute of Business administration, under Vel’s
College of Science, Chennai. And no part of it has been submitted for any other
degree or diploma.

PLACE: CHENNAI (Sridhar.L)


DATE:
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe sincere thanks to Dr. ISHARI K.GANESH, CHANCELLOR, Vel’s University


who has imparted me sufficient support and confidence to complete this project in the
field of Marketing.

I wish to express my gratefulness to Dr.P.GOVINDARAJAN, Director, MBA


Academic Programme, Vael’s Institute of Business Administration, and Vel’s College
of Science for his constant guidance during the project.

I wish to express my gratefulness to Mrs. PREETHA, HOD, Vael’s Institute of


Business Administration, and Vel’s College of Science for his constant guidance during
the project.

I wish to express my gratefulness to MR. L. KARTHIGEYAN, Vael’s Institute of


Business Administration, under Vel’s College of Science, Chennai for her constant
guidance during the project

I am deeply indebted to express my heartfelt thanks to Mr. C. MOHAN, Training


Manager for his support and I express my thanks to Mr. MADHU KANNAN, Project
Guide, for his guidance in completing my project successfully. I believe that this report
will be of great help to the Organization. I also thank all the other staff of Chennai Port
Trust, for extending all the necessary help to me whenever needed.

I also thank all other faculty members for their guidance in the preparation of this
project report.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO CONTENTS PAGE


NO
CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 NEED OF THE STUDY 4
1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 4
1.3COMPANY PROFILE 5
CHAPTER-II OBJECTIVES 18
2.1 PRIMARY OBJECTIVES 18
2.2 SECONDARY OBJECTIVES 18
CHAPTER- III REVIEW OF LITERATURE 19
CHAPTER-IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 24
4.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 24
4.2 DATA COLLECTION 25
4.3 PERIOD OF STUDY 25

4.4 SAMPLE SIZE 25


4.5 STATISTICAL TOOLS 26
4.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY 26
CHAPTER-V DATA ANALYSIS AND 27
INTERPRETATION
5.1 DATA ANALYSIS 27
5.2 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 47
CHAPTER-VI FINDINGS OF THE STUDY 57
CHAPTER-VII SUGGESTION & 59
RECOMMENDATION
CHAPTER-VIII CONCLUSION 60
CHAPTER-IX BIBLIOGRAPHY & ANNEXURE 61

LIST OF TABLES
S.NO TITLE PAGE
NO
5.1.1 Type of Cargo handled 28
5.1.2 Using the services of other Indian ports 29
5.1.3 Equipments used for cargo handling 30
5.1.4 Having own equipments for handling cargo. 31
5.1.5 Cargo handling process is good in Chennai Port. 32
5.1.6 Import & Export documentation procedure is simple in Chennai Port. 33
5.1.7 Level of satisfaction on the free days offered for import & Export. 34
5.1.8 Level of satisfaction on Charges for handling of import & Export. 35
5.1.9 Level of satisfaction on vessel Related Charges for Export & Import. 36
5.1.10 Port has clear & transport rules and regulation for cargo handling. 37
5.1.11 Chennai Port is good in safety & handling cargo. 38
5.1.12 Time took for handling the cargo. 39
5.1.13 DRY BULK 40
5.1.14 BREAK BULK 41
5.1.15 CONTAINERS 42
5.1.16 Type of Cargo is very advantage to handle in Chennai Port 43
5.1.17 Cargoes handled by the firm, moved from the port 44
5.1.18 On board/Hook 45
5.1.19 On Shore/Hook 46

LIST OF FIGURES
S.NO TITLE PAGE
NO
5.1.1 Type of Cargo handled 28
5.1.2 Using the services of other Indian ports 29
5.1.3 Equipments used for cargo handling 30
5.1.4 Having own equipments for handling cargo. 31
5.1.5 Cargo handling process is good in Chennai Port. 32
5.1.6 Import & Export documentation procedure is simple in Chennai Port. 33
5.1.7 Level of satisfaction on the free days offered for import & Export. 34
5.1.8 Level of satisfaction on Charges for handling of import & Export. 35
5.1.9 Level of satisfaction on vessel Related Charges for Export & Import. 36
5.1.10 Port has clear & transport rules and regulation for cargo handling. 37
5.1.11 Chennai Port is good in safety & handling cargo. 38
5.1.12 Time took for handling the cargo. 39
5.1.13 DRY BULK 40
5.1.14 BREAK BULK 41
5.1.15 CONTAINERS 42
5.1.16 Type of Cargo is very advantage to handle in Chennai Port 43
5.1.17 Cargoes handled by the firm, moved from the port 44
5.1.18 On board/Hook 45
5.1.19 On Shore/Hook 46

CHAPTER-I

INTRODUCTION
Port is a place where facilities are provided for the ships and other Sea going Crafts to take
shelter, have facilities for unloading and loading, for fuelling, for taking fresh waters and such
facilities as may be required by them.

Various types of Export & Import cargoes are handled at each Port for International Trade
as well as Coastal Trade. The Export Cargoes are those cargoes which are loaded in a ship and
go out of the Port and or to the country. The Import Cargoes are the Various types of
Export & Import cargoes are handled at each Port for International Trade as well as Coastal
Trade. The Export Cargoes are those cargoes which are loaded incoming cargo from outside the
country and are generally unloaded at the Port.

For handling various cargoes as well as for shipping movements and/or Marine Operation within
and outside the Port, a no. of equipments are needed to support the services to be rendered to the
Port Users.

To go into the details of the Management System, one should know the types of cargoes being
handled at the Port as well as the machineries needed to support the Port Operation, right from
entry of the vessel at the port limit to the exit of the vessel from the port limit.

Cargo is a good or product transported, generally for commercial gain, by ship, aircraft, train,
van or truck. In modern times, containers are used in most intermodal long-haul cargo transport.

There is a wide range of marine cargoes at seaport terminals operated. The primary types are
these:
• Automobiles are handled at many ports, usually carried on specialist roll-on/roll-off
ships.
• Break bulk cargo is typically material stacked on wooden pallets and lifted into and out
of the hold of a vessel by cranes on the dock or aboard the ship itself. The volume of
break bulk cargo has declined dramatically worldwide as containerization has grown. A
safe and secure way to secure Break bulk and freight in containers is by using Dunnage
Bags.
• Bulk Cargoes, such as salt, oil, tallow, and Scrap metal, are usually defined as
commodities that are neither on pallets nor in containers, and which are not handled as
individual pieces, the way heavy-lift and project cargoes are. Alumina, grain, gypsum,
logs and wood chips, for instance, are bulk cargoes.
• Containers are the largest and fastest growing cargo category at most ports worldwide.
Containerized cargo includes everything from auto parts and machinery components to
shoes, toys, and frozen meat and seafood.

• Project cargo and heavy lift cargo may include items such as manufacturing equipment,
factory components, power equipment such as generators and wind turbines, military
equipment or almost any other over sized or overweight cargo too big or too heavy to fit
into a container.

Dry cargo is designed to carry freight such as coal, finished steel or its ingredients, grain, sand
or gravel, or similar materials. Barges are usually constructed of steel. They have an outer hull,
an internal void that is fitted with heavy struts and cross braces or scantlings, and an internal
cargo box. The outer hull of a barge can come in one of two configurations. A rake barge has a
curved bow to provide less resistance when being pushed and is usually placed at the head of the
tow. A box barge is usually placed in the center and rear of the tow and can hold more cargo.
Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities. These cargos
are usually dropped or poured, with a spout or shovel bucket, as a liquid or as a mass of
relatively small solids (e.g. grain, coal), into a bulk carrier ship's hold, railroad car, or tanker
truck/trailer/semi-trailer body. Bulk cargos are classified as liquid or dry.

Liquid cargo barges are barges that transport petrochemicals, such as styrene, benzene and
methanol; liquid fertilizer, including anhydrous ammonia; refined products, including gasoline,
diesel and jet fuel; black oil products, such as asphalt, No. 6 fuel oil and coker fuel; and
pressurized products, such as butane, propane and butadiene, which are transported on the
waterways from producers to end users.

1.1 NEED FOR THE STUDY:

• To find out the rate of usage for different types of Cargo.

• To determine the optimal type of Cargo.

• To find the level of satisfaction in the Cargo and handling process.


• To determine the most used type equipment for Cargo handling.

1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:

This study has focused on analyzing the procedure of Cargo handling through Chennai Port
trust. The scope of the study is restricted to 100 customers only. Findings and conclusion given
in the study may help the Port trust to take effective step and improving the Cargo handling
process.

1.3 PROFILE OF THE CHENNAI PORT

Chennai Port, the third oldest port among the 12 major ports, is an emerging hub
port in the East Coast of India. This gateway port for all cargo has completed 126 years of
glorious service to the nation’s maritime trade.

Maritime trade started way back in 1639 on the sea shore Chennai. It was an open road -stead
and exposed sandy coast till 1815. The initial piers were built in 1861,but the storms of 1868 and
1872 made them inoperative. So an artificial harbour was built and the operations were started in
1881.The cargo operations were carried out on the northern pier, located on the northeastern side
of Fort St. George in Chennai. In the first couple of years the port registered traffic of 3 lakh
tonnes of cargo handling 600 ships.

Being an artificial harbour, the port was vulnerable to the cyclones, accretion of sand inside the
basin due to underwater currents, which reduced the draft. Sir Francis Spring a visionary
skillfully drew a long-term plan to charter the course of the port in a scientific manner,
overcoming both man-made and natural challenges. The shifting of the entrance of the port from
eastern side to the North Eastern side protected the port to a large extent from the natural
vulnerabilities. By the end of 1920 the port was equipped with a dock consisting of four berths in
the West Quays, one each in the East & South Quay along with the transit sheds, warehouses and
a marshalling yard to facilitate the transfer of cargo from land to sea and vice versa. Additional
berths were added with a berth at South Quay and another between WQ2 & WQ3 in the forties.

India’s Independence saw the port gathering development, momentum. The topography of the
Port changed in 1964 when the Jawahar dock with capacity to berth 6 vessels to handle Dry Bulk
cargoes such as Coal, Iron ore, Fertilizer and non hazardous liquid cargoes was carved out on the
southern side.

In tune with the international maritime developments, the port developed the Outer Harbour,
named Bharathi Dock for handling Petroleum in 1972 and for mechanized handling of Iron Ore
in 1974. The Iron ore terminal is equipped with Mechanized ore handling plant, one of the three
such facility in the country, with a capacity of handling 8 million tonnes. The Chennai port’s
share of Iron ore export from India is 12%. The dedicated facility for oil led to the development
of oil refinery in the hinterland. This oil terminal is capable of handling Suezmax vessels.

In 1983, the port heralded the country’s first dedicated container terminal facility commissioned
by the then prime minister Smt.Indira Gandhi on 18th December 1983. The Port privatized this
terminal and is operated by Chennai Container Terminal Private Limited. Having the capability
of handling fourth generation vessels, the terminal is ranked in the top 100 container ports in the
world. Witnessing a phenomenal growth in container handling year after year the port is
developing its Second Container Terminal with a capacity to handle 1 M TEUs to meet the
demand. To cater to the latest generation of vessels and to exploit the steep increase in
containerized cargo the port is planning to welcome the future with a Mega Container Terminal,
capable of handling 5 Million TEUs expected to be operational from 2013.

The Chennai port is one among the major ports having Terminal Shunting Yard and running
their own Railway operations inside the harbour on the East Coast. The port is having railway
lines running up to 68 kms and handles 32% of the total volume of the cargo, 5343 rakes
(292776 wagons) during 2008-09.

The port with three Docks, 23 berths and draft ranging from 12m to 16.5m has become a hub
port for Containers, Cars and Project Cargo in the East Coast. The port has handled an all time
high of 57.15 Million tonnes of cargo registering an increase of 7% over previous year. An
increase of 20% in handling of cars from 137971 Units in the year 2007-08 when compared with
114756 Units in the year 2008-09 and an increase of 27% in handling of containers from
1128108 TEUs in the year 2008-09 when compared with 885422 TEUs in the year 2008-09. The
long term plan for Chennai Port envisages that the Port will mainly handle 4C’s i.e. Containers,
Cars, Cruise and Clean Cargo.

PORT HISTORY:

The little fishing village called Chennai pattinam, which was founded in 1639,
became prominent during the early part of the 18th century when the East India Company was
active on the East Coast. In the Harbour, to and from ships were anchored about quarter mile
offshore and the cargo to and from the ships were transported through small lighters called
masula boats as the loss of cargo while transporting through masula boats was high, it was
proposed to build a pier to berth larger crafts and an Iron screw pile
Pier was built in 1861 to a length of 1100 ft., perpendicular to the shore during November
1881, due to violent cyclone over half a mile of breakwater was breached and equipments and
human lives lost. Through there was a demand for relocating the entrance, the restoration was
resumed in 1885.

Port of Chennai [madras then] until the year 1875 was simply an open roadstead on open
sandy coast swept by storms and occasional monsoons. Sir Frands Sprig, the then chairman of
madras port trust in 1904 created a new north-eastern Entrance after closing the original eastern
Entrance to control the siltation of the Chennai in front of the basin. Subsequently quays were
constructed at different period[i.e.] south quay-1 in 1913, the five west quay berths in 1916 to
1920, North Quay in North

Quay in 1931 and south Quay-2 in 1936 in the Inner Harbour which was later, christened
as Dr. Ambedkar DOCK.

The bharathi dock originally constructed as an outer harbour to handle vessels up to [-]
16-2 m draft. An oil jetty to handle crude oil imported by the manali oil Refinery [presently
Chennai petroleum Corporation Ltd ] was constructed initially during the year 1970 An Iron ore
berth was constructed in the same dock in 1974 for exporting Iron ore to Japan and other far East
countries subsequently one more oil jetty was constructed during the year 1985 to meet the
additional demand for crude/products.

In 1970s the madras port trust started handling container traffic was increasing, a
container Terminal of 380 m length was constructed at Bharathi Dock during the year 1983 as a
first full-fledged container hub of the country with container storage year of 51,000 sq. m and a
area. The terminal was provided with tow shore cranes and other shore facilities required for
container terminal.

Subsequently the terminal was farther extended by 220 m. during the year 1991
with additional two shore cranes and other matching infrastructural facility. As the traffic was
constantly increasing the terminal was further extended by 285 m, during fully 2002. This
container terminal of 885 in total berth length with backup area was privatized lender
concessional agreement with M/s. X Chennai container.
INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE PORT:

The Chennai port has considerable to handle 45 million tons of cargo. The details on the
infrastructure are described as follows:

Water spread Land area No of berths


Inner harbour 218 acres 413 acres 16

Outer harbour 200 acres 100 acres 7

Chennai port 418 acres 513 acres 23

The port’s operational area is grouped into three dock system namely

1. AMBEDKAR DOCK
2. JAWAHAR DOCK
3. BHARATHI DOCK

There are 23 berths distributed in the above 3 dock systems.

AMBEDKAR DOCK

Type of cargo handled General cargo, Cars, Granite steel,


Food grains.
Other usage Passenger vessels

Terminal

Terminal Car Terminal

Cruise Terminal

Name of Berth North Quay, West Quay-I,II, West


Quay-III,IV, South Quay I,II,III, East
Quay

Second container terminal

Ambedkar Dock the type of cargo handled are general cargo, cars, granite steel, and food grains.
In this dock the scheduled depth meters is from 8.50 to 12.00 meters. And its quay length is of
198.00 meters to 372.00. The transist shed is attached to this dock. The E.Q services berth is 0
to 60 m from south, from south 9.00 m 60 to 372 m 12.00 m and the naval navy vessel berth is
200.00, to 60 m from north 9.00 m to 60 to 200 m 1200 m.

JAWAHER DOCK
Type of cargo handled Coal fertilizer, Iron ore, Pellets, Edible
oil, Phosperic acid

Other usage Nil

Terminal Nil

Name of berth JD,1,2,3,4,5,6.

In jawahar dock the type of cargo handled are coal, fertilizer, iron ore lumps, pellets, edible oil,
phosperic acid, and there is no other usage and terminal in this dock. The names of the berths
handled in this dock are 1,2,3,4,5,6. In this dock the scheduled depth is from 10.40 to 11.00 in
meters and the quay length is from 218.33 meters. It has the transit shed attached and overflow
shed attached.
BHARATHI DOCK

Types of cargo handled Container, Iron

Other usage Nil

Terminal  Container terminal


 Iron ore terminal
 Oil terminal

Name of berth Container ( T, 1,2,3)

Iron one – B02

Oil – B 21, 3D3

In this dock the type of cargo handled are containers, iron ore, POL, there is no other usage in
this dock. There are three types of terminal they container terminal, iron ore teorminal, and oil
terminal. The names of the berths are container (T,1,2,3), Iron ore – B02, Oil – B 21, 3D3. The
scheduled depth is from 355.65 to 307.50. The length between the extreme dolphins is 67.50 m
on the southern side was damaged during Tsunami in 26-12-2004.
ADVANTAGES OF CHENNAI PORT:

Chennai Port is working round -the-clock, 7 days a week, to facilitate more export &
import through Port of Chennai.

The Port also conducts PORT USERS MEETING periodically to ensure customer satisfaction by
maintaining effective service quality to augment exports.

Private equipment are allowed in certain Operational areas to augment rate of


loading/discharging of dry bulk cargoes.

The TERMINAL HANDLING CHARGES at Chennai Port’s Container Terminal are quite
competitive even when compared to the Terminal Handling Charges collected at the Regional
Ports viz. COLOMBO and SINGAPORE.

The Port allows 30 free days including SUNDAYS and Port’s HOLIDAYS.

Transshipment Containers ARE allowed for 30 free days.

Equipments like floating crane, mobile crane, diesel fork-lift truck of low and high capacity, Pay
loader and diesel electric locomotives are available in the port.

Pipelines for crude oil, furnace oil, and white oil products, fire hydrant and fresh water are
available separately.

The Ore handling terminals have a capacity of 8 million tons per annum and are capable of
loading 6000 tons per hour. The ore handling terminals are well connected with rail lines. The
ore stock yard has a capacity of up to 600000 tons.

The Chennai Ports website has a lot of information about the port. Users to find the vessels that
are in the berth and the vessels that are to be berthed, from their website.
FACILITIES FOR EXPORTERS:

This has significant bearing on the Port’s performance making this port a trendsetter in export
performance envisaging the following advantage for Port Users.

30 days free day time is allowed for aggregating the export cargo on the wharf before the arrival
of the vessel.

Open space is made available in transit area for export cargo such as barytes, quartz, on rental
basis.

To attract agricultural products, Port has introduced a reduced Tariff of Rs. 7.50/- per tonne for
the Export of bagged Sugar, Wheat and Rice

To facilitate export of iron ore through Chennai Port, Iron Ore Pellets & Lumps are being
allowed to be exported through Jawahar Dock.

FACILITIES FOR IMPORTERS:

Import Counters for filing Import Applications are kept open on all Board Holidays except on
Board’s Closed Holidays and Sundays.

CRANAGE on Heavy Lift Packages has been reduced.

STORAGE CHARGES on abandoned FCL containers is restricted up to 2 months.

In case the Trust is unable to supply Mechanical Equipment, use of private equipment is
permitted.

Weighment is not at all required for DRY BULK CARGOES

When the port is unable to trace the package at the time of delivery owing to congestion or
wrong sorting or incorrect tally, ADDITIONAL FREE DAYS are allowed from the date of
receipt of enquiry till the package are traced out and intimated.
The major department selected for our study is Traffic Department.

TRAFFIC DEPARTMENT’S ROLE IN THE PORT.


The Traffic department is one of the main departments, which plays a vital role in Port
Trust. It is in charge of operating terminal facilities including cargo handling proper storage,
delivery of cargo, accounting of cargo. A cargo handling workers training center was set up to
impart training to workers and has now been upgraded as Port workers training can be divided
into Operational and Commercial branches. The main responsibility of the traffic department is
to ensure that ships turn around the quickest possible time, that the cargo is handled safely and is
provided with adequate and proper storage, that the operation are quick that should be accident
free and safe that the procedure are designed to promote efficiency and speed.

The main functions of the Traffic Department are as under:

1. To plan and program speedy discharge and loading of ship with an eye on quick turn
round.
2. To make effective use of all the cargo handling equipments and other facilities provided.
3. To be the warehouse keeper for all dutiable good tendered for storage pending clearance.
4. To provide midstream facilities for handling of explosives dangerous cargo etc.,
5. To arrange supply of fresh water to ships
6. To provide adequate facilities for embarkation and disembarkation of sea borne
passengers
7. To provide all facilities for rail-borne movement of cargo from to and to the Port as an
additional facility for the Trade
8. To provide adequate facilities for embarkation and disembarkation of sea borne
passengers
9. To provide all facilities for rail-borne movement of cargo from to and to the Port as an
additional facility for the Trade
10. To maintain sufficient gear and other equipments for the convenience of handling of
cargo.
11. To provide storage facilities, both sheds and open space for cargo imported or exported.
CHENNAI PORT TRUST POLICY:

• Provide efficient, prompt, safe and timely service at optimum cost.

• Ensure quick turn round of vessels by providing facilities for efficient handling of
cargo.

• Maintain total transparency in all our transactions.

• Continually improve our services to meet the expectations of the port users, employees
and the society.

MISSION OF CHENNAI PORT:

• Achieve excellence in Port operations with State-of-the-Art technologies.


• Enhance competence and enthuse workforce to maximize customer satisfaction.
• Anticipate and adapt to the changing global scenario.
• Act as a catalyst for sustained development of the Region.

VISION OF CHENNAI PORT:

• To be recognized as a futuristic Port with foresight.


• To create an environmentally clean Port.
• The long-term plan for Chennai Port envisages that the port will mainly handle 4Cs -
containers, cars, cruise and clean cargo.
MAJOR PORTS

Major ports are technically well developed with reference to men and machinery.

The 12 Major Ports (including the Port of Ennore which is a corporate port set up under the
Indian Companies Act, 1956) are evenly spread out on the Eastern and Western coast.

• JAWAHARLA NEHRU PORT TRUST

• MUMBAI PORT TRUST

• COCHIN PORT TRUST

• KANDLA PORT TRUST

• ENNORE PORT TRUST

• VISAKHAPATNAM PORT TRUST

• PARADIP PORT TRUST

• CHENNAI PORT TRUST

• TUTICORIN PORT TRUST

• KOLKATA PORT TRUST

• NEW MANGALORE PORT TRUST

• MORMUGAO PORT TRUST


CHAPTER-II

OBJECTIVES

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:

 To examine the various equipments used for handling the cargo and how to improve
it.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

 To study the existing system in order to identify the problems in it.

 To know about the various safety procedure while handling cargos.


CHAPTER-III

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

In January 2010, despite difficult conditions for cargo handling due to unusually
cold weather, Klaipėda port turnover increased by +14,1 %, in comparison to January 2009, and
amounted to 2,5 million tons (increase by +313,0 thousand tons). In terms of cargo turnover,
Klaipėda port outperformed Ryga and Ventspilis ports, being second after Tallinn port. The
turnover of dry and bulk cargo and also general cargo increased by +52,7 % and +21,7 %,
correspondingly, while handling figures for liquid cargo decreased by -13,8 % (see table 1).

Figure 1. Cargo handling at Klaipėda port as per cargo type, in tons


Turnover 2010/2009,
Cargo
2009 01 2010 01 %
Total 2 217 328,1 2 530 361,6 +14,1
Dry and bulk cargo 638 600,6 975 034,1 +52,7
General Cargo 546 972,6 665 546,3 +21,7
Liquid cargo 1 031 754,9 889 781,2 -13,8

The growth of dry and bulk cargo turnover resulted from increase in handling
figures for natural and chemical fertilizers – 630,9 thousand tons were handled in January 2010,
while in January 2009 handling figures amounted to 366,7 thousand tons, i.e. by +56,4 % or by
+264,3 thousand tons more. Turnover of primary and processed mineral deposits and
construction materials increased even by +510,4 % (positive change by +91,8 thousand tons, in
total 109,8 thousand tons handled). A drop was recorded in turnover of agricultural products − in
total 160,2 thousand tons handled, change by -6,7 %.
According to general cargo nomenclature, the biggest growth rates in the first
month of 2010 were recorded in handling figures for Ro-Ro cargo and containerized cargo – by
+40,0 % up to 288,2 thousand tons (increase by +82,3 thousand tons) and by +31,9 % up to
256,7 thousand tons (increase by +62,1 thousand tons), correspondingly. Handling figures for
timber and timber products increased by 87,4 % – in total 37,7 thousand tons were handled
(increase by +17,6 thousand tons).
Comparison of nomenclatures of liquid cargo handled in January of 2010 and 2009
shows that the drop in cargo handling figures in 2010 resulted from decreased turnover of oil
products (by -19,1 %, 770,8 thousand tons handled, negative change by -99,1 thousand tons).
The figures for handling of natural and chemical fertilizers increased by 56,4 % up to 83,7
thousand tons (increase by +30,2 thousand tons). The main reason of decreased turnover –
slower rate of product transfer from rail wagons because of exceptionally cold weather.
14.632 Ro-Ro units were handled in January 2010, i.e. by 25,2 % more than in
January 2009 (increase by +2.943 units). Turnover of containers (in TEU) decreased by 6,1 % –
to 19.804 TEU (negative change by -1.292 TEU). However, as it was mentioned above, turnover
of containerized cargo in terms of tonnage increased by 31,9 %.

Figure 2. Container handling at the ports of Eastern Baltic, in TEU


Turnover 2010/2009
Port
2009 01 2010 01 %
Saint Petersburg 87 255 112 290 +28,7
Klaipėda 21 096 19 804 -6,1
Kaliningrad n. d. n. d. -
Riga 15 351 16 172 +5,3
Tallinn 11 850 10 875 -8,2
Ventspils 60 0 -100,0
Liepaja 14 0 -100,0
n. d. – no data available

14,9 thousand passengers visited Klaipėda in January 2010, i.e. by 17,2 % more
than in corresponding period of 2009.

In January 2010 cargo handling figures in Būtingė Terminal dropped by 14,5% in


comparison to January 2009 and amounted to 600,3 thousand tons.
Cargo turnover results at other the ports of Eastern Baltic
Cargo turnover results at Klaipėda port and other ports of Eastern Baltic are shown
in Figure 3:

Figure 3. Cargo turnover results at the ports of Eastern Baltic, in thousand tons
Turnover 2010/2009,
Port
2009 01 2010 01 %
Primorsk n. d. n. d. -
Saint Petersburg n. d. n. d. -
Tallinn 2 486,1 3 117,8 +25,4
Klaipėda 2 217,3 2 530,4 +14,1
Riga 2 594,9 2 189,0 -15,6
Ventspils 2 633,0 2 370,0 -20,0
Kaliningrad n. d. n. d. -
Liepaja 249,8 311,1 +24,5
n. d. – no data available

The largest growth in cargo turnover among Baltic ports was recorded in the port
of Tallinn. In January this year the port handled 3,12 million tons of cargo, i.e. 25,4 % more than
in January 2009.
In terms of types of cargo, turnover of dry and bulk cargo increased by +298,3 % ,
to +0,67 million tons (increase by +499,3 thousand tons). Turnover of liquid cargo also
increased by +4,5 %, to +2,11 million tons (increase by +90,2 thousand tons (in January 2010
liquid cargo accounted for the 67,7 % in the cargo structure of the port of Tallinn), while
turnover of general cargo decreased by -2,3 % and amounted to 0,29 million tons.
Container turnover in terms of TEU, decreased by -8,2% and amounted to 10 875
TEU.

The number of ships that called at the port of Tallinn in January 2010 remained
almost the same as in the corresponding period last year (in January 2010, 545 ships called at the
port of Tallinn, i.e. by 2 ships or by 0,4 % more than in January 2009). This year 414,4 thousand
passengers visited the port of Tallinn, while in January 2009 this number amounted to 441,4
thousand (negative change by -6,2 %).
In January 2010, the port of Ventspils handled 2,37 million tons of cargo i.e by
10,0 % less, comparing to January 2009 when these figures amounted to 2,63 million tons. This
year handling of liquid cargo at the port of Ventspils decreased by -20 % (1 579 thousand tons
handled), while handling of bulk and dry cargo as well as general cargo increased – by 23 %
(654 thousand tons handled) and by 15 % (137 thousand tons handled), correspondingly, in
comparison to January 2009.

In terms of cargo nomenclature, the biggest drop in cargo handling was recorded in
crude oil (by -42 %, 80 thousand tons handled), peat (by -40 %, 3 thousand tons handled), oil
products (by -20,0 %, 1,41 million tons handled), coal (by -18 %, 360 thousand tons handled).
The biggest growth in cargo handling was recorded in minerals (by +767 %, 78 thousand tons
handled), grain (by +373 %, 104 thousand tons handled), fertilizers (by +261 %, 65 thousand
tons handled), wooden pallets (by +200 %, 9 thousand tons handled), timber (by +31 %, 47
thousand tons handled), Ro-Ro cargoes (by +26 %, 86 thousand tons handled).

In January 2010, no containers were handled in Ventspils port, while 60 TEU were
handled in the first month of 2009).

The number of passengers in the port of neighbouring country in January 2010


increased by 142 passengers and amounted to 835, i.e. by 20 % more than in January 2009. 140
ships were serviced at the port of Ventspils in the first month of 2010 (by 18 % or 331 ships less
than in corresponding period of 2009).

In January 2010 the handling figures in Riga port also decreased – total turnover
of this port amounted to 2,19 million tons of cargo, i.e. by -15,6 % less than in January 2009.

Turnover of bulk and dry cargo in January 2010 at the port of Riga amounted to
1,16 million tons, i.e. by -31,4 % less (or by -538,5 thousand tons less) than in January 2009.
Analysis of bulk and dry cargo nomenclature showed that the biggest drop was recorded in
handling of construction materials (7,3 thousand tons handled in 2010, i.e. by -62,8 % less than
in January 2009), bulk fertilizers (7,3 thousand tons handled, by -42,5 % less), coal (780,2
thousand tons handled, by -41,0 % less). In January 2010 coal turnover accounted for the 35,6 %
of the total cargo turnover at the port of Riga.
In January 2010 the figures in liquid cargo handling at the port of Riga increased
by +2,5 % and amounted to 649,8 thousand tons. Turnover of oil products increased by +2,1 %,
641,6 thousand tons handled, and handling figures for liquefied gas also increased by 192,9 %,
8,2 thousand tons handled.

The turnover of general cargo handled at the port of Riga in January this year also
increased and amounted to 383,4 thousand tons (by +38,7 % in comparison to January 2009). In
terms of general cargo, the handling results were the following: 176,8 thousand tons of timber
were handled (increase by +66,8 %), 170,8 thousand tons of cargo in containers (increase by
+26,4 %) and 39,9 thousand tons of Ro-Ro cargoes (drop by -4,1 %).

31,16 thousand passengers arrived to Riga port in the first month of 2010, while in
the corresponding period of 2009 this figure was -24,98 thousand (change +24,8 %).

In January of 2010 an increase in handling results was recorded in Liepaja port– in


total 311,1 thousand tons of cargo handled, i.e. by 24,5 % more than in January 2009.

In terms of cargo types, turnover of bulk and dry cargo increased by +18,4 % to
140,4 thousand tons, turnover of general cargo increased by +1,8 % to 113,8 thousand tons, and
turnover of liquid cargo also increased by +194,3 % to 56,8 thousand tons in comparison to
January 2009.

The handling results of the major cargo types handled in the port of Liepaja in
January 2010 were the following: grain – 131,5 thousand tons handled (by +34,6 % more than in
January 2009), timber – 73,6 thousand tons handled (increase by +74,4 %), ferroalloys – 26,9
thousand tons handled (drop by -33,9 %), oil products – 34,6 thousand tons handled (increase by
+307,1 %), crude oil – 11,9 thousand tons handled (increase by +98,3 %).

CHAPTER-IV

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research can be defined as systematized effort to gain new knowledge. A research is
carried out by different methodology, which has their own pros and cons.

Research methodology is a way to solve research problem along with the logic behind
them. Thus when we talk of the research methodology we not only take of research method but
also context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or
techniques and why we are not using other so that research result are capable of being evaluated
either by the researchers himself or by others.

Research methodology means the method carried out to study the problem. It shows the
type of the sample design used, its size and the procedure used to dew sample. The extent of
precision achieved and the method used for handling any special problem during the course of
the study.

4.1 RESEARCH DESIGN:

Once the research problem is formulated the researcher will be required to prepare a
research design. A research design is the arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of
data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in
procedure in the research design the researcher will have to state conceptual structure with in
which the research would be conducted. The research design constitutes the blue print for the
collection measurement and analysis of data

Type of Research : Descriptive research

Sample size : 100

Mode of data collection : Interview method

4.2 DATA COLLECTION

4.2.1 Primary Data:


1) Use of a Questionnaire for carrying out a survey.

2) Information from various Departments..

4.2.2 Secondary Data:

1) Books

2) Newspapers

3) Magazines

4) Newsletter

5) Internet

Primary Data: Primary data is that which is collected fresh and thus happen to be original in
character.

Secondary data: Secondary data is any data, which have been gathered earlier for some other
purpose.

Among the above mentioned types of data was used for the study and analysis of the
objective of this project, also the secondary to data proved to be helping hand in framing up the
industry scenario and also the relevant topics in the entire project report.

4.3 PERIOD OF STUDY:

The study was undertaken from last week of December 09 to March 2010.

4.4 SAMPLE SIZE:

Samples are devices for learning about large masses by observing a few individuals.
The selected samples are restricted to 100.

4.5 STATISTICAL TOOLS


The statistical tools applied for the study may include Chi-square test, T-test, ANOVA, and
Correlation.

4.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY:

1. The opinions of the respondents may be subjective.

2. The results & findings are confined to a limited period.

3. Few respondents were reluctant while answering questionnaire due to their busy
schedule.

4. The sample taken for research was concerned only for 100 respondents.

CHAPTER-V
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

5.1 Data analysis

The data after collection has to be processed and analyzed in accordance with the outline laid
down for the purpose at the time of developing the research plan. This is essential for a scientific
study and for ensuring that we have all the relevant data. Processing implies editing coding
classification and tabulation of collected data so that they are acquiescent to analysis.

Editing of data is a process of examining the collected raw data to detect errors and
omissions and to correct these whenever possible. Editing is done to assure that the data are
accurate, consistent with the facts gathered, well arranged to facilitate coding and tabulation.
The editing of data improves the quality of data for coding. Coding of data refers to the process
of transforming the categories or classes of data into symbols which may be tabulated and
counted.

The term analysis refers to the computation of certain measures along with searching for
patterns of relationship that exist among data-groups. Thus in the process of analysis is
relationships or differences supporting or conflicting with original or new hypothesis should be
subjected to statistical tests of significance to determine with what validity data can be said to
indicate any conclusions.

Analysis of data in a general way involves a number of closely related operations that are
performed with the purpose of summarizing the collected data and organizing them in such a
manner that they answer the research questions.

TABLE NO: 5.1.1


Type of Cargo handled

Type of Cargo No. of Respondents Percentage


Liquid Bulk 35 35%
Dry Bulk 47 47%
Break Bulk 18 18%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.1

80 79
70
60
Percentage

50
40
30
20
10 9 7 5
0
Srongly Agree Agree Cant Say Disagree

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 47% of the respondents handle Dry Bulk, 35% handle Liquid bulk,
while 18% handle Break Bulk.

TABLE NO: 5.1.2

Using the services of other Indian ports


Opinions No. of
Respondents Percentage
Yes 45 45%
No 55 55%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.12

Yes, 45
No, 55

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 45% of the respondents were using services of other Indian ports
while 55% of the respondents were using their services of their ports.

TABLE NO: 5.1.3

Equipments used for cargo handling


Equipments used No. of
Respondents Percentage
Shore Crane 23 23%
Ship Crane 75 75%
Mobile Crane 2 2%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.3


Mobile
Crane, 2
Shore
Ship Crane, Crane , 23
75

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 75% of the respondents use Ship crane for cargo handling, 23% use
Shore Crane while only 2% use Mobile Crane.

TABLE NO: 5.1.4

Having own equipments for handling cargos


Opinions No. of
Respondents Percentage
Yes 47 47%
No 53 53%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.4

Yes, 47
No, 53

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 47% of them do have their own equipments for handling cargo while
53% do not have their own.

TABLE NO: 5.1.5

Cargo handling process is good in Chennai Port.


Attributes No. of Respondents Percentage
Strongly Agree 9 9%
Agree 79 79%
Can't say 7 7%
Disagree 5 5%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.5

80 79
70
60
Percentage

50
40
30
20
10 9 7 5
0
Srongly Agree Agree Cant Say Disagree

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 79% agree that the Cargo handling process is good in Chennai port,
9% strongly agree while only 5% disagree with it.

TABLE NO: 5.1.6

Import & Export documentation procedure is simple in Chennai Port.


Attributes No. of
Respondents Percentage
Strongly Agree 3 3%
Agree 84 84%
Can't say 3 3%
Disagree 8 8%
Strongly Disagree 2 2%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.6

90
84
80
70
60
Percentage

50
40
30
20
8
10
3 3 2
0
Srongly Agree Agree Can't Say Disagree Strongly
Disagree

Interpretation:
The above table shows 84% agree that the Import and export documentation procedure is simple
in Chennai port, about 10% disagree with it. Only 3% strongly agree with it

TABLE NO: 5.1.7

Level of satisfaction on the free days offered for handling of import & Export Cargo.
Attributes No. of Respondents Percentage
Highly satisfied 7 7%
Satisfied 26 26%
Can't say 7 7%
Dissatisfied 60 60%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.7

60
60

50
Percentage

40

30
26
20

10 7 7
0
Highly Satisfied Cant Say Dissatisfied
Satisfied

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 60% of the respondents were dissatisfied with the free days offered
for handling of Import and Export cargo. 26% were satisfied with it while only 7% were highly
satisfied with it.

TABLE NO: 5.1.8

Level of satisfaction on Charges for handling of import & Export Cargo.


Attributes No. of Respondents Percentage
Highly satisfied 2 2%
Satisfied 45 45%
Can't say 10 10%
Dissatisfied 43 43%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.8

45 45 43
40
35
30
Percentage

25
20
15
10 10
5
2
0
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Cant Say Dissatisfied

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 43% of the respondents were dissatisfied with the charges used for
handling Import and Export cargo and 45% were satisfied with it.

TABLE NO: 5.1.9

Level of satisfaction on vessel Related Charges for Export & Import Vessels.
Attributes No. of
Respondents Percentage
Highly satisfied 4 4%
Satisfied 49 49%
Can't say 1 1%
Dissatisfied 46 46%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.9

50 49 46
45
40
35
Percentage

30
25
20
15
10
5 4
1
0
Highly Satisfied Satisfied Cant Say Dissatisfied

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 49% of the respondents were satisfied with vessel related charges for
export and import vessels, while 46% were dissatisfied with it.

TABLE NO: 5.1.10

Port has clear & transport rules and regulation for cargo handling.
Attributes No. of Respondents Percentage
Strongly Agree 12 12%
Agree 62 62%
Disagree 19 19%
Strongly Disagree 7 7%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.10

70
62
60
50
Percentage

40
30
20 19
12 7
10
0
Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Strongly
Disagree

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 62% agree that the port has clear and transport rules and regulation
for cargo handling, 19% disagree with it, while 12% strongly with it.

TABLE NO: 5.1.11

Chennai Port is good in safety & handling cargo.


Handling No. of Respondents Percentage
Manually 8 8%
Semi-manually 70 70%
Can't say 3 3%
Partially Mechanical 15 15%
Automatic 4 4%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.11

Automatic,
Partially 4 Manually, 8
Mechanical, 15

Semi-Manually,
70
Can't Say, 3

Interpretation:

The above table shows 70% of the respondents feel that the Chennai port is semi-manually good
in safety and handling cargo, 15% feel that partially mechanical good, while 4% feel that it is
automatically good in safety and handling cargo.

TABLE NO: 5.1.12

Time took for handling the cargos?


LIQUID BULK

No of Days No. of Respondents Percentage


<1 day 43 43%
1 to 3 days 48 48%
3 to 5 days 9 9%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.12

60
48
50
43
40
Percentage

30

20
9
10

0
<1 1 to 3 Days 3 to 5 Days

Interpretation:

The above table shows 48% of the respondents take 1-3 days for handling the Liquid bulk,

43% take less than a day while only 9% take 3-5 days.

TABLE NO: 5.1.13

DRY BULK
No of Days No. of Respondents Percentage
<1 day 4 4%
1 to 3 days 54 54%
3 to 5 days 36 36%
>5 days 6 6%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.13

60 54

50

40 36
Percentage

30

20
6
10 4

0
<1 1 to 3 Days 3 to 5 Days >5 Days

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 54% of the respondents take 1-3 days for handling Dry bulk, 36%
take 3-5 days, 4% take less than a day while 6% take more than 5 days.

TABLE NO: 5.1.14

BREAK BULK
No of Days No. of Respondents Percentage
<1 day 4 4%
1 to 3 days 54 54%
3 to 5 days 39 39%
>5 days 3 3%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.14

60 54

50
39
40
Percentage

30

20

10 4 3

0
<1 1 to 3 Days 3 to 5 Days >5 Days

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 54% of the respondents take 1-3 days for handling Break bulk, 39%
take 3-5 days , 4% take less than a day while only 3% tale more than 5 days.

TABLE NO: 5.1.15

CONTAINERS
No of Days No. of Respondents Percentage
<1 day 6 6%
1 to 3 days 11 11%
3 to 5 days 62 62%
>5 days 21 21%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.15

70
62
60
50
Percentage

40
30 21
20
11
10 6

0
<1 1 to 3 Days 3 to 5 Days >5 Days

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 62% of the respondents take 3-5 days fro handling containers, 21%
take more than 5 days while only 6% take less than a day.

TABLE NO: 5.1.16

Which type of Cargo is very advantage to handle in Chennai Port


Type of Cargo
No. of Respondents Percentage
Liquid Bulk 7 7%
Dry Bulk 82 82%
Break Bulk 8 8%
Containers 3 3%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.16


Break Bulk, Containers,
8 Liquid Bulk,
3
7

Dry Bulk, 82

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 82% of the respondents feel that Dry bulk is very advantage to
handle in Chennai port, 7-8% each feel that liquid bulk and break bulk is advantage while only
3% feel that containers are advantage.

TABLE NO: 5.1.17

Cargoes handled by the firm, moved from the port


Pathway No. of Respondents Percentage
Road 13 13%
Railway 3 3%
Pipeline 25 25%
Road & Rail 59 59%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.17

Railway,
Road, 3
13

Road & Rail, Pipeline,


59 25

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 59% of the respondents use Road and rail for handling cargo, 13%
use Road, 25% use pipeline while 3% only use railways.

TABLE NO: 5.1.18

Persons required for handling a cargo if it’s manually handled.


a. On board/Hook

No. of Persons No. of Respondents Percentage


<5 3 3%
5 to 10 63 63%
10 to 15 34 34%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.18

70 63
60
50
Percentage

40 34
30

20
10 3
0
<5 5 to 10 10 to 15

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 63% of the respondents feel that On board/hook 5-10 persons are
required for manually handling cargo, 34% feel that 10-15 persons required, only 3% feel
that less than 5 persons are required for manual handling of cargo.

TABLE NO: 5.1.19

b. On Shore/Hook
No. of Persons No. of Respondents Percentage
<5 40 40%
5 to 10 53 53%
10 to 15 7 7%
Total 100 100%

FIGURE NO: 5.1.19

60
53
50
40
40
Percentage

30

20

10 7

0
<5 5 to 10 10 to 15

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 53% of the respondents feel that On Shore/hook 5-10 persons are
required for manually handling cargo, 7% feel that 10-15 persons required, 40% feel that less
than 5 persons are required for manual handling of cargo.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

5.2 Statistical Analysis.

CHI – SQUARE:
The chi-square test is an important test. Several test of significance was
developed by statisticians. Chi- square symbolically written as ψ2 is a statistical measure
used in the context of sampling analysis for comparing a variance to a theoretical variance.
As a non parametric test, it can be used to determine if categorical data shows dependency or
the two classifications are independent, it can also be used to make comparisons between
theoretical population and actual data when categories are used. Thus the chi-square test is
applicable in large number of problems.

The test in fact a through the use of which it is possible for all researcher to,

1. To test the goodness of fit.

2. Test the significance of association between two attributes.

3. Test the homogeneity or the significance of population variance.

In order that we may apply the ψ2 test either as a test of goodness of fit or as a test to
judge the significance of association between attributes.

The formula used for ψ2 test is given below,

ψ2= (Oij–Eij)/ Eij

The degree of freedom = (r-1)*(c-1) @ 5% level

Where,

Oij = observed frequency of the cell in row/column.

Eij = expected frequency of the cell in row/column.

r= row and c= column.

Ho: There is no significant difference between responses regarding satisfaction in cargo handling
process.
Observed N Expected N Residual
Strongly
9 25% -16%
Agree
Agree 79 25% 54%
Can't say 7 25% -18%
Disagree 5 25% -20%
Total 100

Step.1: Formula:

Chi Square: X2= ∑[ (Oij - Eij)]2 Eij

Where:

Oij = Observed frequency of the cell in the ith row and jth column.

Eij = Expected frequency of the cell in the ith row and jth column.

Step.2: Expected frequency and Chi-square value


E= N/ n
E= 100/ 4=25

Test Statistics
Question 6
Chi-Square 155.840a
Df 3
Asymp.
.00
Sig.
O E O-E (O-E)2 (O-E)2/ E
Strongly 256 256/25
9 25.0 -16.0
Agree
Agree 79 25.0 54.0 2916 2916/25
Can't say 7 25.0 -18.0 324 324/25
Disagree 5 25.0 -20.0 400 400/25
Total 100 3896/25

Calculated value of chi-square= 155.840


Degrees of freedom= 3
Table value of chi-square = 7.81
P value= <0.001

Inference:

Since the calculated value of p is less than 0.05, there fore the null hypothesis is rejected. So we
conclude that there is a significant difference between responses regarding satisfaction in cargo
handling process.i.e., Maximum number of respondents are agreed that the Cargo handling
process is good.

T-TEST
T-test is any statistical hypothesis test in which the test statistic follows a Student's t distribution
if the null hypothesis is true. It is most commonly applied when the test statistic would follow a
normal distribution if the value of a scaling term in the test statistic were known. When the
scaling term is unknown and is replaced by an estimate based on the data, the test statistic (under
certain conditions) follows a Student's t distribution.

Most t-test statistics have the form T = Z/s, where Z and s are functions of the data. Typically, Z
is designed to be sensitive to the alternative hypothesis (i.e. its magnitude tends to be larger when
the alternative hypothesis is true), whereas s is a scaling parameter that allows the distribution of
T to be determined.

The assumptions underlying a t-test are that

• Z follows a standard normal distribution under the null hypothesis


• ps2 follows a χ2 distribution with p degrees of freedom under the null hypothesis, where p
is a positive constant
• Z and s are independent.

The Independent Samples T Test compares the mean scores of two groups on a given variable.

Under the Analyze menu, choose Compare Means, the Independent Samples T Test. Move your
dependent variable into the box marked "Test Variable." Move your independent variable into
the box marked "Grouping Variable." Click on the box marked "Define Groups" and specify the
value labels of the two groups you wish to compare.

The t statistic to test whether the means are different can be calculated as follows

x1 − x 2
t=
S 21 S 2 2
+
n1 n2

Ho: There is no significant difference between the respondents regarding own equipments for
handling cargos.
Step.1:

Group Statistics
Own Std. Std. Error
equipment N Mean Deviation Mean
Avg_Score Yes 47 2.8865 .48293 .07044
No 53 3.1195 .49396 .06785

Independent Samples Test


Levene's
Test for
Equality
of
Variances T-test for Equality of Means
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Sig.
Difference
(2- Mean Std. Error
Sig. T df tailed) Difference Difference Lower Upper
Avg_ Equal
Score variances .712 .401 -2.379 98 .19 -.23297 .9794 -.42733 -.3862
assumed
Equal
variances -2.382 97.51 .19 -.23297 .9780 -.42709 -.3886
not assumed

Step.2: Formula
x1 − x 2
t=
S 21 S 2 2
+
n1 n2

t= (2.88- 3.11)/√ (0.48)2/47 + (0.49)2/53


t= 2.379
Calculated value of t= 2.379
Degrees of freedom= 98

Table value of t = 1.96

P value = 0.019

Inference:

Since the calculated value of p is less than 0.05, there fore the null hypothesis is rejected. So we
conclude that respondents having own equipment are more satisfied in handling cargos.

ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE

In statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) is a collection of statistical models, and their


associated procedures, in which the observed variance is partitioned into components due to
different explanatory variables. In its simplest form ANOVA provides a statistical test of
whether or not the means of several groups are all equal, and therefore generalizes Student's two-
sample t-test to more than two groups. ANOVAs are helpful because they possess a certain
advantage over a two-sample t-test. Doing multiple two-sample t-tests would result in a largely
increased chance of committing a type I error.

One-way ANOVA is used to test for differences among two or more independent groups.
Typically, however, the one-way ANOVA is used to test for differences among at least three
groups, since the two-group case can be covered by a t-test (Gosset, 1908). When there are only
two means to compare, the t-test and the F-test are equivalent; the relation between ANOVA and
Is given by F = t2.

Total sum of square TSS = ∑ ∑ X2 – CF

Treatment sum of square SST = ∑ (T2/n) – CF

Error sum of square ESS = TSS – SST

Ho: There is no significant difference between the types of cargos regarding satisfaction for
handling cargo
Descriptive
Std. Std. 95% Confidence Interval for
N Mean Deviation Error Mean Minimum Maximum
Liquid Bulk 35 2.9048 .56344 .9524 2.7112 3.983 2.0 3.67
Dry Bulk 47 2.9716 .39824 .5809 2.8547 3.886 2.0 4.0
Break Bulk 18 3.3148 .51731 .12193 3.576 3.5721 2.0 4.0
Total 100 3.100 .50018 .5002 2.9108 3.1092 2.0 4.0

Total sum of square TSS = ∑ ∑ X2 – CF


= 24.768
Treatment sum of square SST = ∑ (T2/n) – CF
= 2.129
Error sum of square ESS = TSS – SST
= 22.639

ANOVA

Sum of
Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between
2.129 2 1.65 4.562 .13
Groups
Within Groups 22.639 97 .233
Total 24.768 99

Inference:

Since the calculated value of p is less than 0%5, there fore the null hypothesis is rejected. So we
conclude that there is significant difference between the types of cargos regarding satisfaction for
handling cargo .i.e., Maximum number of respondents are satisfied for handling Liquid Bulk &
Dry Bulk cargo types.

CORRELATION
In statistics, correlation and dependence are any of a broad class of statistical relationships
between two or more random variables or observed data values. In general statistical usage,
correlation or co-relation can refer to any departure of two or more random variables from
independence, but most commonly refers to a more specialized type of relationship between
mean values. There are several correlation coefficients, often denoted ρ or r, measuring the
degree of correlation. The most common of these is the Pearson correlation coefficient, which is
mainly sensitive to a linear relationship between two variables. Other correlation coefficients
have been developed to be more robust than the Pearson correlation, or more sensitive to
nonlinear relationships.

The degree of dependence between variables X and Y should not depend on the scale on which
the variables are expressed. Therefore, most correlation measures in common use are invariant to
location and scale transformations of the marginal distributions. That is, if we are analyzing the
relationship between X and Y, most correlation measures are unaffected by transforming X to
a + bX and Y to c + dY, where a, b, c, and d are constants. This is true of most correlation
statistics as well as their population analogues. Some correlation statistics, such as the rank
correlation coefficient, are also invariant to monotone transformations of the marginal
distributions of X and/or Y.

Formula

r = ∑XY

√∑X2 ∑Y2

Ho : Null Hypothesis : There is a possibility of using the equipments for different types of cargos
effectively.
X Y X2 Y2 XY

23 7 529 49 161

75 82 5625 6724 6150

2 8 4 64 16

0 3 0 9 0
100 100 6158 6846 6327

r= ∑XY

√∑X2 ∑Y2
r= 6327

√6158 x 6846
r= 6327 = 0.98

6492.89

r = 0.98

Inference:

Since the calculated value co – efficient and correlation indicates 0.98.

We conclude that the usage of equipments is fully depending on types of cargos


and their handling

CHAPTER-VI

FINDINGS OF THE STUDY


1. Most of the respondents handle both Dry Bulk and Liquid bulk, while few handle Break
Bulk.

2. About half of them each were using services of other Indian ports while half of them
were using their services of Chennai port

3. Majority of the respondents use Ship crane for cargo handling while only few use Mobile
Crane.

4. Half of them do have their own equipments for handling cargo while half of them do not
have their own equipments.

5. Most of them agree that the Cargo handling process is good in Chennai port while only a
few disagree with it.

6. Majority of them agree that the Import and export documentation procedure is simple in
Chennai port, only few disagree with it.

7. But most of them were dissatisfied with the free days offered for handling of Import and
Export cargo.

8. Equally half of them were dissatisfied with the charges used for handling Import and
Export cargo and half of them were satisfied with it.

9. The above table shows that 49% of the respondents were satisfied with vessel related
charges for export and import vessels, while 46% were dissatisfied with it.

10. Over half of them agree that the port has clear and transport rules and regulation for cargo
handling, only a few of them disagree with it.

11. Most of the respondents feel that the Chennai port is semi-manually good in safety and
handling cargo, while only few feel that it is automatically good in safety and handling
cargo.

12. Most of them take less than 3 days for handling the Liquid bulk, while only a few take 3-
5 days.
13. Over half of them take 1-3 days for handling Dry bulk and Break bulk, most take 3-5
days, while only a few take more than 5 days.

14. Most of them take 3-5 days for handling containers, while only few take less than a day.

15. Majority of the respondents feel that Dry bulk is very advantage to handle in Chennai
port, while only a few feel those containers are advantage.

16. Over half of the respondents use Road and rail for handling cargo, others use pipeline
while only few use railways.

17. Over half the respondents feel that On board/hook 5-10 persons are required for manually
handling cargo, only few feel that less than 5 persons are required for manual handling of
cargo.

18. Over half of them feel that On Shore/hook 5-10 persons are required for manually
handling cargo, only a few feel that 10-15 persons required.

CHAPTER-VII
SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 Number of free days offered for handling of import and export cargo should be increased.

Charges used for handling Import and Export cargo must be decreased.

 Also to reduce man power in Chennai port automatic handling of cargo should be

encouraged more.

 This will also enable to handle the cargo easily and much quicker compared to manual

operation which is done now.

 Most of the Respondents feel that Transport facility provided is not sufficient, So the

Transport facility provided by Chennai Port Trust must be improved.

 Chennai Port can improve their Safety Procedures for handling of Cargo.

 Most of the Respondent feels that there is no enough lightening around Chennai port, So

Lightening can be improved.

 The Infrastructure around Chennai port is not clean to carry clean cargo, in order to carry

clean cargo the infrastructure and cleanliness must be well maintained.

CHAPTER-VIII
CONCLUSION

Majority of the respondents use Ship crane for cargo And they feel that the Cargo handling
process is good in Chennai port and Import and export documentation procedure is simple in
Chennai port, But most of them were dissatisfied with the free days offered for handling of
Import and Export cargo and half of them dissatisfied with the charges used for handling Import
and Export cargo. The Chennai port is yet to be good in safety and handling cargo,
automatically, since most of them is done semi-manually. Most of them take 3-5 days for
handling containers, dry and break bulk. Both on Board, shore/Hook 5-10 persons are required
for manually handling cargo. Therefore the study concludes the most of the equipments used for
Cargo handling is best in Chennai Port Trust.

CHAPTER-IX
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reference Books

• Marketing Management by Philip Kotler.

• Research methodology by C.R.KOTHARI.

• Cargo Handling By John R. Immer.

Search Engines

• Company Website: www.chennaiport.gov.in

• www.wikipedia.com

• www.google.com